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Physical Science

True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

____ 1. Variables are those factors that can be changed in an experiment.


____ 2. Balanced forces acting on an object cause the object to accelerate.
____ 3. Gravity causes all falling objects to accelerate at a rate of 98 m/s2.
____ 4. The momentum of a 5,000-kg truck that is standing still is greater than the momentum of a 3,000-kg truck
that is also at rest.
____ 5. When an object falls, it is reacting to the force of gravity.
____ 6. Objects in Earth's orbit appear to be weightless because they are in free fall.
____ 7. Friction is a force that encourages motion between two surfaces that are touching each other.

Modified True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the
statement true.

____ 8. Displacement includes both distance and direction. _________________________


____ 9. If you were trying to get out of the way of a storm, you would need to know the speed at which it was
moving. _________________________
____ 10. The total distance traveled divided by the constant speed is the average speed. _________________________
____ 11. The relationship s = d/t can be used to calculate speed, distance or time. _________________________
____ 12. Acceleration occurs when velocity changes. _________________________
____ 13. When the forces acting on an object are unbalanced, the net force is zero. _________________________
____ 14. An object in motion at a constant velocity will change its motion only if a balanced force acts on it.
_________________________
____ 15. In a car crash, inertia could cause you to crash into the windshield. _________________________
____ 16. The greater an object's mass, the weaker the gravitational force on it. _________________________
____ 17. Pushing a box up a hill, you have to overcome static friction. _________________________
____ 18. A box doesn't move when you push it because of static friction. _________________________

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 19. Calculate the slope of the line in the graph.


10 y
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 x

a. 0 c. 3
b. 1 d. 4
____ 20. The graph represents the sales data for a particular product. In which week were 8 units sold?
10

