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Contents

ABSTRACT................................................................................................................................................................ 2
INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................... 3
PROCESS DESCRIPTION ........................................................................................................................................... 8
EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION .................................................................................................................................... 11
MATERIAL BALANCE ....................................................................................................................................... 12
ENERGY BALANCES................................................................................................................................................ 18
PINCH TECHNOLOGY ............................................................................................................................................. 30
HEURISTICS............................................................................................................................................................ 39
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS............................................................................................................................................ 45
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................................................................... 60
REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................................................... 62
APPENDICES .......................................................................................................................................................... 63

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this project is to design the process for production of Dimethyl Ether from
methanol. This is down by using approaches direct method. The requires capacity is
72071.05 metric tonne/year and the desired purity of the product was 99 wt%.Throughout
this project we as a student are be able to learn and apply knowledge how to design, how to
structure and determine economic analysis, cost ,profit for the plant. The other
considerations in this project are maximizing production and minimizing the raw material
consumption.
DME is used primarily as a propellant. DME is miscible with most organic solvents and it has
a high solubility in water [1]. Recently, the use of DME as a fuel additive for diesel engines
has been investigated due to its high volatility (desired for cold starting) and high cetane
number.

AIZAQ SYAZWAN B ABDULLAH ZAWAWI

Cost, Material and energy balances, Heuristics, Pinch

FAIZ SHAFIQ B ZAILI

Cost, Material and energy balances, Heuristics, Pinch

NURUL SYAZMIN BT CHE JOHARI

Cost, Material and energy balances, Heuristics, Pinch

SITI NOR ROUDAH BT HAIRUL ANUAR

Cost, Material and energy balances, Heuristics, Pinch

INTRODUCTION

DME (dimethyl ether) is a clean, colorless gas that is easy to liquefy and transport. It has
remarkable potential for increased use as an automotive fuel, for electric power generation,
and in domestic applications such as heating and cooking.
DME can be derived from many sources, including renewable materials (biomass, waste and
agricultural products) and fossil fuels (natural gas and coal).
DME has been used for decades in the personal care industry (as a benign aerosol
propellant), and is now increasingly being exploited for use as a clean burning alternative to
LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), diesel and gasoline.

Like LPG, DME is gaseous at normal temperature and pressure, but changes to a liquid
when subjected to modest pressure or cooling. This easy liquefaction makes DME easy to
transport and store. This and other properties, including a high oxygen content, lack of sulfur
or other noxious compounds, and ultra clean combustion make DME a versatile and
promising solution in the mixture of clean renewable and low-carbon fuels under
consideration worldwide.

How is DME Produced?

DME can be produced from a variety of abundant sources, including natural gas, coal, waste
from pulp and paper mills, forest products, agricultural by-products, municipal waste and
dedicated fuel crops such as switch grass.

World production today is primarily by means of methanol dehydration, but DME can also be
manufactured directly from synthesis gas produced by the gasification of coal or biomass, or
through natural gas reforming. Among the various processes for chemical conversion of
natural gas, direct synthesis of DME is the most efficient.

Identification
Dimethyl ether identification in the commercial industry is listed as below in Table 1
Chemical Name

Dimethyl ether

Molecular Structure

Synonyms

Methyl ether, methyl oxide, wood ether,


oxybismethane

IUPAC Name

Dimethyl ether

Classification

Ether

UN Identification Number

UN1033

Hazardous Waste ID No.

D001

Formula

C2H6O

Codes/Label Flammable

Class 2.1

The physical and chemical properties of chlorobenzene can be concluded in the Table 1.1.
Properties

Value

Molecular Weight

46.07 g

Solubility in water

20oC (moderate)

Vapor Pressure

At 20oC, 520 kPa abs

Normal Boiling Point,

At 1 atm, -24.84oC

Normal melting point

At 1 atm, -141.49 oC

Liquid Density

At 25oC and 1 atm, 655 kg/m3

Vapor Density

At 21.1oC and 1 atm, 1.908 kg/m3

USES
Due to its good ignition quality, with a high cetane number, DME can be used in diesel
engines as a substitute for conventional diesel fuel. However, compared to diesel fuel DME
has a lower viscosity (insufficient), and poor lubricity. Like LPG for gasoline engines, DME is
stored in the liquid state under relatively low pressure of 0.5 MPa. This helps to limit the
number of modifications required to the engine. Still, some slight engine modifications are
necessary, primarily relating to the injection pump and the installation of a pressure tank,
similar to that for LPG. The fuel line must also be adapted with specific elastomers. DME in
diesel engine burns very cleanly with no soot.The infrastructure of LPG can be used for
DME. As part of the FP7 project BioDME, under the leadership of the Volvo Group, DME
production is being optimized, especially for use as a transport fuel.
HEALTH
Acute health effects
The following acute (short- term) health effects may occur immediately or shortly after
exposure to dimethyl ether:

Vapor can cause eye, nose and throat irritation.

High exposure can cause headache, dizziness, lightheadedness, and even loss of
consciousness.

Skin contact with liquid dimethyl ether can cause severe frostbite

Chronic health effects


The following chronic (long-term) health effects can occur at some time after exposure to
dimethyl ether and can last for months or years:

Cancer hazard

According to the information presently available to the New


Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, dimethyl
ether has not been tested for its ability to cause cancer in
animals.

Reproductive

According to the information presently available to the New

hazard

Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, dimethyl


ether has not been tested for its ability to affect reproduction.

Other long- term Dimethyl ether has not been tested for other chronic (long-term)
effects

helath effects.

HANDLING AND STORAGE

DME is not compatible with ozone, oxidizing agents (such as perchlorates, peroxides,
permanganate, chlorates, nitrates, chlorine, bromine and fluorine), strong acids (such
as hydrochloric, sulfuric and nitric) and halogens.

Store in tightly closed containers in a cool, well- ventilated area, and prevent air from
entering container.

Sources of ignition, such as smoking and open flames, are prohibited where DME is
used, handled or stored.

Metal containers involving the transfer of DME should be grounded and bonded.

Use only non-sparking tools and equipment, especially when opening and closing
containers of DME.

Peroxide formation may occur in containers that have been opened and remain in
storage for more than six months. Peroxide can be denoted by friction, impact or
heating.

PROCESS DESCRIPTION
A PFD of the process shown in the Figure B.1.1 and the belongings stream conditions are
given in Appendix A. The essentials operations in the process are the preheating of the raw
material (nearly pure Methanol), dehydration of Methanol from DME, product separation and
Methanol separation and recycle.

The liquid Methanol pumped up from 1 bar to 15.5 bar. The stream 3 preheated with stream
13. The stream 4 flow through reactor cooler,E-202 before entering reactor, R-201. There is
slightly difference in the pressure after leaving the reactor, which is the pressure at stream 5
is 14.7 bar meanwhile pressure at stream 6 which is 13.9 bar. Stream 6 with the temperature
of 364K enters the DME Cooler and at the stream 7, the temperature becomes 278K. Stream
9 flows entering DME Tower, T-201 which separating Methanol and other components. DME
8

Tower splits into two streams which are stream 10 and stream 11. Stream 10 rich with DME
which is the composition of DME is 2.142 kmol/h meanwhile stream 11 rich with water, which
the composition of water in that stream is 203.337 kmol/h. The separation does not stop
there, stream 12 enters the second tower which is Methanol Tower, T-202 and splits into two
streams which is stream 13 and stream 14. Stream 13 rich in Methanol which containing
97.308 kmol/h of Methanol and stream 13 recycle back to stream 2. Stream 14 rich in water
which is the composition of the water in that stream is 201.348 kmol/h. Stream 14 enters
wastewater cooler, E-208 which makes the temperature is 167K TO 50K at stream 15.

