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Grade-5 Math in Bangladesh

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Grade-5 Math in Bangladesh

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Class Five

100

National Curriculum And Textbook Board, Dhaka

as the textbook for class five from the academic year-2013

ELEMEMTARY MATHEMATICS

CLASS FIVE

Written by

Illustration

A.M.M. Ahsan Ullah

Dr. Amal Halder

Shawpon Kumar Dhali

Art Editing

Hashem Khan

Kazi Saifuddin Abbas

Sheikh Kutubuddin

Published by

69-70, Motijheel Commercial Area, Dhaka-1000

Trial Edition

First Print : December, 2012

Co-ordinator

Mohd. Manirul Islam

Graphics

Md. Abul Hossain

Design

NATIONAL CURRICULUM AND TEXTBOOK BOARD, DHAKA

Bangladesh under the Third Primary Education Development Program

Preface

The children themselves are boundless wonder of the world. Exploration of

childrens world of wonder has been the subject of thinking of all scholars

from primitive age to the present age of information and technology. These

outcomes of thinking of the scholars have been the basis of children education,

and have been placed in Education policy of 2010. In the light of adapting

Education policy of 2010 and to help the children for their normal and gradual

development, aims and objectives of primary education have been re-fixed and

placed in curriculum document. The terminal competencies for primary

education, subject wise terminal competencies and class wise competencies for

all the subjects in the form of essential learning continua have been developed

in the light of re-fixed aims and objectives, giving proper importance and

emphasis on the total development of the children. Against this back-drop, all

the steps of the curriculum development have been reflected in the developed

textbooks. This book is the English version of the Bangla textbook prepared

for the students of Class Five. The book has been written on the basis of the

revised curriculum to be effective from 2013.Throughout the early years of

life, children notice and explore mathematical dimensions of their world. They

compare quantities, find patterns, navigate in space, and grapple with real

problems. Mathematics helps children making sense of their world-outside of

school and helps them to construct a solid foundation for success in school.

The revised curriculum takes note of it, and the textbook ensures that the

children get adequate mathematical understanding and skills. Special attention

has been given to make the contents of the book, as far as possible, plain and

lucid to our tender aged learners. The salient feature of the new book is that it

is learner-centered and activity-based. To make the book attractive to the

young learners, it is printed in four colours and varieties of pictures are

included in it. The book encourages that the students will learn through games.

Despite careful efforts of all concerned, some errors might have remained in

the book. Such errors, if any, will be removed in the next edition. Finally, I

would like to express my heartfelt thanks and gratitude to those who have

provided their valuable contributions in writing, editing, evaluating and

translating this book. I sincerely hope that the book will be useful to those for

whom it has been prepared.

Profe

Professor

f ssor Md. Mostafa

fe

Mostofa

f Kamaluddin

fa

Chairman

National Curriculum and Textbook Board, Dhaka

Content

Chapter

Subject

Page

One

Multiplication

Two

Division

Three

12

Four

Average

22

Five

27

Six

36

Seven

Common Fractions

42

Eight

Decimal Fractions

75

Nine

Percentage

86

Ten

Measurement

92

Eleven

Time

108

Twelve

Arrangements of Data

118

Thirteen

Geometry

130

Fourteen

134

Answers

141

Chapter One

Multiplication

Product

Multiplicand

Multiplier

Multiplier

Multiplicand

Product

Product

Multiplicand

Multiplier

We know

In the second step

437

Solution :

Multiplicand

multiplication by 3 tens has

Multiplier

235

been written down one place

2185

437

5

to the left; in the third step

multiplication by 2 hundreds

437

1311

3 tens

has been written down

437

874

2 hundreds

two places to the left.

Product

102695

Solution :

2456

Multiplicand

Multiplier

293

7368

2456 3

2456 90

221040

491200

2456 200

719608

Product

multiplication by 9 tens has

been written down putting 0 in

ones place; in the third

step multiplication by 2

hundreds has been written

down putting zero in ones

and in tens places.

(a) 357

29

multiplier

product

(b) 723

64

multiplier

product

(c) 287

375

(d) 823

356

(e) 8527

672

(f) 8452

795

Elementary Mathematics

The tens place of the

Solution : 6 5 8 2

multiplier is 0 ; so multiplication

by tens is not shown. In the

308

second step multiplication by

52656

6582 8

3 hundreds has been written

1974600

6 5 8 2 3 hundreds down putting zero in ones

and in tens places.

Product

2027256

tens place of the multiplier is 0;

so multiplication by ones and tens

is not shown. Multiplication by

7 3 9 6 6 hundreds 6 hundreds has been written

Product

down putting zero in ones

and in tens places.

Solution :

7396

6 00

44376 00

Solution : 3 2 7 1

420

65420

1308400

1373820

Multiplicand

multiplier is 0; so multiplication

by

ones is not shown. In the first

Multiplier

step multiplication by 2 tens has

been written down by putting zero in

3 2 7 1 2 tens

ones place; in the second step

3 2 7 1 4 hundreds

multiplication by 4 hundreds has

been written down by putting

zero in ones and in tens places.

Product

(a)

(b)

4586

4 9

4 274

1834400

18756

2

9207

64

36 280

55242 0

58924 0

Elementary Mathematics

Multiplication by Easy Method

Example 6. Multiply by easy method

(a) 9999

425

10000

1

425

425

1

10000

425

4250000

4249575

(c) 3010

893

3000

10

893

3000

893

10

2679000

8930

2687930

425

(b) 8254

990

10000 10

8254

1000

8254

8254

8254000

82540

8171460

893

(d) 9099

857

9100

1

857

9100

857

1

7798700

857

7797843

10

857

(a) 9990 457

10000

10000

4570000

5000

5000

1790000

457

457

358

358

1

9

366

54 0

5856

5 1 0

2

1 8

1 8

4

2 2 8

1 8 2 4 0 0

1

0 4

4 5 9 0

0 0

5 7 0

0

3 6

1 5

Elementary Mathematics

What is her income in one year ?

1 year = 365 days

Solution :

In one day she earns 216 taka

in 365 days she earns 216

365

taka.

365

216

2190

3650

73000

78840

In one year the income of the person is 78840 taka.

betelnut trees are there in 316 such plantations ?

Solution :

in 316 plantations there are 2605

2605

316

15630

26050

781500

823180

In 316 plantations there are 823180 betelnut trees.

Elementary Mathematics

Exercise 1

1.

(a)

(b)

589

162

(e) 7 6 9 5

620

2.

3.

(f) 5 0 3 6

387

2 4 70

359

(h)

7692

609

(f)

6759 by 900

(b)

9.

10.

11.

12.

(g) 8 6 3 4

700

(d)

(c)

1 4 2

3 1

0

1 7 2 0 0

4 3 0 0 0

0 0

1 9

1

0 0

5.

6.

7.

8.

703

249

Multiply :

(a)

4.

(c)

427

307

6

2

0

2 1

5

0

3

7

0 0

8 4

9 6 2

(a) 567 99

(b) 99 990

(c) 6273

(d) 8593 990 (e) 9999 607 (f) 9999

999

400

The price of a bicycle is 5825 taka. What is the price of 165 such bicycles ?

A ream of paper has 500 sheets. How many sheets of paper are there in 298 reams ?

A person's daily income is 275 taka. What will be her income in one year ?

1 year = 365 days

The price of a chair is 800 taka. What is the price of 2614 such chairs ?

A book has 439 pages. How many pages are there in 2038 such books ?

A nursery has 5834 saplings. How many saplings are there in 486 such nurseries ?

A godown has 8326 kg of rice. How many kg of rice are there in 602 such godowns ?

Chapter Two

Division

We know, in case of division without remainder :

Dividend

Divisor

Quotient

Dividend

Quotient

Divisor

Divisor

Quotient

Dividend

Dividend

Divisor

Quotient

Remainder

Divisor

Dividend Remainder

Quotient

Quotient

Dividend Remainder

Divisor

Solution :

Solution :

16 8368 523

47 6 4 8 9 1 3 8

80

36

32

48

48

0

Quotient is 523

47

178

141

379

376

3

Quotient is 138, remainder is 3

Elementary Mathematics

Solution :

23 9 4 1 5 4 0 9

23 9 4 1 5 4 0 9

92

215

92

21

207

00

215

8

Here one step has been suppressed.

207

8

Solution :

Solution :

25 7 9 5 1 3 3180

7 5

245 4 9 7 3 5 203

4 9 0

73

4 5

2 5

2 0 1

00

73 5

2 0 0

1 3

0 0

1 3

73 5

0

Quotient is 203

Which digit or digits, when placed in the blank space, will make the quotient

less than 10 ?

84 8

5

Elementary Mathematics

Division by 10 or 100

To divide by 10 or by 100 by the easy method, we put a comma before one digit, or two

digits, from the right of the dividend, respectively. The number to the left of the comma

is the quotient; the number to the right of the comma is the remainder.

There is one zero (0) to the right

Solution :

10 2 4 6 5 246

2 0

46

40

65

60

5

before one digit from the right of the

dividend we get 246, 5. The number 246 to

the left of the comma is the quotient; the

number 5 to the right of the comma

is the remainder.

There are two zeros (00) to the

right of 1 in the divisor. Putting a

Solution :

comma before two digits from the right of the

100 3 0 8 4 5 308

dividend we get 308, 45. The number 308 to the

3 0 0

left of the comma is the quotient; the number

8 45

45 to the right of the comma is the remainder.

8 00

Similarly, the quotient and remainder of a

number upon division by 1000, or by

45

10000, are easily written down.

Quotient is 308, remainder is 45.

Elementary Mathematics

(a)

4 7

5 6 4 1 20

(b)

(c)

3 2 9 6 6 4 32

68 7 5 1 0 10 9

4 7

6 8

9 6

9 4

9 4

6 4

6 4

71 0

61 2

9 8

Example 8. Divide 42578 by 100

multiply both dividend and divisor by 2 :

63524 2=127048; 50 2 = 100.

Putting a comma before two digits form

two zeros (00) to the right of 1.

Putting a comma before two digits

from the right of the dividend,

we get 425, 78.

So, the quotient is 425 and the

remainder is 78.

So the required quotient is 1270, and

the required remainder is 48

2 = 24.

and divisor by 2 does not change the

required quotient,but the required remainder

is multiplied by 2. So we have to divide

48 by 2 to get the required quotient.

(a)

433

12

quotient

remainder

(b)

4050

19

quotient

remainder

(c)

2700

30

quotient

remainder

(d)

56789

100

quotient

remainder

(e)

3795

50

quotient

remainder

Elementary Mathematics

dividend is 28087, the divisor is 264

and the remainder is 103. What is the

quotient ?

the dividend is 37037, the quotient

is 89 and the remainder is 13. What

is the divisor ?

Solution : We know,

Solution : We know,

divisor = (dividend

remainder)

Here, dividend

= 37037

divisor

quotient

Here, dividend

remainder

13 = 37024

37024

416

= 28087

quotient

89

remainder

103 = 27984

27984

106

264

quotient is 106

divisor is 416

of rice is 7800 taka. What is the price

of 1 kg of rice ?

Solution :

Price of 325 kg = 7800

price of 1 kg = 7800 taka

325

divisor

of rice is 4200 taka. What is the price

of 1 kg of rice ?

[1 quintal = 100 kilogram]

Solution :

Price of 100 kg = 4200 taka

price of 1 kg = 4200 taka

100

325

7 8 0 0 24

Here the divisor is 100.

Putting a comma before two digits

of the dividend from the right, we

get 42,00.

65 0

1 3 00

1 3 00

0

quotient is 42

10

Elementary Mathematics

Exercise 2

1. Fill in the blanks :

(a) 76965

(b) 21547

(c) 7358

15

29

(e) 3652

2.

Divide

(a) 25748

(d) 75089

(g) 14970

(j) 43560

(m) 39768

98

325

365

100

100

divisor

5131 Here dividend

divisor

743 Here dividend

(d) 52895

419406

149

(f) 52185

213

317724

(b)

(e)

(h)

(k)

(n)

54871

52889

24135

65900

83090

37

289

10

100

100

(c)

(f)

(i)

(l)

(o)

42835

43702

87520

67500

93500

quotient

quotient

197

342

10

100

100

3.

(b) Dividend is 73635, quotient is 152 and remainder is 67. What is the divisor ?

(c) Dividend is 35792, divisor is 47 and remainder is 25. What is the quotient ?

(d) Divisor is 325, quotient is 72 and remainder is 9. What is the dividend ?

4.

5.

6.

A basket can hold 355 mangoes. How many such baskets will be needed to hold 25560

mangoes ?

7.

Dividing a number by 54, the quotient is18 and the remainder is 50. What will be the

quotient when the number is divided by 73 ?

8.

Divide the largest number of 5 digits that can be formed by using the digits

8, 3, 5, 0, 7 once, by the largest number of three digits.

9.

10500 taka is needed if every person is given 140 taka. What is the number of persons ?

10.

The product of two numbers is 43290. One number is 555; what is the other number ?

11.

Divide by 165 the smallest number that can be formed by using the digits

9, 4, 0, 2, 6 once.

12.

The product of two numbers is 89262. One number is 342; what is the other number ?

11

Elementary Mathematics

Example 1. Mina and Rina together have 7532 taka. Mina has 560 taka more

than Rina. What amount of money does Mina and Rina each have ?

Solution : Subtracting Mina's excess amount from the total amount, will render

their amounts of money equal.

7532 taka 560 taka = 6972 taka

Rina has 6972

2 taka = 3486 taka

Mina has 3486

560

taka = 4046 taka

Mina has 4046 taka and Rina has 3486 taka.

Example 2. Mr Altaf's monthly pay is 9870 taka. Every month he spends 3800

taka on house rent and 5650 taka on household expenses. The remaining money

he saves in a bank. What amount of money does Mr. Altaf save in a year ?

Solution : Every month he spends (3800 + 5650) taka = 9450 taka on house

rent and household expenses.

Every month he saves ( 9870 9450 ) taka = 420 taka

In 1 year he saves 420

12

Example 3. The sum of ages of a father and his daughter is 80 years. Father's age

is four times the age of the daughter. What are their ages ?

Solution : Daughter's age = 1 time daughter's age

Father's age = 4 times daughter's age

Sum of father's and daughter's ages = 5 times daughter's age

5 times daughter's age =80 years

daughter's age = 80 years

5 = 16 years

father's age = 16 years

4 = 64 years

father`s age is 64 years and daughter`s age is 16 years.

[Alternatively, father's age = total age - daughter's age = (80-16) years = 64 years]

13

Elementary Mathematics

Example 1. Mina and Rina together have 7532 taka. Mina has 560 taka more

than Rina. What amount of money does Mina and Rina each have ?

Solution : Subtracting Mina's excess amount from the total amount, will render

their amounts of money equal.

7532 taka 560 taka = 6972 taka

Rina has 6972

2 taka = 3486 taka

Mina has 3486

560

taka = 4046 taka

Mina has 4046 taka and Rina has 3486 taka.

Example 2. Mr Altaf's monthly pay is 9870 taka. Every month he spends 3800

taka on house rent and 5650 taka on household expenses. The remaining money

he saves in a bank. What amount of money does Mr. Altaf save in a year ?

Solution : Every month he spends (3800 + 5650) taka = 9450 taka on house

rent and household expenses.

Every month he saves ( 9870 9450 ) taka = 420 taka

In 1 year he saves 420

12

Example 3. The sum of ages of a father and his daughter is 80 years. Father's age

is four times the age of the daughter. What are their ages ?

Solution : Daughter's age = 1 time daughter's age

Father's age = 4 times daughter's age

Sum of father's and daughter's ages = 5 times daughter's age

5 times daughter's age =80 years

daughter's age = 80 years

5 = 16 years

father's age = 16 years

4 = 64 years

father`s age is 64 years and daughter`s age is 16 years.

[Alternatively, father's age = total age - daughter's age = (80-16) years = 64 years]

13

Elementary Mathematics

Unitary Method

In day-to-day life we need to do calculations. As an example, let us find the price of

4 pencils, given that the price of 10 pencils is 60 taka. First we divide the price of 10

pencils by 10, and thus find the price of 1 pencil. Then we multiply the price of

1 pencil by 4, which gives us the price of 4 pencils, This process of solving

problems is called the unitary method. The quantity to be determined has to be placed

towards the end of every working line; see the following examples.

Example 4. The price of 9 books is 216 taka, what is the price of 12 books ?

Price of 9 books is 216 taka

Solution :

price of 1 book is 216 9 taka = 24 taka

price of 12 books is 12 24 taka = 288 taka

Example 5. The price of 12 dozen writing pads is 2304 taka, what is the price

of 8 writing pads ?

Solution :

12 dozen = 12

12

144

1 dozen = 12

price of 1 writing pad is 2304 144 taka = 16 taka

price of 8 writing pads is 8 16 taka = 128 taka

Example 6. The price of one hundred lychees is 300 taka. What is the price

of 25 lychees ?

Solution : Price of 100 lychees is 300 taka

price of 1 lychee is

300

100 taka = 3 taka

price of 25 lychees is 25 3 taka = 75 taka

Example 7. A worker earns 1575 taka per week. What amount of money will

she earn in 12 days ?

Solution :

In 1 day she earns

1575 7

In 12 days she earns 12 225

14

taka = 2700 taka

Elementary Mathematics

Example 8. In a hostel there is food for 40 students for 20 days. If 10 new

students arrive, how long will the food last ?

Solution : With the arrival of 10 new students, the number of students will be 40+10=50.

for 1 student the food will last 20 40 days = 800 days

for 50 students the food will last 800 50 days = 16 days

We observe : For consuming a given amount of food, the less the number of

consumers the more the number of days; the more the number of consumers

the less the number of days. So, in the second step we have multiplied by

20 and in the third step we have divided by 50

In how many days will 18 persons harvest that crop ?

Solution : 6 persons can harvest the crop in 21 days

1

21 6 days = 126 days

18

126 18 days = 7 days

Example 10. 200 persons need 15 days to excavate a pond. How many additional

persons must be employed if the pond is to be excavated in 10 days ?

1 day is needed to excavate the pond by

200

10 days are needed to excavate the pond by 3000

100 additional persons must be employed.

15

10 persons = 300 persons

Elementary Mathematics

Exercise 3 (A)

1. Fill in the blanks :

(a) If 1 dozen bananas cost 30 taka, 3 dozen bananas will cost

(b) If 10 eggs cost 40 taka, 1 egg will cost

taka.

taka.

(c) If 6 pencils cost 24 taka, 1 pencil will cost

(d) 3 baskets hold 48 mangoes. 1 basket will hold

mangoes.

(e) 1 basket holds 8 mangoes. 9 baskets will hold

mangoes.

taka.

15 persons do that work ?

3. 16 persons can do a piece of work in 5 days. In how many days can

20 persons do that work ?

