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CONTENTS

Page
1,

INTRODUCTION

1,1

2.

FLUID VELOCITIES AND BED SHEAR STRESS

2.1

2.1

Introduction

2.2

Currents

2.1

2.2.1

C u r r e n t boundary l a y e r

2.1

2.2.2

H y d r a u l i c regimes

2.2

2.2.3

V e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n over t h e depth

2.3

2.2.4

F l u i d mixing c o e f f i c i e n t

2.4

2.2.5

Bed shear s t r e s s and bed f r i c t i o n

2.4

2.3

Waves

2.6

2.3.1

Near-bed o r b i t a l v e l o c i t i e s

2.6

2.3.2

Wave boundary l a y e r

2.7

2.3.3

H y d r a u l i c regime i n waves

2,8

2.3.4

V e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i n wave boundary l a y e r

2,9

2.3.5

Bed shear s t r e s s and bed f r i c t i o n

2.3.6

Breaking waves

2.3.7

Mass t r a n s p o r t i n non-breaking waves

2.3.8

Mass t r a n s p o r t by breaking waves

2.4

Combined c u r r e n t and waves

2,25

2.4.1

Introduction

2,25

2.4.2

Wave c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s

2.25

2.4.3

Current v e l o c i t i e s and bed-shear s t r e s s e s

2,26

2.5

References

2.38

2.6

Figures

3.

CHARACTERISTIC SEDIMENT TRANSPORT PARAMETERS

3.1

Introduction

3.2

P a r t i c l e parameter

3.1

3.3

P a r t i c l e m o b i l i t y parameter

3.1

3.4

Excess bed-shear s t r e s s parameter

3.2

3.5

Suspension parameter

3,2

2,1

2,13
,
,"

2,15
2,19
2.24

3.1
3,1

CONTENTS ( c o n t i n u e d )

4.

FLUID AND SEDIMENT PROPERTIES

4.1

4.1

F l u i d Properties

4.1

4.1.1

Introduction

4.1

4.1.2

Fluid density

4.1

4.1.3

Fluid viscosity

4,2

4.2

Sediment P r o p e r t i e s

4.3

4.2.1

Introduction

4.3

4.2.2

D e n s i t y and p o r o s i t y

4,3

4.2.3

Shape

4.6

4.2.4

Size

4,7

4.2.5

Particle f a l l velocity

4.9

4.2.6

Angle o f repose

4.3

References

4.4

Figures

5.

INITIATION OF MOTION AND SUSPENSION

5.1

I n i t i a t i o n o f motion

5.1.1

Current

5.1

5.1.2

Waves

5.4

5.1.3

C u r r e n t and waves

5.7

5.2

I n i t i a t i o n o f suspension i n c u r r e n t s

5,9

5.3

References

5.4

Figures

6.

BED FORMS

6.1

6,1

Bed forms i n u n i d i r e c t i o n a l c u r r e n t s

6.1

6.1.1

Classification

6.1

6.1.2

F l a t bed

6.3

6.1.3

Ribbons and r i d g e s

6.3

6.1.4

Ripples

6.3

6.1.5

Dunes

6.4

6.1.6

Washed-out dunes

6.9

6.1.7

Bars

6,10

6.1.8

Upper regime w i t h Anti-dunes

6,10

4,13
4.14

5.1
'.

5.1

5,11

CONTENTS ( c o n t i n u e d )

6.2

Bed forms i n non-steady c u r r e n t s

6.10

6.2.1

Non-steady r i v e r f l o w

6.10

6.2.2

Tidal flow

6.13

6.3

Bed forms i n Waves

6.14

6.3.1

Classification

6.14

6.3.2

Ripples

6.15

6.3.3

Sheet f l o w regime

6.21

6.3.4

S u r f zone bars or longshore bars

6.21

6.4

Bed forms i n c u r r e n t s and waves

6.22

6.4.1

Classification

6.22

6.4.2

Transverse r i p p l e s

6.24

6.4.3

Transverse sand waves

6.25

6.4.4

L o n g i t u d i n a l r i b b o n s , r i d g e s and banks

6.27

6.5

References

6.29

6.6

Figures

7.

EFFECTIVE BED ROUGHNESS

7.1

7.1

Introduction

7.1

7.2

C u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed roughness

7.1

7.2.1

Methods based on bed-form parameters

7.1

7.2.2

Methods based on i n t e g r a l parameters

7.6

7.2.3

Comparison o f methods

7.8

7.3

Wave-related bed roughness....,

7.9

7.4

Bed roughness i n combined c u r r e n t s and waves

7.11

7.5

References

7.14

7.6

Figures

8.

BED MATERIAL SSPENSIC! AND TRANSPORT I N STEADY UNIFORM


CURRENTS

8.1

8.1

Introduction

8.1

8.2

Bed load t r a n s p o r t

8.2

8.2.1

Introduction

8.2

8.2.2

P r e d i c t i o n method o f Meyer-Peter and Mller ( 1948)

8.3

8.2.3

P r e d i c t i o n method o f F r i j l i n k ( 1952)

8.4

CONTENTS

(continued)

8.2.4

P r e d i c t i o n method o f Bagnold (1966)

8.4

8.2.5

P r e d i c t i o n method o f Van R i j n ( 1984)

8.2.6

T r a n s p o r t a t low shear stresses

8.2.7

T r a n s p o r t o f non-uniform bed m a t e r i a l

8.16

8.2.8

Comparison o f bed load t r a n s p o r t formulae

8.18

8.3

Suspended load t r a n s p o r t

8.19

8.3.1

Introduction

8.19

8.3.2

Mass-balance equation f o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n

8.20

8.3.3

Sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t

8.20

8.3.4

Concentration p r o f i l e s

8.23

8.3.5

Velocity p r o f i l e

8.25

8.3.6

Reference c o n c e n t r a t i o n

8.3.7

I n f l u e n c e o f non-uniform bed m a t e r i a l

8.29

8.3.8

P r e d i c t i o n method o f E i n s t e i n (1950)

8.30

8.3.9

P r e d i c t i o n method o f Bagnold (1966)

8.31

8.3.10

P r e d i c t i o n method o f B i j k e r (1971)

8.31

8.3.11

P r e d i c t i o n method o f Van R i j n ( 1 9 8 4 ) . . . . . , .

8.32

8.4

T o t a l load t r a n s p o r t

8,35

8.4.1

P r e d i c t i o n methods o f E i n s t e i n , Bagnold, B i j k e r and Van R i j n , , ,

8,35

8.4.2

P r e d i c t i o n method o f Engelund-Hansen (1967)

8,36

8.4.3

P r e d i c t i o n method o f Ackers-White (1973)

8.36

8.4.4

Comparison o f p r e d i c t i o n methods

8.37

8.5

References

8.39

8.6

Figures

9.

BED MATERIAL SUSPENSI(J AND TRANSPORT I N UNIFORM WAVES, , , ,

9.1

Introduction

9.2

Analysis

'

8.16

and reference l e v e l

o f measured c o n c e n t r a t i o n

8.5

8.26

9.1
9.1

p r o f i l e s and t r a n s p o r t

rates

9.3

9.2.1

Instantaneous c o n c e n t r a t i o n s

9.3

9.2.2

Time-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n s

9.5

9.2.3

Sediment t r a n s p o r t r a t e s

9.3

Computation o f time-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n

9.3.1

Introduction

9.10
on p r o f i l e s

9.12
9,12

CONTENTS

(continued)

9v3.2

Time-averaged

9.14

9.3.3

P a r t i c l e s i z e and f a l l v e l o c i t y o f suspended sediment

9.15

9.3.4

Sediment mixing

9.17

9.4.3.1

Existing relationships

9.3.4.2

New r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r wave-related mixing

9.3.5

Sediment mixing

9.3.6

Sediment mixing c o e f f i c i e n t f o r non-breaking and breaking

c o n v e c t i o n - d i f f u s i o n equation

c o e f f i c i e n t f o r non-breaking waves

9.17

c o e f f i c i e n t i n breaking

coefficient

9.22
9.26

waves

9.28

waves
9.3.7

Reference c o n c e n t r a t i o n

9-29

9.3.8

Computation methods

9.3.9

Comparison

9.4

Computation o f sediment t r a n s p o r t r a t e s

9.39

9.4.1

Introduction

9.39

9.4.2

Sediment t r a n s p o r t formulae

9.39

9.4.3

Sediment t r a n s p o r t models

9.44

9.5

References

9.47

9.6

Figures

10.

BED MATERIAL SUSPENSION AND TRANSPORT I N COMBINED WAVES AND

i n near-bed r e g i o n

9.32

o f measured and computed

concentration

profiles

9.38

CURRENTS

10.1

10.1

Introduction

10.1

10.2

A n a l y s i s o f measured c o n c e n t r a t i o n

p r o f i l e s and t r a n s p o r t
10.1

rates
10.2.1

Time-averaged

10.2.2

Sediment t r a n s p o r t r a t e s

10.3

Computation o f time-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n

10.3.1

Introduction

10.7

10.3.2

Computation methods

10.7

10.3.3

Comparison o f measured and computed c o n c e n t r a t i o n

10.4

Computation o f sediment t r a n s p o r t i n non-breaking waves

10.11

10.4.1

Introduction

10.11

10.4.2

Computation methods

10.11

10.4.3

Comparison

10.5

Computation o f sediment t r a n s p o r t i n breaking

concentration

10.1

profiles

o f measured and computed

10.4
profiles

profiles

transport rates
waves ( s u r f z o n e )

10.7

10.10

10.21
10.23

CONTENTS ( c o n t i n u e d )

10.5.1

Introduction

10.23

10.5.2

Computation methods

10,23

10.5.3

Comparison o f measured and computed t r a n s p o r t r a t e s

10,26

10.6

References

10.27

10.7

Figures

11,

BED MATERIAL TRANSPORT IN NON-STEADY AND NON-UNIFORM FLOW

11,1

11.1

Introduction

11.1

11.2

Non-steady suspended sediment t r a n s p o r t

11.1

11 ,2,1

River f l o w

11,1

11,2,2

Tidal flow

11,1

11.3

Non-uniform suspended sediment t r a n s p o r t , a d j u s t m e n t l e n g t h , . , .

11.2

11.4

Mathematical d e s c r i p t i o n o f suspended sediment t r a n s p o r t

11,3

11.4.1

Mass-balance

11.4.2

Momentum balance f o r f l u i d - s e d i m e n t

11.4.3

H o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l f l u i d and sediment m i x i n g

11.9

11.4.4

Scale a n a l y s i s

11.15

11.4.5

R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f neap-spring c y c l e i n sediment t r a n s p o r t

equation

11.3
mixture

11.6

Computations

11.17

11.5

Mathematical models

11,20

11.5.1

Introduction

11.20

11.5.2

Two-dimensional v e r t i c a l suspended sediment model

11.21

11.5.3

Three-dimensional suspended sediment model

11.24

11.6

References

11.25

11.7

Figures

12.

TRANSPORT OF COHESIVE MATERIALS

12.1

12.1

Introduction

12.1

12.2

Cohesion, p l a s t i c i t y , v i s c o s i t y and y i e l d s t r e s s

12.1

12.3

Flocculation

12.3

12.4

Settling

12.5

12.5

Deposition

12.7

12.5.1

Introduction

12.7

12.5.2

C o n c e n t r a t i o n s > 10 kg/m3

12.7

CONTENTS ( c o n t i n u e d )

12.5.3

C o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f 0.3

t o 10 kg/m3

12.8

12.5.4

C o n c e n t r a t i o n < 0.3 kg/m3

12.6

Consolidation

12.7

Erosion

12,15

12.7.1

Introduction

12,15

12.7.2

C o n s o l i d a t e d hard d e p o s i t s

12,16

12.7.3

Consolidated s o f t deposits

12,16

12.7.4

Erosion r a t e s

12.19

12.7.5

Bed forms and roughness

12,19

12.8

T r a n s p o r t o f mud by c u r r e n t s

12.20

12.8.1

Steady f l o w

12.8.2

Non-steady

12.9

T r a n s p o r t o f mud by waves

12,22

12.10

References

12,25

12.11

Figures

12.10
12,12

12.20
( t i d a l ) flow

12.20

-1.1-

1.

INTRODUCTION

T h i s handbook i s concerned mainly w i t h phenomena r e l a t e d t o movable beds cons i s t i n g o f cohesive and non-cohesive sediment m a t e r i a l i n c u r r e n t s , waves or
b o t h . The t o p i c s covered are sediment p r o p e r t i e s , i n i t i a t i o n o f m o t i o n and
suspension, bed forms, e f f e c t i v e bed roughness, the t r a n s p o r t o f non-cohesive
and cohesive sediments. A s h o r t summary o f the basic f l u i d parameters i s a l s o
g i v e n (Chapter 2 ) .
The book i s an a t t e m p t t o summarize the most r e l e v a n t t h e o r i e s and measurements. The a u t h o r has not t r i e d t o g i v e a complete summary o f the overwhelming
amount o f l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e . Only, those t h e o r i e s and data which a r e c o n s i dered r e l e v a n t by the a u t h o r , are presented and discussed. Many o f t h e o l d
ideas o f the a u t h o r r e l a t e d t o r i v e r problems are presented; new ideas a r e
proposed w i t h r e s p e c t t o sediment t r a n s p o r t i n c o a s t a l waters where the e f f e c t
o f t h e waves i s dominant. Much a t t e n t i o n i s paid t o q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n
( d a t a ) because t h e sediment t r a n s p o r t phenomena are too c o m p l i c a t e d f o r f u l l
theoretical description.

The f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s

( c h a p t e r s ) are presenteed:

2.

F l u i d v e l o c i t i e s and bed-shear s t r e s s e s .

3.

C h a r a c t e r i s t i c sediment t r a n s p o r t parameters.

4.

F l u i d and sediment p r o p e r t i e s .

5.

I n i t i a t i o n o f motion and suspension.

6.

Bed forms.

7.

E f f e c t i v e bed roughness.

8.

Bed m a t e r i a l suspension and t r a n s p o r t i n steady u n i f o r m

9.

Bed m a t e r i a l suspension and t r a n s p o r t i n uniform

currents.

waves.

10.

Bed m a t e r i a l suspension and t r a n s p o r t i n combined waves and c u r r e n t s

11.

Bed m a t e r i a l t r a n s p o r t i n non-steady and non-uniform f l o w .

12.

T r a n s p o r t o f cohesive m a t e r i a l s .

The a u t h o r hopes t h a t t h i s handbook w i l l serve as a p r a c t i c a l t o o l f o r r i v e r


and c o a s t a l engineers, p h y s i c a l geographers, oceanographers, g e o l o g i s t s and
earth

scientists.

-2.1-

2.