Stream Number

Temperature C

25

25

45

154

250

364

278

Pressure [bar]

1.0

15.5

15.2

15.1

14.7

13.9

13.8

Vapor fraction

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Mass flow [kg/h]

12806.1

12806.1

16049.7

16049.7

16049.7

16049.7

16049.7

Mole Flow [kmole/h]

401.166

401.166

502.299

502.299

502.299

502.299

502.299

DME

0.0

0.0

2.295

2.295

2.295

199.665

199.665

Methanol

397.341

397.341

494.19

494.19

494.19

99.297

99.297

H2O

3.825

3.825

5.814

5.814

5.814

203.337

203.337

DME

0.0046

0.0046

0.0046

0.3975

0.3975

Methanol

0.9904

0.9904

0.9838

0.9838

0.9838

0.1977

0.1977

H2O

0.0096

0.0096

0.0115

0.0115

0.0115

0.4048

0.4048

Stream Number

10

11

12

13

14

Temperature C

100

89

46

153

139

121

167

Pressure [bar]

13.4

10.4

11.4

10.5

7.4

15.5

7.6

Vapor

0.0798

0.148

0.0

0.0

0.04

0.0

0.0

Mass flow [kg/h]

16049.7

16049.7

9134.1

6915.6

6915.6

3258.9

3656.7

Mole Flow [kmole/h]

502.299

502.299

198.441

303.858

303.858

101.439

202.419

COMPOSITION
(kmol/h)

(Mole Fraction)

COMPOSITION
(kmol/h)
DME

199.665

199.665

2.142

2.142

2.142

2.142

0.0

Methanol

99.297

99.297

0.918

98.379

98.379

97.308

1.071

H2O

203.337

203.337

0.0

203.337

203.337

1.989

201.348

DME

0.3975

0.3975

0.9954

0.0071

0.0070

0.0212

Methanol

0.1977

0.1977

0.0046

0.3238

0.3238

0.9592

0.0053

H2O

0.4048

0.4048

0.6692

0.6692

0.0196

0.9947

(Mole Fraction)

Stream Number

15

16

17

Temperature C

50

46

121

Pressure [bar]

1.2

11.4

7.3

Vapor fraction

Mass flow [kg/h]

3656.7

3320.1

5538.6

Mole Flow [kmole/h]

202.419

72.063

172.89

DME

0.0

71.757

3.672

Methanol

1.071

0.306

165.852

H2O

201.348

0.0

23.366

DME

0.9958

0.0212

Methanol

0.0053

0.0042

0.9593

H2O

0.9947

0.0195

COMPOSITION
(kmol/h)

(Mole Fraction)

APPENDIX A

10

EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
All of the equipments used in the plant are chosen to be constructed of stainless steel. This is
due to corrosive water in the streams and high pressure.
REACTOR
For cost estimations, the Packed Bed Reactor (PBR) is assumed to be a process vessel. The
capacity needed for the cost estimations is the volume of the reactor. This was found the
same way as for the pre-reformer and ATR in the direct method. The same cost estimation
method as in the direct method is used here.
STORAGE TANKS
For the cost estimations all of the storage tanks are assumed to be API, fixed roof tanks
made of stainless steel. The cost calculations for the tanks needed to store Methanol and
Water are done in the same way as for the storage tanks in the direct method.
COMPRESSOR
The compressor used in the plant is assumed to be a centrifugal compressor made of
stainless steel. It is assumed that the energy required to compress a gas is the energy found
in the workbook. In reality, there is an efficiency factor involved. This factor has not been
counted in when estimating the electric power needed for the plant.
HEAT EXCHANGERS
All of the heat exchangers in the plant are assumed to be shell and tube, floating head and
stainless steel. The reason for this choice is the same as for the direct plant. The estimation
of the cost for the heat exchanger is done the same way as for the exchangers in the direct
plant.
PUMP
The pump used in the plant is assumed to be centrifugal, electric drive and made of stainless
steel. Pump selection is based on flow rate and head required. In addition special care

11

should be made when considering corrosion (in this process some water is present, and the
pressure is high).
TOWER
There are two towers in this plant. The towers in the plant are distillation columns with sieve
trays. The ideal numbers of trays were found by scaling up the number of trays. The first
distillation column known as DME Tower meanwhile the second distillation column known as
Methanol Tower.

MATERIAL BALANCE
Basis being used: 330 days/year of operation.
In which, it is required to produce 72071.05 metric tonne/year .
72071.05

6328630

1 000 kg
1

1
24

x 46.07g = 137.37

330

=9099.88 kg/hr

hr

From Table B.1.1 Stream table for unit 200, the total production of DME is 129.1kmol/h.
129.1

46.07g

= 5947.64
1

hr

9099.88 kg/hr

Ratio:- 5947.64 kg/hr =1.53

Mixer
F2=12806.1 kg/h
F3=16049.7
x CH3OH=0.9904
x H2O=0.0075
xDme=0

F13=3258.9 kg/hr
x CH3OH=0.9592
x H2O=0.01960
xDme=0.0212

kg/h
Mixer

x CH3OH = 0.9838
x H2O
= 0.0117
xDme
= 0.0046
12

Overall Balanced
F2+F13=F3
1280.61 kg/h +3258.9 kg/h=16049.7 kg/h
Stream
2
13
3

Methanol (CH3OH)
397.3419
401.166
1.989
101.439
494.19
502.299

=0.9904
=0.9592
=0.9838

Water (H2O)
3.825
401.166
97.308
101.439
5.814
502.299

Dme
0

=0.0075
=0.01960
=0.0117

2.142
101.439
2.295
502.299

=0.0212
= 0.0046

Reactor R-201
The reaction that occurred around the reactor is as follow:
2CH3OH(CH3)2O+H2O

conversion 80% percent of reactant(methanol)

F5=16049.7 kg/h

F6=16049.7 kg/h

R-101
X CH3OH=0.1976
X CH3OH=0.9800
X H2O=0.01155

X H2O=0.4048
X (CH3)2O =0.3975

XCH3OCH3=0.0045

13

Overall Balanced
F5 =F6
16049.7 kg/h =16049.7 kg/h

Stream
5

Methanol (CH3OH)
=0.9800
502.299

Water (H2O)
=0.01155
502.299

502.299

99.297

203.337

199.665

494.19

502.299

=0.1976

5.814

502.299

=0.4048

2.295

502.299

Dme
=0.0045
=0.3975

First Separator in Distillation Column (T-201)

The balance around the first separator 1:

F10 =9134.1 kgmol/h

F9=16049.7 kgmol/h

XCH3OH=0.0046
X H2O=0
XCH3OCH3=0.9954

XCH3OH=0.1976
XH2O=0.4048
X(CH3)2O =0.3976
T-100

F11=6915.6 kgmole/h
X CH3OH=0. 3238
X H2O=0.6692
X CH3OCH3=0.00710

14

Overall Balanced
F9=F11+F10
16049.7 kg/h =9134.1 kg/h+6915.6 kg/h
Stream
9
10
11

Methanol (CH3OH)
99.297

=0.1976

502.299
0.918

303.858

203.337
502.299

=0.4048
0

=0.0046

198.441
98.379

Water (H2O)

=0.3238

203.337
303.858

=0.6692

Dme
199.665
502.299
2.142
198.441
2.142
303.858

=0.3976
=0.9954
= 0.00710

Second Separator in Distillation Column (T-202)

The balance around the second separator 2:

F13=3258.9 kgmole/h

F12=6915.6 kgmole/h

XCH3OH=0.1976
XH2O=0.4048
X(CH3)2O =0.3976

XCH3OH=0.1976
XH2O=0.4048
X(CH3)2O =0.3976
T-202

F14=3656.7 kgmole/h
XCH3OH=0.1976
XH2O=0.4048
X(CH3)2O =0.3976

15

Overall Balanced
F9=F11+F10
6915.6 kg/h =3258.9 kg/h+3656.7 kg/h

Stream
12
13
14

Methanol (CH3OH)
64.3

=0.3238

303.858
97.308

=0.9593

101.439
1.071
202.419

=0.005

Water (H2O)
203.
303.858

2.142

=0.6693

1.989
101.439
201.348
202.419

Dme
303.858

=0.0070

2.142

=0.0196

101.439

=0.0211
0

=0.995

Stream Number

Temperature C

25

25

45

154

250

364

278

Pressure [bar]

1.0

15.5

15.2

15.1

14.7

13.9

13.8

Vapor fraction

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Mass flow [kg/h]

12806.1

12806.1

16049.7

16049.7

16049.7

16049.7

16049.7

Mole Flow [kmole/h]

401.166

401.166

502.299

502.299

502.299

502.299

502.299

DME

0.0

0.0

2.295

2.295

2.295

199.665

199.665

Methanol

397.341

397.341

494.19

494.19

494.19

99.297

99.297

H2O

3.825

3.825

5.814

5.814

5.814

203.337

203.337

DME

0.0046

0.0046

0.0046

0.3975

0.3975

Methanol

0.9904

0.9904

0.9838

0.9838

0.9838

0.1977

0.1977

H2O

0.0096

0.0096

0.0115

0.0115

0.0115

0.4048

0.4048

Stream Number

10

11

12

13

14

Temperature C

100

89

46

153

139

121

167

COMPOSITION
(kmol/h)

(Mole Fraction)

16

Pressure [bar]

13.4

10.4

11.4

10.5

7.4

15.5

7.6

Vapor

0.0798

0.148

0.0

0.0

0.04

0.0

0.0

Mass flow [kg/h]

16049.7

16049.7

9134.1

6915.6

6915.6

3258.9

3656.7

Mole Flow [kmole/h]

502.299

502.299

198.441

303.858

303.858

101.439

202.419

DME

199.665

199.665

2.142

2.142

2.142

2.142

0.0

Methanol

99.297

99.297

0.918

98.379

98.379

97.308

1.071

H2O

203.337

203.337

0.0

203.337

203.337

1.989

201.348

DME

0.3975

0.3975

0.9954

0.0071

0.0070

0.0212

Methanol

0.1977

0.1977

0.0046

0.3238

0.3238

0.9592

0.0053

H2O

0.4048

0.4048

0.6692

0.6692

0.0196

0.9947

COMPOSITION
(kmol/h)

(Mole Fraction)

Stream Number

15

16

17

Temperature C

50

46

121

Pressure [bar]

1.2

11.4

7.3

Vapor fraction

Mass flow [kg/h]

3656.7

3320.1

5538.6

Mole Flow [kmole/h]

202.419

72.063

172.89

DME

0.0

71.757

3.672

Methanol

1.071

0.306

165.852

H2O

201.348

0.0

23.366

DME

0.9958

0.0212

Methanol

0.0053

0.0042

0.9593

H2O

0.9947

0.0195

COMPOSITION
(kmol/h)

(Mole Fraction)

17

ENERGY BALANCES
Method of calculation
Energy balance are necessary in order to determine energy that needed in a process such
as for heating and cooling, as well as power that needed in process design. In manual
calculation done in design project, calculation was done by using equation from previous
lesson such as in Elementary Principle of Chemical Processes. First law of thermodynamics
also applied which states that energy cannot be created or destroyed. In forming manual
energy balance calculations, some assumptions are made as below:
i.

Pure reactant are used

ii.

Values calculated up to 3 decimal place

iii.

Energy out = Energy in + Generation Consumption Accumulation

There are some other assumptions regarding to the equipment itself which are:
i.

The potential and kinetic energy of streams are neglected, there are only enthalpy
changes are considered

ii.

For standard enthalpy, the standard reference used are; H = 0, P0 = 1atm, T0 = 298
K

iii.

Equipment is assumed working in ideal condition

iv.

Equipment is assumed perfectly insulated

Equations Used in Energy Balance


Equation used in calculation shown in table below:
Table : List of formula used
Denotation

Formula

Heat Capacity, Cp (kJ/mol.C)

a + bT + cT2 + dT3

Heat Load (kJ/hr)

Q = m.

(Chemical Properties Handbook, Mc Graw Hills)


18

Compounds

Table : Heat capacities of compounds


Cp = a + bT + cT2 + dT3 + eT4 (J/mol.K)
21.15+0.07902(T) + 2.587x10-5 (T2)+2.852x10-8(T3)

Methanol

110.100- 0.15747T+ 5.1853x10-4T2

Dme
Water

32.24+0.01924T+(1.055x10-5)T2+(-3.596x10-9)T3
(KNOVEL Database)

Table : Heat of Formation of Compounds


Compund
Heat of Formation, Hf at Tref = 298.15 K
Dimethyl Ether

(Gas) -184.1 kJ/kmol

Water

(Liquid) -285.84 kJ/kmol


(Gas) -241.83 kJ/kmol

Methanol

(Liquid) - 238.655kJ/kmol
(Gas) -200.94 kJ/kmol
(Chemical Properties Handbook, Mc Graw Hills)

19

Energy Balance For Reactors

Energy Balance for Reactor 201:

Overall chemical equation


2CH3OH(CH3)2O+H2O
Methanol Dimethyl ether+ Water
= ofio = | | fio

= (18.41) + (241.83) (200.94) /


= -59.3 kJ/kmol (exothermic)