4. 8 persons can harvest the crop of a land in 21 days. In how many days will

14 persons harvest that crop ?

5. A certain quantity of food can be consumed by 200 persons in 20 days. How

many persons will consume that food in 40 days ?

6. A worker earns 490 taka per week (working 7 days a week), How many days will

she need to earn 1050 taka ?

7. A certain amount of food serves 45 persons for 20 days. How many persons will

that food serve for 25 days?

8. In a girls' hostel 16 students have food for 25 days.. Some new students came in;

as a result the food was consumed in 20 days. What is the number of new students ?

9. In a hostel 500 students have food for 50 days. After 10 days 300 more students

joined the hostel. How many days will the ramaining food last ?

10. A family of 8 persons has food for 26 days. After 5 days 1 person went away. How

many days will the remaining food last ?

11. 200 persons are needed to excavate a pond in 25 days. How many additional

persons are needed if the pond is to be excavated in 20 days ?

12 30 persons can complete a piece of work in 18 days. How many more persons are

needed if the work is to be completed in 12 days ?

13. 16 persons need 56 kg of rice in 1 week. How much rice will be needed by

24 persons in four weeks ?

16

Elementary Mathematics

Use of Brackets

We use brackets to form one mathematical statement from two mathematical statements.

pencils. Apurba bought a writing pad for 16 taka and two pencils

for 12 taka. After buying writing pad and pencils Apurba was left

with 22 taka.

Mathematical statement

50

50

Mathematical statement

16 12

28

50

22

16

12

22

Observing the two methematical statements we find that brackets ( ) have been used to

combine the two numbers to be subtracted from 50; the numbers inside the brackets

have been added; finally their sum has been subtracted from 50. We observe that

50 (16 + 12) = 50 28 = 22 and 50 16

12 = 34 12 = 22

Thus 50 (16 + 12) = 50 16 12.

In other words, if there is a minus sign before a bracket, then the signs of the numbers

inside the brackets must be changed upon removal of the brackets. In a mathematical

statement, work involving muliplication and division has to be carried out before addition

or subtraction. If there are brackets, then calculations inside the brackets has to be carried

out first. For example : 15 42 (11 + 3) = 15 42 14 = 15 3 = 12

Let us remember the Rules of Simplification :

Calculations are to be done from left to right.

First we do work involving division, muliplication then we do work

involving addition and subtraction.

If there are brackets, calculations inside the brackets has to be carried

out first.

First we do work on first brackets ( ), then we do work on second brackets { };

finally we do work on third brackets [ ].

17

Elementary Mathematics

Example 1. Simplify : 25

Solution : 25 5

5

25 5

5

5

25 5

40

25 5

40

5

200

5

24

24

8

Example 2. Simplify : 78

56

Solution : 78

56

165

56

165

78

56

165

78

56

165

78

56 21

78

78

77

1

Example 3. Simplify : 48

Solution : 48

4

28

4

28

48

4

28

48

4

28

48

4

48

4

48

8

6

4

4

4

4

7

24

18

18

15

15

165

48

6

8

9

72 2

144

28

12

12

48

9

2

4

7

4

6

2

12

3

Example 4. Simplify : 36

3

4 5

4

3

4 5

4 8

1

Solution : 36

12

4 5

4

1 8

2

12

4

12 8

96

18

Elementary Mathematics

totals 9570 taka. The price of one chair is

625 taka; what is the price of one table ?

Brief solution :

Price of 1 table

Solution : Price of 1 chair is 625 taka

Price of 6 chairs is 675

6 taka

4050 taka

Total price of 6 chairs and 4 tables is

9570 taka.

9570

675 6

4 taka

4 taka

9570 4050

5520 4 taka

1380 taka

Price of 1 table is

1380 taka.

Price of 4 tables is

9570

4050 taka

5520 taka

Price of 1 table is 5520

the remainder is one-third of the divisor. What is the dividend ?

Solution : We know

Dividend

Dividend

Divisor

78

1950

Quotient

Remainder

25

78

26

1976

The required dividend is 1976.

19

Elementary Mathematics

Exercise 3 (B)

1. Minuend is 985214 and subtrahend is 97465; what is the difference ?

2. Subtracting 68975 from a number, the difference is 794768. What is the number ?

3. From the smallest number of six digits, subtract the largest number of five digits.

4. What number when added to the largest number of four digits will make the sum 9 lac ?

5. What is the difference between the largest number and the smallest number of six digits

that can be formed by using each of the digits 6, 8, 9, 5, 0, 4 once?

6. Raju's father sold paddy for 25830 taka, wheat for 30645 taka and lentil for 9786 taka;

he then bought jute costing 45927 taka. What amount of money remained with him ?

7. A school had 785 students. At the beginning of the year 142 students left the school

and 250 students were newly admitted. What became the number of students of the

school ?

8. Proma, Rimi and Monisha made 70 flags to decorate the school on Victory Day. It was

found that Proma had made 5 more flags than Rimi, again Monisha had 6 more flags

than Proma. How many flags did each one of them make ?

9. Mina has 45987 taka, Raju has 8250 taka less than Mina. Rony has 985 taka more than

Raju. What is the total amount of money of the trio ?

10. The sum of four numbers is 468520. The first two numbers are 73584 and 64209. The

third number is less than the first number by 9485. What is the fourth number ?

11.

12. 38 hali of bananas cost 1216 taka. What is the cost of 1 banana ?

[ 1 hali is any collection of 4 objects of the same kind ]

13. The sum of the ages of a father and his son is 96 years. The age of the father is 3 times

that of the son. What are their ages ?

14. A basket holds 168 mangoes. From the mangoes of 15 such baskets, Mina was given 780,

and Rani was given 750 mangoes. The rest of the mangoes was given to Raju; how many

mangoes did Raju get ?

20

Elementary Mathematics

15. In a division problem, the dividend is 8903, the divisor is 87 and the remainder is 29.

What is the quotient ?

16. In a division problem the divisor is 12 times the remainder and the dividend is 9896.

The remainder is 8; what is the quotient ?

17. The product of two numbers is 6272, 4 times of one of the numbers is 256; what is the

other number ?

18

The price of 2 cows and 3 goats together is 25080 taka. The price of 1 goat is 3560 taka;

what is the price of 1 cow ?

19. The price of 14 chairs and 6 tables together is 17650 taka. The price of one table is 1250

taka; what is the price of one chair ?

20. Raju and Rony together have 690 lychees. Rony has 86 lychees less than Raju. How

many lychees does Raju, as well as Rony, have ?

21. The pays of Farida and Fatema total 19950 taka. Fatema's pay is 2450 taka more than

that of Farida. What are the pays of Farida and Fatema each ?

22. Mr. Jalal's monthly salary is 8765 taka. Every month he spends 3225 taka on house rent

and 4850 taka on other items; the rest of the money he deposits in a bank. What will be

his saving in 8 months ?

23. From a departmental store Zahidul Hasan bought 40 kg of rice, Soyabean oil for 265 taka

and fish for 588 taka. Each kg of rice costs 18 taka. He gave 2000 taka to the cashier.

What amount will the cashier refund him?

21

Chapter Four

Average

In the first row of the picture above, there are 7 mangoes in the first tray, 9 mangoes in the second tray,

11 mangoes in the third tray, 9 mangoes in the fourth tray. The mangoes in these four trays are put

together in one large tray (middle row of the picture); so there are in all 7 + 9 + 11 + 9 = 36 mangoes

in the large tray. Dividing by 4, which is the number of trays in the first row, we get 9. If each of the

original four trays had contained 9 mangoes, then also the total number of mangoes in the four trays

would have been the same, because 9 + 9 + 9 + 9 = 36 (see last row of the picture).

We express this fact by saying that the average number of mangoes in the four trays is 9.

Here, 9

36

number of trays

In general :

Average of several quantities of the same kind = Sum of the quantities

Number of quantities

In the example above, there were in all 36 mangoes in the 4 trays; so the

average number of mangoes in the trays was 9. Observe that 9 4 = 36

In general : Average

Elementary Mathematics

Finding Average

Example 1. The ages of Mina, Mithu

Runu, Rony and Nila are respectively

10, 12, 13, 11 and 14 years. What is

their average age ?

Solution : Sum of their ages

10 12 13 11 14 years

60 years

Number of persons = 5

Average age 60 years 5

60

5 years

12 years

So the required average age is 12 years.

cricketer in the eight matches of a

one-day series are 47, 19, 23, 12, 37, 3,

14, 13. How many runs did he score on

average ?

Solution : Total runs

47 19 23 12 37 3 14 13

168

Number of matches = 8

Average run

168 8

21

So the criketer scored 21 runs on

average in that series.

twelve months of the year 2011 were as follows. What is the average amount of

monthly rainfall at the place ?

Month

Amount of rainfall

Month

Amount of rainfall

January

23 mm

July

296 mm

February

06 mm

August

271 mm

March

18 mm

September

104 mm

April

57 mm

October

33 mm

May

31 mm

November

21 mm

June

108 mm

December

04 mm

23 06 18 57 31 108 296 271 104 33 21 04 mm

972 mm. Number of months = 12

Average monthly rainfall

( 972 mm) 12

972

12 mm

81 mm

Average monthly rainfall at that place in the year 2011 was 81 mm.

23

Elementary Mathematics

taka, Halim 18,000 taka, Titas 13,500 taka and Shishir 17,000 taka. How much

money did they invest on average ?

Solution : Total investment

15,000 20,500

84, 000 taka

Number of investors

Average investment

18,000

13,500

5

84,000 taka

17,000 taka

84,000

5 taka

16,800 taka

Example 5. In a test series of five cricket matches, the average of the runs

made by six batsmen of the visiting team was 76; the average of the runs made

by four bowlers was 21. What average run did those players make in that series ?

Solution : Runs made by six batsmen in five matches

6 76 5 76 30

2280

Runs made by four bowlers in five matches

4 21 5

21 20

420

Total runs 2280 420

2700

Total number of matches in the series = 5

The total number of quantities to be considered in finding average run is

Number of players

10 5

Average run

2700

50

Number of matches

50

54.

24

Elementary Mathematics

Example 6. The sum of thirteen numbers is 1924. The average of seven of those

numbers is 172. What is the average of the other six numbers ? What is the average

of all the numbers ?

Solution : Average of 7 numbers is 172. So sum of those 7 numbers

Sum of the other 6 numbers

1924

720

720

120

1924

148

Average of all 13 numbers

172 7

1204

1204

6

13

in Bangla, 75 in English, 92 in Mathematics, 78 in Social Studies, 93 in Science

and 96 in Religion. What marks did she get on average ?

Solution : Total marks obtained by Dolon is

= 82

75 92

516

78 93 96

Number of subjects = 6

Average marks

516

86

25

Elementary Mathematics

Exercise 4

1.

(a) 23

37

(d) 47 cm

(e) 42 kg

2.

3.

47

(b) 22

61

541 taka

49 cm

32 kg

46

60

72

775 taka.

54 cm

37 kg

52 cm

29 kg

53 cm.

41 kg

35 kg

Lily bought eight laces of varying prices. The average price of the laces is 5 taka 75 paisa;

how much did Lily spend on laces ?

In the annual examination Molly obtained 68 marks in Bangla, 96 in Mathematics, 81 in

English, 77 in Environmental Science and 73 in Religion. What is her average marks in

those subjects ?

4.

The heights of Koli, Dolly, Poly, Molly and Lily are respectively 123 cm, 131cm,

135 cm, 126 cm and 130 cm. What is their average height ?

5.

The average age of Apu and Dipu is 22 years; the average age of Dipu and Tipu

is 24 years. Apu's age is 21 years; what are the ages of Dipu and Tipu ?

6.

The sum of seven numbers is 401. The average of the first three numbers is 56; the

average of the last three numbers is 58. What is the fourth number ?

7.

Out of eleven numbers the average of first six numbers is 87 and the average of the last

five numbers is 131. What is the average of all the numbers ?

8.

The population of the five villages of a union is respectively 1327, 1872, 2187, 2516

and 2943. What is the average population of those villages ?

9.

The marks obtained by ten students in Mathematics in the annual examination are as

follows : 76, 61, 87, 56, 42, 64, 73, 68, 50, 73. What is their average marks in

Mathematics ?

10.

The average age of three children and their father is 17 years. The average age of these

children and their mother is 13 years. Mother's age is 22 years; what is the father's age?

11.

During the month of Ashar, the average daily rainfall in Dhaka during the first ten days

was 23mm, during the second ten days daily average was 27 mm; during the third

ten days it was 29 mm; 16 mm rain fell on the last day of the month. What was the

average daily rainfall in Dhaka during that month ?

26

Chapter Five

G.C.D. and L.C.M.

G.C.D. stands for Greatest Common Divisor. It is the largest number which divides each of

two (or more) given numbers. Let us find the G.C.D. of 24 and 36.

First Method

We write down all factors (divisors) of the two numbers.

factors of 24

factors of 36

All factors of 36 are : 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 6 , 9 , 12 , 18 , 36

Now we identify the common factors of these numbers. They are : 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 6 , 12

Among these numbers 12 is the largest. So the G.C.D. of 24 and 36 is 12.

Second Method

We write down all factors (divisors) of the first number. We then determine which of these factors

divide the other number. The largest of these common factors is the desired G.C.D.

These are 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 6 , 8 , 12 , 24.

12 is the largest factor of

24 which divides 36.

Factors of 24 which divide 36 are : 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 6 , 12

Among the common factors of 24 and 36, 12 is the largest.

So the G.C.D of 24 and 36 is 12.

Elementary Mathematics

Third Method

We find all prime factors (with repetitions, if any) of the two numbers.

The product of their common prime factors

(with repetitions, if any) is the G.C.D.

2 2

2 2

All prime factors of 36 are : 2, 2, 3, 3 because 36

The common prime factors are : 2, 2, 3; their product is 2 2 3

So The G.C.D. of 24 and 36 is 12.

2 3

3 3

12.

Next we find the G.C.D. of the three numbers 18, 24, 30, by the first and third methods.

All factors of 18 are : 1 2 3 6 9 18

All factors of 24 are : 1 2 3 4 6 8 12 24

All factors of 30 are : 1 2 3 5 6 10 15 30

The common factors of the three numbers are : 1, 2, 3, 6. Among them 6 is the

largest. So the G.C.D. of 18, 24, 36 is 6.

Find out the prime factors of 18,

24, 30. They are : 2, 2, 2, 3; 2, 2, 3, 3; 2, 3, 5

The common prime factors are 2 and 3.

Their product is 6.

The common prime factors of the numbers 18, 24, 36 are 2 and 3.

Their product, 6, is the G.C.D. of the three numbers 18, 24, 36.

The largest number among the common factors (divisors) of two or more

numbers is their G.C.D.

G.C.D. of two or more numbers is the product of their common prime factors.

Two or more numbers have G.C.D. 1 if they have no common prime factor.

Another term for divisor is factor.

28

Elementary Mathematics

Finding G.C.D. with the help of prime factors

Example 1. Find the G.C.D. of 125 and 225.

25

Solution : 125 5

5

5

5

225 5

45

5

5 9

5

5

3

3

The common prime factors of 125 and 225 are 5, 5.

Required G.C.D

5 5

25

and 168.

and 75.

Solution : 40

60

75

3 20

3 25

2

2

3

3

20

2 2 10

2 2 5

2 2 5

5 5

Solution: 48

72

168

prime factor of the three numbers

40, 60, 75 is 5.

Their G.C.D. is 5.

6 8

2 2

2 2

8 9

2

8 21

2

2

2

2

3

2

3

2

2 2 2

3

3

3 7

of the three numbers 48, 72 and 168 are

2, 2, 2, 3, So the G.C.D of the three

numbers is 2 2 2 3 24

3 2 2 2

2 2 2 3

Solution : 24

3 8

5 6

5 2 3

2 3 5

30

77

7 11

It is seen that the three numbers 24, 30, 77 have no common prime factor.

But 1 is a factor of any number. So 1 is the only common factor of the

given numbers. So their G.C.D. is 1.

If two or more numbers have no common prime factor, then their

G.C.D. is 1.

29

Elementary Mathematics

L.C.M. stands for Least Common Multiple. It is the smallest number which is

divisible by two or more given numbers.

Let us find the L.C.M. of 24 and 36.

First Method

We write down the multiples of the numbers.

multiples of 36.

multiples of 24.

Multiples of 36 are : 36 , 72 , 108 , 144 , 180 , 216 , 252 , 288, etc.

Among the common multiples of the two numbers, 72 is the smallest.

So the L.C.M. of 24 and 36 is 72.

Second Method

We write down the multiples of the first number. We determine which of these multiples

is divisible by the other number.

Write down the multiples of 24.

These are 24, 48, 72, 96, 120,

144, 168, ... .The first of

these numbers which is divisible by 36 is

72. So the L.C.M. of 24 and 36 is 72.

Multiples of 24 are : 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240, etc.

Divisible by 36 are : 72, 144, 216.

Among the common multiples of the two numbers, 72 is the smallest.

So the L.C.M. of 24 and 36 is 72.

30

Elementary Mathematics

Third Method

We find out the prime factors of the two numbers.

these are 2 and 3. Among them, 2 appears most

often 3 times in 24 and 3 appears most often

2 times in 36. So their

3 = 72.

L.C.M. is 2

2

2

3

All prime factors of 36 are : 2

because 24 = 2

because 36 = 2

Among the common prime factors, 2 appears most often 3 times in 24;

3 appears most often 2 times in 36.

So the L.C.M. of 24 and 36 is 2

3 = 72.

In the same manner we can find the L.C.M. of three or more numbers.

As an exmple, we find the L.C.M. of 18, 24 and 27, by the first method.

We write down the multiples of 18, 24 and 27 :

Multiples of 18 are : 18

216

36 54 72 90 108

126

234, etc.

Multiples of 27 are : 27 54 81 108

216

240, etc.

243, etc.

In all three rows of multiples of the three given numbers, the number 216 appears.

So 216 is a common multiple of 18, 24 and 27. None of the rows has a number

smaller than 216 which appears in all three rows.

So 216 is the least common multiple (L.C.M.) of the numbers 18, 24 and 27.

31

Elementary Mathematics

2

3

3

Solution : 18

24

2

2

2 3

30

2

3

5

Among the prime factors of the three numbers, 2 appears most often 3 times

(in 24); 3 appears most often 2 times (in 18). In addition, 5 appears once (in 30).

So the L.C.M of 18, 24, 30 is

2 2

2

3 3 5

4 9

10

360

The L.C.M. of the three numbers is 360.

Determination of L.C.M. by Short Method

In this method we determine all prime factors of the given numbers in succession.

The product of all these prime factors is the L.C.M. of the given numbers.

24 and 40.

Solution : 2 18 24 40

2 9 12 20

2 9 6 10

3 9 3 5

3 1 5

Required L.C.M.

2 2 2 3 3 5

360

thrice; the last quotient being 3 which

is a prime number.