2.1

FLUID VELOCITIES AND BED SHEAR STRESS

Introduction

Sediment t r a n s p o r t processes

i n c u r r e n t s and/or waves do mainly occur i n t h e

near-bed r e g i o n . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s o f e s s e n t i a l importance t o know t h e magnitude


and d i r e c t i o n o f the near-bed v e l o c i t i e s and s h e a r - s t r e s s e s i n t h e presence o f
bed forms ( r i p p l e s , dunes) o r i n case o f a f l a t bed.
In t h i s Chapter 2 an overview i s g i v e n o f e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s and t h e o r e t i c a l
expressions r e l a t e d t o near-bed v e l o c i t i e s and bed-shear s t r e s s e s . The f o l l o wing s u b j e c t s a r e covered:
currents
waves
c u r r e n t s and waves

2.2

2.2.1

Currents

C u r r e n t boundary l a y e r

According t o t h e Reynolds' procedure, t h e shear s t r e s s a t h e i g h t z i n a steady


u n i f o r m f l o w can be described as:

(2.2.1)

^z = P ^ i - P ^

Although t h e time-averaged

v e r t i c a l v e l o c i t y w i s equal t o z e r o (w = 0 ) , t h e

v e r t i c a l t u r b u l e n t f l u c t u a t i o n s are n o t equal t o zero (w' * 0 ) . Consequently,


the t u r b u l e n c e shear s t r e s s x, = - p u'w' # 0.
The t u r b u l e n t shear s t r e s s t^. i s dominant i n the major p a r t o f t h e f l o w depth.
In case o f a smooth bottom t h e v i s c o u s shear s t r e s s

becomes dominant c l o s e

to t h e bottom because the t u r b u l e n t f l u c t u a t i o n s u' and w' d i e o u t near t h e


bottom and a r e equal t o zero a t t h e bottom ( u ' = w' a t z = 0 ) . The l a y e r where
the v i s c o u s shear s t r e s s i s dominant i s c a l l e d the v i s c o u s s u b l a y e r (^).
Above t h e v i s c o u s sublayer t h e f l o w i s t u r b u l e n t . The most i m p o r t a n t t u r b u l e n t
s u b l a y e r i s t h e l o g a r i t h m i c s u b l a y e r . Between the v i s c o u s s u b l a y e r and t h e
l o g a r i t h m i c s u b l a y e r t h e r e i s a t r a n s i t i o n s u b l a y e r , sometimes c a l l e d t h e
b u f f e r s u b l a y e r . Above the l o g a r i t m i c sublayer t h e r e i s an o u t e r s u b l a y e r (see
also Figure 2.2.IA).

-2.2-

2.2.2

The

H y d r a u l i c regimes

e f f e c t o f the bottom ( o r w a l l ) roughness on the v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i n a

turbulent

f l o w was f i r s t i n v e s t i g a t e d

f o r pipe f l o w by Nikuradse

He

(1933).

used pipes covered w i t h u n i f o r m sand g r a i n s a t the i n s i d e and he measured


v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s a t d i f f e r e n t Reynolds' numbers (Re), pipe diameters
and g r a i n s s i z e s (d^Q). Based on these experiments, Nikuradse
concept o f the e q u i v a l e n t sand g r a i n roughness o r Nikuradse

(D)

introduced the

roughness (kg) as

a standard f o r a l l o t h e r types o f roughness elements ( k ) .

The roughness elements mainly i n f l u e n c e

the v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n c l o s e t o the

bottom, because the roughness elements generate eddies ( w i t h a s i z e o f the


o r d e r o f the roughness elements) which a f f e c t the t u r b u l e n c e s t r u c t u r e

and

hence t h e v e l o c i t i e s close t o the bottom. F u r t h e r away, the eddies w i l l


be absorbed i n the g e n e r a l e x i s t i n g t u r b u l e n c e
The

pattern.

type o f f l o w regime can be r e l a t e d t o the r a t i o o f the Nikuradse

(kg) and a l e n g t h s c a l e of the viscous s u b l a y e r ( v / u ^


v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t and

= current-related

Based on e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s , i t was

Hydraulically

smooth f l o w ,

) i n which v

bed-shear

roughness
kinematic

stress.

found:
k

1.

rapidly

f o r 7 - ^ = ^^-^ < 5
^/^*,c

The roughness elements are much s m a l l e r than the t h i c k n e s s o f the v i s c o u s


s u b l a y e r and do n o t a f f e c t the v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n .

2.

Hydraulically

k
Ujj
rough f l o w , f o r r-^ =

k
>

70

A v i s c o u s s u b l a y e r does not e x i s t and the v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i s not


dependent on the v i s c o s i t y

3.

Hydraulically

( v ) o f the f l u i d .

u^ k
t r a n s i t i o n a l flow, f o r 5 < <

The v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i s a f f e c t e d
bottom

roughness.

70

by v i s c o s i t y as w e l l as by the

-2.3-

2.2.3

V e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n over the depth

A g e n e r a l e x p r e s s i o n f o r the v e l o c i t y
and rough f l o w s

d i s t r i b u t i o n over the depth f o r smooth

is:

(2.2.2)

i n which:

Zq = z e r o - v e l o c i t y l e v e l ( u

H y d r a u l i c a l l y smooth regime:

a t z = Zq)

= 0.11
0

H y d r a u l i c a l l y rough regime:

z
0

H y d r a u l i c a l l y t r a n s i t i o n regime: z

for

u.

for

= 0.033 k
s
= 0.11

+ 0.033 k

u k
*, c s
Ul. k
*,c s

for 5 <

*'

< 5

> 70

^ < 70

,c
The zero v e l o c i t y

l e v e l should be i n t e r p r e t e d as a computation parameter

w i t h o u t p h y s i c a l meaning, because Eq. (2.2.2) i s n o t v a l i d c l o s e t o the bottom.


I n case o f a rough boundary the p o s i t i o n o f the z e r o - v e l o c i t y p o i n t i s unknown.
U s u a l l y , the bottom plane (z=0) i s d e f i n e d as the plane t h a t i s formed

after

smoothing o u t the roughness elements. For s p h e r i c a l roughness elements

this

y i e l d s a value o f about 0.75k above the underside o f the spheres ( k = sphere


d i a m e t e r ) . A r e a l i s t i c value o f the z e r o - v e l o c i t y l e v e l

(z = z^) can be found

by p l o t t i n g the values o f u/u a g a i n s t z-z^/z^ on s e m i l o g a r i t h m i c s c a l e and


v a r y i n g z^ u n t i l the b e s t f i t i s o b t a i n e d . T h i s method y i e l d s values z^ = 0,25k
f o r sand and g r a v e l

particles.

Averaging o f Eq. (2.2.2) over the depth

-^-l

yields:

(2.2.3)

J ' ^ l ^ ( ^ ) d - ^ [ ^ - 1 ^ l ^ ( ^ ] ]
z^
o
o

N e g l e c t i n g the z^/h-parameter i n Eq. ( 2 . 2 . 3 ) , t h e depth-averaged f l o w


does occur a t z = h/e

0,37h, i n which e i s the base o f the n a t u r a l

velocity
logarithm

(e - 2.72).
A p p l y i n g Eq. ( 2 . 2 . 3 ) i n Eq. ( 2 . 2 . 2 ) , the v e l o c i t y
expressed as:

d i s t r i b u t i o n can a l s o be

-2.H-

" =

/h - 1 " l n ( h / z )1
O

2.2.4

(2.2.11)
0

F l u i d mixing c o e f f i c i e n t

A p p l y i n g a l o g a r i t h m i c v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e and assuming a l i n e a r shear

stress

d i s t r i b u t i o n over t h e depth, y i e l d s a p a r a b o l i c f l u i d m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t .

^ f , c = ^ z(1-z/h)u^^

(2.2.5)

Based on t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s o f Coleman (1970), Van R i j n (1984) i n t r o d u c e d


a p a r a b o l i c - c o n s t a n t m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n ; p a r a b o l i c i n t h e lower
h a l f o f t h e depth and constant i n the upper h a l f o f t h e depth:

= K z(1-z/h)u5j

= 0.25 K

f o r z/h < 0.5

(2.2.6a)

f o r z/h > 0.5

(2.2.6b)

The main reason f o r a p p l y i n g Eq. ( 2 . 2 . 6 ) i s t h a t i t produces a more r e a l i s t i c


c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e w i t h f i n i t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a t t h e water s u r f a c e (Van
Rijn,

2.2.5

1984).

Bed shear s t r e s s and bed f r i c t i o n

The o v e r a l l time-averaged bed-shear s t r e s s i s d e f i n e d a s :


_2
^b,c = Pg^i =

= P ^^c

(2.2.7)

i n which:
h

= water depth

= energy l i n e g r a d i e n t

= depth-averaged

= Chzy-coefficient (C^ = 8 g / f )
c

velocity

f g = f r i c t i o n f a c t o r o f Darcy-Weisbach
kg = e f f e c t i v e bed roughness

height

-2.5-

Laminar f l o w

The f r i c t i o n f a c t o r f o r laminar f l o w i n a wide open channel i s :

i n which:
Re = h/v

= Reynolds number

H y d r a u l i c smooth t u r b u l e n t f l o w
For a wide open channel:
f
-0.5
(g^)
= 3 + 2.5 l n ( u ^ ^ ^ h/v)
C
= 18 l o g
. )
12h

(2.2.9)
(2.2.10)

-3.3v/u^

H y d r a u l i c rough t u r b u l e n t f l o w
For a wide open channel:
f

-0.5

[g^]

= 6 + 2.5 l n ( h / k g )

(2.2.11)

Equation (2.2.11) can a l s o be represented as:


f ^ = 0.24
c

log"2(12h/k^)
s

(2.2.12)

The Chzy-coefficient reads as:

= 18 l o g ( 1 2 h / k )
s

(2.2.13)

T r a n s i t i o n regime
For a wide open channel:

,c

-2.6-

2.3

2.3.1

Waves

Near-bed o r b i t a l v e l o c i t i e s

A p p l y i n g l i n e a r wave t h e o r y , t h e peak value o f the o r b i t a l e x c u r s i o n

(A^) and

v e l o c i t y (U^) a t t h e edge o f t h e wave boundary l a y e r can be expressed as:

A
H
6 2 sinh(kh)

(2.3.1)

^&

(2.3.2)

^8

= T sinh(kh)

i n which:
) = 2IT/T

= angular

velocity

k = 2TI/L

= wave number

= wave h e i g h t

L = (gT2/2iT) t a n h ( k h ) = wave l e n g t h
T

= wave p e r i o d

= water depth

Based on f i e l d measurements i n t h e near-bed r e g i o n i n s i d e t h e s u r f zone ( w i t h


a r e l a t i v e wave h e i g h t o f H^/h i n the range o f 0.2 t o 0.45) and o u t s i d e t h e
s u r f zone (H^/h = 0.14 - 0.27), Van heteren and S t i v e (1985) found t h a t Eq.
(2.3.2) a p p l i e d t o instantaneous

water s u r f a c e e l e v a t i o n s produced a maximum

o v e r p r e d i c t i o n o f 25^ o f measured h o r i z o n t a l r m s - v e l o c i t i e s o u t s i d e t h e s u r f
zone and an u n d e r p r e d i c t i o n o f 5% i n s i d e t h e s u r f zone.
Dean (1986) r e p o r t s t h a t l i n e a r wave theory provides a good p r e d i c t i o n o f
near-bottom k i n e m a t i c s f o r a wide range o f r e l a t i v e wave h e i g h t s and wave
steepnesses.

A good e s t i m a t e o f t h e near-bed peak v e l o c i t i e s under t h e c r e s t and t r o u g h o f


asymmetrical

waves i n shallow water can be o b t a i n e d a p p l y i n g t h e expressions

g i v e n by Koyama and Iwata (1986), as f o l l o w s :

"'C = T sinh[k(h+nc)J

(2.3.3)

"6,t - T s L h [ k h ]

(2.3.4)

in

which:

Ug c = peak v a l u e o f near-bed

o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y under wave c r e s t

Ug

o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y under wave t r o u g h

= peak value o f near-bed

= wave c r e s t h e i g h t above s t i l l
T]^

water

= wave t r o u g h h e i g h t beneath s t i l l

water

Equation (2.3.3) and (2.3.4) a r e based on c a l i b r a t i o n u s i n g t h e stream f u n c t i o n method o f Dean f o r symmetrical and asymmetrical waves i n s h a l l o w water.
The water s u r f a c e e l e v a t i o n s n

and
C

must be known.
Tf

F i n a l l y , some remarks a r e made w i t h r e s p e c t t o l i n e a r wave t h e o r y , which i s


g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d t o determine the near-bed

v e l o c i t i e s . I n case o f s y m m e t r i c a l

( s i n u s o i d a l ) s m a l l - a m p l i t u d e waves i n r e l a t i v e l y deep water t h i s t h e o r y y i e l d s


c o r r e c t r e s u l t s . When waves a r e approaching s h a l l o w e r w a t e r s , t h e waves w i l l
be d i s t o r t e d l e a d i n g t o asymmetrical wave p r o f i l e s and h i g h e r o r d e r wave
t h e o r i e s a r e b a s i c a l l y necessary

t o determine t h e near-bed

velocities.

Surpri-

s i n g l y , comparisons o f measured v e l o c i t i e s and computed v e l o c i t i e s a c c o r d i n g


to

l i n e a r wave t h e o r y show reasonably good r e s u l t s i n s h a l l o w water.

Another problem i s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e wave spectrum i n a r e a l

situa-

t i o n . Assuming t h a t t h e h i g h e r waves c o n t r i b u t e most t o t h e sediment

transport

process, t h e s i g n i f i c a n t wave h e i g h t (H^ o r ^i/-^)

i n combination w i t h t h e peak

p e r i o d (Tp) a r e considered t o be t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c wave parameters


sediment

2.3.2

f o r the

t r a n s p o r t process.

Have boundary l a y e r

The wave boundary l a y e r i s a t h i n l a y e r f o r m i n g t h e t r a n s i t i o n l a y e r between


the

bed and t h e upper l a y e r o f i r r o t a t i o n a l o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w ( F i g . 2.2.1). The

t h i c k n e s s o f t h i s l a y e r remains t h i n (0.01 t o 0.1 m) i n s h o r t p e r i o d waves


(T

10 s ) because t h e f l o w reverses b e f o r e t h e l a y e r can grow i n v e r t i c a l

d i r e c t i o n . The boundary l a y e r t h i c k n e s s 6 can be d e f i n e d as t h e minimum


w
d i s t a n c e between t h e w a l l and a l e v e l where t h e v e l o c i t y equals t h e peak v a l u e
of

t h e f r e e stream v e l o c i t y

(Ug).

In

case o f l a m i n a r f l o w the f o l l o w i n g values can be g i v e n :

Jonsson 1980:

= |^

(2.3.5)

Manohar 1955:

= ^

(2.3.6)

i n which:
6 = (-n/vT)^'^ = l e n g t h parameter o f Stokes
V

= kinematic v i s c o s i t y

= o s c i l l a t i o n period.

coefficient

I n case o f t u r b u l e n t f l o w Jonsson and Carlson (1976) proposed:


30 6
30 6
(
} log[
] = 1.2

A,
)

A,
f o r 10 < < 500

(2.3.7)

Equation (2.3.7) can a l s o be represented by:


^w

/6

-0.25

= 0.072 ( )
A,

(2.3.8)

Equation (2.3.7) i s based on t h e o r e t i c a l and e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s e a r c h . A r t i f i c i a l


t r i a n g u l a r roughness elements have been used i n wave t u n n e l experiments. The
kg-value o f these roughness elements was determined from water s u r f a c e s l o p e
measurements i n a steady u n i f o r m f l o w y i e l d i n g k^-value i n the range o f 2.5 t o
4 times t h e maximum h e i g h t o f the elements.

The t h e o r e t i c a l r e s u l t s o f Fredsie (1984) can be roughly ( e r r o r 20^) approximated by:


A

^w
= 0.15
h

/ -0.25
{]

(2.3.9)

Although t h e wave boundary l a y e r t h i c k n e s s i s r a t h e r s m a l l , the generated


shear s t r e s s e s and t u r b u l e n c e i n t e n s i t i e s are r a t h e r l a r g e and are i m p o r t a n t
f o r t h e sediment t r a n s p o r t processes.