Amount of DME formed during reaction = 130.5 kmol/hr


Thus, heat of reaction = 130.5 kmol/hr -59.3 kJ/kmol
= -7738.65 kJ/hr

F5=16049.7 kg/h
T=250oC

F6=16049.7 kg/h
Reactor 201

T=364oC

X CH3OH=15728.7 kg/h

X CH3OH=3171.42 kg/h

X H2O=185.37 kg/h

X H2O=6496.92 kg/h

XCH3OCH3=72.22 kg/h

X (CH3)2O =6379.76 kg/h

20

Reference H2O, DME,Methanol at 298oC and 1 atm


Component
Mole fraction
Cpin (kJ/kg.K)
Methanol
Cp1
0.0046

Mole fraction
0.3975

DME

0.9838

Cp2

0.1977

Cp5

Water

0.0115

Cp3

0.4048

Cp6

Cpout(kJ/kg.K)
Cp4

Calculation for inlet stream:523

Cp1= 298 C dt
523
= [21.15+0.07902(T) + 2.587x10-5 (T2)+2.852x10-8(T3)]
298
= 73.63-47.7501 kJ/kg K
= 25.8805 kJ/kg K
523

Cp2= 298 C dt
523
= [110.100- 0.15747T+ 5.1853x10-4T2]
298
= 169.5762109.221 kJ/kg K
=60.35kJ/kg K

523

Cp3= 298 C dt
= [32.24+0.01924T+(1.055x10-5)T2+(-3.596x10-9)T3]

523
298

= 44.673838.8152 kJ/kg K
=5.8586 kJ/kg K

Calculation for Outlet stream:523

Cp4= 298 C dt
523
= [21.15+0.07902(T) + 2.587x10-5 (T2)+2.852x10-8(T3)]
298
21

= 73.63 -47.7501 kJ/kg K


= 25.8835 kJ/kg K

637

Cp5= 298 C dt
637
= [110.100- 0.15747T+ 5.1853x10-4T2]
298
= 220.195109.221 kJ/kg K
=110.974 kJ/kg K

637

Cp6= 298 C dt
= [32.24+0.01924T+(1.055x10-5)T2+(-3.596x10-9)T3]

637
298

= 47.84738.8152 kJ/kg K
= 9.0318 kJ/kg K

Cp inlet
Cp of mixture = xiCpi
=(25.8805 0.0046 ) + (0.9838 60.35) + (0.0115 5.8586 )
= 59.56 kJ/kg.K
Heat from inlet stream = mCpT
= 16049.7 x 59.56 x 523
= 499935771.8 kJ/hr.

Cp outlet
Cp of mixture = xiCpi
=(0.3975 25.8835 ) + (0.4048 9.0318) + (0.1977 110.974 )
= 35.88 kJ/kg.K

22

Heat from OUTLET stream = mCpT


= 16049.7 x 35.88 x 637
=366869085.3 kJ/hr.
Heat input + Heat of reaction Heat Output = Rate of Accumulation
499935771.8 + (-7738.65 ) 366869085.3= Rate of Accumulation
Rate of Accumulation

= 133058947.9kJ/hr
= 36960.82 kW
= 36.96 MW

Therefore, heat supply needed to sustain the reactor temperature at 364 oC is approximately
36.964 MW.

T10=250 oC

Energy Balances for T-201

F10= 9134.1kg/h
XDME=0.9954
Xmethanol=0.0046
Xwater=0
T-201

T9= 89 oC
F9= 16049.7kg/h
XDME=0.3975
Xmethanol=0.1977
Xwater=0.4048

T11=153 oC
F11= 6915.6 kg/h
XDME=0.0071
Xmethanol=0.3238
Xwater=0.6692

23

Inlet

Outlet (TOP)

F9=16049.7 kg/h

F10=9134.1 kg/h

mDme=6379.76 kg/h

mDme=9092.08 kg/h

mmethanol=3173.03 kg/h

mmethanol=42.02 kg/h

mwater=6496.91 kg/h

mwater=0 kg/h

Tref=89oC ,
Cp(DME)

523

:- 362

110.100- 0.15747T+ 5.1853x10-4T2

= 48.53 kJ/kg.K
CP Water

523

:- 362

32.24+0.01924T+(1.055x10-5)T2+(-3.596x10-9)T3

= 4.25 kJ/kg.K
523

Cp Methanol :- 362

21.15+0.07902(T) + 2.587x10-5 (T2)+2.852x10-8(T3)

=19.13 kJ/kg.K
Qin = [m water x Cpwater x T] + [mdme CpDME T]+ [mmethanol Cpmethanol T]
= (6496.91 x 161 x 4.25 ) + (48.53x 161 x 6379.76) + (19.13 x 3173.03 x161 )
= 64.065 x 10 6kJ/kg.K
Q out = [m water x Cpwater x T] + [mdme CpDME T]+ [mmethanol Cpmethanol T]
= (0 x 161 x 4.25 ) + (48.53x 161 x 9092.08 ) + (19.13 x 42.02 x161 )
= 83.98 x 10 6kJ/kg.K

24

Inlet

Outlet (BOTTOM)

F9=16049.7 kg/h

F11= 6915.6 kg/h

mDme=6379.76 kg/h

mDme= 49.10 kg/h

mmethanol=3173.03 kg/h

mmethanol= 2239.27 kg/h

mwater=6496.91 kg/h

mwater=4627.92 kg/h

Tref=89oC ,
Cp(DME)

426

:- 362

110.100- 0.15747T+ 5.1853x10-4T2

= 16.07 kJ/kg.K
CP Water

426

:- 362

32.24+0.01924T+(1.055x10-5)T2+(-3.596x10-9)T3

= 1.653 kJ/kg.K
426

Cp Methanol :- 362

21.15+0.07902(T) + 2.587x10-5 (T2)+2.852x10-8(T3)

=7.212 kJ/kg.K
Q in = [m water x Cpwater x T] + [mdme CpDME T]+ [mmethanol Cpmethanol T]
= (6496.91 x 64 x 1.653 ) + (16.07 x 64 x 6379.76) + (7.212 x 3173.03 x 64 )
= 8.71 x 10 6kJ/kg.K
Qout = [m water x Cpwater x T] + [mdme CpDME T]+ [mmethanol Cpmethanol T]
= (4627.92 x 64 x 1.653 ) + (16.07 x 64 x 49.10) + (7.212 x 2239.27 x 64 )
= 1.57 x 10 6kJ/kg.K
Q in = Q out
64.065 x 10 6kJ/kg.K + 8.71 x 10 6kJ/kg.K = 1.57 x 10 6kJ/kg.K + 83.98 x 10 6kJ/kg.K
72.775 x 10 6 Kj/kg.K - 85.55 x 10 6 kJ/kg.K=0
Q= -12.775 x 10
25

Heat Exchanger E201

T3= 45 oC

T4=154 oC

F3=16049.7 kg/h

F4=16049.7 kg/h

XDme=0.0046

XDme=0.0046

Xmethanol=0.9838

Xmethanol=0.9838

Xwater=0.0115

Xwater=0.0115

Tref=45oC ,
Cp(DME)

427

:- 318

110.100- 0.15747T+ 5.1853x10-4T2

= 24.943 kJ/kg.K
CP Water

427

:- 318

32.24+0.01924T+(1.055x10-5)T2+(-3.596x10-9)T3

=2.7895 kJ/kg.K
427

Cp Methanol :- 318

21.15+0.07902(T) + 2.587x10-5 (T2)+2.852x10-8(T3)