So

24 2 2 2 3.

2 has divided 18 once; the quotient being

9. The prime number 3 has divided 9

twice. So 18 2 3 3.

2 has divided 40 thrice; the last quotient

being 5. which is a prime number.

So

40 2 2 2 5.

So the L.C.M of 18, 24 and 40 is

2 2 2 3 3 5 360.

finding all prime factors of the given numbers. In this method, at every step we choose

as divisor some prime number which divides at least two of the numbers appearing

in that step. The quotients of the divisible numbers are written down in the next step;

any number not divisible by the chosen prime number is carried unchanged to the

next step. The last step in this method is reached when the numbers appearing in some

step have no common prime factor (that is, no common factor except 1).

32

Elementary Mathematics

Solution : 2 16 24 30 42 45

28

12 15 21 45

2 4 6 15 21 45

3 2 3 15 21 45

5 2 1 5 7 15

2

1 1

2 2

3 5

7 3

5040.

Example 8. Dividing 138, 215, 457

by which largest number leaves

respectively the remainder 3,5,7 ?

together, began tolling after every 6,

9, 12 and 15 minutes. After what

minimum time will the bells toll

together again ?

from the respective dividend then the

required number will be a divisor of

all these differences.

138

135

215

210

is the L.C.M. of 6, 9, 12 and 15

minutes.

3 6 9 12 15

2 2 3 4 5

1 3 2 5

457 7 450.

So the required number is the G.C.D.

of 135, 210 and 450.

135

5 27

5 3 3 3

210

3 70

3 7 2 5

3 2 3 2 5

18 10 180.

So, the four bells will toll together for

the first time again after 180 minutes

or 3 hours.

450 9 50 3 3 5 2 2

So G.C.D. of 135, 210 and 450

3 5 15

So the required largest number is 15.

33

Elementary Mathematics

which when divided by 6, 10, 15 and

21 leaves in each case the remainder 4.

when divided by 4, 6, 10 leaves

respectively the remainder 2, 4, 8 ?

more than the L.C.M. of 6, 10, 15 and

21.

3 6 10 15 21

2 2 10 5 7

5 1 5 5 7

1 1 1 7

Solution : 4 2 2 6 4 2 10 8 2

So, in each case divisor remainder 2

So the required number is 2 less than the

L.C.M. of 4, 6 and 10.

2 4 6 10

2 3 5

L.C.M. of 4, 6, 10

2 2 3 5

60

The required smallest number is

60 2 58

3 2 5 7 21 10

210

The required smallest number is

210 4

214

Example 12. The length of a rectangular room is 7.20 metre and breadth is 4.40

metre. What is the size of largest marble tiles of square shape which can be used

to pave the floor of the room so that no tile needs to be broken ?

Solution : Length of the room 7.20 metre = 72 decimetre

Breadth of the room 4.40 metre = 44 decimetre

The square shape of the tiles and the condition that no tile can be broken, imply

that the length ( = breadth) of the tiles must a be common divisor of the length and

breadth of the room. So the length of any one side of the square tiles is the G.C.D.

of 72 and 44 decimetre.

72 8 9 2 2 2 3 3

2 2 11

44 4 11

So, G.C.D. of 72 and 44 is 2 2 4

4 decimetre 4

10cm 40 centimetre.

Length of one side of the square tiles of largest size is 40 centimetre.

34

Elementary Mathematics

Exercise 5

1. Find the G.C.D. using prime factors :

(a) 144 192 (b) 160 275 (c) 112 343

(d) 24 60 72 (e) 45 75 120 (f) 22 77 110

(g) 48 72 160 240 (h) 35 56 84 119 (i) 30 50 90

2. Find the L.C.M. using prime factors :

140

(a) 51 85

(b) 76 95

(c) 42 112

(d) 32 48 80

(e) 35 55 75

(f) 28 42 70

3. Find the L.C.M. by the condensed method :

(a) 24 36 40 (b) 15 33 45 (c) 25 45 85

(f) 18 27 45 54

(d) 21 35 49 56 (e) 24 36 48 72

(g) 26 44 77 99 (h) 12 18 24 30 42 (i) 15 25 35 45 55

4. What is the largest number which divides 76, 114 and 228 without remainder ?

5. What is the largest number of children among whom 60 mangoes and 150 lychees can be

divided exactly ? How many mangoes and how many lychees will each of them get ?

6. Two drums have capacity 228 litres and 348 litres respectively. A bucket of what largest

capacity can be used to fill up the two drums with water using the bucket (to its) full capacity

an integral number of times ? Which drum will hold how many buckets of water ?

7. Which number divides 137, 212 and 452 leaving the remainder 2 in each case ?

8. Which largest number divides 129, 236 and 364 leaving respectively the remainder

3, 5 and 7 ?

9. The length of a retangular hallroom is 12 metre and breadth is7 metre. What is the largest size of

tiles of square shape which can be used to pave the floor of the room, so that no tile needs to be

broken ?

10. Which smallest number is exactly divisible by 18, 24, 30, 36 ?

11. Which smallest number leaves in each case the reminder 6 when it is divided by 16, 24, 32, 40 ?

12. Which smallest number leaves respectively the remainder 6, 12, 24 when it is divided by

12, 18, 30 ?

13. Four bells having tolled together, began to toll after every 5, 7, 12 and 15 minutes. After what

minimum time will the bells toll together again ?

14. A number of saplings is such that when 3, 5, 6, 8, 10 or 15 saplings are planted in each row,

every time two saplings are left out. What is the minimum number of saplings ?

15. 7 added to which smallest number will make the sum exactly divisible by 15, 18, 20, 24

and 32 ?

35

Chapter Six

Symbols

Mina said, "I am thinking of a

number. Adding two to the number

and multiplying the sum by three

makes the product greater than

thirty".

Let us see how we can express this

statement with the help of symbols.

Raju said, "Denoting the unknown

number by the symbol x, the above

statement becomes :

(x

2)

30."

kinds of symbols.

In Mathematics various kinds of symbols are used. These are

Symbols

Kind of symbols

Numerical symbols

Operational symbols

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0

addition,

subtraction,

greater than

equal to

multiplication,

less than

division

not equal to

Relational symbols

less than or equal to

Bracketing symbols

Literal symbols

First brackets

Second brackets

a, b, c, . . ., x, y, z.

Third brackets

Elementary Mathematics

Mathematical Statement

with marbles. Mina has

seven more marbles than

Raju. In all they have 45

marbles. How many

marbles does each of

them have ?

Together Raju and Mina have x + ( x + 7 ) marbles.

According to the question, x + ( x + 7) = 45. or 2x + 7 = 45, because

x + ( x + 7) = (x + x) + 7 = 2x + 7.

Here, 2x + 7 = 45 is an example of an open statement,

An open statement is a mathematical statement containing some special symbol

indicating some unknown quantity. A mathematical statement is a statement

containing numbers, symbols, expressions or mathematical concept, about which it

can be said without ambiguity whether it is true or false. For example :

48

48

false statement

true statement

17 is a prime number

true statement

false statement

definitely true, or definitely false.

37

Elementary Mathematics

Open Statement

On her birthday, out of

30 chocolates Sumi gave 2

chocolates to each of her friends;

6 chocolates remained.

Here, the number of Sumi's friends is not known. Suppose the number of friends is x.

Every one got 2 chocolates. So friends numbering x got x 2 chocolates. Since

out of 30 chocolates 6 remained, we have the relation x 2

6

30

Here, x 2

6

30 is an open statement.

An open statement is a mathematical statement which contains a literal symobl indicating an

unknown number or quantity. For example : (x 5) 3

45.

Example 1. Express the problem with

the help of a symbol, and determine

the unknown number :

Which number yields the difference 33

when 17 is subtracted from it ?

the help of a symbol, and determine

the unknown number :

Which number yields the quotient 9

when divided by 15 ?

by the literal symbol x the problem

x

17

33.

becomes

Addition being the reverse process

of subtraction, the number x will be the

sum of 33 and 17.

by the symbol x, the problem becomes

x 15

9.

33

17

of division, the number x will be the

product of 9 with 15.

x

50

38

15 15

135

Elementary Mathematics

Example 3. Use a literal symbol to form a mathematical statement from the

information given in the sentence below :

From 20 mangoes every one of a number of children was given 3 mangoes, and 5

mangoes remained.

Solution : We use the literal symbol x to denote the number of children . Every one

got 3 mangoes; so x children got x 3 mangoes.

According to the given information : x

5

3

20

5

20.

and evaluate the expression.

Solution : Seventyfive is divided by five and the quotient is multiplied by 2.

The desired expression is

75 5

2

15 2

30

Example 5. Find the value of the symbol x from the following open statement :

x 5

4 80

5

4

Solution :

80

x

We have 1

5

5

4

4

4

80

4

20

4. So we must have. x

1.

Example 6. Find the value of the symbol x from the following open statement :

x

6

4 80

5 4

Solution : 80

x

We have 1

5

6

4

80

20 4

4

4 4

4 . So we must have, x

39

1,

Elementary Mathematics

Exercise 6

1.

(a) To subtract one thousand five hundred twentyfive from two thousand three hundred

seventyfive and multiply the difference with the sum of one hundred thirty and seventyeight

(b) The difference of five hundred eightyseven and the sum of two hundred twentyfive

and one hundred thirtyeight is equal to the successive difference of five hundred

eightyseven, two hundred twentyfive and one hundred thirtyeight.

(c) Three hundred sixty multiplied by the sum of fortyfive and fifteen is equal to the

sum of the products of three hundred sixty with fortyfive and with fifteen.

(d) The result of dividing fifty by five and multiplying the quotient with two, is not

equal to the result of dividing fifty by the product of five and two.

2.

Express each problem with the help of a symbol and find the unknown number :

(a) Which number when added to 8 will yield the difference 33 when 7 is subtracted

from the sum ?

(b) Which number when 12 is subtracted from it will yield the sum 28 when 10 is added

to the difference ?

(c) Which number multiplied by 7, and the product divided by 6 will yield the quotient 21?

(d) Which number when divided by 12 will yield the product 56 when the quotient

is multiplied by 7 ?

3.

Verify the truth (or otherwise) of each mathematical statement below and write down true

or false (as the case may be) against each:

(a)

639

(b)

375

15

(c)

850

17

10

850

(d)

230

75

15

227

85

639

375

227

15

10

235

40

85

17

5

75

15

Elementary Mathematics

4. Find the value of the literal symbol from each open statement below :

(a)

60

30

(c)

15

(d)

75

3

4

91

5

9

For what value of the literal symbol will each open statement below be true ?

(a)

(b) 3

6.

10

(b) 15

(e) x

5.

10

20

100

(c)

14

(d)

12

Form an open statement using a literal symbol and find the unknown number :

(a) Anu had some chocolates. He gave five chocolates to Nilu. As a result Anu

was left with seven chocolates.

(b) Mou had some money . Her mother gave her one hundred taka more. As a result her

amount of money became fifteen taka more than twice her previous amount.

(c) Doubling the age of Sion and adding 5 years to it makes the sum equal to 25 years.

(d) Peau's father gave her some money to buy books, writing pads and pencils. Her

mother gave her seventyfive taka more. Peau bought one book for 80 taka, two writing

pads for 40 taka and two pencils for 20 taka. After purchasing book ,writing pads and

pencils, Peau was left with thirtyfive taka.

41

Chapter Seven

Common Fractions

Fractions with Common Denominator

Observe the following two pictures. What portion of each picture is coloured ?

2

5

1

5

Picture - A

Picture - B

1

In Picture - A ,

is a fraction, whose numerator is 1 and denominator is 5.

5

2

In Picture - B,

is a fraction, whose numerator is 2 and denominator is 5.

5

The fractions have the same denominator, 5. They are fractions with a

common denominator.

Fractions with the same denominator are fractions with a common denominator.

Observe again the following two pictures :

1

4

1

3

Picture - C

Picture - D

1

1

and

are different. They are not

3

4

fractions with a common denominator. They can be expressed as fractions with

Here the denominators of the fractions

a common denominator ;

1

1 4

4

3

3 4

12

1

4

1 3

4 3

3

12

1

1

and are not fractions with a common

3

4

4

denominator. They are respectively equal to

12

3

and

. So these fractions have been expressed

12

as fractions with a common denominator.

Elementary Mathematics

Picture - B

Picture - A

2

In Picture -A,

is a fraction, whose numerator is 2 and denominator is 3.

3

2

In Picture -B,

is a fraction, whose numerator is 2 and denominator is 5.

5

The fractions have the same numerator 2. They are fractions with a common

numerator.

2

3

and are fractions with different numerators. They can be expressed as fractions with a

3

8

common numerator:

2

3

and are not fractions with a common

2

2 3

6

3

8

6

numerator.

They

are respectively equal to

3

3 3

9

9

6

and

.

So

these

fractions

have

been

expressed

6

3

3 2

16

8

8 2

16

as fractions with a common numerator.

1 1

5

and

as fractions with common denominator 24.

3 4

6

Solution : We observe that 24 is a common multiple of 3, 4 and 6, the denominators

of the given fractions.

2

2 8

16

24 3

8

3

3 8

24

Example 1. Express

24

1

4

1 6

4 6

6

24

24

5

6

5 4

6 4

20

24

43

Elementary Mathematics

3

5

1

and

as fractions with common numerator 15.

8 12

16

Solution : We observe that 15 is a common multiple of the numerators 3, 5, 1 of

the given fractions.

3

3 5

15

15 3

5

8

8 5

40

Example 2. Express

15

5

12

5 3

12 3

15

15

1

16

1 15

16 15

15

36

15

240

Observe the following two pictures:

6

4

2

; in other words,

6

3

and

2

3

2

4

is obtained from by cancelling the common factor 2, of the numerator and denominator.

3

6

2

2

The numerator and denominator of

have no common factor, except 1. So

is the

3

3

4

reduced form of the fraction

6

The reduced form of a fraction is an equivalent fraction whose numerator and

denominator have no common factor except 1. It is obtained by dividing the

numerator and denominator by their G.C.D.

A fraction expressed in its reduced from is said to be in its lowest terms.

44

Elementary Mathematics

12

in reduced form.

36

Example 3. Express

Solution :

12

36

1

2

2

1

1

2

2

1

1

3

3 3

1

1

3

1

3

4

7

and

as fractions having the least

5

10 15

20

common denominator

Example 4. Express

Solution : Here the denominators of the fractions are 5, 10, 15 and 20.

5 5 10

2 1 2

1

15 20

3 4

3

60

60

10

60

15

60

20

1

5

12

12

60

3

10

1

5

1 12

5 12

12

60

3

10

4

15

7

20

3

10

4

15

7

20

18

60

16

60

21

60

18

60

6

6

4

4

3

3

4

15

16

60

2 3

7

20

60

21

60

denominator, we find the L.C.M. of the denominators and express

the given fractions as fractions with the L.C.M as their common denominator.

45

Elementary Mathematics

Comparison of Fractions

In the two pictures below, each of two equal rectangular regions has been divided into five equal

parts by the vertical lines. In Picture-A, two of these parts have been coloured; in

Picture-B, three of the parts have been coloured.

Picture - A

Picture - B

What portion of each figure has been coloured ? Which is the greater portion ?

2

2

In Picture-A,the coloured portion is ; in Picture - B, the coloured portion is ,

5

5

2

3

and

are fractions with the same denominator 5. Their numerators are

5

5

3

3

2

2 and 3. Since 3 > 2, we clearly have

>

. So

is the greater portion.

5

5

5

Among the fractions 1 , 2 and 3 which is the greatest ?

5 5

5

Observe the following pictures.

3

1

2

>

>

.

5

5

5

3

1

2

Each of the fractions ,

and

has denominator 5; in the decreasing

5

5

5

3

1

2

order the numerators are 3 > 2 > 1. So

>

>

.

5

5

5

From the picture it is clear that

Among fractions with the same denominator, the fraction with the greater

numerator is the greater fraction.

46

Elementary Mathematics

18

30

3

Therefore

5

20

30

2

3

25

30

5

6

3

5

2

3

Arranging fractions

successively from the

smallest to the largest,

is called arrangement

in ascending order of

magnitude.

5

6

8 16

4

Solution : The denominators of the given fractions are 8, 16 and 4.

Now 8 divides 16, as does 4. So the L.C.M. of 8, 16 and 4 is 16.

We express the given fractions as fractions with the common denominator 16.

16

16

16

16

2

1

4

Since 12

10

Therefore

3

4

5

8

7

16

5 2

8 2

7 1

16 1

3

4

3 4

4 4

7, we have

5

8

10

16

7

16

12

16

12

16

7 .

16

Arranging fractions

10

16

7

16

largest to the smallest is

called arrangement in

descending order of

magnitude.

3

4

5

8

7

.

16

48

Elementary Mathematics

18

30

3

Therefore

5

20

30

2

3

25

30

5

6

3

5

2

3

Arranging fractions

successively from the

smallest to the largest,

is called arrangement

in ascending order of

magnitude.

5

6

8 16

4

Solution : The denominators of the given fractions are 8, 16 and 4.

Now 8 divides 16, as does 4. So the L.C.M. of 8, 16 and 4 is 16.

We express the given fractions as fractions with the common denominator 16.

16

16

16

16

2

1

4

Since 12

10

Therefore

3

4

5

8

7

16

5 2

8 2

7 1

16 1

3

4

3 4

4 4

7, we have

5

8

10

16

7

16

12

16

12

16

7 .

16

Arranging fractions

10

16

7

16

largest to the smallest is

called arrangement in

descending order of

magnitude.

3

4

5

8

7

.

16

48

Elementary Mathematics

Now observe the following picture:

2

3

2

5

2

2

portion is greater than

portion.

It is clear from the picture that

5

3

2 and 2 have the same numerator 2.

The fractions

5

3

2

2

has denominator 3 and

has denominator 5.

Among fractions with

3

5

the same numerator, the

2

2

Since 3 < 5, we have

fraction with the smaller

5

3

denominator is the

larger fraction.

Solution :

5

Example 10. Arrange the fractions

7

magnitude.

7

15

,

>

7

7

and

is the greater ?

15

30

7

30

5

5

and

in ascending order of

12

18

Solution : The fractions have the same numerator 5, and their denominators are

7, 12 and 18.

5

5

5

Since 7

12

18. we have

.

18

12

7

Arrangement of the given fractions in ascending order of magnitude is :

5

18

5

12

5 .

7

49

Elementary Mathematics

Exercise 7 (A)

1. Transform into fractions with a common denominator :

(a)

1

2

1

3

(b)

(d)

3

4

5

6

4

9

1

2

1

4

7

18

1

6

(c)

5

7

(e)

3

14

5

6

3

4

2

21

1

42

3

4

5

12

5

12

7

18

5

8

1

4

2

5

7

8

3

10

9

20

(a)

1

2

2

3

(b)

2

3

3

4

1

6

(c)

3

8

1

6

4

5

2

3

3

8

6

7

(a)

3

4

5

8

(b)

5

6

4

9

(c)

2

3

6. Divide each of the equal rectangular regions into seven equal parts (by drawing vertical lines);

and colour green two, three and five parts of Picture A, B, C respectively.