2.3.3

H y d r a u l i c regime i n waves

Jonsson (1966) f i r s t presented a p l o t o f the h y d r a u l i c regime i n o s c i l l a t o r y


f l o w i n terms o f the Reynolds.number and r e l a t i v e roughness, as

H y d r a u l i c regime = F [

, J

follows:

(2.3.10)

kg

F i g u r e 2.2.2

shows t h e graph o f Jonsson (1966, 1980). The r e s u l t s o f Kamphuis

(1975) are a l s o shown.

The

onset o f t u r b u l e n c e

researchers.

The

i n the wave boundary l a y e r has been s t u d i e d by many

r e s u l t s o f Sleath

(1988) are probably the most

S l e a t h i n v e s t i g a t e d the onset of t u r b u l e n c e

accurate.

i n o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w over f l a t beds

o f sand, g r a v e l and pebbles. Both h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l v e l o c i t y f l u c t u a t i o n s were measured using a l a s e r Doppler v e l o c i t y meter.
For p r a c t i c a l purposes the f o l l o w i n g expression can be a p p l i e d t o determine
the t r a n s i t i o n t o f u l l y developed t u r b u l e n t f l o w i n case o f a f l a t

bed:

(U6,cr)^
/ 6 ,0.115

= 5770 ( )
0) V
d^Q

(2.3.11)

i n w h i c h : d^Q = median p a r t i c l e s i z e o f bed m a t e r i a l .

2.3.4

V e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i n wave boundary l a y e r

Experimental r e s u l t s
D e t a i l e d knowledge o f the f l o w v e l o c i t i e s i n the boundary l a y e r above r i p p l e d
and

f l a t beds i s e s s e n t i a l t o understand the sediment e n t r a i n m e n t processes.

Examples o f v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s a t maximum f l o w f o r a laminar and a t u r b u l e n t case are shown i n F i g . 2.2.IC. The


mixing

fundamental d i f f e r e n c e i s the

vertical

e f f e c t g i v i n g a more u n i f o r m p r o f i l e i n t u r b u l e n t f l o w . T u r b u l e n t

flow

i s the most i n t e r e s t i n g case f o r sediment t r a n s p o r t processes because the


w i l l be t u r b u l e n t i n case o f a mobile r i p p l e d bed

regime and a f l a t bed

flow
(sheet

f l o w ) regime.

S e v e r a l e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s have been performed i n wave t u n n e l s w i t h r i p p l e d


beds. The most i n t e r e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s presented by DuToit and
(1981) and

Sleath

by DuToit (1982). They used a l a s e r - D o p p l e r v e l o c i t y meter t o

measure the instantaneous h o r i z o n t a l v e l o c i t i e s above the c r e s t and

trough

of

a sand r i p p l e ( t u r b u l e n t f l o w ) .
F i g u r e 2.2.3A shows the h o r i z o n t a l v e l o c i t y component above a sand r i p p l e
d u r i n g a h a l f c y c l e . The

a.

e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s are, as f o l l o w s :

the f r e e stream i s moving w i t h maximum v e l o c i t y from r i g h t t o l e f t and


w e l l d e f i n e d v o r t e x f i l l s almost h a l f the trough on the downstream s i d e
the r i p p l e ,

b.

the v o r t e x increases i n s i z e as the f r e e stream

c. - t h e v o r t e x f i l l s almost the whole t r o u g h .

decelerates,

a
of

-2.lo-

ci,

the f r e e stream reverses and the v o r t e x i s being e j e c t e d over the c r e s t


and a s t r o n g surge o f f l u i d (sweeping through the trough and s p i l l i n g over
the c r e s t ) i s b u i l d i n g up,

e.

the f l o w has a l r e a d y s t a r t e d s e p a r a t i n g a t the c r e s t and a new

vortex

s t a r t s t o form,
f.

a j e t ( a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s e p a r a t i o n ) shoots out over the t r o u g h and

has

almost reached the t r o u g h .

F i g u r e 2.2.3B shows the v a r i a t i o n range o f the peak v e l o c i t y as a f u n c t i o n o f


h e i g h t above the c r e s t f o r v a r i o u s t e s t c o n d i t i o n s and r i p p l e dimensions. Both
measurements i n o s c i l l a t i n g u-tubes and o s c i l l a t i n g t r a y r i g s were used.
r i p p l e s were s e l f - f o r m e d n a t u r a l sand r i p p l e s w i t h A,/x ^ 0.7

and

A/x

The
0.17.

As can be observed, the peak v e l o c i t y d i r e c t above the c r e s t i s about 1.5


1.6

to

times as l a r g e as the peak v e l o c i t y o u t s i d e the boundary l a y e r .

F i g u r e 2.2.4A shows v e l o c i t i e s and rms-values above the c r e s t and

trough o f

the sand r i p p l e . Small peaks i n the v e l o c i t i e s can be observed a t a phase o f


about 130

over the c r e s t and

170

over the trough. These peaks correspond t o

the surge i n v e l o c i t y as the v o r t e x i n the l e e o f the c r e s t i s c a r r i e d back


over the c r e s t when the f l o w reverses. The

rms-values are f a i r l y

d u r i n g a c y c l e v a r y i n g i n the range o f 0.1

t o 0.3

constant

. Based on t h i s , i t seems

t h a t the t u r b u l e n c e energy i s dominated by the o v e r a l l r i p p l e geometry r a t h e r


than by l o c a l phenomena. F i g u r e 2.2.4B presents

rms-values averaged over a

complete c y c l e as a f u n c t i o n o f h e i g h t above the bottom showing a maximum J u s t


above the r i p p l e c r e s t l e v e l .
F i g u r e 2.2.4C shows an example o f r e s u l t s when t h e r e i s i n t e n s e sediment motion
(600 ym perspex beads). The

bed was

f l a t except close to the moment o f r e v e r s a l .

At t h i s p o i n t i n the c y c l e v o r t e x f o r m a t i o n appeared t o occur t h r o w i n g up


o f sediment from the bed.
a l a y e r o f about 20 mm

For the most p a r t the moving sediment was

t h i c k w i t h c l e a r water immediately

t h i s l a y e r appeared l a m i n a r . The

above. The

clouds

confined

to

f l o w above

v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n , as shown i n F i g . 2.2.40,

i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t f o r a smooth bed i n laminar f l o w . I n the


l a t t e r case the maximum v e l o c i t y occurs a t 6z = 2 . 3

and

i s 7% g r e a t e r than U^.

The measurements above the l a y e r w i t h perspex beads show an overshoot o f n o t


more than 4^ a t 3z ^ 60. The phase l a g i s about 20,

whereas f o r a smooth bed

i n laminar f l o w the phase l a g i s nowhere g r e a t e r than 1. These d i f f e r e n c e s


be caused by the low-amplitude
and

r i p p l e s obscured by the l a y e r o f moving beads

by the v o r t e x f o r m a t i o n a t the end o f each h a l f c y c l e .

may

-2.11-

DuToit and S l e a t h ( 1 9 8 1 ) compared measured v e l o c i t i e s and computed v e l o c i t i e s


o f t h e models o f K a j i u r a ( 1 9 6 8 ) , Bakker ( 1 9 7 4 ) and S l e a t h ( 1 9 7 4 ) . The model o f
S l e a t h , which i s a numerical s o l u t i o n o f a 2 D V - v o r t i c i t y e q u a t i o n w i t h c o n s t a n t
v i s c o s i t y , produced t h e best agreement. The model o f K a j i u r a produced t h e l e a s t
good r e s u l t . I t should be noted, however, t h a t t h e models o f K a j i u r a ' a n d Bakker
a r e o n l y v a l i d f o r plane bed f l o w s , w h i l e the measurements r e f e r t o a r i p p l e d
bed.

Another i n f o r m a t i v e e x p e r i m e n t a l study r e l a t e d t o o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w over a


r i p p l e d bed has been performed by Sato e t a l . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . The experiments were
performed i n an o s c i l l a t o r y water t u n n e l . V e l o c i t i e s above symmetrical and
asymmetrical

r i p p l e s were measured w i t h s p l i t h o t - f i l m sensors under c o n d i -

t i o n s o f both s i n u s o i d a l and asymmetrical

o s c i l l a t i n g f l o w . The a r t i f i c i a l

r i p p l e s , which c o n s i s t e d o f cement mortar, were copied from

self-generated

sand r i p p l e s .
F i g u r e 2.2.5A shows t h e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e equiphase mean v e l o c i t y ,
Reynolds s t r e s s e s and mean pressures

i n a h a l f p e r i o d . The f l o w i s seen t o be

l o c a l l y a c c e l e r a t e d above a r i p p l e c r e s t and d e c e l e r a t e d above a t r o u g h . The


Reynolds s t r e s s i s l a r g e i n t h e r e g i o n o f t h e l e e v o r t e x . As t h e v o r t e x i s
e j e c t e d upwards, t h e r e g i o n o f h i g h t u r b u l e n c e moves w i t h i t and then

diffuses.

F i g u r e 2,2.5B shows t h e time h i s t o r y o f t h e mean v e l o c i t y h o r i z o n t a l (U) and


v e r t i c a l (W) components and t h e t u r b u l e n t q u a n t i t i e s ( u ' ) 2 and (w')2 and u'w'
i n p o i n t s a t 0.03 m above a r i p p l e c r e s t and a r i p p l e t r o u g h ( p e r i o d = 4 s ) .
The p l o t t e d values r e p r e s e n t r e s u l t s averaged over 30 p e r i o d s . Coherent v o r t i c e s began t o be formed i n t h e l e e s i d e o f t h e r i p p l e when t h e v e l o c i t y o f
the main f l o w reached i t s maximum. These v o r t i c e s continued

t o develop u n t i l

they were e j e c t e d a f t e r f l o w r e v e r s a l . The e j e c t e d v o r t i c e s were t r a n s p o r t e d


over t h e r i p p l e d u r i n g t h e next h a l f p e r i o d . The values o f ( u ' ) 2 and (w' )2
show two peaks i n each h a l f p e r i o d , which corresponds t o t h e passage o f two
v o r t i c e s c r e a t e d i n t h e l e e s i d e o f t h e nearest and t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g

ripples.

Values o f u'w' above a c r e s t show a s t r o n g peak a c c o r d i n g t o t h e passage o f


the f i r s t v o r t e x b u t they donot show a peak w i t h t h e passage o f t h e second
v o r t e x . I t f o l l o w s t h a t t u r b u l e n c e m a i n t a i n s a coherent

structure just

after

the v o r t e x e j e c t i o n and t h a t , as t h e v o r t e x moves upwards, t u r b u l e n c e decays


and d i f f u s e s away.

-2.12-

F i n a l l y , some f l o w v i s u a l i z a t i o n experiments o f Kaneko and H o n j i ( 1 9 7 9 ) and


H o n j i e t a l ( 1 9 8 0 ) a r e r e p o r t e d . Steady laminar
A

v o r t i c e s were generated above

<

r i p p l e s i n case A^/X << 1 ( s t a n d i n g v o r t i c e s ) . Large s e p a r a t i o n

v o r t i c e s were

found f o r A^/X 1 . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were observed by Soulsby e t a l ( 1 9 8 3 ) i n


f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s u s i n g an underwater camera.
T h e o r e t i c a l models
Neglecting

convective

a c c e l e r a t i o n s and v e r t i c a l f l u i d v e l o c i t i e s , t h e b a s i c

e q u a t i o n o f motion f o r a f l a t bed,

9t

reads as:

(2.3.12)

p 3x ~ p 3z ~

(
i n which:
U = instantaneous f l u i d v e l o c i t y a t height z
P = i n s t a n t a n e o u s f l u i d pressure a t h e i g h t z
T = i n s t a n t a n e o u s f l u i d shear s t r e s s a t h e i g h t z
V a r i o u s researchers have a p p l i e d Eq. ( 2 . 3 . 1 2 ) t o determine t h e U - v e l o c i t y . The
b a s i c problem i s t o r e l a t e t h e shear s t r e s s t o t h e g r a d i e n t o f t h e v e l o c i t y
( T K dU/dz) v i a some concept. The boundary c o n d i t i o n i s U = U. a t z = 6 .
0
w
The

pressure i n s i d e t h e boundary l a y e r i s assumed t o be equal t o t h a t j u s t

o u t s i d e t h e boundary l a y e r where t h e f l o w i s i r r o t a t i o n a l g i v i n g , - 9P/3x =


p auvat.
0

One o f t h e f i r s t a t t e m p t s t o describe

t h e t u r b u l e n t boundary l a y e r by a mathe-

m a t i c a l model was done by K a j i u r a ( 1 9 6 8 ) . He adopted t h e e d d y - v i s c o s i t y

concept

i n a t h r e e - l a y e r model. I n t h e s m a l l i n n e r l a y e r t h e eddy v i s c o s i t y e was taken


as a c o n s t a n t .
distance

I n t h e o v e r l a p l a y e r e was assumed t o vary l i n e a r l y w i t h t h e

from t h e bed and f i n a l l y E was kept c o n s t a n t a t a c e r t a i n

distance

from t h e bed ( t h e o u t e r l a y e r ) . By use o f t h e equation o f m o t i o n , K a j i u r a


obtained

a rather l a b o r i u s a n a l y t i c a l - n u m e r i c a l s o l u t i o n . Brevik

( 1 9 8 1 ) has

s i m p l i f i e d t h e a n a l y s i s by K a j i u r a by a v o i d i n g t h e i n n e r l a y e r , where e was
kept

constant.

K a j i u r a and B r e v i k t e s t e d t h e i r a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s a g a i n s t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l
work done by Jonsson ( 1 9 6 6 ) , see a l s o Jonsson and Carlsen ( 1 9 7 6 ) , and o b t a i n e d
reasonable agreement. However, t h r e e shortcomings i n K a j i u r a ' s and B r e v i k ' s

-2.13-

t h e o r y must be mentioned: ( i ) they d i d not take i n t o account t h a t the eddy


v i s c o s i t y i s a f u n c t i o n o f time as w e l l as o f the d i s t a n c e from t h e w a l l , ( i i )
the t h i c k n e s s o f the wave boundary l a y e r was a l s o taken as a t i m e - i n d e p e n d e n t
q u a n t i t y , and f i n a l l y

( i i i ) the v a r i a t i o n i n bed shear s t r e s s was assumed t o

be s i n u s o i d a l .

Jonsson and Carlsen

( 1 9 7 6 ) used t h e momentum e q u a t i o n i n t e g r a t e d over t h e

boundary l a y e r t h i c k n e s s and the assumption o f a l o g a r i t h m i c v e l o c i t y

profile

to determine the wave f r i c t i o n f a c t o r f o r a rough w a l l . T h e i r model does,


however, n o t d e s c r i b e the time v a r i a t i o n i n the shear s t r e s s and thus n o t t h e
phase lead o f t h e maximum shear s t r e s s r e l a t i v e t o the maximum v e l o c i t y i n t h e
outer layer.
FredseJe ( 1 9 8 4 ) made f u r t h e r developments along the l i n e o f Jonsson and

Carlsen,

s t i l l u s i n g t h e d e p t h - i n t e g r a t e d momentum equation and a l o g a r i t h m i c v e l o c i t y


p r o f i l e , assuming t h a t t h e f l o w f i e l d i n each h a l f p e r i o d s t a r t s from
Fredseie ( 1 9 8 4 ) used the momentum equation t o c a l c u l a t e the d e t a i l e d
of

rest.

variation

t h e boundary l a y e r t h i c k n e s s and the shear s t r e s s d u r i n g the wave p e r i o d .