=6.126 kJ/kg.K
Q = [m water x Cpwater x T] + [mdme CpDME T]+ [mmethanol Cpmethanol T]
= (2.7885 x 109 x 184.572 ) + (24.943 x 109 x 73.829 ) + (15789.69 x 6.126 x
109 )
= 10.80 x 106 kJ/kg.K

26

Heat Exchanger E202

T3= 154 oC

T4=250 oC

F3=16049.7 kg/h

F4=16049.7 kg/h

mDme=738.29 kg/h

mDme=738.29 kg/h

mmethanol=15791.30 kg/h

mmethanol=15791.30 kg/h

mwater=1845.72 kg/h

mwater=1845.72 kg/h

Tref=154oC ,

Cp(DME)

523

:- 427

110.100- 0.15747T+ 5.1853x10-4T2

= 32.177 kJ/kg.K
CP Water

523

:- 427

32.24+0.01924T+(1.055x10-5)T2+(-3.596x10-9)T3

=2.5709 kJ/kg.K
523

Cp Methanol :- 427

21.15+0.07902(T) + 2.587x10-5 (T2)+2.852x10-8(T3)

=11.8012 kJ/kg.K
Q = [m water x Cpwater x T] + [mdme CpDME T]+ [mmethanol Cpmethanol T]
= (1845.72 x 96 x 2.5709 ) + (32.177 x 96 x 738.29) + (15791.30 x 11.8012 x 96 )
= 20.63 x 10 6kJ/kg.K

27

Cooler E-203

T7= 278 oC

T8=100 oC

F7=16049.7 kg/h

F8=16049.7 kg/h

mDme=6379.76 kg/h

mDme=6379.76 kg/h

mmethanol=6496.92 kg/h

mmethanol=6496.92 kg/h

mwater=3173.03 kg/h

mwater=3173.03 kg/h

Tref=100oC ,
Cp(DME)

551

:- 373

110.100- 0.15747T+ 5.1853x10-4T2

= 57.25 kJ/kg.K
CP Water

551

:- 337

32.24+0.01924T+(1.055x10-5)T2+(-3.596x10-9)T3

=4.745 kJ/kg.K
551

Cp Methanol :- 373

21.15+0.07902(T) + 2.587x10-5 (T2)+2.852x10-8(T3)

=21.61 kJ/kg.K
Q = [m water x Cpwater x T] + [mdme CpDME T]+ [mmethanol Cpmethanol T]
= (3173.03 x 178 x 4.745 ) + (57.25 x178 x 6379.76) + (6496.92 x 21.61 x 178 )
= -92.68 x 10 6kJ/kg.K

28

Cooler E-208

T14=167 oC

T15=50 oC

F14=3656.7 kg/h

F8=3656.7kg/h

mDme=0 kg/h

mDme=0 kg/h

mmethanol=19.38 kg/h

mmethanol=19.38 kg/h

mwater=3637.32kg/h

mwater=3637.32kg/h

Tref=323K ,
CP Water

440

:- 323

32.24+0.01924T+(1.055x10-5)T2+(-3.596x10-9)T3

=3.0 kJ/kg.K
440

Cp Methanol :- 323

21.15+0.07902(T) + 2.587x10-5 (T2)+2.852x10-8(T3)

=13.0 kJ/kg.K
Q = [m water x Cpwater x T] + [mmethanol Cpmethanol T]
= (3637.32kg x 117 x 3.0 ) + (19.38 x 117 x 13.0 )
= -1.31 x 10 6kJ/kg.K

29

Table of energy by equipment


Equipment
Reactor (R-101)
Tower (T-201)
Tower (T-202)
Heat exchanger (E-202)
Heat exchanger (E-203)
Heat exchanger (E-208)

Energy ,Q (kJ/kg.K)
36.964 x106
-12.775 x106
10.800 x106
20.630 x106
-92.68 x106
-1.310 x106

PINCH TECHNOLOGY
CALCULATE CP FOR PINCH CALCULATION.

Stream

Condition

Cp (Kw/ oC)

Tin (oC)

Tout (oC)

Hot

9.6152

278

100

Hot

2.1908

167

50

Cold

6.644

45

154

Step 1: The minimum approach temperature is chosen to be 10

Compounds
Methanol
Dme

Cp = a + bT + cT2 + dT3 + eT4 (J/mol.K)


21.15+0.07902(T) + 2.587x10-5 (T2)+2.852x10-8(T3)
110.100- 0.15747T+ 5.1853x10-4T2

Water
32.24+0.01924T+(1.055x10-5)T2+(-3.596x10-9)T3

30

Calculation Cp for each stream :Stream 3:T3:-45oC


Number Component
1
DME

Composition
0.0046

Methanol

0.9838

Water

0.0115

Cp(DME)

:- 110.100- 0.15747T+ 5.1853x10-4T2


= -2.43 kJ/kg.oC

CP Water

:- 32.24+0.01924T+(1.055x10-5)T2+(-3.596x10-9)T3
=0.402 kJ/kg.oC

Cp Methanol :- 21.15+0.07902(T) + 2.587x10-5 (T2)+2.852x10-8(T3)


=1.62 kJ/kg.oC
Cp of mixture = xiCpi
= ( 0.0046 x -2.43) + (0.402 x 0.0115 ) + (1.62 x 0.9838 )
= 1.59 kJ/kg.oC

31

Calculation Cp for each stream :Stream 4:T4:-154oC


Number Component
1
DME

Composition
0.0046

Methanol

0.9838

Water

0.0115

Cp(DME)

:- 110.100- 0.15747T+ 5.1853x10-4T2


= 98.15- 106.49 = -8.34 kJ/kg.oC

CP Water

:- 32.24+0.01924T+(1.055x10-5)T2+(-3.596x10-9)T3
=35.44- 32.73=2.71 kJ/kg.oC

Cp Methanol :- 21.15+0.07902(T) + 2.587x10-5 (T2)+2.852x10-8(T3)


=34.04-23.14= 10.90 kJ/kg.oC
Cp of mixture = xiCpi
= ( 0.0046 x -8.34) + (2.71 x 0.0115 ) + (10.90 x 0.9838 )
= 10.72 kJ/kg

Calculation Cp for each stream :Stream 6:T6:-364oC


Number Component
1
DME

Composition
0.3975

Methanol

0.1977

Water

0.4048
32

Cp(DME)

:- 110.100- 0.15747T+ 5.1853x10-4T2


= 15.0 kJ/kg.oC

CP Water

:- 32.24+0.01924T+(1.055x10-5)T2+(-3.596x10-9)T3
=7.74 kJ/kg.oC

Cp Methanol :- 21.15+0.07902(T) + 2.587x10-5 (T2)+2.852x10-8(T3)


=9 kJ/kg.oC
Cp of mixture = xiCpi
= (0.3975x 15.0 ) + (7.74 x 0.4048) + (0.1977x 9)
= 10.87 kJ/kg

Calculation Cp for each stream :Stream 7:T7:-278oC


Number Component
1
DME

Composition
0.3975

Methanol

0.1977

Water

0.4048

Cp(DME)