Picture A

Picture B

Picture C

What portion of each picture is coloured green ? Use symbol to express which portion is greater.

50

Elementary Mathematics

7.

8.

indicate the result :

(a)

4

5

1

5

3

5

(d)

7

36

11

36

23

36

13

36

9

17

7

17

15

17

(e)

19

48

23

48

(c)

31

48

7

24

17

24

11

24

5

48

indicate the result :

(a)

9.

(b)

2

7

6

7

5

7

(b)

3

16

9

16

11

16

(c)

9

25

12

25

23

25

Compare the values of the following fractions; use symbols to indicate the result :

(a)

2

3

2

5

2

9

(b)

7

10

7

15

7

20

(c)

3

5

3

7

3

11

1

3

portion of it red, and

portion of it green.

5

5

Which colour covered the greater part of the region ?

2

11. Himu was given

portion of a bottle of cold drinks and his younger sister was given

7

3

portion. Who got more cold drinks ?

7

7

6

8

hour, Shafiq spends

hour and Saima spends

hour reading

15

15

15

newspapers. Who spends the least time reading newspapers ?

2

portion of the wall of their room. Shuvo's younger sister Shetu painted

25

2

portion. Who painted the greater portion ?

17

5

5

5

portion,

portion and

portion of a

18

9

36

basket of oranges. Who got the largest share of the oranges ?

51

Elementary Mathematics

Proper Fractions

5

1 , 3

and

are fractions whose numerators are less than their denominators. These

8

4

3

are proper fractions.

Fraction whose numerators are less than their denominators, are proper

fractions. The value of any proper fraction is less than 1.

Improper Fractions

Four friends Mahi, Momo, Esha and Urmi were having tiffin together. The four of them

had five apples. How can they share the five apples equally ? They can divide each apple

into four equal pieces; each of the four friends then takes one piece from each of the five

apples. In this way every one of the four friends gets an equal share of the four apples.

4

4

5 is greater than its denominator 4. Such fractions are improper fractions.

3 , 12 , 18 , are examples of improper fractions

2

7

5

In symbol, each of them gets 5

Fractions whose numerators are gereater than their denominators, are improper

fractions. The value of any improper fraction is greater than 1.

Elementary Mathematics

Mixed Fractions

Let us return to the problem of sharing five apples equally by the four friends Mahi, Momo,

Esha and Urmi. Alternatively, each of them could take one whole apple; then divide the

remaining fifth apple into four equal pieces and each of them take one of these pieces.

1

portion of an apple. Expressed in

4

1

1 apples.

1

1

symbols, each friend would get 1 +

or 1

1+

is written as 1

.

4

4

4

4

1 is read as one and one-fourth. Such fractions are mixed fractions.

1

4

3 .

Some other examples of mixed fractions are 1 1 2 1

5

2

3

4

In this way, each of them would get 1 apple and

Fractions having an integer part and a proper fractional part, are mixed fractions.

Picture-A

Picture-B

Picture-C

Observe the pictures above. What portion of Picture-A, Picture-B and Picture-C has been

coloured ?

53

Elementary Mathematics

In Picture - A, three one-third, in Picture-B, also three one-third and in Picture-C, one-third

portion has been coloured. So, in the three pictures taken together, ( 3 + 3 + 1) = 7 one-third

portion has been coloured. In other words , 7 portion has been coloured.

3

7

is an improper fraction. It is clear from our discussion that the improper fraction 7

3

3

1

1

is equal to the mixed fraction 2 +

2

3

3

We have 7

3 2 + 1.

So

7

3

2+1

3

2

3

1

3

1

3

2+

1

3

Observe that 2 is the quotient and 1 is the remainder of 7 upon division by 3. Thus

7

the improper fraction 3 has been converted into a mixed fraction.

We observe :

* To convert an improper fraction into a mixed fraction, we divide the numerator

by the denominator. The quotient is the integer part of the desired

mixed fraction.

* The remainder is the numerator of the fractional part of the mixed fraction.

* The denominator of the fractional part of the mixed fraction corresponding

to a given improper fraction is the same as that of the improper fraction.

In a mixed fraction, an integer is added to a proper fraction. Any integer can be written

as a fraction with denominator 1. For example : 3

2

3

4

3

4

2

1

3

4

2

1

4

4

3

4

3

4

3

1

5

1

2 4

4

54

3

4

2 4 3

4

11

4

11

11

.

1

Elementary Mathematics

This working is briefly written as follows :

2

4

4

11

4

Denominator

Denominator

Integer part

Mixed fraction

Numerator

Improper fraction

(a)

11

5

Solution :

(b)

55

16

11

5

11 = 2

11

2

5

55

(b)

16

55 = 3

5 11

10

1

(a)

5+ 1

1

5

16 55 3

48

7

16 + 7

55

16

7

16

Solution :

(a)

1

5

(a)

1

5

3 5 1 15 1

5

5

16

5

(b)

5

7

4 7 5 28 5

7

7

33

7

(b)

55

5

7

Elementary Mathematics

Exercise 7 (B)

1. Identify the proper fractions from among the following fractions :

(a)

(b)

(c) 2

(d)

35

(e)

27

17

2. Separate the improper and mixed fractions from among the following fractions :

2

3

7

(f)

20

1

4

1

(g) 10

5

(b) 1

(a)

1

3

(c) 25

(h)

5

18

75

(i)

18

9

11

8

(j)

25

(d)

40

33

(e)

(a)

8

3

(b)

39

18

(c)

47

19

(d)

227

25

(e)

211

30

(f)

315

37

(g)

407

40

(h)

521

45

(i)

750

119

(j)

1416

203

3

3

4

(b) 12

5

9

(c) 16

2

7

(d) 25

9

16

(e) 30

7

30

(f) 55

3

10

(g) 68

2

15

(h) 75

17

25

(i)

11

23

(j) 110

13

29

(a)

80

(a)

85

12

(d) 16

37

43

43

(b) 15

(e)

7

30

(c)

30

1485

247

56

3

247

27

13

1

13

Elementary Mathematics

6. Jaya had 5 pens. She gave her younger brother 2 pens. What portion of her total

pens did Jaya give to her younger brother ?

7. Mamun had 200 taka. He bought a book for 50 taka. What portion of his total money

did Mamun spend on the book ?

8. Anik had 20 chocolates. He took out 10 chocolates and gave half of these to his friends.

What portion of his total chocolates did Anik give to his friends ?

9. Mr. Rafiq out of his 3 bighas of land cultivated marigold on 2 bighas and tuberose on

half of the remaining land. On how much bigha of land did he cultivate tuberose ?

10. In a class test in Mathematics Rashed got 8 marks out of 10. What portion of total marks

in Mathematics did he get in that class test ?

57

Elementary Mathematics

Addition of Fractions

Observe the Picture-A to the right. How many segments

in this picture are coloured ? Two segments out of four equal

segments are coluored. Each of these segments constitute

one-fourth of the picture; the two coloured portions

constitute one-half of the picture. So

Picture-A

1

4

1

4

2

4

1 1

4

1

2

1

9

1

9

Example 1. Add :

Solution :

1

11

Example 2. Add :

Solution :

1

9

9

7

1 1

9

1

11

3

11

3

9

5

11

10

7

9 10

7

27

7

6

3

7

10

7

Picture-B

fractions with a common

denominator is a fraction with the

same denominator. Its numerator

is the sum of the numerators

of the given fractions.

3

5

11

11

1 3 5

11

9

11

9

7

1

3

8

7

8

7

fraction, it is generally expressed

as a mixed fraction.

58

Elementary Mathematics

Example 3. Add : 2

Solution :

13

13

1

13

27

68

44

13

13

13

27

68

13

13

13

5

13

The mixed fractions have

been converted into improper

fractions and then added.

Finally, the sum has been expressed

as a mixed fraction.

44

139

13

10

9

13

1

2

1

3

Picture-A

2

6

Picture-B

3

6

5

6

1

2

1

3

or

portion of Picture-A and

or

portion of Picture-B is coloured. In total,

3

6

2

6

1

2

3

1

5

and

are fractions

portion of the two pictures is coloured. Here

2

6

6

3

6

with different denominators, 3 and 2.

59

Elementary Mathematics

To add fractions with different denominators, we first convert them into fractions with

a common denominator. In the second row of the pictures above, 1 and 1 have

3

2

been expressed as fractions with the common denominator 6; 1 and 2 as well as

3

6

1

3

and

, are equivalent fractions. As such

2

6

1

1

2

3

2 3

5

6

3

2

6

6

6

1

3

Example 4. Add :

7

10

2

5

5 3 5

3

10

1 2

G.C.D. of 3, 5 and 10 is

30

10

30

30

10

1

3

2

5

7

10

3 2

1

3

2

5

1

3

2

5

10

10

6

6

10

30

12

30

7

10

7 3

10 3

21

30

10

30

12

30

21

30

10

12 21

30

43

30

13

30

60

30

Before adding

fractions with different

denominators, they have

to be converted into fractions

with a common

denominator.

Elementary Mathematics

Subtraction of Fractions

2

3

is coloured. We observe that

how can we do that ?

2

3

2

3

2

1

2

from

2

3

1

2

2

1

express them as fractions with a common denominator; the expressions of

and

3

2

4

3

with

a

common

denominator

are

(Picture-C)

and

(Picture-D)

as fractions

and

To subtract a smaller fraction from a larger fraction with the same denominator, we subtract the

numertor of the smaller fraction from the numerator of the larger fraction; the denominator

of the difference fraction is the common denominator of the minuend and subtrahend fractions.

1

2

3

2 express them

Picture-A

Picture-B

3

6

4

6

Picture-D

Picture-C

So

1

6

2

3

1

2

4

6

Example 5. Subtract :

Solution :

13

25

8

25

13 8

25

1

5

3

6

3

6

8

25

13

25

1

6

The denominator of the

difference of two fractions with the same

denominator is their common denominator.

The numerator of the difference fraction is

the difference of the numerators.

1

5

25

in the reduced form.

61

Elementary Mathematics

31

6

Example 6. Subtract :

Solution :

31

6

23

6

Example 7. Subtract :

Solution : 2 3

4

23

6

6

8

6

1

13

4

3

3

4

1

4

1

4

11 5

4

4

11 5

4

6

4

3

2

1

12

23

31

3

4

Example 8. Subtract :

2

5

2

3

5

4

The denominators of the given fractions are 4 and 5. Their L.C.M. = 20

Solution :

20

20

4

5

3

4

3

4

5

5

2

5

2

5

4

4

3

4

2

5

3

4

2

5

15

20

8

20

15

8

20

20

15 8

7

20

20

not have the same denomiator.

They have been expressed as

fractions with a common

denominator

Expressed briefly,

15

20

15 8

20

8

20

62

7

20

Elementary Mathematics

Example 9. Subtract :

1

3

1

1

2

2

3

6

1

1

2

2

Solution :

3

6

7

13

Solution :

5

1

3

2

9

16

3

38

9

48

38

9

Mixed fractions

have been converted

into improper

fractions

before subtraction.

3

14

6

14

38

48

2

1

2

3

6

2

13

9

6

6

13 9

6

27

9

6

10

9

3 18

6

1

1

9

1

1

metre of a 10 metre long white tape was coloured blue and 4

3

12

metre was coloured red. What length of the tape remained white ?

1

1

4

metre

of

the

tape

is

coloured

blue

and

Solution : 5

3 metre is coloured red.

12

length of the segment

sum of the lengths of the coloured segments

1

1

which remained white is

of the tape is = 5

metre

4

12

3

113

metre

10

61 13

12

metre

12 3

120 113

metre

61 52

12

metre

12

7

metre

113

metre

12

12

Example 11. 5

63

Elementary Mathematics

Exercise 7 (C)

1. Add :

(a)

28

(d)

31

37

39

25

25

25

25

1

5

2

5

(g) 2

(j)

10

1

2

3

38

(b)

(e)

1

1

(h) 2

5

3

3

5

5

38

7

38

8

38

18

1

2

3

4

(f)

5

4

1

4

4 (k) 5

3

4

4

5

(b)

31

9

11

9

11

9

(c)

7

8

(i) 7

3

4

10

1

2

13

9

10

9

11

15

25

5

16

17

6

7

12

3

3

8

(d) 5

7

12

3

10

4

3

7

1

5

2. Subtract :

(a)

27

32

(e) 6

9

32

1

9

3

4

(i) 2

7

9

(f) 8 3

16

4

5

(c)

1

16

13

12

(g) 1

9

10

(k) 4

2

3

5

8

(j) 3

43

12

4

5

(h) 2

3

4

(d) 7

3

4

1

5

5

12

4

5

3. Simplify :

(a)

3

4

7

8

11

12

(e) 7

2

5

1

2

(h) 5

3

4

1

2

(j) 1

1

3

1

4

(b)

1

4

7

15

(f) 8

1

1

3

5

16

5

6

2

3

3

4

3

7

9

20

2

3

5

(i) 5

(k) 2

(c)

4

1

4

1

2

2

7

64

(g) 1

5

32

1

7

3

5

11

12

7

8

1

2

5

14

1

2

3

8

7

15

3

4

4

5

3

10

Elementary Mathematics

1

1

4. Shomu spends

portion of a day studying at school,

portion playing out,

4

12

1

portion studying at home, in the remaining time he does other work and takes rest.

3

What portion of the day does he spend studying and playing ?

1

portion

3

1

and younger brother Mamun got portion. What portion of the total property did they get ?

6

1

1

portion of a book in the first day,

portion in the second day and

6. Mimi read

3

4

1

portion in the third day. In three days in all, what portion of the book did she read ?

12

1

1

kilometre in the first hour, 3

7. Rahim walked 4

kilometre in the second hour

3

6

1

and 1

kilometre in the third hour. In three hours, in all how many kilometres did

3

he walk ?

8. 1 portion of a bamboo is in mud, 2 portion is in water and the remaining portion is above

5

5

water. What portion is above water ?

5. Shafiq got

1

4

portion of his father's property, while his younger sister Minu got

9. Apu has 50 3 taka. He bought a writing pad for 25 1 taka and a pencil for 10 1 taka.

4

2

2

How much taka does he have now ?

10. Mr. Hanif gave away his property to his wife, one son and two daughters. The son got

3 portion and each daughter got 2 portion. What portion did the his wife get ?

8

8

3

3

11. The difference of two fractions is 8 . The smaller number is 3 ;what is the larger number ?

8

8

12. Fill in the blanks :

(a)

(d)

(f) 1

1

4

(b)

10

10

2

1

2

5

6

(e)

(g) 3

1

4

65

(c)

12

27

27

1

2

3

4

Elementary Mathematics

Multiplicaton of Fractions

Multiplication of a Fraction by an Integer Picture-A

Picture-B

Picture-C

In Picture-A, the lower left 1 portion

4

of the circular region has been coloured.

1

In Picture-B, the lower right portion

1

1

2

4

portion colour

portion colour

portion colour

4

4

of the circular region (of the same size) 4

1

has been coloured. In Picture-C, both lower portions have been coloured. If we superimpose

4

1

Picture-A on Picture-B, we get Picture-C, in Picture-C, portion of the circular region is

2

coloured.

1

4

So,

1

4

1

4

1 2

4

2

4

Fraction

Integer

Integer

Denominator of the fraction

1

2

the denomintor is not changed. The product is to be expressed in reduced form.

1

4

1

4

In Picture-D, a circular region has been divided into four equal parts. Each

1

4

1

4

4

multiplying 1 by 3. Again, taking 3 of these parts amounts to writing down

1

4

Picture-D

1

Multiplication is a condensed form of addition. So multiplying by 3 is the same as writing

4

1

down three times and then adding the three fractions.

4

1

4

1

4

1

4

1 1 1

4

1 3

4

3

4

66

Elementary Mathematics

1

3

On Independence Day Apu went to school very early and returned home after

hositing of the national flag. In the afternoon he went to the school cultural function

and returned home in the evening. What distance did Apu cover on that day walking

to and from school ?

1

Solution : On Independence Day Apu walked the distance

kilometre 4 times.

3

1

km by 4.

So the required distance is the product of

3

Example 1 . Apu's school is at a distance of

1 4

3

Apu walked 1

3

Now let us observe the following pictures. They illustrate the result :

1

3

Example 2.

15

7

Solution : 15

7

15 5

7

5

75

7

what ?

10

Example 3. 8

Solution : 8

1

4

231

462

4

2

5

7

1

4

14

14

what ?

33

4

14

231

2

115

first converted into an improper fraction

67

33 14

4

1

2

Elementary Mathematics

Multiplication of a Fraction by a Fraction

The adjoining picture shows a square region, each of

whose sides has length 1 metre. The area of the square

region is 1 square metre. The square region has been

divided into 15 rectangular regions of the same size,

m

1

e

square metre.

is

t

15

r

Now observe the coloured region in the picture.

e

It consists of 8 of those rectangular regions adjoining one

another. As these regions do not overlap, the area of the

1

8

1 metre

coloured region is

8 sq metre

sq metre.

15

15

4 metre and its breadth is

On the other hand, the length of the coloured rectangular region is

5

2 metre. So the area of the coloured region is, 4 metre

2 metre

2 ) sq metre.

(4

3

5

3

5

3

8

4

2

.

Equating the two expressions for the same area, we get

15

5

3

8

2

Observe that 4

15

5

3

Therefore

4

5

2

3

4

5

2

3

The product of two fractions is a fraction whose numerator is the product of the

two numerators and whose denominator is the product of the two denominators.

Example 4. 5

6

Solution : 5

6

3

8

3 5

8 6

2

5

16 .

Example 5.

what ?

1

3

8

Solution :

12

6

12

2

12

2

5

68

what ?

1

6

1

Elementary Mathematics

A rectangular region has been divided into 15 equal and smaller rectangular regions, as shown.

The four coloured smaller rectangular regions to the lower left side of Picture-D constitute

4

15

2

5

2

2

2 2

4

portion of the area

So the area of the coloured rectangular region is

5

3

5 3 15

of the whole rectangular region.

3

2

3

of

2

5

. So

2

3

of

Thus,

2

5

of

Example 8. 34 portion of one metre long piece of cloth is coloured red. A handkerchief is

made from

1

2

portion of the red part. What portion of the one metre long cloth

Solution : (

1 of 3 ) portion of the one metre long cloth has been used in making the

2 4

handkerchief.

Now

1

3

of

2

4

1 3

2 4

3

8

3

portion of the one metre long cloth has been used.

8

Reciprocal Fraction

Every fraction has a denominator and a numerator. The fraction obtained by interchanging

the denominator and numerator of a given fraction, is called the reciprocal fraction of that

fraction.