The most r e c e n t developments o f mathematical models f o r the wave boundary


l a y e r have mainly been c o n c e n t r a t e d on the a p p l i c a t i o n o f t u r b u l e n c e models t o
d e s c r i b e the d e t a i l s o f t h e f l o w . Some o f the main c o n t r i b u t i o n s are g i v e n i n
t h e f o l l o w i n g . Bakker ( 1 9 7 4 ) used a mixing l e n g t h model t o d e s c r i b e t h e wave
boundary l a y e r , and t h e suspended sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s under waves. A twoe q u a t i o n model was used by Hagetum and E i d s v i k ( 1 9 8 6 ) .

2.3.5

Bed shear s t r e s s and bed

friction

Definition
Waves e x e r t f r i c t i o n f o r c e s a t the bed d u r i n g p r o p a g a t i o n . The bed shear
s t r e s s , which i s i m p o r t a n t f o r wave damping and sediment e n t r a i n m e n t , i s
r e l a t e d t o the f r i c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t by:

^b,w=I^^w"?
i n which:
T.
= instantaneous bed-shear s t e s s
b ,w
f
= friction coefficient
w

(2.3.13)

-2.14-

Ug

= i n s t a n t a n e o u s f l u i d v e l o c i t y Just o u t s i d e boundary l a y e r

= fluid

density

The f r i c t i o n f a c t o r f,, i s assumed t o be constant over t h e wave c y c l e and i s


"
2
determined from t h e peak v a l u e s as: f = 2T, / ( p U J .
w
b, w

The time-averaged (over a wave c y c l e ) bed shear s t r e s s i s :

^b,w - h ' J l

(2.3.14)

Laminar f l o w
I n t h e l a m i n a r range t h e f r i c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t can be determined a n a l y t i c a l l y
from Eq. (2.3.12) a p p l y i n g T = pv dU/dz. T h i s y i e l d s (Jonsson, 1966):

= 2 (
w

(2.3.15)

Smooth t u r b u l e n t f l o w
I n t h e h y d r a u l i c smooth regime Jonsson (1966, 1980) o b t a i n e d from h i s model:

0.25 f--5 + 2 l o g ( 0 . 2 5 f--5) = -1.55 + log(Ug A^/v)

(2.3.16)

Equation (2.3.16) can be approximated by


A

f = 0.09 (

^6

0.2
)

(2.3.17)

K a j i u r a (1968) o b t a i n e d from h i s model:


f-0.5
^

+ l o g ( f - 0 - 5 ) = -0.135 + logiU^ Ag/v)^-^

(2.3.18)

Equation (2.3.18) i s v a l i d f o r U^ A^/X > 10^

Rough t u r b u l e n t f l o w
I n t h e rough t u r b u l e n t regime Jonsson (1966) proposed:
0.25 f--5 + l o g [ 0 . 2 5 f--5] = -0.08 + l o g t A ^ / k g )

(2.3.19)

-2.15-

" i t h f^^, = 0.3

f o r A./kg < 1.57.

Equation (2.3.19) can a l s o be expressed as:


r ^
/6.-0.19
f = e x p [ - 6 + 5 . 2 ( )
J
'^s
w i t h f^n,ax = 0.3

(2.3.20)

f o r Ag/kg < 1.57.

Equations ( 2 . 3 . 1 5 ) , ( 2 . 3 . 1 6 ) , (2.3.19) a r e shown i n F i g . 2.2.6A. Equation


(2.3.20) i s shown i n F i g . 2.2.6B.

Little

i s known about t h e f r i c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n regime.

2.3.6

B r e a k i n g waves

Limiting

steepness

Waves break when t h e wave steepness exceeds a c r i t i c a l v a l u e . A c r i t e r i o n f o r


a horizontal

bottom has been g i v e n by Miche ( 1 9 4 4 ) :

( H / L ) ^ ^ = 0.142 t a n h ( k h )

(2.3.21)

y i e l d i n g a maximum value o f 0.14 f o r deep water.

Miche (1951) a l s o d e r i v e d an e x p r e s s i o n f o r t h e l i m i t i n g (deep w a t e r ) wave


steepness on a s l o p i n g bottom assuming

f u l l reflection

($ = bottom s l o p e an-

gle):

Liiti!2i_y_[}ii!}t_2" ^ h o r i z o n t a l

bottom

The l i m i t i n g wave h e i g h t corresponds t o t h e maximum wave h e i g h t a t t h e c r e s t


J u s t b e f o r e b r e a k i n g . Miche (1944) computed t h e l i m i t i n g wave h e i g h t on a h o r i z o n t a l bed from a Stokes wave s o l u t i o n by assuming

t h a t b r e a k i n g occurs when

the f l u i d v e l o c i t y a t the c r e s t equals t h e wave p r o p a g a t i o n v e l o c i t y ,


for

yielding

s h a l l o w water ( k h << 1 ) :
"br

Y =

= 0.88

(2.3.23)

-2.16-

Since Stokes waves a r e s y m m e t r i c a l , Equation

( 2 . 3 . 2 3 ) represents a s p i l l i n g

b r e a k i n g wave.
For a s o l i t a r y shallow-water wave the t h e o r e t i c a l l i m i t i n g v a l u e i s :
H
Y =

(2.3.24)

= 0.78

Based on t h e a n a l y s i s o f flume t e s t s w i t h r e g u l a r and i r r e g u l a r waves over a


h o r i z o n t a l bottom,

i t was found t h a t (Nelson,

1983):

"br
< 0.55

Y =

(2.3.25)

L i m i t i n g wave h e i g h t on_a s l o p i n g bed


Nelson (1983) a l s o found t h a t bottom slopes as s m a l l as 0.01 (1:100) a f f e c t
the wave mechanics s u f f i c i e n t l y t o i n c r e a s e t h e Hj^j^/h-parameter f o r i n d i v i d u a l
waves.
The wave motion on a plane s l o p i n g bed i s mainly determined

by t h e bottom

s l o p e ( t a n g ) , t h e i n c i d e n t wave h e i g h t (H) j u s t b e f o r e b r e a k i n g , t h e wave period

(T) and t h e g r a v i t y a c c e l e r a t i o n ( g ) g i v i n g two dimensionless

parameters:

tang and H/(gT2). The l a t t e r parameter u s u a l l y i s expressed as H/L^ w i t h


= gTV2TT.

Waves r e f l e c t r a t h e r than break when t h e bed slope i s r a t h e r l a r g e ( f u l l r e f l e c t i o n a g a i n s t a v e r t i c a l w a l l ) . When t h e bottom slope 6 decreases beneath a
c e r t a i n c r i t i c a l v a l u e , t h e waves become u n s t a b l e and break.
A common b r e a k i n g c r i t e r i o n i s :
"
fcan6_
^
(H/L^)0-5

(2.3.26)

G e n e r a l l y , t h r e e types o f breaking waves a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d :

s u r g i n g breaker

i n case o f f l a t i n c i d e n t waves and a l a r g e bed s l o p e ; t h e

amount o f b r e a k i n g i s s m a l l and occurs c l o s e t o t h e s h o r e l i n e , r e f l e c t i o n


i s l a r g e (2 < c < 2 . 3 ) ,

p l u n g i n g breaker when t h e wave steepness i s l a r g e r o r t h e bed steepness


i s s m a l l e r ; a c u r l i n g j e t i s generated

p l u n g i n g i n t h e wave t r o u g h ahead

accompanied by l a r g e t u r b u l e n c e p r o d u c t i o n ( F i g . 2.3.IA) and a f o r w a r d


marching bore a f t e r b r e a k i n g (0.4 < ^ < 2 ) ,

s p i l l i n g b r e a k i n g i n case o f r e l a t i v e l y steep waves and/or a r e l a t i v e l y

flat

bed; t h e water s u r f a c e near t h e c r e s t s p i l l s as t h e wave c r e s t sharpens w i t h

-2.17-

t h e decrease i n water depths; b r e a k i n g occurs a t a g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e o f f s h o r e


where t h e wave c r e s t i s s t i l l symmetric and i s accompanied by t h e g e n e r a t i o n
of

a foamy r o l l e r a t the wave f r o n t w h i l e t h e wave t r o u g h ahead i s n o t v i s i -

. b l y d i s t u r b e d ( 5 < 0.4).

Plunging breakers show s t r o n g mixing p r o p e r t i e s ( F i g . 2 . 3 . I A ) , During


a J e t i s generated

breaking

which s t r i k e s upon t h e forward slope o f t h e wave g e n e r a t i n g

a s e r i e s o f eddies t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e r a p i d decay o f t h e wave ( F i g . 2.3.1 A).


Each eddy moves f o r w a r d and downward upto t h e bottom y i e l d i n g a s t r o n g m i x i n g
process.

The f o r w a r d v e l o c i t y o f t h e eddies i s s m a l l e r than t h e wave ( b o r e )

v e l o c i t y and t h e r e f o r e t h e eddies move toward the back o f t h e wave where they


expand under escape o f t h e e n t r a i n e d a i r bubbles which r i s e t o t h e s u r f a c e .
This process e v e n t u a l l y transforms i n t o a bore t h a t moves upto t h e shore.
waves may be generated
to

New

and go through t h e breaking process a g a i n , b u t c l o s e r

t h e shore.

S p i l l i n g breakers have l e s s e f f e c t i v e mixing p r o p e r t i e s because o f t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s c a l e eddies, which a r e c o n f i n e d t o t h e near-water

surface region

and donot extend much below the trough l e v e l .

Wave h e i g h t s o f i n d i v i d u a l b r e a k i n g waves i n f i e l d

c o n d i t i o n s (y = Hj^^/h) a r e

g i v e n by Kana (1979):

S p i l l i n g breakers

T r a n s i t i o n a l breakers:
Plunging breakers

y = 0.55 - 0.65
y = 0.65 - 0.75

: -y = 0.75 - 0.90

W i t h i n each range t h e y-values were found t o depend on t h e l o c a l bottom


A l a r g e r bottom slope y i e l d s a l a r g e r breaker h e i g h t .
In flumes t h e f o l l o w i n g values have been observed:

Spilling

Plunging

breakers:

breakers:

= 0.65

for

slope 1 :20

0.60

for

slope 1 40

= 0.55

for

slope 1 60

0.90

for

slope 1 20

= 0.80

for

slope 1. 40

for

slope 1: 60

0.70

slope.

-2.18-

B a t t j e s (1974) r e l a t e d the y - r a t i o t o t h e ^-parameter. Based on t h e a n a l y s i s


of f i e l d

and flume d a t a , t h e f o l l o w i n g values a r e g i v e n :

0.8

for

K < 0.2

0.9

for

1.0

for

1.1

for

0.4

0.6

1 < 5 < 2.

Basd on t h e a n a l y s i s o f l a b o r a t o r y experiments w i t h r e g u l a r waves and plane


s l o p i n g bottoms, Weggel (1972) found:
1.56
[1 . e-^9.5 t a n B j
with

43.8
2Tr [ 1

-19

tanBn

\v

(2.3.27)

L
o

= g T /2iT = wave l e n g t h a t deep water.

Equation (2.3.27) y i e l d s y = 0.78 f o r tang = 0,

Regular waves break on a plane beach a t e s s e n t i a l l y a s i n g l e l o c a t i o n ( b r e a k e r


l i n e ) w i t h an almost c o n s t a n t breaker h e i g h t .
In case o f i r r e g u l a r random waves t h e r e i s no w e l l - d e f i n e d b r e a k p o i n t f o r r a n dom waves: the l a r g e s t waves tend t o break f a r t h e s t o f f s h o r e and t h e s m a l l e r
waves break c l o s e r t o t h e shore r e s u l t i n g i n a s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b r e a k i n g , broken and unbroken waves. A mean b r e a k e r l i n e can be d e f i n e d as t h e
l o c a t i o n where t h e wave h e i g h t (H^ o r H^) i s maximum.
Thornton e t a l (1984) present c r i t e r i a f o r random b r e a k i n g waves based on
field

and l a b o r a t o r y data. From t h e i r r e s u l t s t h e f o l l o w i n g y-values have been

d e r i v e d , showing t h a t steep waves break more e a s i l y than f l a t waves.

l i m i t i n g wave h e i g h t
wave steepness
Hs,o/Ls,o = 0.002
0.004

tang =
Yg

~-

^
0.6

1
tan$ = 2

tan6 =
y

- 0.8

- 0.6

^s -~
- 0.7

0.006

- 0.6

= 0.7

- 0.8

0.01

- 0.6

- 0.7

- 0.8

0.02

- 0,5

<^ 0.65

- 0.8

0.04

- 0.4

- 0.55

- 0.7

0.06

- 0,35

- 0.5

- 0.7

- 0.8

-2.19-

Yg

b r ' ^ \ r " ^^^^^^^ c o e f f i c i e n t r e l a t e d t o s i g n i f i c a n t wave h e i g h t

" s , b r " s i g n i f i c a n t wave h e i g h t a t b r e a k e r l i n e (maximum wave h e i g h t )


Hg Q = s i g n i f i c a n t wave h e i g h t a t deep water
Lg^Q

= s i g n i f i c a n t wave l e n g t h a t deep water

hj^j,

= water depth a t b r e a k e r l i n e

tang

= bottom slope

Thornton - Guza (1982) and S a l l e n g e r - Howd (1989) s t a t e t h a t i n t h e s u r f zone


Yc

(o""

Y^mc.)

"ins

i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y constant and independent o f t h e o f f s h o r e wave

c o n d i t i o n s because n e a r l y a l l waves are b r e a k i n g i n t h e s u r f zone (wave energy


saturation).

Thornton and Guza (1982) r e p o r t f i e l d measurements on a s l o p i n g bottom o f 1:50.


They observed a l i m i t i n g breaker h e i g h t ( i n terms o f t h e rms wave h e i g h t ) o f
Yv.mo

~ 0.4 ( y = 0.55) f o r s p i l l i n g breakers. S a l l e n g e r and Howd (1989) r e p o r t

Yv,,o

- 0.3 ( y ^ - 0.45) f o r a l o c a l bottom slope o f tang ^ 0.03 and


s
0.55) f o r tang - 0.6.

rms
(YC

rms

- 0.4

H o t t a and Mizuguchi (1980) d i d d e t a i l e d wave h e i g h t measurements i n t h e s u r f zone w i t h a s l o p i n g bottom ( v a r y i n g from 1:100 t o 1:50). Wave h e i g h t s were measured s i m u l t a n e o u s l y over a d i s t a n c e o f about 100 m w i t h space i n t e r v a l s o f
2 m. The b r e a k e r l i n e (maximum wave h e i g h t ) was about 100 m o f f s h o r e . They found
an a l m o s t c o n s t a n t r a t i o y

- H

/h

0.7 i n the r e g i o n where t h e water depth

was c o n t i n u o u s l y d e c r e a s i n g , i n d i c a t i n g f u l l y energy-satured waves. The s i g n i f i c a n t wave p e r i o d Tg was a l s o c o n s t a n t i n t h i s zone.


The v a l u e s o f Thornton-Guza (1982) and Hotta-Mizuguchi (1980) a r e r e a s o n a b l y
i n agreement w i t h the c r i t e r i a o f Thornton e t a l (see T a b l e ) .

2.3.7

Mass t r a n s p o r t i n non-breaking waves

Non-viscous

o s c i l l a t o r y flow

Stokes (1847) f i r s t p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e f l u i d p a r t i c l e s do n o t d e s c r i b e
e x a c t l y c l o s e d o r b i t a l t r a j e c t o r i e s i n case o f r e a l s m a l l - a m p l i t u d e s u r f a c e
waves p r o p a g a t i n g i n a p e r f e c t non-viscous ( i r r o t a t i o n a l ) o s c i l l a t o r y

flow.