:- 25

278

110.100- 0.15747T+ 5.1853x10-4T2

= -0.053 kJ/kg.oC
CP Water

278

:- 25

32.24+0.01924T+(1.055x10-5)T2+(-3.596x10-9)T3

=5.60 kJ/kg.oC
278

Cp Methanol :- 25

21.15+0.07902(T) + 2.587x10-5 (T2)+2.852x10-8(T3)


33

=21.05 kJ/kg.oC
Cp of mixture = xiCpi
= (0.3975x -0.053) + (0.1977x 21.05) + (0.4048x 5.60 )
= 6.41 kJ/kg.oC

Calculation Cp for each stream :Stream 14:T12:-167 oC


Number Component
1
DME

Composition
0

Methanol

0.0053

Water

0.9947

Cp(DME)

:- 25

167

110.100- 0.15747T+ 5.1853x10-4T2

= -8.23 kJ/kg.oC
CP Water

167

:- 25

32.24+0.01924T+(1.055x10-5)T2+(-3.596x10-9)T3

=3 kJ/kg.oC
167

Cp Methanol :- 25

21.15+0.07902(T) + 2.587x10-5 (T2)+2.852x10-8(T3)

=12.06 kJ/kg.oC
Cp of mixture = xiCpi
= (0.0 x -8.23) + (0.9947 x 3) + (0.0053 x 12.06 )
= 3.05 kJ/kg.oC

34

stream

9.6152

2.1908

6.644

278


kW/C
268

A
167

1067.2872
157

B
164

276.3216
154

C
100

-4.446
90

D
55

-114.952
45

E
50

(kW)

40

-200.394

Step 2: The Temperature Interval Diagram

35

A
1067.2872 kW
1067.2872kW
B
35.418 kW

COLD UTILITY

1102.7052 kW
C
330.368 kW
1433.0732 kW
D
-200.394 kW
1232.6792 kW
E
10.95 kW
1243.6292kW
1243.6292 kW
Step 3: The Cascade Diagram
There is no pinch happened in this system since this system have only one heater and two
coolers. Pinch do not happened because of the mixture which Methanol which had the
highest number of mole in the stream entered the heater after that the Methanol entered the
first cooler. After came out from the first cooler, the reactant which is Water that contain the
highest mole number of component in the mixture entered the second cooler. Because of this
system, the temperature of the mixture became lower and since the mixture did not enter any

36

other heater than can increase the heat of the mixture, thus it considered does not has a
pinch.
This type of problem that happened known as special category and this category known as
threshold problems which do not have a pinch to divide the problem into two parts. Threshold
problems only need a single thermal utility (either hot or cold but not both) over a range of
minimum temperature difference ranging from zero to threshold temperature.

Figure (a) shows a threshold problem for which hot utility is zero. It only demands cold utility
up to Tthreshold.

Figure (b) shows the effect of energy demand in terms of cold and hot utilities if the cold
composite curve is shifted horizontally to positions A and C. At position B which is at
Tmin

= Tthreshold the hot utility demand is zero whereas the cold utility demand is
37

. When the cold composite is shifted to position A where Tmin < Tthreshold it
demands 1 cold utility at a higher level and 2 cold utility at a lower level. Where, the sum
of 1 and 2 being equal to . For the position C where Tmin > Tthreshold the process
demands both cold and hot utilities. Thus in this case also for

Tmin

Tthreshold the cold

utility demand is constant and hot utility demand is zero which is shown in Figure (c)

38

HEURISTICS
1. Vessel (V-201)
Based on table 11.7
Rule 1:- Acceptable, temperature design above maximum operating temperature T =25 oC in
between 25 -30 oC to 345o C .
Rule 2:- Acceptable, where design operating pressure is 10 % or 0.69-1.7 bar (10-25psi)over
the maximum operating pressure whichever is greater. The max. operating in turn is taken as
1.0 bar in range between 0.69 1.7 bar.
Rule 3:- Acceptable , Design pressures of vessels operating at 0-0.69 bar ( 0 -10 psig)
where operating 1.1 bar in range of design operating pressure.
Rule 5:- Minimum wall thickness for rigidity use in this manufacturing Dimethyl Ether in range
of less than 8.1mm for 1.07-1.52 m.
Rule6:-Design of vessel must have 3.8mm (0.15 in) for noncorrosive streams in order to
prevent occurring corrosion inside vessel .
Rule 7 :-Use Carbon steel in order to allowable working stresses.(Low cost ,readily available,
resist abrasion, standard fabrication, resists alkali.)

2. Pump (P-201 A/B)

Stream 1 : 1.0 bar

Stream2 : 16.0 bar

T=25 oC

T=25 oC

39

From Table 11.9 :- use the following heuristics:


1.Rule 1:-Acceptable:- Power for pumping liquid :Kw
P = 15.5 bar 1.0 bar = 15 bar
Total p=m1p1+ m2p2
methanol= 791.80 kg/m3
Flow rate =

120806.1 kg/h
791.80 /3
3

efficiency of pump, = 0.60 %

= 152.57

Kw=(1.67)( 2.54 ) x (

15
0.60

x 60 = 2.54

Fluid Pumping Power = 106.045 kW x0.60


= 63.627 kW ( The total pump delivery required at P is more than 64 kW)
Pump actual =106.045 107 kW if need to buy for to pumping the liquid flow.
Rule 4-7 :- pump choices are carbon steel ,electric drive, centrifugal. Choose reciprocating to
be consistent with data given. Typical, = 0.60
Power shaft = 63.627 /0.60= 106.045 Kw required. From table 11.3 page 325-P 107 < 150
kW thus we use type of pump which is .Rotary and positive Displacement Centrifugal . (
compared with table b.13 major equipment summary for unit 200) is not suitable because the
requirement is more than Power= 5.2 kw had given in table because after scale up).

3. Heat Exhanger ( E-203) Cooler


From Table 11.11 ,use the following heuristic:-

E-203

40

Rule 1 :- set F= 0.9 Fouling factor


Rule 6: T = 10 o.C minimum temperature approach is 10oC for fluids
Rule 7:- by T LMTD Calculation :Cold side Temperature in :- 30.0 oC
Cold side Temperature out:- 55.0 oC
Thus based on followed the rule accepted where temperature inlet cooling water is 30.0 oC
, temperature outlet is 55 oC which is above 45 oC(maximum).
Rule 8:- U=850 W/m2 oC
For the moment,we find A by
Tlm= [(278-55)-(100-30)]/[ln(278-55)/(100-30))]=132.04 oC
Q= -92.68 x 10 6 Kj/kg.K from calculation Q Heat Exchanger E-203 above
= 92,680MJ/h=25.74x106 W
A= Q/U Tlm F= 25.74 k /(850)(0.9)(132.04)]=254.87 m2
Area cooler need for E-203 is 254.87 m2

4. Heat Exhanger ( E-201) Heater


From Table 11.11 ,use the following heuristic:-

E-201

41

Rule 1 :- set F= 0.9 Fouling factor


Rule 6: T = 10 o.C minimum temperature approach is 10oC for fluids
Rule 7:- by T LMTD Calculation :Cold side Temperature in :- 30.0 oC
Cold side Temperature out:- 45.0 oC
Thus based on followed the rule accepted where temperature inlet cooling water is 30.0 oC
, temperature outlet is 45 oC
Rule 8:- U=850 W/m2 oC
For the moment,we find A by
Tlm= [(154-45)-(250-30)]/[ln(154-45)/(250-30))]=158.06 oC
Q= 13.11 x 10 6 Kj/kg.K from calculation Q Heat Exchanger E-201 above
= 10800 MJ/h= 3.0 x106 W
A= Q/U Tlm F= 3.0 k /(850)(0.9)(158.06)]= 280.6m2
Area heater need for E-201 is 280.6 m2

5. Reactor (R-201)
Table 11.17
Rule 1 :- The rate of reaction in very instance is established on the laboratory.
Rule 2 :- Dimensions of catalyst in packed bed is 2-5 mm (powder)
Rule 13 :- The value of a catalyst may improve the selectivity.