3

is a fraction whose denominator is 4 and numerator is 3. Interchanging their positions

4

3

4

4

3

we get the fraction . So is the reciprocal fraction of

; likewise is the reciprocal

4

3

3

4

4

fraction of

. If the product of two fractions is equal to 1, then they are mutually reciprocal

3

fractions.

Any fraction

70

Elementary Mathematics

A rectangular region has been divided into 15 equal and smaller rectangular regions, as shown.

The four coloured smaller rectangular regions to the lower left side of Picture-D constitute

4

15

2

5

2

2

2 2

4

portion of the area

So the area of the coloured rectangular region is

5

3

5 3 15

of the whole rectangular region.

3

2

3

of

2

5

. So

2

3

of

Thus,

2

5

of

Example 8. 34 portion of one metre long piece of cloth is coloured red. A handkerchief is

made from

1

2

portion of the red part. What portion of the one metre long cloth

Solution : (

1 of 3 ) portion of the one metre long cloth has been used in making the

2 4

handkerchief.

Now

1

3

of

2

4

1 3

2 4

3

8

3

portion of the one metre long cloth has been used.

8

Reciprocal Fraction

Every fraction has a denominator and a numerator. The fraction obtained by interchanging

the denominator and numerator of a given fraction, is called the reciprocal fraction of that

fraction.

3

is a fraction whose denominator is 4 and numerator is 3. Interchanging their positions

4

3

4

4

3

we get the fraction . So is the reciprocal fraction of

; likewise is the reciprocal

4

3

3

4

4

fraction of

. If the product of two fractions is equal to 1, then they are mutually reciprocal

3

fractions.

Any fraction

70

Elementary Mathematics

Division of Fractions

On the occasion of cultural week of her school,

Chaiti bought 1 meter long red tape and used

half it to make three equal badges. What

portion of the 1 metre long tape was needed to

make each badge ?

1 metre tape.

2

1

metre tape into three equal parts and made a badge from each part.

2

1

1

For making each badge she needed

portion of

metre.

3

2

Chaiti divided the

1 metre

1

1

of

3

2

1

1

of

3

2

1

1

of

3

2

1

6

1

6

1

6

1

metre

2

1

2

3

metre

6

1

metre

2

1

From the picture it is clear that 1 portion of

metre is equal to 1 portion of 1 metre.

2

3

6

In other words.

1

1 3

1 1

1

3

2

2 1

2 3

6

So.

1

metre portion of the 1 metre tape was needed to make each badge.

6

by the reciprocal of the second fraction (divisor).

71

Elementary Mathematics

3

Example 9.

Solution :

Example 10. 1

3

5

what ?

Solution : 1

is the reciprocal of

5

7

Example 12.

1

1

what ?

23

75

Soluton :

46

35

Solution :

1

15

15

5

15

3

2

10

1

what ?

12

12

1

12

3

40

Example 11. 15

5

7

12

12

12

1

23

75

46

35

what ?

23

75

46

35

1

23

75

15

7

35

46

2

7

30

1

Example 13. Mr. Habib kept portion of his property for himself and divided the

4

the rest of the property equally between his two children. What portion of the

propety did each child get?

1

Solution: Mr Habib kept portion of the property for himself.

4

4 1

3

remaining property 1 1 portion

portion

portion.

4

4

4

This portion he divided equally between his two children

3

1

2

3

3

3

portion.

So each child got

2

8

2

1

4

4

4

72

Elementary Mathematics

Exercise 7 ( D )

1. Find the products :

(a)

(e)

6

7

14

16

3

17

12

(b)

(f)

18

(c)

68

13

18

13

34

16

(g) 3

7

12

(d)

5

21

17

12

18

17

(h) 8

3

14

1

35

3

4

(e) 15

(a)

1

2

(b) 18

24

11

(c) 1

1

20

17

30

34

5

(g) 2

3

4

(f)

1

2

(d) 2

7

10

(h) 5

3

5

1

7

3. Evaluate :

(a)

8

3

of

9

4

(b)

9

5

of

8

12

(c)

27

8

of

32

9

of

15

(d) 24

7

19

3

(e)

38

1

2

(f)

1

5

4

3

8.

1

In a hostel every day 1 quintal of rice in needed. In that hostel how many quintals

4

of rice is needed in 8 days ?

4

Sister's age is

portion of brother's age. The brother's age is 15 years; what is the sister's

5

age ?

7

The divisor is 8 times the quotient. The quotient is ; what is the dividend ?

8

1

8 times of what number is equal to 10 times ?

3

2

2

The product of two numbers is 10 7 . One number is 2 7 ; what is the other number ?

9.

4.

5.

6.

7.

1

1

yields the quotient 20 . What is the number ?

2

2

73

Elementary Mathematics

10.

Which number when divided by 12 will yield a quotient equal to the sum of

1

1

and

?

3

4

3

11. The value of portion of Mr. Mizan's property is 60,000 taka. What is the value of

20

1

portion of that property ?

10

1

1

portion of a pole is in mud, portion is in water and the remaining portion is above

12.

6

2

water. The length of the portion above water is 2 metre; what is the length of the portion

in water ?

3

dozen of bananas were divided equally among 21 persons; how many bananas did

13. 8

4

every one get ?

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

Molly bought paper with 1 portion of her money, pens with 1 portion and writing

5

3

pad with 1 portion. She found that she still had 52 taka. What amount of money did she

4

have to begin with ?

5

3

portion of his money to an orphanage,

Mr. Sajjad had 24000 taka. He donated

12

8

portion to an eductional institution. What amount of money was he left with ?

1

1

portion of his property for himself and gave

protion to his wife.

8

8

The remaining property he divided equally among his four sons. Each son got property

worth 15000 taka. What is the value of the total propety ?

3

1

Mr. Kamal spends portion of his monthly income on house rent , portion on

8

5

3 portion for other purposes. The remaining

educational expenses for his children and

10

money he deposits in a bank. At the end of the year the bank deposit amounted to 14400

taka. What is his monthly income ?

3

2

portion of

In the annual examination Rony and Panna respectively obtained

and

4

3

the total marks. Rony obtained 50 marks more than Panna. What were the total marks and

who obtained what marks ?

1

4

Mr. Matin bought a bicycle with

portion of his money. He then bought a radio at

2

5

portion of the cost of the bicycle and distributed the remaining money equally between

Mr. Nagen kept

his two daughters. Each daughter got 300 taka. How much money did Mr. Matin have ?

74

Chapter Eight

Decimal Fractions

Multiplication of Decimal Fractions

Mina and Raju went to the market and bought 1 5 kg of vegetables at the rate of 15 50 taka

per kg. What amount of money will they owe the seller ? Clearly, the cost of the vegetables will

be ( 15 50 1 5 ) taka . But the 15 50 and 1 5 are decimal fractions. To find the cost of the

vegetables Mina and Raju must know how to multiply decimal fractions. Let us try to determine

the product 0 1 0 1.

We know 0 1

1

. So 0 1 0 1

10

1

10

1

10

1 1

10 10

1

100

is one-tenth of the entire square region; so the

1

can be used to represent that strip.

10

1

1

1

1

We know,

means

of

.

10 10

10 10

fraction

1

1

then each of these smaller parts will represent

of

=0 1

10 10

One such part is shown coloured in the adjoining

picture. Can we represent the small coloured square

region in another manner ?

The square region has been divided into 100 small

square regions as shown, So the coloured small

square is

1

1

portion of the square region.

is

100

100

written as 0 01.

1

1

Therefore

of

=0 1

10 10

0 1 = 0 01.

0 1.

0 01.

Elementary Mathematics

Example 2. Multiply : 15 06

Solution :

25

Explanation :

1506

25

Hundreds

Tens

Ones

6

25

7530

One-tenths One-hundredths

30120

37650

multiplicand there are two digits to the right of the decimal point. So the

desired product is obtained by putting the decimal point before two digits

from the right of the product 37650.

15 06

25

376 50

Example 3. Multiply : 12

Solution :

3 125

3125

12

6250

31250

Explanation :

Hundreds

37500

Tens

Ones

5

12

0

In the multiplier there are three digits to the right of the decimal point. So the

desired product is obtained by putting the decimal point before three digits from

the right of the product 37500.

12

3 125 37 500

37 5

The last two zeros to the right of 5 have been omitted as being after the decimal point.

77

Elementary Mathematics

Example 2. Multiply : 15 06

Solution :

25

Explanation :

1506

25

Hundreds

Tens

Ones

6

25

7530

One-tenths One-hundredths

30120

37650

multiplicand there are two digits to the right of the decimal point. So the

desired product is obtained by putting the decimal point before two digits

from the right of the product 37650.

15 06

25

376 50

Example 3. Multiply : 12

Solution :

3 125

3125

12

6250

31250

Explanation :

Hundreds

37500

Tens

Ones

5

12

0

In the multiplier there are three digits to the right of the decimal point. So the

desired product is obtained by putting the decimal point before three digits from

the right of the product 37500.

12

3 125 37 500

37 5

The last two zeros to the right of 5 have been omitted as being after the decimal point.

77

Elementary Mathematics

Explanation :

Example 4. Multiply : 5 237

10

5 237

Solution :

5 237

10

5237 thousandths

10

52370 thousandths

5237 hundredths

52 37

52 37

In the multiplier there is one zero to the right of 1. The desired product is found

by shifting the decimal point one place to the right in the multiplicand.

9 853

Solution :

Explanation : 9 853

100

9853

9 853

100

985 3

1000

9853

100

100

10

985 3

In the multiplier there are two zeros to the right of 1. The desired product is found

by shifting the decimal point two places to the right in the multiplicand.

78

Elementary Mathematics

Example 6. Multiply :0 78

Solution :

0 25

0 78

0 25

78

25

Explanation :

78

100

100

78 25

25

390

10000

1950

1560

1950

0 1950

10000

To the right of the decimal point there are 2 digits in the multiplicand and 2 digits in the

multiplier in all 4 digits. So the desired product is found by placing the decimal

point four places to the left of the product 78 25 = 1950. So 0 78

0 25 = 0 1950

Observe that the decimal points have been omitted and the numbers 78 and 25

have been multiplied as integers. Then we have placed the decimal point before

as many digits from the right of that product as there are total digits to the right of

the decimal points in the multiplicand and in the multiplier.

Example 7. Multiply : 0 23

Solution :

0 23

0 178

the multiplicand there are 2 digits,

in the multiplier there are 3 digits, in all

5 digits. But the product 23 178

= 4094 has 4 digits; so we need to

put one zero to the left of 4094 before

putting the decimal point so as to have

5 digits.

23

178

184

1610

2300

4094

0 178 0 04094

it travel in 5 4 hours ?

425

Solution : In 1 hour the train travels 42 5 kilometre.

in 5 4 hour the train travels 42 5

54 kilometre

229 50 kilometre.

79

54

1700

21250

22950

Elementary Mathematics

Exercise 8 (A)

1.

(a) 0 24

12

(d) 39

3 679

(g) 0 00125

100

(j) 7 0 7

0 007

(k) 0 3

(l) 1 8

(b) 6 265

(e) 87 67

(h) 11

(c) 25

6 05

(f) 123 585

100

18

10

0 11

1 1

(i) 0 25

0 25

2 5

7000

0 03

0 003

30

0 18

0 8

0 01

3. 1 inch equals 2 54 centimetre; how many centimetres are there in 8 5 inches ?

4. One pencil costs 15 75 taka; what is the cost of 1 dozen pencils ?

5. A car travels 42 5 kilometres in one hour. How many kilometres will it travel in 15 3

hours ?

6. Urmi and Moumi respectively took 0 5 and 0 4 portion of one kuri of lychees. How

many lychees did each get ?

7. One litre of milk costs 45 75 taka . Shamim bought 2 litres of milk and gave the milkman

100 taka. What refund will Shamim get ?

8. One kuri of eggs cost 160 taka. Molly bought 0 8 kuri and Rumi bought 0 5 kuri of eggs.

Who bought how many eggs and how much did each of them pay ?

9. Mr. Sayeed pays 0 15 portion of his monthly pay as income tax. He spends 0 8 portion

of the remaining money in family maintenance; he saves the residual money. He saves

1020 taka per month; what is his monthy pay ?

10. 0 15 portion of a bamboo is in mud, 0 65 portion is in water. The length of the bamboo

above water is 4 metre; what is the length of the bamboo as a whole ?

80

Elementary Mathematics

Division of Decimal Fractions by Integers

Example 9. Find the quotient : 34 8

Solution :

in the quotient

6 348 58

30

48

48

6 34 8 5 8

same

30

48

48

Explanation :

34 8

348 tenths

6 348 tenths 58 tenths

30

48

48

quotient

58 tenths

5 8

We observe, in finding the quotient as soon as the digit after the decimal point

has been taken down, the decimal point has been placed in the quotient.

Solution :

16 38 5 2 40625

32

65

64

100

96

40

32

80

80

16

remainder zero ( 0 ) is reached. After the

second step a zero (0) has been put after the

remainder 10, and after every subsequent

remainder (4 and 8), because

38 5 38 5000

So

0

81

38 5

16

38 5000

16

Elementary Mathematics

Division of Integers by Decimal Fractions

Example 11. Find the quotient :

32

2 5

2 5

Solution : 32

Here the dividend is 32 and divisor is 2 5. Shifting the decimal

point in the divisor one place to the right we get 25; this amounts

to multiplying by 10. Multiplying the dividend by 10 we get 320.

So, 32

2 5 320 25

Explanation :

25 320 12 8

32

25

32 2 5

2 5

70

32 10

50

32

2 5

2 5

200

200

320

25

10

320

25

12 8

We observe : The decimal point in the divisor has been shifted to the right as far

as is necessary to make the divisor an integer. To the right of the dividend as

many zeros have been placed as the number of places the decimal point in the

divisor was shifted. The desired quotient is the quotient upon division of the

changed dividend by the changed divisor.

Example 12. The price of 3 5 kg of potatoes is 63 taka . What is the

price of 1 kg of potatoes ?

Solution : The price of 1 kg of potatoes is 63

dividend and the divisor by 10 we get 63

35

630

35

280

280

0

35

3 5. Multiplying the

630

35

18

82

Elementary Mathematics

Division of Decimal Fractions by 10, 100

Explanation :

Exmaple 13. Find the quotient : 57 48

Solution : 57 48

10

57 48

10

1

10

5748 thousandths 5 748

5748 hundredths

5 748

57 48

10

10

5 748

We observe : In the divisor there is one zero (0) to the right of 1. The quotient has

been obtained by shifting the decimal point in the dividend one place to the left.

The digits in the quotient are the same (and in the same order) as in the dividend.

Only the decimal point has changed its position.

Solution : 247 8

100

Explanation :

2 478

247 8

100

100

2 478

247 8 100

1

2478 tenths

100

1

1

2478

10

100

1

2478

1000

2478 thousandths 2 478

We observe :

* In the divisor there are 2 zeros (00) to the right of 1.

* The quotient has been obtained by shifting the decimal point in the dividend 2 places

to the left.

* If in the divisor there are 3 zeros (000) to the right of 1, that is, if the divisor is 1000,

then the quotient is obtained by shifting the decimal point 3 places to the left.

* Required number of zeros (0, 00, 000, .....) have to be inserted as and when needed.

83

Elementary Mathematics

Division of Decimal Fractions by Decimal Fractions

Example 16. Find the quotient :

3 36

32

33 6

3 2

Solution: 33 6

3 2

Here dividend is 33 6 and divisor is 3 2.

Shifting the decimal point in the divisor

one place to the right we get 32; shifting

the decimal point one place to the right

in the dividend 33 6 we get

336 = 336 00

32 336 00 10 5

32

Solution: 3 36

32

Here dividend is 3 36 and divisor is3 2.

Shifting the decimal point in the divisor

one place to the right we get 32; shifting

the decimal point one place to the right

in the dividend 3 36 we get 33 6.

32 33 6 1 05

32

160

160

160

160

33 6

3 2

0

10 5

3 36

3 2

1 05

We observe :

* To free the divisor from decimals, it has been multiplied by 10; that means, the

decimal point has been shifted one place to the right.

* To balance (that is, to keep the quotient unchanged), the decimal point in the

dividend has been shifted one place to the right.

* Divison to the right of the decimal in the quotient has been carried out till the

remainder 0 is reached by putting one zero (0) to the right of every remainder.

Example 17. A car travels 43 2 kilometre on 2 4 litre of petrol. How far will

it travel on 1 litre of petrol ?

Solution: On 2 4 litre of petrol the car travels 43 2 kilometre

on 1 litre of petrol the car travels 43 2

43 2

43 2 10

432

Now

2 4

2 4 10

24

On 1 litre of petrol the car travels 18 kilometre.

84

2 4 kilometre.

24 432 18

24

192

192

0

Elementary Mathematics

Exercise 8 (B)

1. Find the quotient :

(a) 6 13 14

6

(b) 14 49

(d) 0 80

16

(g) 15

0 04

(j) 12 38

10

(e) 65 4

6

(h) 42

7 5

(k) 28 5

10

(m) 83 65

(p) 0 027

(n) 57 5

0 23

(q) 0 0007

0 035

100

18

(c) 46 5

(f) 0 005

25

(i) 18

3 60

(l) 78 3

100

(o) 6 4

0 05

(r) 65 61

0 0027

2. One dozen ballpens cost 51 60 taka, what is the price of one ballpen ?

3. One quintal of rice costs 3875 00 taka, what is the price of 1 kg of rice ?

4. 3 5 metres equal 137 795 inches; how many inches are there in 1 metre ?

5. A car travels 46 8 kilometre in one hour. What time will the car need to travel 257 4

kilometres ?

6. A 3-minute call from a mobile phone costs 2 04 taka; what is the per minute cost of

calling from that phone ?

7. The product of two numbers is 10 5. One number is 2 8; what is the other number ?

8. The product of two numbers is 12 775. One number is 0 7; what is the other number ?

9. 0 000625 divided by which number will yield the quotient 0 125 ?

10. Everyone of 40 students contributed 12 75 taka. The money thus raised was divided

equally among 8 poor persons. Wht money did each poor person get ?

11. A teacher bought oranges for 393 90 taka, costing 60 60 taka per dozen, and divided

them equally among 13 students. How many oranges did each student get ?

12. The sum of two numbers is 70 60. The larger number is 4 50 more than the smaller

number. Find the two numbers.

85

Chapter Nine

Percentage

The square region to the right has been divided

into 100 small square regions, as shown. 15 of

these small square regions to the upper left

corner have been coloured. So the coloured

15

(rectangular) region is

portion of the whole

100

(square) region. We express this by saying that

the coloured region is 15% of the whole region.

The denominator of the above fraction is 100;

15 % is read as ' fifteen per cent ' meaning fifteen per hundred.

15 .