6
Sales (units)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Weeks

a. 3rd week c. 6th week


b. 4 week
th
d. 9th week
____ 21. A measurement standard is defined as ____.
a. a system of prefixes
b. the distance between two points
c. the exact quantity people agree to use for comparison
d. the interval between two events
____ 22. The prefix kilo- means ____.
a. 1,000 c. 0.01
b. 100 d. 0.001
____ 23. The correct symbol for the SI unit of temperature is ____.
a. ºC c. K
b. ºF d. s
____ 24. The SI unit that is used to measure time is the ____.
a. kelvin c. second
b. kilogram d. meter
____ 25. A box is 25 cm long, 6 cm wide, and 4 cm high. How many cubic centimeters of water can it hold?
a. 600 c. 150
b. 25 d. 24
____ 26. Another term for technology is ____.
a. applied science c. matter
b. energy d. pure science
____ 27. The process of gathering information through the senses is called ____.
a. analysis c. hypothesis
b. observation d. inference
____ 28. When designing an experiment, the first step is to ____.
a. analyze the data
b. list a procedure
c. state a hypothesis
d. state the problem
____ 29. A rule or principle that describes what happens in nature is a ____.
a. hypothesis c. scientific law
b. problem d. theory
____ 30. An explanation of an event that is based on repeated observations and experiments is a ____.
a. hypothesis c. problem
b. scientific law d. theory
____ 31. In an experiment to determine whether the popping of popcorn is affected by the temperature at which it is
stored, counting the popped kernels is an example of a(n) ____.
a. conclusion c. hypothesis
b. control d. observation
____ 32. A standard for comparison that helps to ensure that the experimental result is caused by the condition being
tested is the ____.
a. constant c. dependent variable
b. control d. hypothesis
____ 33. A factor in an experiment that changes from the manipulation of the independent variable is the ____.
a. constant c. dependent variable
b. control d. hypothesis
____ 34. A factor that does NOT change in an experiment is the ____.
a. constant c. dependent variable
b. control d. hypothesis
____ 35. Studying the effect of one thing on another in order to test a hypothesis is a(n) ____.
a. exercise c. constant
b. experiment d. problem
____ 36. The application of scientific knowledge to help people is ____.
a. a discovery c. pure science
b. a hypothesis d. technology
____ 37. If you ride your bicycle down a straight road for 500 m then turn around and ride back, your distance is ____
your displacement.
a. greater than c. less than
b. equal to d. can’t determine
____ 38. Motion is a change in ____.
a. time c. velocity
b. speed d. position
____ 39. The speed you read on a speedometer is ____.
a. instantaneous speed c. average speed
b. constant speed d. velocity
____ 40. 3 m/s north is an example of a(n) ____.
a. speed c. position
b. velocity d. acceleration
____ 41. The relationship among speed, distance, and time is ____.
a. t = s/d c. s = dt
b. d = t/s d. s = d/t
____ 42. A merry-go-round horse moves at a constant speed but at a changing ____.
a. velocity c. inertia
b. balanced force d. unbalanced force
____ 43. Acceleration is rate of change of ____.
a. position c. velocity
b. time d. force
____ 44. If you ride your bike up a hill, then ride down the other side, your acceleration is ____.
a. all positive c. first positive, then negative
b. all negative d. first negative, then positive
____ 45. The equation used to find acceleration is a = ____.
a. vf – vi/t c. vi – vf /t
b. v/t d. vi + vf/t
____ 46. A horizontal line on a velocity/time graph shows ____ acceleration.
a. positive c. changing
b. negative d. zero
____ 47. Inertia varies depending on ____.
a. force c. velocity
b. mass d. motion
____ 48. Newton's first law of motion is also called the law of ____.
a. mass c. force
b. inertia d. constant velocity
____ 49. The upward force on an object falling through the air is ____.
a. air resistance c. momentum
b. inertia d. terminal velocity
____ 50. The relationship among mass, force, and acceleration is explained by ____.
a. conservation of momentum
b. Newton's first law of motion
c. Newton's second law of motion
d. Newton's third law of motion
____ 51. A feather will fall through the air more slowly than a brick because of ____.
a. air resistance c. inertia
b. gravity d. momentum
____ 52. In the absence of air, a penny and a feather that are dropped from the same height at the same time will ____.
a. fall at different rates c. float
b. fall at the same rate d. not have momentum
____ 53. When an object moves in a circular path, it accelerates toward the center of the circle as a result of ____.
a. centripetal force c. gravitational force
b. frictional force d. momentum
____ 54. For any object, the greater the force that's applied to it, the greater its ____ will be.
a. acceleration c. inertia
b. gravity d. velocity
____ 55. The size of the gravitational force between two objects depends on their ____.
a. frictional forces
b. inertia
c. masses and the distance between them
d. speed and direction
____ 56. As you get farther from the center of Earth, your weight will ____.
a. decrease c. remain the same
b. increase d. can't tell from information given
____ 57. When a force is exerted on a box, an equal and opposite force is exerted by the box. These forces are called
____ forces.
a. action-reaction c. frictional
b. centripetal d. gravitational
____ 58. A real car moving at 10 km/h has more momentum than a toy car moving at the same speed because the real
car ____.
a. generates less friction
b. has greater mass
c. has less mass
d. has greater forward motion
____ 59. In the equation p = m × v, the p represents ____.
a. friction c. momentum
b. inertia d. position
____ 60. The statement "to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction" is ____.
a. the law of conservation of momentum
b. Newton's first law of motion
c. Newton's second law of motion
d. Newton's third law of motion
____ 61. The unit of momentum is ____.
a. kg × m c. kg × m/s2
b. kg × m/s d. m/s2
____ 62. A 300-N force acts on a 25-kg object. The acceleration of the object is ____.
a. 7,500 m/s2 c. 25 m/s2
b. 300 m/s 2
d. 12 m/s2
____ 63. A 3,000-N force acts on a 200-kg object. The acceleration of the object is ____.
a. 50 m/s2 c. 15 m/s2
b. 26 m/s 2
d. 150 m/s2
____ 64. If gravity did NOT affect the path of a horizontally thrown ball, the ball would ____.
a. go straight up
b. fall straight down
c. follow a curved path
d. travel horizontally
Figure 3-1

____ 65. A ball attached to a string is being swung in a clockwise circular path as shown in Figure 3-1. Assume the
string breaks at point A. In which direction will the ball be traveling an instant later?
a. direction a c. direction c
b. direction b d. direction d
____ 66. A ball attached to a string is being swung in a clockwise circular path as shown in Figure 3-1. In which
direction will the acceleration on the ball be when the ball passes point A?
a. direction a c. direction c
b. direction b d. direction d

Matching

Match each item with the correct statement below.


a. milli- g. kilogram
b. kilo- h. cubic centimeter
c. centi- i. meter
d. mass j. dependent variable
e. kelvin k. SI
f. second
____ 67. amount of material in an object
____ 68. SI unit of time
____ 69. SI unit of length
____ 70. SI prefix meaning 0.001
____ 71. worldwide system of measurement
____ 72. SI prefix meaning 1,000
____ 73. plotted on the vertical or y-axis
____ 74. SI unit of temperature
____ 75. SI unit of mass
____ 76. SI prefix meaning 0.01
____ 77. derived unit of volume

Read the paragraph and then match each item with the correct statement below.
An experiment was designed to investigate the effect of caffeine on the heartbeat of water fleas. Two
populations of water fleas were cultured. Both populations had water with the same mineral content, were
supplied with identical amounts of bacteria as food, received the same amount of light, and had their
temperature maintained at 20ºC. Every two hours, water fleas from both populations were selected and their
heartbeats were monitored. The fleas of population one had caffeine administered five minutes before their
heartbeat was checked. The fleas of population two were given nothing.
a. independent variable c. constant
b. dependent variable d. control
____ 78. What part of the experiment was the food?
____ 79. What part of the experiment was the heartbeat?
____ 80. What part of the experiment was the water temperature?
____ 81. What part of the experiment was population two?
____ 82. What part of the experiment was the caffeine?