42

Volume of reactor.
FA = 3171.28 mol/h
FAo = 15728 mol/h
Plug Flow Reactor
CAo = 0.98
CAo = 0.0115

= exp ( )

= 1.21106 exp (

80.48
)1
8.314 364

= 0.1936106

0.8

1
0

15728 32.04
0.1936106

0.8

0 1
= 2122

43

6. Tower (T-201)
From table 11.13 heuristics for tower.
Rule 9 :- A safety factor of 10% of the number of trays calculated by the best means is
advisable.
Rule 14:- Limit the tower height to about 53m (175ft) max. because of wind load and
foundation consideration. An additional criterion is that L/D be less than 30 (20< L/D< 30
often will require special design.)
L= 15.8m
D= 2m
L/D= 7.9
From table 11.14 heuristics for trays
Rule 1:- For reasons of accessibility, tray spacing are made 0.5-0.6m(20-24 in).
Spacing of trays in T-201 is 24 in.

44

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
CALCULATION
4.1.1 Capital Cost
Reactor 1
Diameter = 0.72 m
Height

= 10 m

Maximum pressure rating of 14.7 bar


Volume = 2122 m3
Purchased equipment cost,
From table A.1,
Equipment

Equipment

Type

Description

Reactor

Mixer /

K1

K2

K3

Min Size

Max Size

0.04

60

Units
4.7116

0.4479

0.0004

settler

log10 Cp0

Capacity

Volume,
m

= K1 + K2 log10 A + K3 (log10 A)2


= 4.7116 +0.4479 (log10 2122) + 0.0004 (log10 2122)2
= 6.20

Cp0

= USD 1.607x 106

From table A.7,


Equipment Type

Equipment Description

Bare Module Factor, FBM

Reactor

Jacketed Agitated

4.0

45

Bare Module Cost, CBM


CBM = C0p FBM = USD 1.607x 106 (4.0)
= USD 251134.47
C1 = CBM = USD 6.4289x 10 6
Refer to CEPCI to find cost for 2013:
Year 2011, CEPCI = 582
Year 2014, CEPCI= 656

C2

= C1 (I2/I1)
= USD 6.4289x 10 6 (656/582)
= USD 7.2462 x 10 6

Cost of raw materials,CRM


The only one reactant used in this reaction which is methanol. The price for methanol is
0.4USD/kg.

Retrieved

from:

http://www.alibaba.com/product-detail/LGB-good-quality-

dimethyl-ether-dme-_2013674779.html
From material balance, 12683kg/h of methanol is fed to the system.
12683 24 330 = 100 106
100 106 0.4

= 40 106

Total raw material cost per year is 40 million USD.

46

Equipment Cost Calculation

Heat exchanger 1


=( )

Data available :
A = 180m2 , USD = 15000usd, time = 2010
At 2010, A= 254.87

15000
180 0.59
=(
)

254.87
x = USD 17847 in 2010
CEPCI 2010 = 551
2014 = 621
Therefore, cost for heat exchanger with A= 254.87m2
C2 =C1

( )
1

=17847

621

551

= USD 37956

47

Heat exchanger 2

A= 280.6

15000
180 0.59
=(
)

280.6
x = USD 19467 in 2010
CEPCI 2010 = 551
2014 = 621
Therefore, cost for heat exchanger with A= 280.6 m2
C2 =C1

( )
1

=19467

621

551

= USD 21940
Heat exchanger 3
A= 300

15000
180 0.59
=(
)

300
x = USD 20275 in 2010
CEPCI 2010 = 551
2014 = 621
Therefore, cost for heat exchanger with A= 300 m2
C2 =C1

( )
1

48

=20275

621

551
USD 22850.77

Total cost for heat exchanger:


= USD 37956 + USD 21940 + USD 22850.77
= USD 82746.77

Equipment cost for tower.


Material, carbon steel.
h = 15.8m
d = 2m
tray = 22 SS
P = 10.6 bar
Vessel calculation:
V= D2 L/4
22
(2)2 (15.8)
7
=
4
= 49.6 m2 appx. 50m2
log 0 (2010) = 3.4974 + 0.4485 log(50) + 0.1074 (log(50)2
log 0 (2010) = 4.57
0 (2010) = USD 37126.7

(10.6 + 1)2
+ 0.00315
2(944)(0.9) 0.6(10 + 1)
=
0.0063
= 0.98
FBM = 2.22 + 1.82(0.98)(3.11) = 7.766
CBM = 37126 (7.766)
= USD288357

49

Tray calculation
A = D2 /4
22
(2)2
7
=
4
= 3.14m2

log 0 (2011) = 2.9949 + 0.4465 log(3.14) + 0.3961 (log(3.14)2


= 3.313
0 (2011) = 2059
CBM = Cp N FBM fq
N= 22 , fq = 1.0 since tray > 20
For ss sieve tray, id num = 61
From figure A.9, FBM = 1.8
CBM = USD(2059)(22)(1.8)(1.0)
= USD 81536.4
Total cost at 2011= 81536 + 288357
= USD 369893
From appendix B, CEPCI at 2014=657.6
2011 = 582

= 369893

657

582
USD 417941

Assume two identical operates, the total cost of tower = USD 835 883

50

Equipment cost for pump


P = 7.2Kw
From http://www.matche.com/equipcost/PumpCentr.html,
The cost of electric centrifugal pump with power rating
7.2kW

9.2kW is USD 4300 USD

There are 2 pump installed. One as backup pump

total cost of pump = USD 8600 USD

Equipment cost for Vessel


P

= 14.7 bar

= 5m

= 1.14m

Time

= 2001

Volume =

22
7

(5)(1.14)2 /4

= 5.105 5.12

log Cp = 3.4974 + 0.4485 log (5.12) + 0.1074(log 5.12)2


= 3.8695
Cp = 7405 USD
925.8

Cp at 2014 = 7405( 397 ) = 17268

() =

14.7+1
+0.00315
2(944)(0.9)(0.6)(14.7+1)

0.063

= 0.1975
ID Number for SS vertical vessel = 20, Fm = 3.11
= 2.25 + 1.82 (0.197)(3.11)
= 3.367
= 3.367(17268)
= 58141 USD