So 15% =

100

Full marks Siam

Sirat Shihab Partha

Subject

Mathematics

100

82

75

85

70

Mita

73

We see that out of 100 marks, Siam has got 82 marks; that is he has got 82% marks.

Similarly, Sirat has got 75%, Shihab has got 85%, Partha has got 70% and Mita has got

73% marks.

We observe : A percentage is a fraction whose denominator is 100.

4

into

5

percentage.

Example 1. Convert

Solution :

4

5

4

5

80

100

20

20

13 into

25

percentage.

Example 2. Convert

Solution : 13

25

80%

13 4

25 4

52

52 %

100

Elementary Mathematics

fraction

Solution : 45 %

45

100

20

fraction.

Solution : 18 %

9

20

18 9

100

50

9

50

Example 5. The population of Sakhipur village is 1280. 40% of the population

of that village is educated. Find the number of educated persons.

Solution : 40 % of the inhabitants are educated.

So, out of 100 persons the number of educated persons is 40

40

100

1

1280

2

40

256

1280

100 1

5

512 persons.

Example 6. A pen is bought for 50 taka and sold for 55 taka. What is the

percentage profit ?

Solution : Selling price

Cost price

55 taka

50 taka

Profit

5 taka

55 taka

50 taka

On cost price 50 taka profit is 5 taka

5

1

50

2

5 100 taka

100

50

1

87

10 taka.

Elementary Mathematics

* Profit is made if selling price is more than the cost price

* Profit = Selling price

Cost price

Example 7. A pen is bought for 50 taka and sold for 46 taka. What is the

percentage loss ?

Solution : Cost price

= 50 taka

Selling price = 46 taka

Loss

50 taka

46 taka

4 taka

4

1

50

2

4 100

8 taka.

100

50 1

Percentage loss is 8 taka.

Loss is made if selling price is less than the cost price

Loss = Cost price

Selling price.

Example 8. The rate of interest is 7 % per annum. What is the interest on 800 taka

for 5 years ?

Solution: On 100 taka deposit interest for 1 year is 7 taka.

1

800

1

1

800

Interest

Rate of interest

7

100

7

7

800

100

8

800

5

taka

100 1

Principal

100

88

280 taka.

Elementary Mathematics

Example 9. Mahfuza deposited 500 taka in a bank and in 3 years got 105 taka

as interest.What is the percentage rate of interest per annum ?

Solution : On 500 taka interest for 3 years is 105 taka

105

3

105

1

1

500 3

7 21

1

105 100

1

7 taka.

100

500 3

1

51

So the percentage rate of interest is 7 taka per annum.

500

Interest 100

Principal Time (in years)

Money (additional to the principal) credited to an account is 'interest'

Interest earned by depositing 100 taka for 1 year is the percentage rate of interest.

Example 10. The rate of interest being 8% what amount of money will earn 240

taka as interest in 5 years ?

Solution: 8 taka is the interest in 1 year when principal is 100 taka

100

1

1

8

100 240

240

1

8

6

100 240 30

600 taka

240

5

8 5

1 1

So, 600 taka will earn 240 taka as interest in 5 years at 8% per annum.

Principal

Interest

Rate of interest

100

Time ( in years )

For the same amount of interest , the more the time the less the principal.

So in the last step, one has to divide by 5.

89

Elementary Mathematics

Exercise 9

1. Express as percentage :

(a) 3

4

(b) 5

8

(c) 4

15

(d) 18

15

(e) 15

24

(f) 5

12

(g) 28

50

2. Express as fraction :

(a) 6%

(b) 15%

(c) 30%

(d) 45%

(e) 50%

(f) 65%

(g) 75%

(g) 80%

3. Evaluate :

(a) 8% of 25 taka (b) 5% of 75 taka

4.

The population of Alipur village is 1800. 45% of the people of the village is

educated. What is the number of educated persons in Alipur ?

5.

What was the previous population of the village ?

6.

students passed in that examination ?

7.

In Bangladesh every year 25 persons are born and 15 persons die, for

every one thousand of the population. What is the percentage rate of

increase of polulation in a year ?

8.

1040 persons. What was the previous population of that village ?

9.

In 1981 the population of Bangladesh was 9 crore and in 1982 it was 9 crore

27 lac. What was the percentage rate of increase of population in 1982 ?

10.

A pen was bought for 50 taka and sold for 56 taka. What is the percentage

profit ?

90

Elementary Mathematics

11.

What is the percentage loss ?

12.

The cost price of a trouser is 250 taka. At what price must it be sold

to make 20% profit ?

5% loss was incurred by sellling a radio for 1140 taka. What was the

purchase price of the radio ?

A person sold a goat at 6% loss. The selling price was 3196 taka; what was the

cost price?

13.

14.

15.

Apples bought for 800 taka were sold at 4% loss. What was the total

amount of loss in taka ?

16.

Apples bought for 800 taka were sold at 4% profit. What was the total

amount of profit in taka ?

The profit for 3 years on 600 taka is 144 taka. Find the annual rate of interest.

17.

18.

Depositing 900 taka in a bank Mahfuza got 81 taka as interest for 3 years.

What is the annual rate of interest ?

19.

The annual rate of interest is 7 taka. What is the interest on 700 taka for

7 years ?

20.

21.

Rate of interest being 6%, what amount of taka shall earn 180 taka as

interest in 5 years ?

22.

Annual percentage rate of interest being 8 taka, which principal will earn

360 taka as interest in 5 years ?

23.

Interest for how many years on 300 taka at 5% per annum will be 60 taka ?

24.

900 taka for 3 years ?

At 5% annual rate of interest in how many years will 425 taka become 510

taka with interest ?

25.

91

Chapter Ten

Measurement

Measurement of Length

The basic unit for measurement of length is : Metre.

Every bounded object or region has a definite linear measure;

this measure is called the length of the object or region.

For convenience various multiples and submultiples of metre are used

as secondary units :

1 kilometre (km)

= 1000 metre (m)

1 hectometre (hm)

1 decametre (dm)

= 10 metre (m)

1 metre (m)

= 1metre (m)

1 decimetre (dcm)

1 centimetre (cm)

1 millimetre (mm)

1

m or 0.1 m

10

1

= 100 m or 0.01 m

=

1 m or 0.001 m

1000

On the increasing side, beginning with 1 metre, these units are such

that each unit is10 times the preceding unit. On the decreasing side,

1

beginning with 1 metre they are such that each unit is one-tenth (10

)

of the preceding unit.

10

10

kilo is

thousand times

hecto is

hundred times

deca is

ten times

10 10

10

deci is

one-tenth

1

10

centi is

one-hundredth

milli is

one- thousandth

1

100

1

1000

10

1000

100

10

0.1

0.01

0.001

Elementary Mathematics

Measurement of Weight

The basic unit for measurement of weight is : Gram

Metric units for Measurement of Weights

Replacing 'metre' by 'gram' in the chart on the preceding page, we get the

metric units for measurement of weights. On the increasing side these are

decagram (dg), hectogram (hg), kilogram (kg); on the decreasing side these

are decigram (dcg), centigram (cg), milligram (mg)

Two widely used unis for measuring larger weights are :

100 kilogram (kg) = 1 quintal

10 quintal or 1000 kilogram = 1 metric ton

Solution : 8 kilogram = 8 1000 gram = 8000 gram = 8000 1000 mg

= 8000000 mg

35 gram = 35 1000 mg = 35000 mg

79 centigram = 79 10 mg =

790 mg

6 milligram =

6 mg

Sum = 8035796 mg

there are 8035796 milligram in 8 kilogram 35 gram 79 centigram 6 milligram.

Example 2. Express 58 kilogram 357 gram 629 milligram in kilogram.

Solution : 58 kg

= 58 kg

357 gram = 357 0.001 kg

= 0.357 kg

629 milligram = 629 0.001 gram

= 0.629 gram = 0.629 0.001kg = 0.000629 kg

Sum = 58.357629 kg

there are 58.357629 kilogram in 58 kilogram 357 gram 629 milligram.

Example 3. How many qunitals are there in 9876000 grams ? How many metric tons ?

Solution : 9876000 grams = 9876000 kg = 9876 kg = 9876 quintal

1000

100

= 98.76 quintal.

98.76

metric ton = 9.876 metric ton.

10

there are 98.76 quintal or 9.876 metric ton in 9876000 grams.

93

Elementary Mathematics

Example 4. Add :

(a)

km

hm

dm

metre

98

76

53

42

7

8

0

9

6

4

8

3

5

9

7

1

hm

dm

metre

7

8

0

9

6

4

8

3

5

9

7

1

Solution :

(a) km

98

76

53

42

271

(b)

(b)

271 km 6 hm 3 dm 2 metre

kg

hg

dg

39

52

13

48

6

1

5

6

7

0

4

5

8

9

2

3

kg

hg

dg

39

52

13

48

153

6

1

5

6

7

0

4

5

8

9

2

3

153 kg 9 hg 8 dg 2 gram

Example 5. Subtract :

(a)

km

89

47

hm

5

6

dm

7

4

metre

3

8

(b)

kg

76

53

hg

9

8

dg

2

7

g

4

6

hm

dm

+10

5

7

metre

3 +10

(b)

kg

hg

dg

Solution :

(a)

km

89

47

41

+1

+1

76

2 +10

4+10

53

8 +1

7 +1

23

41 kg 9 hm 2 dm 5 metre

23 kg 4 dg 8 gram

94

Elementary Mathematics

The basic unit for measurement of volume of liquids is : Litre

Replacing 'metre' by 'litre' in the chart on page 92, we get the metric

units for measurement of volume of liquids. On the increasing side these

are: decalitre (dl), hectolitre (hl), kilolitre (kl), On the decreasing side

these are decilitre (decil), centilitre (cl), millilitre (ml).

International Units for Measurement of Volume of Liquid.

1000 millilitre (ml)

= 1 litre (l)

or

1000 cubic centimetre

1000 litre = 1 cubic metre

The following chart exhibits the basic and secondary units for measurement

of length, weight and volume of liquid at a glance; it can be used for

ready reference :

Thousands

Hundreds

Tens

Ones

metre

kilo

hecto

deca

gram

deci

centi

milli

1

10

1

100

1

1000

litre

1000

100

10

1

96

Elementary Mathematics

The basic unit for measurement of volume of liquids is : Litre

Replacing 'metre' by 'litre' in the chart on page 92, we get the metric

units for measurement of volume of liquids. On the increasing side these

are: decalitre (dl), hectolitre (hl), kilolitre (kl), On the decreasing side

these are decilitre (decil), centilitre (cl), millilitre (ml).

International Units for Measurement of Volume of Liquid.

1000 millilitre (ml)

= 1 litre (l)

or

1000 cubic centimetre

1000 litre = 1 cubic metre

The following chart exhibits the basic and secondary units for measurement

of length, weight and volume of liquid at a glance; it can be used for

ready reference :

Thousands

Hundreds

Tens

Ones

metre

kilo

hecto

deca

gram

deci

centi

milli

1

10

1

100

1

1000

litre

1000

100

10

1

96

Elementary Mathematics

Exercise 10 (A)

1. Express in millimetre :

(a) 29 kilometre 89 centimetre 7 millimetre

(b) 18 kilometre 459 metre 98 millimetre

(b) 59 kilometre 368 metre 87 centimetre

2. Express in metre :

(a) 98 metre 48 centimetre 7 millimetre

(b) 76 kilometre 584 centimetre 5 millimetre

(c) 58 kilometre 356 centimetre

3. Express in kilometres:

(a) 56 kilometre 37 metre 48 centimetre

(b) 39 kilometre 84 metre 95 millimetre

(c) 87 kilometre 60 metre 51 centimetre 9 millimetre

4. Express in milligrams :

(a) 81 gram 52 centigram 7 milligram

(b) 95 kilogram 83 gram 76 centigram

(c) 67 kilogram 98 gram 67 centigram 8 milligram

5. Express in grams :

(a) 75 kilogram 643 gram

(b) 28 kilogram 89 gram 45 centigram 8 milligram

(c) 76 kilogram 85 gram 43 centigram

6. Express in kilograms :

(a) 54 kilogram 52 gram 95 centigram

(b) 21 kilogram 89 gram 541milligram

(c) 98 kilogram 76 gram 54 centigram 3 milligram

7. How many quintals are there in 796000 gram? How many metric tons ?

8. How many metric tons are there in 97865 kilograms ?

97

Elementary Mathematics

9. Add :

(a)

km

hm

dm

metre

12

59

82

17

hg

dg

gram

82

43

70

29

km

hm

dm

hg

dg

gram

89

93

82

45

(b)

kg

10. Subtract :

(a)

11.

metre

(b)

kg

(b) How many cubic centimetres are there in 237 litre ?

(c) How many cubic centimetres are there in 879500 litre ?

12. Multiply :

(a) 9 km 7 hm 4 metre by 8

(a) 7 km 10 dm 5 metre by 9

(a) 29 kg 8 hg 19 gram by 7

13. Divide :

(a) 82 kilometre 7 hectometre 6 decametre 4 metre by 9

(b) 94 km 8 hm 5 dm 6 metre by 8

(c) 76 kg 7 hg 6 dg 1 gram by 9

14.

Out of 598 kg of potatoes Latif Miah sold 127 kg 256 gram to Malek, 134 kg

125 gram to Khaleq and 89 kg 348 gram to Liton . What amount of potatoes

remained with him ?

15. A drum can store 53 kg 9 hg 8 dg 7 gram of flour. How much flour can be

stored in 9 such drums ?

98

Elementary Mathematics

Area

region. This region occupies a definite portion

of this page. As such it has a definite measurement.

That measure is the area of the region.

Any closed region has a definite measurement as to how much space it covers;

this measurement is the area of the region.

Triangular region

Square region

The space enclosed by a triangle is a triangular region.

The space enclosed by a quadrilateral is a quadrangular region.

The space enclosed by a rectangle is a rectangular region.

The space enclosed by a square is a square region.

Each of these regions, being bounded, has a definite measurement as to how much

space it covers. That measurement is the area of the region.

A definite unit is needed for measurement of area. The area of the region enclosed by a

square, each of whose sides has length 1 unit, is a natural choice for measurement of area.

Such units are referred to as 'square units'. Thus, 1 square metre is the area of a square

region each of whose sides has length 1 metre (this square is referred to as the

'1 metre square')

99

Elementary Mathematics

1 square metre

1 square decametre

1 square hectometre

1 hectare

=

=

=

=

square decimetre

100

square metre

100

square decametre

100

10,000 square metre

=

=

=

=

1 are [pronounced: a-or]

10,000 square metre

1 square hectometre

1cm

1cm 1cm

The figure to the left is a square: each of its sides has length

1cm 3 cm. What is the area of the region enclosed by it ?

Beginning from one corner, say the lower left corner, we mark

1cm points on each of the two sides meeting at that corner, whose distances

from that corner are 1 cm, 2 cm. From these points we draw lines parallel

1cm to the other side meeting at the corner. These lines divide the square

region into 3 3 = 9 square regions: each of these 9 square regions has

area 1 square centimetre, because each side of each of these square regions

has length 1 cm. 3 3 is written as 32 : so the area of the given square

region is 32 = (length) 2 square units.

A

B

1cm

3 cm

(breadth)

1cm

1cm

1cm

1cm

1cm

1cm

4 cm

(length)

ABCD is a rectangular region; its length is 4 cm and breadth is 3 cm. Beginning from one corner,

say the lower left corner, we mark points on each of the two sides meeting at that corner whose

distances from that corner are 1 cm, 2 cm and so on. From these points we draw lines parallel to

the other side meeting at that corner. These lines divide the rectangular region into 4 3 = 12

square regions; each of these square regions has area 1 square cm, as explained above.

100

Elementary Mathematics

= Sum of the areas of 12 square regions, each having area 1 sq cm

= 12 sq cm

= (4

3) sq cm = 4 cm

3 cm = length

breadth

the measeure of its length by the measure of its breadth.

cm. What is its area ?

Solution :

Area = 60 cm

= 2700 square cm

breadth 3 cm 5 mm?

Solution :

Length = 7 cm = 7 10 mm = 70 mm

breadth = 3 cm 5 mm = 35 mm

Area of the rectangular region = (length breadth)

= 70 mm 35 mm = 2450 square mm

= 24 50 square cm

In finding area, if the length and breadth are expressed in different units, then they must

first be expressed in the same unit.

101

Elementary Mathematics

The triangle ABC enclosing the region can be any one of three types : right

angled ; acute angled ; obtuse angled. Suppose ABC is a right angle.

Draw the line through A parallel to the side BC, and the line through C parallel

to the side BA. Suppose these lines

A

D

intersect at D. Then ABCD is a

rectangle, because it is a parallelogram

and ABC is a right angle. Therefore

ADC too is a right angled triangle,

whose sides AD and DC are respectively

B

C

equal to the sides BC and AB of the

triangle ABC. The side AC is common to both triangles. So the triangles ABC

and ADC are identical except for position; so they have the same area. Therefore

the area of the triangular region ABC is half of the area of the rectangular region ABCD.

1

The latter area is AB BC. So area of the triangular region ABC is = 2 (AB BC)

AB is called the height and BC is called the base of the triangle ABC. So, the area

1

of a right angled triangular region = 2 (base height) square units.

Suppose the triangle ABC is acute angled; that means, each of the three angles is less than one

right angle. Through A draw the line parallel to the side BC. Through B and C draw the lines

perpendicular to the side BC; suppose that these lines intersect the line parallel to BC at E

and F respectively.The lines BE and CF, being perpendicular to BC, are parallel. Draw through

A the line AD perpendicular to BC.

Picture 1

102

Elementary Mathematics

and each of the triangles ABD and ACD is right angled.

1

1

Area of the triangluar region ABD = 2 (base height) = 2 (BD AD);

1

= Area of the triangular region

ABD

1

1

1

1

= 2 (BD + DC) AD = 2 (BC AD) = 2 (base height) square units.

Lastly, suppose

C

Picture 2

perpendicular to BC; they meet the line drawn through A and parallel to BC at E and

F respectively. But now E and F lie on the same side of the point A ; the

perpendicular from A to the side BC now meets the extended side BC at D.

Each of the figures AEBD and AFCD is a rectangle, and each of the triangles ABD and

ACD is right angled.

So, area of the triangular region ABC

= area of the triangular region ABD

1

1

area of the triangular region ACD = 2 (BD AD)

(CD AD)

2

1

1

1

= 2 (BD CD) AD = 2 (BC AD) = 2 (base height).suqare units

Area of a triangular region = 1 (base

2

103

Elementary Mathematics

lapping triangular regions of the same size; the length of the rectangle is 16

metre and breadth is 12 metre. What is the area of the rectangular region ?

What is the area of each triangular region ?

Solution : Area of the rectangular region

Length breadth

16 12 square metre

192 square metre

1

2

1

2

96 square metre

Area of the rectangular region is 192 square metre and the area of each

triangular region is 96 square metre

In the adjoining figure ABCD is a quadrilateral.