Real waves mean n o n - s i n u s o i d a l waves. The p a r t i c l e s have a second-order mean


Lagrangian v e l o c i t y ( c a l l e d "Stokes" d r i f t ) i n the d i r e c t i o n o f wave propagat i o n . I t r e s u l t s from the f a c t t h a t t h e h o r i z o n t a l o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y i n c r e a s e s
w i t h h e i g h t ( z ) above the bed. Consequently, a p a r t i c l e a t t h e t o p o f an o r b i t

-2.20-

beneath a wave c r e s t moves f a s t e r i n the forward d i r e c t i o n than i t does i n the


backward d i r e c t i o n a t the bottom o f the o r b i t beneath a wave t r o u g h . By

defi-

n i t i o n t h e l a g r a n g i a n Stokes d r i f t cannot be d e t e c t e d by t a k i n g measurement a t


a fixed
The

point.

i n s t a n t a n e o u s h o r i z o n t a l Stokes d r i f t

(U^) o f a water p a r t i c l e w i t h a mean

p o s i t i o n o f x.^ and z.^ i s U^(x.j + a, z^j + $) where a and


of

3 are the c o o r d i n a t e s

the p a r t i c l e p o s i t i o n on the t r a j e c t o r y . An a p p r i x i m a t i o n o f U i s :

U^(x^ + a, z., + e) = U(x^,

+ " I f + e 1^

(2.3.28)

A p p l y i n g l i n e a r wave t h e o r y , and averaging over the wave p e r i o d , y i e l d s ( F i g .


2.3.2A):

g(z) ^ I . k H ^
i n which:
0

oosh[2k(z-h)]

(2.3.29)

^ i " h (^h)

= Stokes d r i f t v e l o c i t y ( r a t i o of net h o r i z o n t a l displacement

and wave

period)
u) = 2/T = wave frequency
k

= 2TT/L = wave number

= v e r t i c a l c o o r d i n a t e ( p o s i t i v e downwards from mean water

At the bed

(z=h)

level)

, 2
: 0 =
'^-^
^
8 s i n h (kh)

At the s u r f a c e ( z = 0 ) : 0

= ^ k
^

(2.3.30)

cosh(2kh)

(2.3.31)

8 s i n h (kh)

For waves p r o p a g a t i n g i n a h o r i z o n t a l l y unbounded domain the d e p t h - i n t e g r a t e d


mass f l u x (m^/s) i s :
M

= / 0 ( z ) dz - "
3inh(2kh) ^ o j h !
h
16 s i n h (kh)

in

which:

__ g _

(2.3.32)

C = (g/T)/(2Tr c o t h ( k h ) ) = wave c e l e r i t y
Equation

(2.3.32) reduces t o M

= oj

f o r deep water

(kh >> 1 ) .

For waves p r o p a g a t i n g i n a h o r i z o n t a l l y bounded domain i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o


impose a c o n d i t i o n o f zero mass f l u x a t each l o c a t i o n ( x ) , y i e l d i n g (see F i g .
2.3.2A):

-2.21-

gC^) =
'^^Z
[eosh{2k(.-h)} - ^ ^ ^ f p i ]
^
8 sinh'^(kh)
2kh
Equation ( 2 . 3 . 3 3 )

(2.3.33)

can be seen as the sum o f the f o r w a r d Stokes d r i f t and an

u n i f o r m r e t u r n f l o w . The g e n e r a t i o n o f a p o s i t i v e mass f l u x near t h e s u r f a c e


and a n e g a t i v e f l u x near the bottom r e q u i r e s t h e presence o f a h o r i z o n t a l
pressure g r a d i e n t (shear s t r e s s e s a r e absent i n a non-viscous f l o w ) caused by
a " s e t - u p " o f t h e f r e e s u r f a c e towards the coast ( s i m i l a r t o wind s e t - u p ) .

The mass-flux ( m V s ) a t a f i x e d l o c a t i o n ( x ) i n an unbounded domain can a l s o


be determined i n an E u l e r i a n way, as f o l l o w s :

Mg = T
in

^
h

(2.3.34)

"(^'^^

which:

U = instantaneous h o r i z o n t a l v e l o c i t y a t height z
n = water s u r f a c e displacement from t h e mean s u r f a c e l e v e l

Below t h e wave t r o u g h t h e time-averaged value o f t h e h o r i z o n t a l v e l o c i t i e s i s


z e r o . However, i n t h e r e g i o n between the wave c r e s t and t r o u g h t h e r e i s an
asymmetry o f the h o r i z o n t a l v e l o c i t y i n d i c a t i n g t h a t more f l u i d moves i n t h e
wave d i r e c t i o n under the c r e s t than i n t h e t r o u g h r e g i o n .
For s m a l l - a m p l i t u d e waves Eq. ( 2 . 3 . 3 4 )

yields:

g
"e = 8 C ~

Consequently,

(2.3.35)

t h e t o t a l mass-flux i n an unbounded domain i s :

(2.3.36)

" = "s = ^e = ^

Dalrymple ( 1 9 7 6 ) has presented i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e


E u l e r i a n m a s s - t r a n s p o r t v e l o c i t i e s i n the r e g i o n between t h e wave c r e s t and
t r o u g h , as shown i n F i g . 2.3.2B.

v i s c o u s and t u r b u l e n t o s c i l l a t o r y
Longuet-Higgens

flow

( 1 9 5 3 ) has shown t h a t f o r r e a l f l u i d s w i t h v i s c o s i t y v t h e r e

i s a time-averaged n e t downward t r a n s f e r o f momentum i n t o t h e boundary

layer

by v i s c o u s d i f f u s i o n ( v 3U/3z) causing a mean E u l e r i a n f l o w (0^) i n a d d i t i o n

-2,22-

t o t h e Stokes d r i f t

(0 ) . The mean E u l e r i a n f l o w can be seen as t h e mean


s
v e l o c i t y o f the o r b i t centers.
The t o t a l mass t r a n s p o r t v e l o c i t y (0^) i s d e f i n e d , a s :

m = e - ^ = ^ . f

J U d t . f f

f V d t

(2,3.37)

For l a m i n a r f l o w i n t h e boundary l a y e r Longuet-Higgens

(see Russel and

O s o r i o , 1957) d e r i v e d :

(,) .

- k H^

^ ^ ^ ( ^ / ^ ^ ^ 3^-2z/6j

(2,3.38)

16 sinh'^(kh)
i n which:
6 = (2v/a))0'^ = t h i c k n e s s o f l a m i n a r boundary l a y e r

Equation ( 2 . 3 . 3 8 ) , shown i n F i g , 2.3,3A, has a maximum v a l u e


k H2
(US)'
;
= 1.376 -
4 sinh'^(kh)
0)

Om,max = 1-376

(2.3.39)

For z/6 ^ 0, E q u a t i o n (2.3.38) y i e l d s :


5

0) k H^

1^ s i n h 2 ( k h )

5 (Ufi)^
^

in which:
Ug = peak v a l u e o f o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y J u s t o u t s i d e boundary
C

= wave c e l e r i t y

layer

(w/k)

Assuming z e r o mass f l u x over t h e f u l l water depth, Longuet-Higgens

(1953)

derived:
2
(z) = 0 (z) + 0^(z) =
^ g
F(z/h)
^

8 sinh'^(kh)

(2.3.41)
2

F(z/h) = c o s h { 2 k ( z - h ) } + 1 + 1 ^ s i n h { ( 2 k h ) ( 3 ^

" ^ f + D) +

The f u n c t i o n F(z/h) i s shown i n F i g . 2.3.3B f o r some v a l u e s o f kh. E q u a t i o n


( 2 . 3 . 4 1 ) can be seen as t h e sum o f t h e f o r w a r d Stokes d r i f t

(Eq. ( 2 . 3 . 2 9 ) ) and

-2.23-

a parabolic v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n . This l a t t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n gives a forward


f l o w a t the bottom and a backward f l o w a t mid-depth.

Equation

(2.3.41) i s v a l i d f o r H < 26, y i e l d i n g a wave h e i g h t range t h a t i s o f

l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l i n t e r e s t . Based on a comparison w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l
(Russel and Osorio,

results

1957), f a i r l y good p r e d i c t i o n s are o b t a i n e d f o r 0.7

< kh <

1.5.

At t h e bottom
1

(z=h) Equation

) k

1 (Ufij^

" sinh2(kh)
3

(2.3.41) y i e l d s (see a l s o F i g . 2.3.3B):

k
3 ("5)'
=
;
--l-^
16 s i n h 2 ( k h ) ^
0
)

) k H2

16 s i n h 2 ( k h )

(2.3.44)

5 (Ufi)^
^

For o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w i n an unbounded domain the E u l e r i a n

mass-transport

v e l o c i t y (due t o v i s c o s i t y e f f e c t s ) can be d e s c r i b e d by ( C r a i c k ,
2
= TZ "
+ ^ 0) k2 H2(h-z) c o t h ( k h )
^6 s i n h 2 ( k h )
2

Equation

1982):

(2.3.46)

(2.3.46) i s shown i n F i g . 2.3.2A f o r kh = 1.

The d e p t h - i n t e g r a t e d mass-flux i s :
M = /
h

(0

. 0 )dz = J " ^
^

+
h

cosh(2k(z-h)} ^ f
8 sinh2(kh)

^ ) k

= H " ^ ^6

. k H2

sinh2(kh)

H'^(h-z) c o t h ( k h )

" ^2
+
s i n h (kh)

Longuet-Higgens a l s o showed t h a t Eq.


mass-transport

k2 h2 H2 c o t h ( k h )

(2.3.47)

(2.3.45) can be used t o d e s c r i b e the

v e l o c i t y j u s t o u t s i d e the boundary l a y e r i n case o f t u r b u l e n t

smooth o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w . T h i s was

confirmed by Johns (1970). For t u r b u l e n t

-2.24-

c o n d i t i o n s the v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i n s i d e the boundary l a y e r i s d i f f e r e n t


from Eq.

( 2 . 3 . 3 8 ) because the t u r b u l e n t (eddy) v i s c o s i t y d i f f e r s from the

molecular v i s c o s i t y .

I n f o r m a t i o n o f the mass-transport v e l o c i t i e s i n t u r b u l e n t

rough c o n d i t i o n s i s r a t h e r scarce. Some computed r e s u l t s o f Breaker Hedegaard


(1985)

are shown i n F i g . 2.3.4B.

F i n a l l y , some measuring r e s u l t s are presented. Figure 2.3.4A shows measured


E u l e r i a n mass-transport v e l o c i t i e s f o r o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w over a smooth bottom
i n a l a b o r a t o r y channel (Borghel,

1982).

The

measurements were made i n f i x e d

p o i n t s u s i n g a Laser Doppler v e l o c i t y meter. Comparison w i t h the mass-transp o r t v e l o c i t i e s o f Longuet-Higgens shows reasonable r e s u l t s .


F i g u r e 2 . 3 . 4 C presents measured r e s i d u a l E u l e r i a n v e l o c i t i e s f o r s i n u s o i d a l
o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w over a-symmetrical r i p p l e , showing a p a i r o f c i r c u l a t i o n
c e l l s . These p a t t e r n s seem t o be s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the f o r m a t i o n o f l e e
vortices.

B i j k e r e t a l ( 1 9 7 4 ) confirmed the presence o f d r i f t v e l o c i t i e s

as

proposed by Longuet-Higgens. However, the measured v e l o c i t i e s were found t o be


considerably

smaller

than the t h e o r e t i c a l values. B i j k e r e t a l concluded

the near-bed d r i f t v e l o c i t i e s on a s l o p i n g bottom ( i n the range o f 1:10


1:40)

are determined by the l o c a l depth r a t h e r than the slope a n g l e .

r e s u l t s a l s o show a considerable

that
to

Their

r e d u c t i o n o f the near-bed d r i f t v e l o c i t y when

r i p p l e s are p r e s e n t on the bottom.

2.3.8

Mass t r a n s p o r t by b r e a k i n g

waves

Breaking waves generate a net c u r r e n t i n longshore d i r e c t i o n


r e n t ) and

in offshore direction

H e r e i n , the a t t e n t i o n

(longshore

cur-

(undertow).

i s focussed on the undertow. The

measurements o f Nadaoka

e t a l ( 1 9 8 2 ) and S t i v e ( I 9 8 O ) u s i n g a Laser Doppler v e l o c i t y meter i n flume


c o n d i t i o n s c l e a r l y show the g e n e r a t i o n

of offshore-directed v e l o c i t i e s

the breaker zone, see F i g . 2 . 3 . 5 A . The

measured v e l o c i t i e s o f Nadaoka e t a l

represent

time-averaged values o f 70 wave c y c l e s . The

inside

measured mean v e l o c i t i e s

above the wave t r o u g h are based on the assumption o f z e r o - v e l o c i t y d u r i n g


p e r i o d t h a t the measuring l o c a t i o n was
analyzed the time v a r i a t i o n s

the

above the water s u r f a c e . They a l s o

o f the v e l o c i t i e s showing a s t r o n g

asymmetric

m o t i o n w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e v e l o c i t i e s o f s h o r t d u r a t i o n i n onshore d i r e c t i o n
and

r e l a t i v e l y small v e l o c i t i e s of long duration i n offshore

direction.

-2.25-

Above t h e trough l e v e l there i s a n e t mass t r a n s p o r t i n onshore d i r e c t i o n .


According t o a f i r s t order approximation,

the mass t r a n s p o r t above t h e t r o u g h

l e v e l can be estimated as:

M =

(2.3.48)

Applying

c = (gh)*^"^ i n shallow water, i t f o l l o w s t h a t :

Assuming no n e t f l o w over the depth, t h e r e t u r n f l o w , which i s a l s o c a l l e d t h e


undertow, below t h e trough l e v e l i s given by (see F i g . 2.3.5):

".off

= I

\ '

(3.3.50,

Taking h^ ^ 0.8 h, i t f o l l o w s t h a t :

"m,off = 0-15 g-^


2.4

(2.3.5I)

Combined c u r r e n t and waves

2.4.1

Introduction

When waves propagate i n t o shallower

waters near coasts they may encounter

r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g c u r r e n t s which a f f e c t t h e wave c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h e c u r r e n t
v e l o c i t i e s and t h e bed-shear s t r e s s e s .
Herein,

t h e main a t t e n t i o n i s focussed on t h e l a t t e r two phenomena. M o d i f i -

c a t i o n o f wave h e i g h t by t h e c u r r e n t e f f e c t i s n o t s t u d i e d ,

2.4.2

Wave c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s

E s p e c i a l l y , opposing c u r r e n t s have a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e by steepening t h e


waves even t o t h e p o i n t o f breaking

( B r e v i k and Aas, 1980). A f o l l o w i n g c u r -

r e n t e n l a r g e s t h e wave trough and thereby

t h e wave l e n g t h and reduces t h e wave

h e i g h t ( B r e v i k and Aas, 1980).