51

UTILITY COST:
Electric :
Electric : USD = 0.06 kwh, 16.8 USD/GJ
There only a pump used with P = 7.2kW
1 x 7.2KJ/s x 3600s/h x 24h/d x 330 d/y
=2.052864 x 109 J/year x 16.8 USD/GJ
=3448.8 USD/year

Steam :
For Lower Pressure stream, (LPS)
From energy and mass balance,

for LPS = 40,600 KJ/h


40600 x 24 x 330 = 321552000 kg/year
Price per year = 321 553 000 kg/year x USD 27.70/1000kg
= 8.9 x 106 USD/year.
For MPS ; 10 barg
From MEB,

= 21446 /
21446 x 330 x 24
= 1,698,522,320 kg/year
1,698,522,320 kg/year x 28.31 USD/1000 kg
= 4.8 x 106 USD/year

52

Operating labor cost, COL

The technique used for estimating labour cost is based on date obtained from five chemical
companies and correlated by Alkhayat and Gerrard. According to this method, the operating
labour requirement for chemical processing plant is given by:
= (6.29 + 31.7 + 0.23 )0.5
Where Nnp , is summation of total equipments. The total number of equipment in this plant is
9.
Number of operator per shift;
NOL= (6.29 + 0.23 9)0.5 = 3.6
The plant operates 24hours per day and 330 day per year. The operator is paid at rate of
900USD/month. Thus, the total operating labour per year is;

. = .

53

Total Capital Cost

Equipment cost (USD)


Heat Exchangers

161 284. 00

Reactor

7 246 000. 00

Distillation Towers

835 883. 00

Pump

4 300. 00

Vessel

58 153. 00
Total: 8 305 620. 00

Working Capital for 1st year of operation


Utility :
Steam LPS

8 900 000. 00

Steam MPH

4 800 000. 00

Electricity
Operating Labour

3 448. 00
126 360. 00

Raw material

40 000 000. 00

Miscellaneous

7 000 000. 00
Total : 60 829 808. 00
GRAND TOTAL: 69.14 million USD

54

Cumulative cash flow table, without depreciation.


Year

Cash Flow (USD) (from Discrete CFD)


(USD)

Cumulative Cash Flow


(USD)

2014

-20 000 000. 00

- 20 000 000. 00

2015

-30 000 000. 00

-50 000 000. 00

2016

-20 140 000. 00

- 70 140 000. 00

2017

13 457 000. 00

-56 683 000. 00

2018

13 457 000. 00

-43 226 000. 00

2019

13 457 000. 00

-29 769 000. 00

2020

13 457 000. 00

-16 312 000. 00

2021

13 457 000. 00

-2 855 000. 00

2022

13 457 000. 00

10 602 000. 00

2023

13 457 000. 00

24 059 000. 00

2024

13 457 000. 00

37 516 000. 00

2025

13 457 000. 00

50 972 000. 00

55

Cumulative cash flow graph, without depreciation.

(50.9)

10

11

(-70.14)

56

Non-discounted After Tax Flow


Cost of land, L = 1 million USD
Total fix capital investment, FCI = 9.3 million USD
Fixed capital investment during year 1 = 5.3 million USD
Fixed capital investment during year 2 = 4.0 million USD
Plant start-up at year 2
Working capital = 60.83 million USD

End
investment
Of
Year
0
(1)
1
(5.3)
2
(60.83+4)=64.84
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
1+5.3
*(all number in millions)

dk

FCIL

COMd (R-C0Mdk)x(1-t) +dk

Cash
flow*

Cumulative
Cash flow*

4.3
2.15
2.43
1.075
-

9.3
9.3
9.3
5
2.85
0.42
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
30

5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3

(1)
(5.3)
(64.84)
15.25
17.7
10.405
9.93
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
21

(1)
(6.3)
(71.14)
(55.89)
(38.19)
(27.85)
(17.855)
(3.155)
17.545
26.15
41.086
55.855
76.855

15.25
17.7
10.405
9.93
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
24.7

Profitability Criteria

(15.25 +17.7 + 10.405 + 9.93 + (614.7))

ROROI = (
PVR =

10

15.25+17.7+10.405+9.93+(14.76)+ 21
1+5.3+64.84

9.3) 10 = 1.4213

= 2.284

57

The cash flow diagram for non-discounted after tax is shown below,

(76.85 million USD)

10

11

12

(71.54 million USD)

58

Discounted Cash Flow Table

End of year

Nondiscounted
cash flow

Discounted cash flow


(million USD)

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

(1)
(5.3)
(64.84)
15.25
17.7
10.405
9.93
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
21

(1)=
(5.3)/1.1=(4.8)
(64.84)/ 1.12 =(53.58)
15.25/1.13=11.4
17.7/1.14 =12.09
10.405/1.15 =6.17
9.93/1.16 =8.72
14.7/1.17 =7.54
14.7/1.18 =6.86
14.7/1.19 =6.23
14.7/1.110 =5.667
14.7/1.111 =5.15
21/1.112 =6.69

Cumulative
discounted
cash flow
(million USD)
(1)
(5.8)
(59.38)
(47.98)
(35.89)
(29.72)
(21)
(13.46)
(6.6)
(0.37)
5.3
10.447
17.137

59

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


The total investment needed for putting up the direct plant is 69.16 million USD and the
profit made at the end of the plant life will be 76.855 million USD . The payback time for this
plant is 5.7 years and the return on investment is 1.42%. It is clear that there are huge risks
related to the direct method plant investment. The sensitivity analysis results shows that the
product price for DME is the most sensitive parameter in this project (DME price = 1020
USD/ton). The project depends on a good and stable price for DME. The variation in utility
price had minimum effect on payback time.
The heat integration part was done first after we calculated the plant cost. If we had done the
cost calculations based on a better heat integration in the operating course would decrease.

60

Proses Flow Manufacturing DME (Dimethy Ether)

61

REFERENCES
1. H. Scott Fogler, Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Fourth Edition.
2. Elementary Principle Of Chemical Process, Richard M. Felder, Wiley Publisher, Third Edition,
2005
3. Perrys-Chemical-Engineers-handbook-1999.pdf
4. Retrieved2014,

http://files.rushim.ru/books/spravochniki/Perrys-Chemical-Engineers-

handbook-1999.pdf
5. R. Turton, Analysis Synthesis and Design of Chemical Process
6. Chemical Evaluation and Research Institute of Japan. May 2007. Hazard Assesment Report
Chlorobenzene.
7. Retrieved and adapted from
http://www.cerij.or.jp/ceri_en/hazard_assessment_report/pdf/en_108_90_7.pdf.
8. http://www.alibaba.com/product-detail/shell-tube-heat-exchanger-price_1961236719.html
9. http://www.alibaba.com/product-detail/shell-tube-heat-exchanger-price_1961236719.html
10. http://www.matche.com/equipcost/PumpCentr.html
11. http://www.matche.com/equipcost/Reactor.html
12. http://aabi.uitm.edu.my/dp/

13. https://www.scribd.com/doc/916251/Process-Design-Course-DME-Autumn-2009

62

APPENDICES

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70