Problem

83. A cross-country runner runs 10 km in 40 minutes. What is his average speed?


84. A high speed train travels with an average speed of 227 km/h. The train travels for 2 h. How far does the train
travel?
85. Find the acceleration of a car that goes from 32 m/s to 96 m/s in 8.0 s.
Physical Science
Answer Section

TRUE/FALSE

1. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: B


2. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 1/3
3. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 2/2
4. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 3/2
5. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 3/1
6. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 2/2
7. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 1/2

MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE

8. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I


OBJ: 1/1
9. ANS: F, velocity

PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I OBJ: 2/1


10. ANS: F, total travel time

PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I OBJ: 2/1


11. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 2/1
12. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 4/2
13. ANS: F, balanced

PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I OBJ: 8/3


14. ANS: F, an unbalanced

PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I OBJ: 7/3


15. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 9/3
16. ANS: F, stronger

PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I OBJ: 1/1


17. ANS: F, sliding

PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I OBJ: 2/1


18. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 1/2

MULTIPLE CHOICE

19. ANS: B
The slope of the line is the change in y divided by the change in x.

Feedback
A Use the correct value for y1 in the slope.
B Correct!
C Use the correct value for x1 in the slope.
D Use the correct value for x2 in the slope.

PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's II REF: Page 44


OBJ: 2.4.1 Create graphs to reveal patterns in data.
TOP: Create graphs to reveal patterns in data. KEY: Slope
MSC: 3
20. ANS: B
The points on a graph represent the intersection of data of two variables. The independent variable is plotted
on the x-axis, while the dependent variable is plotted on the y-axis.

Feedback
A In the 3rd week, 7 units were sold.
B Correct!
C In the 6th week, 6 units were sold.
D In the 9th week, 5 units were sold.

PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's I REF: Page 44


OBJ: 2.4.1 Create graphs to reveal patterns in data.
TOP: Create graphs to reveal patterns in data. KEY: Graph reading
MSC: 3
21. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 2/2
22. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 2/1
23. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 2/2
24. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 2/2
25. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 2/2
26. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 1/3
27. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 1/1
28. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 1/1
29. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 1/1
30. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 1/1
31. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 1/1
32. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 1/1
33. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 1/2
34. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 1/1
35. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 1/1
36. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 1/3
37. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 1/1
38. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 1/1
39. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 2/1
40. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 2/1
41. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 2/1
42. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 2/1
43. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 4/2
44. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 5/2
45. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge II
OBJ: 6/2
46. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 6/2
47. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 8/3
48. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 8/3
49. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 3/1
50. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 2/3
51. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 3/1
52. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 1/3
53. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 2/4
54. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 1/4
55. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 2/1
56. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 2/1
57. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 3/2
58. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 3/4
59. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 3/3
60. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 3/1
61. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge I
OBJ: 3/3
62. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge II
OBJ: 1/4
63. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge II
OBJ: 1/4
64. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge II
OBJ: 2/3
65. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge II
OBJ: 1/1
66. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge II
OBJ: 1/1

MATCHING

67. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 2/2


68. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 2/2
69. ANS: I PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 2/2
70. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 2/1
71. ANS: K PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 2/2
72. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 2/1
73. ANS: J PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 3/1
74. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 2/2
75. ANS: G PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 2/2
76. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 2/1
77. ANS: H PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 2/1

78. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 1/1


79. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 1/1
80. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 1/1
81. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 1/1
82. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: B OBJ: 1/1

PROBLEM

83. ANS:
s = d/t = 10 km/40 min = 0.25 km/min

PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge III OBJ: 2/1


84. ANS:
d = s × y = 227 km/h × (2.00 h) = 454 km

PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge III OBJ: 2/1


85. ANS:
vf – vi/t = (96 m/s – 32 m/s)/ 8.0 s = 8.0 m/s2

PTS: 1 DIF: Webb's Depth of Knowledge III OBJ: 6/2