Although t h e wave h e i g h t and l e n g t h may change, t h e wave p e r i o d remains u n a l tered r e l a t i v e t o a stationnary coordinate

system. L i n e a r wave t h e o r y can be

-2.26-

a p p l i e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o a c o o r d i n a t e system moving w i t h t h e c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y
(Jonsson e t a l , 1970). I n t h a t case the wave l e n g t h remains c o n s t a n t and t h e
wave p e r i o d i s a l t e r e d : l a r g e r f o r a f o l l o w i n g c u r r e n t ( u > 0) and s m a l l e r f o r
an opposing c u r r e n t ( < 0 ) .
A g e n e r a l e x p r e s s i o n f o r t h e wave p e r i o d (T^) r e l a t i v e t o t h e moving c o o r d i n a t e
system i s :
= { - ^
)T
1- cos(|)/C

(2.4.1)

i n which:
= depth-averaged c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y
4) = angle between c u r r e n t and wave d i r e c t i o n (ij) = 0 f o r f o l l o w i n g , and
(J) = 180 f o r opposing)
C = wave p r o p a g a t i o n v e l o c i t y
T = a b s o l u t e wave p e r i o d

2.4.3

1.

C u r r e n t v e l o c i t i e s and bed-shear s t r e s s e s

Experimental r e s u l t s
Laboratory experiments show a d i s t i n c t i n f l u e n c e o f t h e waves on t h e c u r rent velocity

profile.

Bakker and van Doorn (1978) measured (LDV) mean v e l o c i t i e s f o r r e g u l a r


waves and a f o l l o w i n g c u r r e n t over a h y d r a u l i c rough bed c o n s i s t i n g o f
brass T - p r o f i l e s ( h e i g h t = 2 mm, spacing = 15 mm) placed i n a wave flume
( l e n g t h = 30 m, w i d t h = 0.5 m, h e i g h t = 0.5 m). I n a l l experiments t h e
s t i l l water depth was 0.3 m, t h e wave p e r i o d was 2 seconds and t h e wave
h e i g h t a t t h e measuring l o c a t i o n was 0.12 m. T h e i r r e s u l t s a r e shown i n
F i g u r e 2.4.1, i n d i c a t i n g reduced v e l o c i t i e s near t h e bed and water s u r f a c e
and i n c r e a s e d v e l o c i t i e s a t i n t e r m e d i a t e depths due t o t h e presence o f
waves. These e f f e c t s seem t o be somewhat l a r g e r f o r a weak c u r r e n t ( =
0.083 m/s) than f o r a s t r o n g c u r r e n t ( = 0.21 m/s).

Kemp and Simons (1982, 1983) measured mean v e l o c i t i e s i n r e g u l a r waves


w i t h f o l l o w i n g and opposing c u r r e n t s over a smooth bed and over a rough
bed (5 mm h i g h t r i a n g u l a r s t r i p s spaced a t 18 mm). The experiments were
performed i n a wave flume ( l e n g t h = 14.5 m, w i d t h - 0.46 m, h e i g h t = 0.70
m) w i t h wave g e n e r a t i o n by a bottom-hinged paddle. Considerable a t t e n t i o n

-2.27-

was

g i v e n t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an optimum i n - and o u t f l o w o f the

cur-

r e n t . The s t i l l water depth was 0.2 m and the wave p e r i o d was 1 sec. The
r e l a t i v e wave h e i g h t s

(H/h)

were i n the range 0.1 t o 0.25.

Figure 2.4.2

p r e s e n t the r e s u l t s o f Kemp and Simons. Some r e s u l t s were o n l y

reported

qualitatively.
The

f o l l o w i n g phenomena can be observed:

following current:
smooth bed

rough bed

increased

v e l o c i t i e s near the bed

reduced v e l o c i t i e s near the water

l a r g e r e f f e c t f o r higher waves

reduced v e l o c i t i e s near the bed and water

increased

surface

v e l o c i t i e s a t intermediate

surface

depths

opposing c u r r e n t :
smooth and rough bed

reduced v e l o c i t i e s near the bed

increased

v e l o c i t i e s near the

l a r g e r e f f e c t f o r higher waves

surface

Kemp and Simons a l s o determined the c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed-shear s t r e s s (x,


)
b ,G
and

the e f f e c t i v e roughness (kg) by p l o t t i n g the v e l o c i t i e s measured i n t h e

lower l a y e r on a s e m i - l o g a r i t h m i c

s c a l e . The c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed-shear

s t r e s s f o r a combination o f waves and c u r r e n t was a f a c t o r 2 t o 3 l a r g e r


than f o r a c u r r e n t a l o n e . The e f f e c t i v e roughness f o r waves w i t h an oppos i n g c u r r e n t was 0.18 m, which was as l a r g e as the water d e p t h ( ! ) ,

while

t h a t f o r a c u r r e n t alone was 0.025 m. The bed roughness i n combined c u r r e n t


and waves should be i n t e r p r e t e d an apparent bed roughness (k) because i t
l a r g e l y r e f l e c t s f l o w r e s i s t a n c e due t o pressure f o r c e s generated by t h e
s t r o n g v o r t i c e s moving forward and backward over the roughness elements.
T h e r e f o r e , t h i s k^-value aannot be r e l a t e d t o the g e o m e t r i c a l

properties

o f the roughness elements.


Mieuwjaar-Van der K a a i j (1987) and Nap-Van Kampen (1988) measured
averaged v e l o c i t i e s u s i n g an e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c

time-

v e l o c i t y meter i n i r r e g u l a r

waves over a ( n a t u r a l ) r i p p l e d bed w i t h f o l l o w i n g and opposing c u r r e n t s .

-2.28-

The experiments were performed i n a wave flume ( l e n g t h = 45 m, w i d t h

=0.8

m and depth = 1 m). The h e i g h t and l e n g t h o f the sand r i p p l e s were r e s p .


0.02 m and 0.15 m. The wave h e i g h t s were i n the range o f H^/h = 0.15-0.35.
The peak p e r i o d o f the waves was about Tp = 2.5 s. The f l u i d v e l o c i t i e s i n
each p o i n t were averaged over time (= 256 s) and over space (= 0.6

m).

Space-averaging was performed by moving the measuring c a r r i a d g e on t o p o f


the flume s l o w l y f o r w a r d and backward d u r i n g t h e measuring p e r i o d .
The r e s u l t s o f Nieuwjaar-Van der KaaiJ are shown i n F i g u r e 2.4.3
wing c u r r e n t ) and i n F i g u r e 2.4.4

(follo-

(opposing c u r r e n t ) . The c u r r e n t

velocity

p r o f i l e i n case o f a c u r r e n t alone i s also shown.


The f o l l o w i n g phenomena can be observed.

following

current:

reduced v e l o c i t i e s near the bed ( z / h < 0.2)

reduced v e l o c i t i e s near the water s u r f a c e ( z / h > 0.6)

increased v e l o c i t i e s a t i n t e r m e d i a t e depths

most pronounced e f f e c t i n case o f a weak c u r r e n t and h i g h waves

opposing c u r r e n t :

reduced v e l o c i t i e s near the bed (z/h < 0.4)

increased v e l o c i t i e s near t h e water s u r f a c e ( z / h > 0.5)

most pronounced e f f e c t i n case o f a weak c u r r e n t and h i g h waves.

V i s s e r (1986) measured time-averaged v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e s i n a wave-current


b a s i n w i t h an angle o f 90 between the c u r r e n t d i r e c t i o n and the wave
d i r e c t i o n ( r e g u l a r waves). A smooth bed and a g r a v e l bed (d^Q = 0.005 m)
was used. The c u r r e n t v e l o c i t i e s were measured w i t h an i m m e r s i b l e Laser
Doppler V e l o c i t y meter. The v e l o c i t i e s were averaged over 100 s. R e l a t i v e
wave h e i g h t s were i n the range o f 0.25 t o 0.5. The wave p e r i o d was
The mean c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y was i n the range o f 0.1 t o 0.2

1 s.

m/s.

Some r e s u l t s are presented i n Figure 2.4.9, showing reduced v e l o c i t i e s i n


the near-bed r e g i o n and increased v e l o c i t i e s i n the near water s u r f a c e
region.
Summarizing a l l r e s u l t s , i t can be concluded t h a t t h e c u r r e n t v e l o c i t i e s
i n t h e near-bed r e g i o n are reduced by the wave-induced v o r t i c e s i n t h e
wave boundary l a y e r . T h i s e f f e c t i s most pronounced i n case o f a r e l a t i -

-2.29-

v e l y weak c u r r e n t and r e l a t i v e l y h i g h waves. I n case o f an opposing curr e n t t h e r e d u c t i o n o f t h e near-bed v e l o c i t i e s i s somewhat l a r g e r than i n


case o f a f o l l o w i n g c u r r e n t . When t h e wave d i r e c t i o n i s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o
the c u r r e n t d i r e c t i o n , t h e near-bed v e l o c i t i e s a r e a l s o reduced. The c u r r e n t v e l o c i t i e s i n t h e upper l a y e r s a r e increased
c u r r e n t and i n case t h e waves a r e p e r p e n d i c u l a r

i n case o f an opposing
t o t h e c u r r e n t . When t h e

waves a r e i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n as t h e c u r r e n t ( f o l l o w i n g ) , t h e v e l o c i t i e s
near t h e s u r f a c e a r e reduced.

Mathematical models
Most t h e o r e t i c a l models have some common f e a t u r e s which can be summarized
as

follows:

t h e wave motion i s a p o t e n t i a l f l o w over t h e e n t i r e water depth except


i n t h e t h i n wave boundary l a y e r ,

t h e wave p o t e n t i a l f l o w does n o t i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e t u r b u l e n c e

o f the

steady f l o w ,

t h e steady f l o w o u t s i d e t h e wave boundary l a y e r can be t r e a t e d independ e n t l y from t h e wave motion.

I n s i d e t h e wave boundary l a y e r t u r b u l e n c e

generated by t h e wave and t h e

c u r r e n t motion w i l l a f f e c t t h e v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e o f t h e mean c u r r e n t . Due


to t h e n o n - l i n e a r

i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e mean c u r r e n t and t h e wave boundary

l a y e r a l l t h e o r e t i c a l models p r e d i c t an increase
for

o f the flow

resistance

t h e mean c u r r e n t due t o t h e wave a c t i o n . The e f f e c t can be d e s c r i b e d

as an apparent wave roughness ( k ^ ) , which i s l a r g e r than t h e p h y s i c a l bed


roughness ( k ^ ) . The presence o f t h e waves w i l l t h e r e f o r e cause a l a r g e r
bed-shear s t r e s s f o r a given f l o w r a t e o r a reduced f l o w r a t e f o r a g i v e n
bed

shear s t r e s s . The models f o r combined wave/current boundary l a y e r s can

be d i v i d e d i n two main groups: models based on a combination o f time-cons t a n t eddy v i s c o s i t y p r o f i l e s and models based on h i g h e r - o r d e r

turbulence

closures.
One o f f i r s t models was presented by B i j k e r (1966).
mixing

I t s t a r t s from t h e

l e n g t h concept. B i j k e r considered a c e r t a i n p o i n t ( z ' ) above t h e

bed a t which a l i n e emanating from t h e bottom (z=0)

i s tangential to the

c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e . The wave-induced o r b i t a l motion i n t h e boundary


l a y e r i s assumed t o have a l o g a r i t h m i c p r o f i l e and t h u s a s t r a i g h t l i n e
can be drawn emanating from t h e bed t o be a l s o t a n g e n t i a l t o t h e wave

-2.30-

v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e . T h e r e f o r e , once t h e v e l o c i t y a t t h e l e v e l z' i s d e s c r i bed,

the v e l o c i t y gradient a t t h i s l e v e l i s automatically

shear s t r e s s can be determined from t h e m i x i n g l e n g t h


The model o f Lundgren (1972) i n c l u d e s

known and t h e

theory.

a description of the conditions i n

the wave boundary l a y e r . The eddy v i s c o s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i n s i d e t h e boundary l a y e r was e s t i m a t e d from measured values averaged over a wave p e r i o d
(see F i g . 2 . 4 . 5 A ) .
The mean c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e i s assumed t o be have t h e normal

loga-

r i t h m i c shape above the wave boundary l a y e r , b u t t h e increased eddy


s i t y i n t h e wave boundary l a y e r w i l l g i v e a h i g h e r f l o w r e s i s t a n c e

viscothan

c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e n a t u r a l bed roughness alone.


The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e wave boundary l a y e r a r e determined from t h e
wave parameters alone, w i t h o u t

t a k i n g t h e c u r r e n t i n t o account. The model

i s t h e r e f o r e o n l y v a l i d i n s i t u a t i o n s w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y weak c u r r e n t .
The model f o r combined wave and c u r r e n t motion by Smith (1977) i s based on
a l i n e a r eddy v i s c o s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e wave boundary l a y e r

(see F i g .

2 . 4 . 5 A ) . T h i s eddy v i s c o s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i s continuous a t z = 6^, b u t i t


is hardly

r e a l i s t i c t h a t t h e eddy v i s c o s i t y over t h e e n t i r e f l o w depth

c o n t a i n s t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n from t h e wave-induced eddy v i s c o s i t y . I t must be


expected t h a t t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n from t h e wave-generated t u r b u l e n c e
decays w i t h t h e d i s t a n c e

gradually

from t h e wave boundary l a y e r .

Grant and Madsen (1979) presented a model which i n some r e s p e c t s i s s i m i l a r


t o h a l f o f Smith (1977). They a l s o apply a time c o n s t a n t eddy v i s c o s i t y .
The model has been improved t o cover an a r b i t r a r y angle between t h e waves
and

the current.

The eddy v i s c o s i t y v a r i e s l i n e a r l y w i t h t h e d i s t a n c e

from t h e bed. I n s i d e

the wave boundary l a y e r t h e s l o p e i s determined by t h e l a r g e s t shear


c i t y from t h e waves and t h e c u r r e n t

velo-

(see F i g . 2 . 4 . 5 A ) . Outside t h e wave

boundary l a y e r , t h e eddy v i s c o s i t y i s determined by t h e mean shear s t r e s s .


The eddy v i s c o s i t y i s d i s c o n t i n u o u s a t z = 6^. The mean c u r r e n t

i s given

as two l o g a r i t h m i c v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e s i n t e r s e c t i n g a t z = 6^.
Some m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o t h e model o f Grant and Madsen (1979) have been
introduced

by C h r i s t o f f e r s e n and Jonsson (1985). They a p p l y a c o n s t a n t

eddy v i s c o s i t y i n t h e wave boundary l a y e r . The eddy v i s c o s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n


i s seen i n F l g . 2.4.5A.

-2.31-

The model o f FredseSe

(1984)

does n o t apply the eddy v i s c o s i t y d i r e c t l y i n

the d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e phenomena. The basic assumption i s t h a t t h e t i m e


scale f o r production

and decay o f t u r b u l e n t k i n e t i c energy i s s m a l l com-

pared t o t h e wave p e r i o d . This has been used t o imply t h a t t h e f o r m a t i o n


o f t h e wave boundary l a y e r can be t r e a t e d independently f o r each h a l f wave
p e r i o d , and t h a t the v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e i n t h e wave boundary l a y e r can be
taken t o be l o g a r i t h m i c , corresponding t o instantaneous e q u i l i b r i u m i n t h e
t u r b u l e n t energy.
The development o f t h e wave boundary l a y e r d u r i n g each h a l f wave p e r i o d i s
described

by t h e momentum equation i n t e g r a t e d over the wave boundary l a y e r

t h i c k n e s s . The c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e o u t s i d e t h e wave boundary l a y e r i s


used as a boundary c o n d i t i o n i n t h e momentum e q u a t i o n .
i s described

This outer

profile

as a l o g a r i t h m i c v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e , determined t h r o u g h t h e

apparent wave roughness ( k ^ ) analogous t o other models, e.g. Grant and


Madsen ( 1 9 7 9 ) . '

The eddy v i s c o s i t y concept i s n o t used d i r e c t l y i n t h i s model, b u t t h e


( t i m e - v a r i a n t ) eddy v i s c o s i t y can be estimated
and boundary l a y e r t h i c k n e s s

from t h e bed-shear s t r e s s

c a l c u l a t e d by t h e model.