AC is a diagonal. This diagonal divides the

quadrangular region ABCD into the two

triangular regions ABC and ADC, which do not

overlap. So area of the quadrangular region ABCD

= Area of the triangular region ABD

+ Area of the triangular region ACD

Draw BE perpendicular from B on AC, and DF

perpendicular from D on AC. Then BE is the height

of the triangle ABC and DF is the height

of the triangleADC; AC is their common base. So,

Area of the quadrangular region ABCD

A

E

D

F

C

B

Picture-3

+ Area of the triangular region ADC

1

= 2 (AC

BE) + 2 (AC

DF) = 2 AC

104

Elementary Mathematics

lapping triangular regions of the same size; the length of the rectangle is 16

metre and breadth is 12 metre. What is the area of the rectangular region ?

What is the area of each triangular region ?

Solution : Area of the rectangular region

Length breadth

16 12 square metre

192 square metre

1

2

1

2

96 square metre

Area of the rectangular region is 192 square metre and the area of each

triangular region is 96 square metre

In the adjoining figure ABCD is a quadrilateral.

AC is a diagonal. This diagonal divides the

quadrangular region ABCD into the two

triangular regions ABC and ADC, which do not

overlap. So area of the quadrangular region ABCD

= Area of the triangular region ABD

+ Area of the triangular region ACD

Draw BE perpendicular from B on AC, and DF

perpendicular from D on AC. Then BE is the height

of the triangle ABC and DF is the height

of the triangleADC; AC is their common base. So,

Area of the quadrangular region ABCD

A

E

D

F

C

B

Picture-3

+ Area of the triangular region ADC

1

= 2 (AC

BE) + 2 (AC

DF) = 2 AC

104

Elementary Mathematics

which the two opposite sides AD and BC are

parallel and the angle ABC is a right angle;

AD = 8 cm BC = 12 cm DE is the perpendicular

from D on BC. Then ABED is a rectangle and

DEC is a right angled triangle. DE is the distance B

8 cm

E

12 cm

EC = BC

BE = BC AD = (12

8) cm = 4 cm

= AD AB = 8 cm 6 cm = 48 sq cm

Area of the triangular region DEC

= 12 (base

= 12 (4 cm

height) = 12 (EC

6 cm) = 12

DE)

24 sq cm = 12 sq cm

= Area of the rectangular region ABED

+ Area of the triangular region DEC

= 48 sq cm + 12 sq cm = 60 sq cm.

Exercise 10 (B)

1. Find the areas of the following rectangular regions :

(a) Length 54 metre and breadth 47 metre.

(b) Length 3 metre and breadth 75 centimetre.

(b) Length 87 metre and breadth 65 25 metre.

2. The length of one side of a square region is given. Find the area :

(a) 67 metre

106

(c) 9 75 metre

Chapter Eleven

Time

According to Bangla practice, the time span from one sunrise to the next sunset is called

day-time and the time span from one sunset to the next sunrise is called night-time.

The names of twelve Bangla months and the number of their days :

Month

Number of days

Month

Number of days

Baishakh

31

Kartik

30

Jaisthya

31

Agrahyon

30

Ashar

31

Paush

30

Shrabon

31

Magh

30

Bhadra

31

Falgun

30

Ashwin

30

Chaitra

30

The names of twelve English months and the number of their days :

Month

Number of days

Month

Number of days

January

31

July

31

February

28

August

31

March

31

September

30

April

30

October

31

May

31

November

30

June

30

December

31

When the year is a leap year, the month of February has 29 days (see next page).

According to English and international practice, day and date begins just after 12 p.m (midnight)

Elementary Mathematics

English Year 2012; Bangla Year 1418 - 1419

January

Sun

Paush- Magh

Mon Tues

Wed

10 11

18

25

19

26

20

21

26

28

Thurs Fri

22

Sat

23

Sun

Mon Tues

30

Wed

24

19

12 13 14

29

Magh-Falgun

February

23

24

25

26

Thurs Fri

20

27

Sat

21

22

10 11

28

29

15 16 17 18 19 20 21

12 13 14 15 16 17 18

22 23 24 25 26 27 28

19 20 21 22 23 24 25

29 30 31

26 27 28 29

2

9

16

10

11

17

12

13

21

22

23

Wed

Thurs Fri

24

14

15

16

10

April

13

Sun

Mon Tues

Wed

Thurs

Fri

Sat

10

10 11

26

12

Sat

25

11

Chaitra-Baishakh

19

17

18

30

15

Falgun-Chaitra

Mon Tues

14

18

March

Sun

20

18

27

25

19

26

20

27

21

28

22

23

24

12 13 14

29

30

11 12 13 14 15 16 17

15 16 17 18 19 20 21

18 19 20 21 22 23 24

22 23 24 25 26 27 28

24 26 27 28 29 30 31

29 30

28

8

11

29

12

30

13

31

7

14

15

16

10

17

16

10

11

12

13

14

15

17

(a) The 6th day of January 2012 is

[ weekday]

[ weekday]

[ weekday]

(d) The second Monday in the month of March 2012 is

[ date ]

(e) The first Saturday in the month of Baishakh of Bangla year 1419 is

(f) The month of February of 2012 has

days

109

[ date ]

Elementary Mathematics

The last two digits of the number 1988 are not both zero, and the number is divisible

by 4. So 1988 was a leap year. So there were 29 days in the month of February,1988.

Example 2. How many days were there in the month of February 1998 ?

Solution : We need to determine whether 1998 was a leap year.

4 ) 1 9 9 8 ( 499

16

39

36

38

36

2

The last two digits of the number 1998 are not both zero and the number is

not divisible by 4. So 1998 was not a leap year. So there were 28 days in the

month of February 1998.

Solution : 2000 ends with 00, so 2000

was a leap year if 2000 is divisible by 400.

400 ) 2 0 0 0 (5

2000

0

2000 ends with 00, and the number 2000 is divisible by 400; so

2000 was a leap year.

Solution : 1900 ends with 00, so 1900

was a leap year if 1900 is divisible by 400.

400 ) 19 0 0 (4

16 0 0

300

1900 ends with 00, and the number 1900 is not divisible by 400; so

1900 was not a leap year.

111

Elementary Mathematics

The last two digits of the number 1988 are not both zero, and the number is divisible

by 4. So 1988 was a leap year. So there were 29 days in the month of February,1988.

Example 2. How many days were there in the month of February 1998 ?

Solution : We need to determine whether 1998 was a leap year.

4 ) 1 9 9 8 ( 499

16

39

36

38

36

2

The last two digits of the number 1998 are not both zero and the number is

not divisible by 4. So 1998 was not a leap year. So there were 28 days in the

month of February 1998.

Solution : 2000 ends with 00, so 2000

was a leap year if 2000 is divisible by 400.

400 ) 2 0 0 0 (5

2000

0

2000 ends with 00, and the number 2000 is divisible by 400; so

2000 was a leap year.

Solution : 1900 ends with 00, so 1900

was a leap year if 1900 is divisible by 400.

400 ) 19 0 0 (4

16 0 0

300

1900 ends with 00, and the number 1900 is not divisible by 400; so

1900 was not a leap year.

111

Elementary Mathematics

A period of 10 consecutive years is a decade.

A period of 12 consecutive years is a yuga. [ There is no term in English for yuga ]

A period of 100 consecutive years is a century.

For example :

The period from 2001 to 2010 is a decade. The period from 2001 to 2012 is a yuga.

The period from 1901 to 2000 is a century (twentieth century)

The period from Bangla years 1201 to 1300 is the thirteenth century.

The period from Bangla years 1301 to 1400 is the fourteenth century.

The period from Bangla years 1401 to 1500 is the fifteenth century.

Example 5. Convert 3 years 2 months 12 days into hours.

Solution :

3 years = 3

2 months = 2

60 days

30 days =

12 days

Sum

= 1167 days

24

1 month = 30 days

1 day = 24 hours

4668

23340

28008 hours

When no specific month is mentioned, a month is assumed to have 30 days.

Example 6. Convert 3 years 5 months 15 days into minutes.

Solution : 3 years = 3

365 days = 1095 days

1 year = 365 days

150

days

1 month = 30 days

5 months = 5

30 days =

15 days

= 1260 days

1260 days

1 day = 24 hours

24

5040

25200

30240 hours

60

1814400 minutes

112

1 hour = 60 minutes

Elementary Mathematics

Example 7. Convert 1 day into seconds.

Solution: 1 day = 24 hours

24 hours

60

1440 minutes

60

86400 seconds.

1 hour = 60 minutes

1 minute = 60 seconds

1 month = 30 days

Solution: 5 months = 5 30 days = 150 days

4 days

154 days

5 months 4 days

154 days

24

616

3040

3696 hours

60

221760 minutes

5 months 4 days

60

13305600 seconds.

1 day = 24 hours

1 hour = 60 minutes

1 minute = 60 seconds

Solution 24 ) 8 9 7 6 5 hours ( 3740 days

72

365 ) 3 7 4 0 day ( 10 years

177

365

168

90

96

00

96

9

0 days

5

30 ) 9 0 days ( 3 months

0

90

5 hours

0

89765 hours = 10 years 3 months 5 hours

113

Elementary Mathematics

We observe :

In determining the number of years, 1 year has been assumed to have 365 days.

1 month has been assumed to have 30 days.

Example 10. How many years, months, days and hours are there in 87450 minutes ?

Solution : 60 87450 minutes

6 0

2 7 4

2 4 0

3 4

3 0

4

4

24

5

0

5 0

2 0

1457 hours

1 4 5 7 hour 60 days

1 4 4

1 7

0 0

1 7 hours

3 0 minutes

30

60

60

0

2 months

Example 11. How many hours, minutes and seconds are there in 84648 seconds ?

Solution : 60 8 4 6 4 8 seconds

60

246

240

64

60

48

00

1410 minutes

60 1 4 1 0 minutes 23 hours

120

210

180

3 0 minutes

4 8 seconds

84648 seconds = 23 hours 30 minutes 48 seconds.

114

Elementary Mathematics

International Time Table

According to international practice, the time span from one midnight to the next midnight is

1 day. In the international time reckoning midnight is 00.00 hour. One hour past midnight

is 0100 hour , and so on. When it is 30 minutes past 1 in the night, it is 0130 hour in the

international system. When it is 30 minutes past 1at midday, it is 1330 hour in the international

system.

Some exmaples of expressing times in the international system are given below.

night 25 minutes past 12

11

12

11

2

10

9

11

2

0025 hour

11

2

8

7

0715 hour

12

1

2

10

3

12

10

3

12

10

3

3

4

1645 hour

2110 hour

Express the times shown in the clocks below in the international system, taking into

consideration the additional information given below each clock.

11

12

11

3

4

8

7

night

11

2

10

10

12

11

2

4

7

10

3

12

4

7

noon

morning

115

1

2

10

3

12

3

4

8

7

night

Elementary Mathematics

Railway Time Table

Dhaka - Chittagong

Station

702

Distance 704

4

722

from Mahanagar Karno Mahanagar Subarno

Dhaka Probhati Phuli Godhuli Express

km

Express

2

742

Ctg

Turna

Mail Express

Dhaka Departs

00

0740

0530

1515

1630

2230

2300

19

0821

0625

1558

1705

2315

2338

Tongi Departs

23

0747

2330

Ghorashal Departs

47

0828

0003

Narsingdi Departs

58

0850

0028

87

Ashuganj Departs

91

1017

1045

0115

1705

0142

1100

Brahmanbaria Departs

104

Akhaura Departs

120

Comilla Departs

168

Laksam Departs

192

1445

Hasanpur Departs

210

1523

Feni Departs

232

1322

1606

2036

Chittagong Arrives

321

1515

1840

2255

1050

1129

0210

1805

0300

1215

1211

1350

0150

1928

2235

0400

0305

0435

0410

0527

0458

0755

0705

Fom the time table one can find out all relevant information about trains from Dhaka

to Chittagong; the names of stations where each train stops, their times of departure

from each such station, and the time of arrival in Chittagong. All times are given in the

international system; we may for convenience convert them to our national system.

For example, Subarno Express leaves Dhaka at 4.30 in the afternoon and arrives at

Chittagong at 10.35 in the evening . Consult the above time table and fill in the blanks :

(a) Karnaphuli Express leaves Dhaka station at

(d) Mahanagar Probhati leaves Bhairab Bazar station at

116

and arrives at Chittagong station at

Elementary Mathematics

Exercise 11

1.

2.

(a) Shrabon (b) Bhadro

(c) Agrahayan

(d) Chaitro

(e) April

(g) August

(h) December

(f) July

(a) 1920

(b) 1922

(c) 1928

(d) 1930

(e) 1940

(f) 1960

(g) 2012

(h) 2000

(i) 2008

(j) 2004

3.

4.

5.

6.

(a) 95624 minutes (b) 36290 hours (c) 25850 minutes (d) 39456 seconds

7.

(a) Bangla years from 1101 to 1200 constitute the twelfth

(b) Bangla years from 1301 to

yuga.

8.

Your school ends at 3 o'clock in the afternoon. According to the international system,

at what time does your school end ?

9.

2000 hour. At what time in the evening does Biman leave ?

10.

A BRTC bus leaves Dhaka at 40 minutes past 1 in the afternoon and reaches Comilla at

1 minite past 4 in the afternoon. At what time does the bus leave Dhaka and reach Comilla

according to the international system ?

117

Chapter Twelve

Arrangements of Data

Unarranged Data and Arranged Data

Unarranged Data : Data which have not been arranged according to some given or chosen

characteristic or criterion, are called unarranged data.

Arranged Data : Data which have been arranged according to some given or chosen

characteristic or criterion, are called arranged data.

The marks in Mathematics at the annual examination obtained by 25 students are given

below :

59

72

70

78

72 68

52

75

69

98

41

74

44

73

85

77

88

76

80

58

89

85

96

84

71

These data are not arranged according to any characteristic; these are unarranged data. To

get an overall picture of the performance of the students, it is convenient to group together

students who got marks in a certain range; such ranges are called classes and the difference

between the highest and lowest marks in a class is called the class difference. The number of

students whose marks fall into a particular class is called the frequency of that class. Here

the highest and lowest marks obtained are 98 and 41. Their difference

98

41

57.

So a convenient choice for class difference would be 10. The classes are 40 - 49, 50 - 59,

. . . , 90 - 99. These classes are called class intervals.

The resulting frequency table is shown below :

Classes of

marks

40

50

60

70

80

90

49

59

69

79

89

99

Tally

marks

Number of students/

Frequency

2

3

2

10

6

2

Total: 25

Elementary Mathematics

Having written down the classes, we have to determine the frequency of each class.

The first number is 59; it belongs to the class 50 - 59; so we put a tally mark in the

next column against that class. The next number is 72; it belongs to the class 70 - 79;

so we put a tally mark against that class. In this way all the marks are counted by means

of tally marks. When we get five tally marks in any one class, as in the class 70 - 79, the

fifth tally mark is entered not vertically as the four preceding tally marks, but diagonally

across them; this makes the counting of total tally marks in a class transparent and easy.

Example 1. The daily wage (in taka) of 20 workers are given below :

290

246

339

348

326

316

319

276

300

288

247 264

269 316

279 299

295 308

296. Classify the data.

327

Solution : Here the highest wage is 348 taka and the lowest is 246 taka.

Difference

348

246 taka 102 taka

102

5

20 4

So a convenient choice for class difference is 20. Beginning with 240, the class

intervals are 240 - 259. 260 - 279, . . . , 340 - 359.

The resulting frequency table is as follows :

Classes of

wages

Tally

marks

Number of workers/

Frequency

240

259

260

279

280

299

300

319

320

339

340

359

1

Total: 20

119

Elementary Mathematics

Example 2. The weights (in kg) of 20 workers are given below :

60

52

54

50

52

54

56

58

60

60

50

54

56

58

60

50

60

60

58

Solution :

Weight (in kg)

Tally

mark

Number of workers/

Frequency

50

52

54

56

58

60

6

Total: 20

75 68 74 66 80 65 75 67 86 75 68 82 88

84 72 66 85 73 76 78 67 79 86 82 84.

Arrange the data in classes, taking 5 as class difference.

Solution : The lowest among the marks is 65, the highest is 88. The resulting

classification is shown in the table below.

Classes of marks

Tally

mark

Number of students/

Frequency

65 - 69

70 - 74

75 - 79

80 - 84

85 - 89

4

Total: 25

120

Elementary Mathematics

Exercise 12 (A)

1. The number of students of 5 classes of a school are given below. Use tally marks to

express the number of students :

Class

Tally marks

Number of Students

One

40

Two

45

Three

42

Four

30

Five

28

Classify the data.

75

63

75

75

71

75

63

72

72

69

72

70

61

75

60

71

69

63

65 69

3. The amount (in taka) of a day's sale of 20 shops are given below :

Classify the data.

125

200

170

225

325

270

180

210

300

315

390

250

260

220

270

375

315

220

250

270

4. The daily wage (in taka) of 15 workers are given below. Classify the data.

325, 300, 325, 350, 300, 325, 325, 300, 350, 350, 325, 400, 350, 325, 325

121

Elementary Mathematics

C

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

A Class 1

Class 2

Class 3

Class 4

Class 5

The height of the bar representing the number of students of Class 3, 4, 5 are

respectively 6 5 cm, 7 2 cm, 7 0 cm.

Example 2. The number of students present in 6 school days of one week of your

class are given below. Draw a bar graph incorporating the data.

Day

Present

Sat

Sun

Mon

Tue

Wed

Thu

45

40

30

42

50

35

C

50

40

30

20

10

0

A

Sat

Sun

Mon

Tue

Wed

Thu

( The distance between each pair of equidistant points on the line AC represents 10 students )

123

Elementary Mathematics

C

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

A Class 1

Class 2

Class 3

Class 4

Class 5

The height of the bar representing the number of students of Class 3, 4, 5 are

respectively 6 5 cm, 7 2 cm, 7 0 cm.

Example 2. The number of students present in 6 school days of one week of your

class are given below. Draw a bar graph incorporating the data.

Day

Present

Sat

Sun

Mon

Tue

Wed

Thu

45

40

30

42

50

35

C

50

40

30

20

10

0

A

Sat

Sun

Mon

Tue

Wed

Thu

( The distance between each pair of equidistant points on the line AC represents 10 students )

123

Elementary Mathematics

Example 3. The marks obtained by Zafar in various subjects in the annual

examination are shown in the bar graph below. Referring to the graph, answer

the following questions.

C

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

B

Bangla

English Mathematics Science Social Studies

( The distance between each pair of equidistant points on the line AC

represents 10 marks)

(b) In which subject has he got the lowest mark ?

(c) What marks has he got in Mathematics ?

(d) What is his total marks ?

(e) What is his average mark ?