The model o f Bakker and van Doorn

(1978)

applies a mixing

length turbu-

l e n c e model, where t h e eddy v i s c o s i t y i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e l o c a l

flow

c o n d i t i o n s . The eddy v i s c o s i t y v a r i e s w i t h time and w i t h t h e d i s t a n c e

from

the bed. I t i s t h e r e f o r e i n t e r e s t i n g , t h a t a comparison made by Bakker and


van

Doorn between t h e i r theory and Lundgren's shows r e s u l t s o f t h e same

o r d e r o f magnitude, though Lundgren assumes a time c o n s t a n t eddy v i s c o s i t y .


Davies e t a l .

(1988)

have presented a model based on an one e q u a t i o n

tur-

bulence model ( k - e q u a t i o n ) . A two-equations model has been presented by


Hagatum and E i d s v i k

(1986).

The f l o w r e s i s t a n c e p r e d i c t e d by some models have been compared, where i t


was p o s s i b l e t o make the c a l c u l a t i o n s based on the i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n i n
the papers.

Four models have been compared:

Lundgren ( 1 9 7 2 )

Bakker and van Doorn

Grant and Madsen

Fredseie

( 1984)

(1978)

(1979)

-2.32-

The r e s u l t s a r e shown i n F i g .

2.4.5B

d e p i c t i n g the Increase i n t h e appa-

r e n t roughness (k) a c t i n g on the mean c u r r e n t o u t s i d e t h e wave boundary


l a y e r versus t h e r a t i o between the maximum wave o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y ( U 5 ) and
the mean bed shear v e l o c i t y from t h e c u r r e n t ( u * ).

Figure

2.4.5c

a l s o shows a comparison o f models and some e x p e r i m e n t a l

results.
The model o f FredseSe y i e l d s reasonable r e s u l t s . This i s a l s o concluded

by

V i s s e r (1986) comparing h i s experimental r e s u l t s (waves and c u r r e n t s p e r p e n d i c u l a r ) w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f the Fredsde model.


F i n a l l y , F i g u r e 2 . 4 . 6 i s presented showing b a s i c r e s u l t s o f t h e Fredseiemethod f o r (j) = 0 (waves f o l l o w i n g t h e c u r r e n t ) and (j) - 90 (waves perpend i c u l a r t o the current).

E n g i n e e r i n g methods

Coffey-Nielsen

(I986):

Coffey and N i e l s e n (1986) proposed an e n g i n e e r i n g model based on a l o g a r i t h m i c v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e . The wave e f f e c t on the steady c u r r e n t i s r e p r e sented as a c o n s t a n t s h i f t o f the v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e y i e l d i n g an apparent
roughness

The r a t i o z^j/z^ was o b t a i n e d from e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s and

r e l a t e d t o t h e r a t i o o f t h e wave-related and c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed-shear


v e l o c i t i e s (u /u ) .
*,w *,c
A disadvantage

o f t h i s model i s t h a t i t r e q u i r e s an i t e r a t i v e

computations.

yan_RiJn_(1988):
The p r e s e n t w r i t e r proposes a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d method, which i s a l s o based
on t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f l o g a r i t h m i c v e l o c i t y

profiles.

The v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e f o r a c u r r e n t i n t h e presence o f waves i s d e s c r i b e d


as a t w o - l a y e r system:
e

l o g a r i t h m i c v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e a f f e c t e d by bed-form roughness ( k g ) i n s i d e
the

near-bed m i x i n g l a y e r ( 6 ) , which i s assumed t o be equal t o t h r e e

times t h e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e wave boundary l a y e r ,

l o g a r i t h m i c v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e a f f e c t e d by apparent roughness ( k ^ ) o u t s i d e
the

near-bed m i x i n g l a y e r ( 6 ) .

-2.33-

The e x p r e s s i o n s a r e (see a l s o F i g . 2,4.7):


, V

ln(30z/k )

V,z = - ^ \ ln(30h/k )

^ < ^

"ith

(2,4.2)

. ln(30z/k )
= V,z 'ln(306/k )
s
ln(30/k )
= V , 6 = -1 . l n ( 3 0 h / k )

(2.4.3)

(2.^.4)

Si

i n which:
V
v^

r-2
-2i0 5
- magnitude o f depth-averaged v e l o c i t y v e c t o r = [ + v ]

= t h i c k n e s s o f wave-related near-bed m i x i n g l a y e r

= c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y a t h e i g h t z above bed

( = 3 6 )
w

6^
= t h i c k n e s s o f wave boundary l a y e r , Eq. (2.3.8)
V
= current velocity a t z = 6
r,
k
= bed roughness
k

= apparent bed roughness

The o v e r a l l r e s i s t a n c e experienced by the c u r r e n t due t o f r i c t i o n and


v o r t i c e s - r e l a t e d p r e s s u r e e f f e c t s as m o d i f i e d by t h e wave m o t i o n , f o l l o w s
from Eq. (2.4.2) y i e l d i n g :

^,c = -1 + l n ( 3 0 h / k )
3,

(2,4,5)

A p p l y i n g Eq. ( 2 . 4 . 4 ) , i t f o l l o w s t h a t

""lir^)
',c " ln(30/k
3.
2
P <
^b,c

Since

C =

or

(2.4.6)

^
ln2(306/k )
3.

(2,4,7)

= (g'^/C)v , the Chzy c o e f f i c i e n t (C) can be expressed a s :

g'^[-1 + l n ( 3 0 h / k ^ ) ] - 18 l o g ( 1 2 h / k )
3

(2,4,8)

-2.34-

The l o g a r i t h m i c v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e i n s i d e the wave-boundary

l a y e r (z < 6)

depends on the p h y s i c a l bed roughness (kg) and on an a p p a r e n t bed-shear


v e l o c i t y (v ^ ) . T h i s l a t t e r parameter f o l l o w s from Eq. (2.4.3) and
(2.4.4):

or

ln(306/k )
s
2

2
= a

^'^^

(2.4.9)

ln2(306/k )

.
^''^

(2.4.10)

with
ln2(306/k )
^
ln'^(306/k )
s

vl
= pg ^
C2

and

C = 18 l o g ( ^ )
a

(2.4.11)

The a - c o e f f i c i e n t i s c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r than 1 i n case o f r e l a t i v e l y

high

waves combined w i t h a weak c u r r e n t . The apparent bed-shear s t r e s s (x,

D y CH

p r o b a b l y i s t h e e f f e c t i v e c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed-shear s t r e s s f o r t h e sediment
e n t r a i n m e n t process a t t h e bed. An i n d i c a t i o n f o r t h i s i s t h e weak i n f l u e n c e
o f t h e c u r r e n t on t h e near-bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n t h e presence o f h i g h waves.
For example, Nap and Van Kampen (1988) measured a near-bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f
about 4 kg/m3 i n a water depth o f 0.5 m w i t h waves o f 0.18 m and a c u r r e n t
v e l o c i t y o f 0.1 m/s. The near-bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n remained about t h e same when
the

c u r r e n t was i n c r e a s e d t o 0.4 m/s, showing thus a weak i n f l u e n c e o f t h e

c u r r e n t on the sediment e n t r a i n m e n t process.


To a p p l y t h e above-given e x p r e s s i o n s , t h e apparent roughness k^ must be
known. B a s i c a l l y , t h e r a t i o o f t h e k^/kg should be a f u n c t i o n o f :
0

t h e r a t i o o f t h e peak v a l u e o f o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y and depth-averaged


A.

v e l o c i t y U^/Vj.,

t h e r a t i o o f t h e peak v a l u e o f t h e o r b i t a l e x c u r s i o n and t h e bed


roughness, A^/kg,

t h e angle 4) between t h e c u r r e n t and wave d i r e c t i o n .

Thus,

= F
kg

Vr

^ , <fr)
kg

(2,4,12)

-2.35-

The

U^/Vf. r a t i o represents

m o t i o n . For Ug/Vj,

the r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h o f the wave and

1 i t f o l l o w s t h a t k g / k g +^1, The

Ag/kg

ratio

current
repre-

sents the i n f l u e n c e o f the wave p e r i o d because a t the same U^/Vj^-value a


decrease o f the Ag-value means a smaller wave p e r i o d ( f a s t e r
which p r o b a b l y r e s u l t s i n an increase

oscillations)

o f the apparent roughness k^.

The

mathematical model r e s u l t s o f Fredsde ( 1 9 8 4 ) show a r a t h e r weak i n f l u e n c e


A

o f the A g / k g - r a t i o . T h e r e f o r e ,

t h i s parameter has

been n e g l e c t e d

i n the

present a n a l y s i s .
To determine the k ^ / k ^ - r a t i o , the present w r i t e r used the v e l o c i t y d a t a o f
Nap

and

Van

kampen ( 1 9 8 8 ) .

w i t h ( f o l l o w i n g and

They measured v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e s i n c u r r e n t s

opposing) waves and w i t h o u t waves. The

measured v e l o -

c i t y p r o f i l e s showed a l o g a r i t h m i c behaviour i n the lower p a r t o f the water


depth (z < 0.5
plotted against
The

h ) . Based on t h i s , the k/k-ratio was

determined

and

the U^/Vi^-ratio, as shown i n F i g . 2 . 4 . 7 B .

r e s u l t s can be represented

by:

Y Ug/Vt,

ka

(2.4.13)

TT = e

w i t h a maximum value o f about 10 f o r U^/v^ = 3 .


The

Y - c o e f f i c i e n t i s dependent on the angle between the c u r r e n t and

the

waves, as f o l l o w s :
<t> = 0

(opposing waves): y = 0,75

(2.4.14)

<t> = 180

(opposing waves): y = 1.1

(2,4.15)

F i g u r e 2 . 4 . 8 shows measured (Nap-Van Kampen, 1 9 8 8 )


p r o f i l e s a p p l y i n g Eqs.

(2,4,2), (2.4.3),

r e n t ( F i g . 2 . 4 . 8 A ) and

r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e waves (H

considerable

(2.4.13).

and

computed v e l o c i t y

I n case o f a weak c u r ^ 0.15

m)

there i s a

r e d u c t i o n o f the near-bed v e l o c i t i e s compared w i t h the

situa-

t i o n w i t h o u t waves (H^ = 0 ) . For f o l l o w i n g waves the reduced near-bed


v e l o c i t i e s a r e reasonably w e l l described
l a r g e e r r o r s can

by the computed v e l o c i t i e s ,

be observed i n the n e a r - s u r f a c e r e g i o n where the

t i e s are s t r o n g l y n o n - l o g a r i t h m i c

I n case o f a s t r o n g c u r r e n t ( ^ 0 . 4

m/s)

and

too l a r g e

(T15,-10),

r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l waves (H^ ^
s

the computed near-bed v e l o c i t i e s are about W%

(Fig. 2.4.8B).

veloci-

(T15,10). I n case o f opposing waves the

computed v e l o c i t i e s i n the near-bed l a y e r are about 30%

0.075 m)

but

t o 20^5 too

large

-2.36-

The p r e s e n t method has a l s o been a p p l i e d t o the data o f Van der S t e l and


V i s s e r (1985), who measured v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e s i n c u r r e n t s combined w i t h
waves under an angle o f 90. The r e s u l t s are presented i n F i g . 2.4.9,
showing good r e s u l t s f o r an y - c o e f f I c i e n t o f 0.75.
Based on t h i s , i t i s proposed t o apply the f o l l o w i n g

y = 0.75

f o r 4) = 0, 360

y = 0.75

f o r ^ = 90, 270 ( p e r p e n d i c u l a r waves)

y = 1.1

f o r (}) = 180

y-coeffic'ients:

( f o l l o w i n g waves)
(2.4.16)

(opposing waves)

The bed-shear s t r e s s (x,


) due t o combined c u r r e n t s and waves (under an
b ,cw
angle 41) can be determined by v e c t o r a d d i t i o n o f the w a v e - r e l a t e d and t h e
current-related

bed-shear s t r e s s e s (see s k e t c h ) . The bed-shear s t r e s s e s

a r e assumed t o be r e l a t e d t o the near-bed v e l o c i t i e s a t h e i g h t s 6 above


the bed.

S u b s t i t u t i o n o f U5 - U^sinut y i e l d s :
(U6,cw)2 = ( v r , 6 ) 2 + (UgsinwtJ^ + 2 Ug v^^^

Averaging over the wave p e r i o d T, y i e l d s :

'

'

s i n w t cos4)

-2.37-

Assuming xb^c

['Vr,&]^

X5^ |- (Ug)^, the magnitude

o f the combined

time-averaged bed-shear s t r e s s i s :

^b,cw = ^b,c ^ ^b,w

(2.11.17)

i n which:
X,
= time-averaged bed-shear s t r e s s f o r combined c u r r e n t s and waves
b,cw
1
-2
T,
= time-averaged bed-shear s t r e s s r e l a t e d t o c u r r e n t = n- p f v
b,c

c r
1
'2
X,
= time-averaged bed-shear s t r e s s r e l a t e d t o waves = ir p f
D, W

The d i r e c t i o n o f the v e c t o r x,
o f Xj^

depends on the angle 4), but the magnitude

does n o t depend on the angle ({>.

As regards the sediment entrainment process, o n l y the magnitude o f x,


D

i s i m p o r t a n t because i t determines the s t i r r i n g up o f bed m a t e r i a l .

f CW

The

t r a n s p o r t i s mainly i n the d i r e c t i o n o f the v e l o c i t y v e c t o r .


F i n a l l y , the o v e r a l l r e s i s t a n c e i n the c u r r e n t d i r e c t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d .
Since the apparent roughness

( k ^ ) i s o n l y weakly dependent on the a n g l e

((t)) between the. waves and the c u r r e n t , i t i s proposed t o s i m p l y a p p l y :

^b,c,x = ' ' g ^

^b,c,y =

(2.4.18)

(^-^-^^^

i n which:

= depth-averaged

velocity i n x-direction

V = depth-averaged v e l o c i t y i n y - d i r e c t i o n

2
2 0 5
v^ = ( + V ) ' = v e l o c i t y v e c t o r
C = 18 l o g ( 1 2 h / k ^ ) = Chzy-coefficient as m o d i f i e d by t h e wave e f f e c t

-2.38-

2.5

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-2.39-

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J.,

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-2.40-

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-2.111-

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1978

Energy F l u x and Wave A c t i o n i n G r a v i t y Waves Propagating on a C u r r e n t


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-2,1|2-

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Maximum Breaker

Height

J o u r n a l o f Waterways, Harbours and Coastal Eng. Div., ASCE, V o l . 98, No. WW4

w a t e r surface

o u t e r layer

t u r b u l e n t o u t e r layer

t u r b u l e n t l o g a r i t h m i c layer
i n n e r iayer o r
b o t t o m layer

t r a n s i t i o n layer
v i s c o u s s u b . layer

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
bottom

A. CURRENT BOUNDARY LAYER

*
B.