(b) In Social Studies he has obtained the lowest mark.

(c) He has obtained 89 marks in Mathematics.

(d) His marks : Bangla 69, English 65, Mathematics 89, Science 78,

Social Studies 50. So his total marks = 69 + 65 + 89 + 78 + 50 = 351.

(e) There are 5 subjects ; so his average marks

124

351

70 2

Elementary Mathematics

Exercise 12 (B)

1. The number of absentee students of a classs on the days of the last week are given below.

Draw a bar graph based on the data.

Day of the week

Number of absentee students

Sat

Sun

Mon

Tue

4

Wed

Thu

2. The number of students of the five classes of Baluchara Primary School are given below.

Draw a bar graph based on the data.

Class

Number of Students

One

80

Two

75

Three

78

Four

65

55

Five

3. The yields last year of five crops in Swarupkathi Upazilla are shown on the table below.

Draw a bar graph based on the data.

Crop

Paddy

450

Jute

260

Wheat

350

Chick-pea

50

Lentil

80

4. The distances by road of five cities from Dhaka (in nearest multiples of ten kilometre) are

given below. Draw a bar graph based on the data.

City

Distance

Chittagong

290

Rangpur

440

Khulna

330

Rajshahi

310

Sylhet

400

125

Elementary Mathematics

5. In the annual examination 6 students obtained the following marks in Mathematics.

Draw a bar graph based on the data.

Student

Sumon

Mimi

Marks obtained

80

90

Omar

80

Shapnil

Tania

Ratan

100

75

85

6. In a one-day cricket match between Bangladesh and Australia, Saqib bowled ten overs.

The runs conceded by him in various overs are shown in the bar graph below.

Answer the following questions by referring to the bar graph.

(a) In which over did he concede the most runs ?

(b) In which over did he concede the least runs ?

(c) In all, and on average, how many runs did he concede in ten overs ?

(d) Arrange the number of runs in ascending order of magnitude and write down the

corresponding ordinal number of the over .

C

13

12

Runs

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

A

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

6th

7th

8th

9th

10th

Over

126

Elementary Mathematics

Population

Bangladesh is our dear homeland. The population of Bangladesh in the year 2011 is

shown in the following chart

Total number of males

7,12,55,000

7,10,64,000

Total

14,23,19,000

The number of females and the number of males are nearly equal. These numbers have

been found by counting. The counting of population is called census. Through census

not only is the population counted, but many essential information and data also are collected.

The numbeer of Shila's family members

Member

Shila's father

Shila's mother

Shila

Number

Shila's sister

1

Total

4

Population of Bangladesh according to the last four censuses are given below * :

Year

Population

1981

8 crore 99 lac

1991

11 crore 14 lac

2001

12 crore 39 lac

2011

14 crore 23 lac

127

Elementary Mathematics

The total land area of Bangladesh is 1,47,570 square kilometre. In terms of land Bangladesh

occupies the ninetieth position among countries of the world; but in terms of population it is

ninth.

The population of some countries of Asia are given below * :

Country

Population

India

Pakistan

18 crore 48 lac

Myanmar

5 crore 5 lac

Nepal

2 crore 99 lac

Sri Lanka

2 crore 4 lac

Bhutan

9 lac

Problems Concerning Population

Population Density : The average number of people per square kilometre of a region

is called the population density of that region.

Example 1. The population of Patuakhali district is 15 lac 17 thousand (nearly) and its area

is 3221 square kilometre. What is the population density of Patuakhali district ?

Solution : 15 lac 17 thousand = 1517000

In 3221 square kilometre there are 1517000 persons

1

1517000

3221

128

Elementary Mathematics

Exercise 12 (C)

1. Wr

Write

rite down the number of your fa

family

amily members :

Yoour mother

Yo

our father

faather Your

Relation Your

You

Yoou

Your

Yoour brother

Your

Yoour sister

Total

Tootal

Number

Is your fa

family

amily a small fa

family

amily ?

frrom the year 2001 to the year 2011?

2. What has been the increase in population of Bangladesh from

3. Wr

Write

family

families

rite down the number of fa

amily members of two of your neighbouring fa

amilies :

Grand

Family fa

father

ather

1

Grand

Father

mother

Mother Brother

Sister

Uncle

Aunt

Others

To

otal

Total

2

4. What is population density? How can it be determined ?

5. The area of Ratanpur village is 5 square kilometre. 3,000 persons live in that village.

What is population density of the village ?

6. The population of Panchagarh district is 9 lac 81 thousand and area is 1405 sq kilometre,

What is the population density of this district ?

7. The area of Rangamati district is 61609 sq kilometre and population is 5 lac 25 thousand.

Find the population density of that district.

8. Fill in the blanks from

frrom the census data of 2011 given in the table below :

Area in sq km

Bangladesh

Barisal Division

Population

1,47,570

14,23,19,000

13,297

81,47,000

Chittagong Division

Dhaka Division

2,80,79,000

31,120

831

4,67,29,000

Rangpur Division

1,56,65,000

129

960

Chapter Thirteen

Geometry

Quadrilateral

segments. The adjoining figure ABCD is a

quadrilateral. The line segments AB, BC, CD, DA,

are its four sides; the points A, B, C, D are its four

corner points or vertices. The line segments AC and

BD are its two diagonals.

Classification of Quadrilateral

Parallelogram

A parallelogram is a quadrilateral whose both pairs

of opposite sides are parallel. The quadrilateral

ABCD in the adjoining figure is a parallelogram.

Using a scale we measure the perpendicular distances

of the sides at several points on AB and DC.

We find that they are all equal, confirming that the

sides AB and DC are parallel. Similarly, we find

that AD and BC are parallel. Measuring the sides

we find that the lengths of any two opposite sides

A

are equal : AB = DC and AD = BC.

Measuring the angles

DAB,

DAB

ABC,

BCD,

BCD and

M

B

ABC

CDA.

DAB and BCD, as well as ABC and CDA, are two pairs of opposite

angles of the parallelogram. So, every pair of opposite angles are equal. Now

let us draw the two diagonals of the parallelogram; they have intersected each

other at M. Measuring, we find that the line segments AM and MC, as well as BM

and MD, have equal lengths. So the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each

other at their point of intersection.

The opposite sides of a parallelogram are parallel and equal.

The opposite angles of a parallelogram are equal.

The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other.

Elementary Mathematics

Square

A square is a rectangle whose sides are all

whose sides are all equal and whose angles are

all right angles. As the opposite sides of a rectangle

are equal, a rectangle having any two of its

adjacent sides equal, is a square. Put differently, a

parallelogram of which two adjacent sides are

equal and one angle is a right angle, is a square.

The adjoining figure ABCD is a square. Since

A

every square is a rectangle , its diagonals have

equal lengths. Measuring the four angles made at their point of intersection, we

find each of them is a right angle.

A parallelogram having two equal adjacent sides and one of whose angles is

a right angle, is a square.

The diagonals of a square are equal and they bisect each other at right angles.

Do yourself :

1. Draw a quadrilateral. Measure the length of its four sides and two diagonals.

Measure the four angles of the quadrilateral and find the sum of their measures.

2. Draw visually two quadrilaterals, no two of whose sides are equal.

(a) In each case measure the four sides and the two diagonals and enter your

results in your notebook.

(b) In each case measure the four angles and enter your results in your notebook.

Find the sum of the four angles, and state whether you get the same sum in

both cases.

132

Elementary Mathematics

Square

A square is a rectangle whose sides are all

whose sides are all equal and whose angles are

all right angles. As the opposite sides of a rectangle

are equal, a rectangle having any two of its

adjacent sides equal, is a square. Put differently, a

parallelogram of which two adjacent sides are

equal and one angle is a right angle, is a square.

The adjoining figure ABCD is a square. Since

A

every square is a rectangle , its diagonals have

equal lengths. Measuring the four angles made at their point of intersection, we

find each of them is a right angle.

A parallelogram having two equal adjacent sides and one of whose angles is

a right angle, is a square.

The diagonals of a square are equal and they bisect each other at right angles.

Do yourself :

1. Draw a quadrilateral. Measure the length of its four sides and two diagonals.

Measure the four angles of the quadrilateral and find the sum of their measures.

2. Draw visually two quadrilaterals, no two of whose sides are equal.

(a) In each case measure the four sides and the two diagonals and enter your

results in your notebook.

(b) In each case measure the four angles and enter your results in your notebook.

Find the sum of the four angles, and state whether you get the same sum in

both cases.

132

Elementary Mathematics

Exercise 13

1. Which of the following statement is alway true ?

(a) A rhombus is a parallelogram.

(b) The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other at right angles.

(c) A square is a rhombus.

(d) A parallelogram is a quadrilateral whose two pairs of opposite sides

are parallel and equal.

(e) A square is a rectangle.

2. Draw visually a parallelogram, a rhombus and a rectangle.

(a) In each case, ascertain by measuring, whether each pair of opposite sides are equal in

length.

(b) In each case, ascertain by measuring, whether each pair of opposite angles are equal in

measure.

(c) In each case, ascertain by measuring, whether two diagonals are bisected at their point of

intersection.

(d) Measure the angles made at the point of intersection of the two diagonals of the rhombus,

and ascertain wheather they have intersected at right angles.

3. Draw visually a parallelogram whose two adjacent sides have lengths 4 cm and 3 cm.

Measure the lengths of the opposite sides, and each pair of opposite angles. Draw the two

diagonals of the parallelogram and measure the lengths of the four segments of the two diagonals

made by their point of intersection.

4. Draw visually a square each of whose sides has length 4 cm.

(a) Measure the length of each diagonal and record in your notebook

(b) Identify the middle points of the sides. Connect the middle points in succession. What

type of a quadrilateral does the resulting quadrilateral appear to be ? Measure its sides

and angles. Comment on the accuracy of your drawing.

133

Chapter Fourteen

Calculator

A calculator is a hand-held electronic device which can carry out calculations following

appropricate commands by the person using it. It runs on electricity producted by battery

inside it; no outside electirc connection is needed. If electricity runs out, new battery has to be

installed. Calculators vary a great deal in their build-up, shape, size and scope. Some calculators

have 26 buttons, others have as many as 42 or 47 buttons. To start a calculator one presses the

(ON/AC) button; to shut it one presses the (OFF) button.

26 buttons. It can be started and shut off by pressing the

(ON) button.

Calculators are widely used in shops and businesses. Calculators play an important role in carrying

out extensive calculations needed to solve mathematical problems of all kinds. Only through actual

use can one truly appreciate the applicability and usefulness of calculators.

Elementary Mathematics

Computer

To computer is to calculate. A computer is an electronic device; it can cerry out calculation

on a much larger scale than a calculator. But the function and usefulness of a computer is not

limited to calculations. Besides carrying out complicated calculations, it can be used to generate

graphs, pictures, correspondence, to receive and send e-mail, for browsing websites, accessing

internet and so on. Thanks to the computer, keeping in touch with friends and relations all over the

world is now an easy matter. Computers have drastrically changed the life of mankind.

Abacus, a calculating device used in the late Middle Age, was a precursor of a calculator. In

the seventeenth century Pascal, as well as Leibniz, had built mechanical calculators. In the

nineteenth century, Charles Babbage, professor at the University of Cambridge in England,

built an 'Analytical Engine ' which is considered as a precursor of modern computers.

The working process of a computer is straight-forward. A computer has four main components

Input, Memory, Processor and Output. The computer works in combination of these four

components. The input device is needed to enter numbers and data; keyboard and mouse are

input devices.

135

Elementary Mathematics

The intended directives are given by pressing the keyboard or klicking the mouse.

Input

Output

Memory

Processor

The directives are stored in the memory of the computer. Next the processor processes the

data and directives stored in memory and sends the result to memory. Memory in turn sends it

to output devices such as monitor or picture.

Those of you who have used computers would know that a keyboard or mouse is an input

device. Data is fed into the computer through them. At the end of the work the computer shows

the result in the monitor. The monitor is an output device. The memory and processor of a

computer are not visible from outside; they are inside the computer.

So far we have talked about what is called hardware, or the mechanical parts of a computer.

But the computer cannot function on hardware alone. Appropriate commands are needed

to make it function. Such directives constitute the software. What task the computer processor

will perform, how it will perform, what directives will be needed, all such information is

stored in the memory. Briefly speaking, computer hardware is driven by the software.

For different kinds of work different kinds of software are needed.

A software which can draw graphs connot be used for calculation. There are various software

or computer programs for carrying out calculations, like Calculator, Excel, Calc, ect .

You can use the program Calculator or Calc instead of your ordinary calculator.

136

Elementary Mathematics

The following examples are intended to help the students getting familiar in the use of

calculator in solving porblems.

Example 1. Fill in the blanks :

(a) 17

(b) 18

(a) Solution : 1

17

7

9

15

9

26

26.

The calculator is activated by pressing the ON button, then successively the buttons

1

and

are pressed.

(b) Solution:

18

15

33

button

33

the necessary buttons are pressed.

137

Elementary Mathematics

Exercise 14

Solve the following problems using calculator or computer :

1. Fill in the blanks :

2.

(a) 897

356

(b) 207

3.

(a) 26

(a) 9

(c) 555

5. Simplify :

40

44

65

what ?

200

(b) 587

204

what ?

(d) 793

546

what ?

what ?

34

(a) 9

(c) 245

(c) 150

what ?

46

what ?

28

13

(c) 400

4.

(b) 28

(a) 17

80

5

13

what ?

68

6

95

134

5

what ?

(b) 77

83

56

10

6. Shahin bought from Newmarket fish for 340 taka, vegetables for 55 taka, onion for

34 taka and oil for 190 taka. He gave 650 taka to the shopkeeper . What amount of

money will the shopkeeper refund him ?

7. Fatema bought from book-fair books for 328 taka, writing pads for 105 taka and

eraser for 12 taka and gave 500 taka to the shopekeeper . What amount of money

will Fatema get as refund ?

140

Elementary Mathematics

Simplify : 64

Example 5.

Solution :

ON

64

6

8

ON

8

96

1

96

ON

50

8

12

12

46

96

50 46

The calculations are completed in three steps keeping the calculator on.

Example 6. Shabab went to Mohammadpur market with 600 taka and bought

fish for 350 taka, vegetables for 76 taka and fruits for 82 taka. What amount of

money remained with him ?

Solution :

fish 350 taka

vegetables 76 taka

fruits 82 taka

The calculator is activated by pressing the ON button, then successively

the necessary buttons are pressed..

ON

350

5

76

ON

600

508

0

82

508

508

0

92

92

The calculation are completed in two steps keeping the calculator on.

The computer is an amazing invention of our time. The present age is often called the

computer age. Computer technology has impacted and influenced our lives in

manifold ways. One should therefore be knowledgable about computers from

young age and help build 'Digital Bangladesh'.

139

Elementary Mathematics

Answers

Exercise 1

1

4 Do yourself 5. 1371915

9. 2091200 taka

8. 100375 taka

Exercise 2

1

8. 87 ; 617

5. 1149 ; 36 6. 72 baskets 7. 14

12. 261

Exercise 3 (A)

2. 20 days 3. 4 days

1 Do yourself

4. 12 days

5. 100 persons

6. 15 days

13. 336 kg.

Exercise 3 (B)

1. 887749

2. 863743

3. 1

4. 890001

5. 580851

6. 20334

11. 15 taka 12.8 taka 13. Father's age 72, son's age 24 years

16.103

17.98

18.7200 taka

22.5520 taka

10. 266628

14.990 15. 102

20.388; 302

23.427 taka

Exercise 4

1. Do yourself 2. 46 taka

7. 107

8. 2169 persons

9. 65

Exercise 5

1

11. 486 12. 174

8. 21 9.

141

6. 12 litre;

15. 1433

Elementary Mathematics

Exercise 6

3 Do yourself 4.(a) 10 (b) 15 (c) 48 (d) 5 (e) 4 5. (a) 10 (b) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

(c) 10 years (d) 100 taka

and 6 (c) 48 (d) 30 6. (a) 12 chocolates (b) 85 taka

1

Exercise 7 (A)

1

13. Shetu

14. Shoumik

Exercise 7 (B)

1

2

portion

5

5 Do yourself 6.

7.

1

portion

4

8.

1

portion

4

9.

1

bigha

2

4

portion

5

Exercise 7 (C)

10.

1. (a)

6

7

(b)

(g) 6

2. (a)

4.

(b) 2

19

20

17

24

(g) 1

1

20

3

taka

4

2

9

5

6

(c) 2

79

240

(h) 4

5.

10.

7

9

(d) 5

(i) 25

19

20

(i)

(b)

2

portion

3

9. 14

(c) 3

(h) 5

9

16

(h) 1

3. (a)

4

5

23

38

1

2

(c)

11

12

3

portion

4

1

portion

8

15

16

3

8

1

4

(j) 3

2

portion

3

7. 8

3

4

142

9

10

(k) 32

1

3

(f) 1

1

8

23

75

1

8

(g)

1

10

2

3

27

28

11. 11

(f) 1

(e) 1

(d) 7

(i) 3

6.

1

6

(k) 2

19

96

1

9

(e) 1

(j) 23

(d) 1

(j) 2

2

5

13

4

(f) 10

20

35

119

(k) 1

120

(e) 2

5

2

kilometre 8. portion

6

5

12. Do yourself

Elementary Mathematics

Exercise 7 (D)

1. (a) 12 (b) 15

2. (a)

5. 12 years

1

4

1

8

(d)

8

3

3

4

7.

(e) 7

3

3

(d)

20

(c)

32

6. 6

(c)

15

(b)

(c)

(b) 8

20

3. (a)

5

12

(e)

8. 4

1

2

(f)

(e) 6

10

(d) 4

(f)

6

9.

(h) 4

49

9

10

4. 10 quintal

3

112

43

(h) 24

126

(g)

12

2

(f)

55

(g) 4

3

4

12. 3 metre

13. 5 bananas

16. 80,000 taka

17. 9600 taka

Rony 450 marks, Panna 400 marks 19. 6000 taka

11. 40,000 taka

15. 5,000 taka

10. 7

18. Total marks 600

Exercise 8 (A)

1. (a)

(l) Do yourself

5. 650. 25 km

4. 189.00 taka

7. 8.5 taka

9. 6000 taka

10. 20 metre

Exercise 8 (B)

1.

(a)

5. 5.5 hours

11. 6

6. 0.68 taka

7. 3 75

3. 38.75 taka

8. 18 25

9. 0.005

4. 39.37 inches

10. 63.75 taka

Exercise 9

1

3 Do yourself 4. 810 persons 5. 2000 persons 6. 90% 7. 1% 8. 1000 persons

9. 3%

10. 12%

11. 10%

12. 300 taka 13. 1200 taka 14. 3400 taka

15. 32 taka 16. 32 taka 17. 8% 18. 3%

19. 343 taka

20. 192 taka

21 600 taka

23. 4 years

143

25. 4 years

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