WAVE BOUNDARY LAYER

U/U5

C. VELOCITIES IN WAVE BOUNDARY LAYER

CURRENT AND WAVE BOUNDARY LAYER

DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG, 2.2.1

10^

810^

8io^

>

Reynolds' number, 5A5/V

8-50^

A. VARIATION OF THE HORIZONTAL VELOCITY COMPONENT ABOVE A RIPPLED BED


WITH TIME
1.8

6 = peak velocity outside


boundary layer
= peak velocity at height Zi in
boundary layer
z^ = height above crest
X = ripple length, (3 = ( ( j / 2 v ) - ^

1.6

<3
O

1.4

1'

ll
1.2

ll
1J
il

crest

1.0

10

15

B. VARIATION RANGE OF THE PEAK VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF


HEIGHT (3zi FOR VARIOUS HYDRAULIC AND RIPPLE CONDITIONS

VELOCITY F I E L D NEAR A RIPPLED BED IN


OSCILLATORY

FLOW (DUTOIT, 1982)

DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 2.2.3

A.

CYCLE
OF

VARIATION

SAND

QF

rms

FLUCTUATION

(A6/X=0.71,

RIPPLE

A / \ = 0.17,

AND

VELOCITY

ABOVE

CREST

AND

TROUGH

|3\/2TT;=20)

o crest
X trough

-4

B. V A R I A T I O N
ONE
AS

CYCLE
A

OF

THE

OF

FUNCTION

THE
O F

MEAN
rms

VALUE

DURING

FLUCTUATION

HEIGHT

(A/X =0.2, A 6 / X = 0 . 7 4 , (3X/2Ti; = 20)

C.

PEAK
FOR

VELOCITY

A QUASI-FLAT

INTENSE

VELOCITY FIELD NEAR A RIPPLED


FLAT BED IN OSCILLATORY FLOW
(DUTOIT AND SLEATH. 1981)
D E L F T HYDRAULICS

AND

SEDIMENT

PHASE

BED

LAG

WITH

MOTION

AND

461

FIG. 2.2.4

/.
(cm)

0
1 8/tm V
. 9 , ? , I
X{cin)
(a)

A.

mean

(b) Reynolds

velocity

PRESSURE

20

(cm/s)

U'^

T =4 s
Aripple = 0 . 0 1 2 m
X ripple = 0 . 1 2 m

cni2/s2) 0

W'^

mean p r e s s u r e

trough

crest

(o)

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF MEAN VELOCITY, REYNOLDS'


SHEAR STRESS AND MEAN

{cm/s,

stress

(cni2/s2)o

U ' W 0.5
(cm^/s^)0

r
1

0.5
0

TT

27t

B. TIME HISTORY OF MEAN VELOCITIES AND TURBULENT CHARACTERISTICS

VELOCITIES, SHEAR STRESSES AND PRESSURES


NEAR A RIPPLED BED (SATO E T AL. 1984)
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 2.2.5

10'

^)

A. WAVE FRICTION COEFFICIENT FOR HYDRAULIC SMOOTH AND


ROUGH CONDITIONS

10

111

AV + 0

measurements

I N .

10"

t r

l_L_

ri-_L

10'

> Ae/ks

B. WAVE FRICTION COEFFICIENTS FOR HYDRAULIC ROUGH CONDITIONS

FRICTION COEFFICIENTS O F JONSSON, 1966

D E L F T HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 2.2.6

A
A
X

O
o

Nelson, slope 0.0000, data set 1.


Nelson, slope 0.0000. data set 2.
Hehaute, slope 0.0000.
Keating and Webber, slope 0.0000.
others, slope .000O (see text and Table ! )
Nelson, slope 0.00286.
Goda, slope 0.0100.
Nelson, slope 0.0153.
limiting Criteria
Shore Protection Manual, slope 0.0100 (based on experimental data).
Shore Protection Manual, slope 0.0000 (based on theory).
Nelson, slope 0.0000 (based on experimental data).

BREAKING WAVE HEIGHTS

DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FK3. 2.3.1

w a t e r surface

O
0,2

//

0.4

^- 0,6
O)

2 0.8

/
/
//

kh = 1
H/h = 1/3

/
/

/'s.
'
/

1.0-0.8 -0.4

y'

y'

y'

>. .

0.4

>...

0.8
>

1.2_ 1.6
2.0
4Um/)kH2

2.4

2.8

bottom
3.2

Stokes d r i f t velocity, Eq. (2.3.29)


Stokes d r i f t velocity, Eq. (2.3,33)
total m a s s - t r a n s p o r t of Longuet-Higgens, Eq, (2,3,41)
Eulerian mass-transport velocity of Craik, Eq. (2.3.46)
A. MASS-TRANSPORT VELOCITIES

Llw = maximum horizontal velocity


Ql = eulerian velocity averaged over wave period
ij2 = eulerian velocity averaged over occurrence period
B. EULERIAN MASS-TRANSPORT

VELOCITIES

ACCORDING TO DALRYMPLE (1976)

MASS-TRANSPORT VELOCITIES
IN NON-BREAKING WAVES
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 2.3.2

i
5
(O

\)

^- 4
3

0.5

1.0

1.5

C/(5)'

total m a s s - t r a n s p o r t velocity, Eq. (2.3.38)


Eulerian m a s s - t r a n s p o r t velocity
A. MASS-TRANSPORT VELOCITIES NEAR BOTTOM
ACCORDING TO LONGUET-HIGGENS (1957)

/
/

(
\

J'"
v

las

\
1.0

-2

4
F (z/h)

10

kh = 0.5

p.

kh = 1
kh = 1.5

B. VERTICAL PROFILE OF MASS-TRANSPORT VELOCITY ACCORDING


TO LONGUET-HIGGENS (1953)

MASS-TRANSPORT

VELOCITIES

IN NON-BREAKING WAVES
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 2.3.3

8
1
1
11
f

\
i
<

)
/

i
3-'

O
O 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
U/Umax
A.

=()/2V)-^

=1.4S

= Q0754 m

= 0.3 m

fax= 0.0253 m/s

\
\

measured
total m o s s - t r a n s p o r t of
L o n g u e t - Higgens
eulerian m o s s - t r a n s p o r t of
Longuet - Higgens

1.4

MASS-TRANSPORT VELOCITIES MEASURED BY BORGHEI (1982)

200

laminar f l o w (5/ks = 8)
turbulent rough f l o w

150

(Ae/ks = 1000)
N

100

50
i.
0

0.4
UC/Ue

Q2

0.6

0.8

B. EULERIAN MASS-TRANSPORT VELOCITIES BY BROKER HEDEGAARD (1985)

Z6
(cm)
4

X(cm)

C. RESIDUAL EULERIAN VELOCITIES FOR SINUSOIDAL OSCILLATORY


FLOW OVER A RIPPLE MEASURED BY SATO ET AL (1984)

MASS-TRANSPORT VELOCITIES
IN NON-BREAKING WAVES
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 2.3.4

'CASE

5)
ap (CASE

1)

-SWL

Horizontal component, K.

BORE eSTABirSHMEHT

. THAHSITPH SME

, ^

NOH-EHEJWHO j ^ ^

A. MASS-TRANSPORT VELOCITIES IN CROSS-SHORE DIRECTION


(NADAOKA ET AL, 1982)
wave propagation

<-

B. MASS-TRANSPORT VELOCITIES IN CROSS-SHORE DIRECTION

MASS-TRANSPORT VELOCITIES
IN BREAKING WAVES
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 2.3.5

current alone,

u = 0.112 m/s

c u r r e n t and waves, = 0.083 m/s

current alone, u = 0.232 m/s


c u r r e n t and waves, = 0.21 m / s

H/h = 0.4

H/h = 0.4

MEAN CURRENT VELOCITY P R O F I L E S


AS MODIFIED BY WAVES ACCORDING
TO BAKKER AND VAN DOORN ( 1 9 7 8 )
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 2.4.1

WAVES AND FOLLOWING CURRENT

> mean fluid velocity, ul

A.

c u r r e n t alone,
0=0.18 m/s,
c u r r e n t and waves, =0.18 m/s, H/h = 0.10
c u r r e n t and waves, =0.17 m/s, H/h = 0.22
SMOOTH BED (h = 0.2m)

WAVES

c u r r e n t alone
c u r r e n t and waves
(ij and H not given)
B. ROUGH BED (h = a 2 m )

AND OPPOSING CURRENT

c u r r e n t alone
c u r r e n t and waves
( and H not given)
A. SMOOTH BED (h=0.2m)

B.

current alone,
u=0.10 m/s
c u r r e n t and waves, = 0.11 m/s, H/h=0.14
c u r r e n t and waves, = 0.125m/s, H/h = 0.30
ROUGH BED ( h = 0 . 3 m )

MEAN CURRENT VELOCITY P R O F I L E S


AS MODIFIED BY WAVES ACCORDING
TO KEMP AND SIMONS (1982, 1983)
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 2.4.2

025

0.50

.75

TOO

125

150

0.25

0.50

Uz/

INFLUENCE O F WAVE HEIGHT ON CURRENT


VELOCITY PROFILE (FOLLOWING CURRENT)
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

0.75

1.00

1.50

Uz/

1
461

1.25

FIG. 2.4.3

0.25

0.50

0.75

>

1.00

1.25

1.50

Uz/

INFLUENCE O F WAVE HEIGHT ON CURRENT


VELOCITY PROFILE (OPPOSING CURRENT)
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 2.4.4

A. Lundgren (1972)
B. Snnith (1977)
C. G r a n t - M a d s e n (1979)
D. Christoffcrsen (1982)
E. Myrhaug (1982)

A. EDDY VISCOSITY DISTRIBUTIONS

i/hs:

>

5/Ux,c

B. COMPARISON OF MODELS

>

235

5/Ux,c

C. COMPARISON OF MODELS

MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR COMBINED


CURRENT AND WAVES
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 2.4.5

10*1

1I

l l l l l l

-II

I l l l l

I I

1 1 1 1 {

A6/ks=
5

10'
5
in
O

11nnr

l l l l l l

l l l l l l l

T T T T ' i rr

::

l l l l l l

1 I T 1 It

^ I

^
10'.

K)' -

0=9Cf

l l l l l l l

l l l l l l l

APPARENT ROUGHNESS ACCORDING TO FREDSOE,


1984

FOR 0 =0 AND 0 = 90
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FK3. 2.4.6

->
A.

velocity, Uz

INFLUENCE OF WAVES ON CURRENT VELOCITY PROFILE

1o

Y=1.1/

o /
in

/o

/Y = 0.75

/ ^

&1

1<
/ c
oh/

^\

Ue/Vr

B.

foiiowing

opposing

RATIO OF APPARENT ROUGHNESS AND


PHYSICAL

BED ROUGHNESS

INFLUENCE O F WAVES ON CURRENT


VELOCITY PROFILE
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 2.4.7

0.001j
O

0.02

0.04

0.06 '0.08

0.10

0.12

current

0.14

0.16

velocity

0.18

0.20

0.22

0.24

(m/s)

watc ! r s u r f a c e

0.5

y
/

measured

Hs

X >

T75,-40

computed

0.2

0.1

T7.5,40

(m)

Tp

(s)

0.077

0.0723

2.3

2.4

(m/s)

0.156

0.132

(m/s)

0.364

Q388

<J)

C)

180

X O ,
X

0.02

0,01

\/'

/
0.005

r i p p le c r <!St
Ap

= 0.01 3 m
= 0.0^ m

0.002

0.001
O

0.02

004

0.06

0.08

0.10

0.12

current

0.14

0.16

velocity

0.18

0.20

0.22

0.24

(m/s)

MEASURED AND COMPUTED CURRENT VELOCITIES


IN THE PRESENCE

O F WAVES ( 0 = 0 *

D E L F T HYDRAULICS

180)
H

461

FKB. 2.4.8

T241
0.5

measured

221

0.106

computed
Hs
r

0.2

sur ace

0.1

fi

(m)
(s)

(m/s)

0.25

(m/s)

0.27

()

0.23

90

0.05

)
1
/
/
/
/
/ /

0.02

//
ld
lf

0.01

Te

0.005
//

iM
1/
1/
1/
0.002
grava

k s = 0 .01 m ,
O

Q02

d90 =Qooe

1
0.06

0.001
0.04

1
0.08

0.10
>

0.12

0.14

current

0.16

velocity

0.18

0.20

0.22

Q24

(m/s)

T441
0.5

measured

401

0.068

computed

0.2
wata

0.1

s u r- f a c e

Hs

(m)

(s)

(m/s)

0.21

(m/s)

0.105

0.082

90

t
k
1

0.05

1
0.02
/

h
V

0.01

0.005

i
1

0.002
vel
k s = 0.01 m
1

0.001
O

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.10
>

0.12

current

0.14

0.16

velocity

0.18

0.20

0.22

0.24

(m/s)

MEASURED AND COMPUTED CURRENT VELOCITIES


WITH AND WITHOUT

WAVES ( 0 . 9 0 )

D E L F T HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 2.4.9

-3.1-

3.

CHARACTERISTIC SEDIMENT TRANSPORT PARAMETERS

3.1

Introduction

The f o l l o w i n g dimensionless c h a r a c t e r i s t i c parameters are used:

p a r t i c l e parameter,

p a r t i c l e m o b i l i t y parameter, 0

excess bed-shear s t r e s s parameter, T

suspension parameter, Z

3.2

P a r t i c l e parameter

The p a r t i c l e parameter

r e f l e c t s the i n f l u e n c e o f g r a v i t y , d e n s i t y and

v i s c o s i t y and reads as:

(3.1)
V

i n which:
dr-n = medium p a r t i c l e diameter o f bed m a t e r i a l
s

= s p e c i f i c d e n s i t y (= p /p)
s

= kinematic v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t

= acceleration o f gravity

3.3

P a r t i c l e m o b i l i t y parameter

The p a r t i c l e m o b i l i t y parameter e i s t h e r a t i o o f the hydrodynamic f l u i d

(drag

and l i f t ) f o r c e and the submerged p a r t i c l e weight. The f l u i d f o r c e i s p r o p o r -

2
t i o n a l t o p d (u^)

2
and the submerged p a r t i c l e weight i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o

3
(p - p ) d g , y i e l d i n g a r a t i o o f :
3

0 . ,
,
=
^ (s-1)g d^Q
(p^-p)g d^Q

(3.2)

i n which:
= y

= time-averaged e f f e c t i v e bed-shear s t r e s s due t o c u r r e n t s and/or


waves

o v e r a l l time-averaged bed-shear s t r e s s due t o c u r r e n t s and/or waves

e f f i c i e n c y o r r e d u c t i o n parameter

-3.2-

e f f e c t i v e bed-shear v e l o c i t y

specific density

(= p -p)
s

The e f f e c t i v e bed-shear s t r e s s represents t h a t p a r t o f the o v e r a l l

bed-shear

s t r e s s a c t i n g on t h e bed m a t e r i a l p a r t i c l e s . B a s i c a l l y , i t i s assumed t h a t t h e
form drag d i s s i p a t e d i n the eddies generated by the bed forms are n o t f u l l y
e f f e c t i v e i n the e n t r a i n m e n t o f sediment p a r t i c l e s from the bed i n t o the f l u i d .

3.4

Excess bed-shear s t r e s s parameter

The excess bed-shear s t r e s s parameter T, i s d e f i n e d as:


T

b,cr

(3 3^

T .
T,

b,cr
i n which:
^b,cr " ' ^ ' " i t i c a l time-averaged bed-shear s t r e s s a c c o r d i n g t o S h i e l d s .
3.5

Suspension parameter

The suspension parameter Z r e f l e c t s the r a t i o o f the downward g r a v i t y

forces

and t h e upward f l u i d f o r c e s a c t i n g on a suspended sediment p a r t i c l e i n a


c u r r e n t and reads as:
w

in which:
Wg

= p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y i n a clear f l u i d

u^c = o v e r a l l bed-shear v e l o c i t y i n a c u r r e n t
K

= Von Karman c o n s t a n t

= r a t i o o f sediment and f l u i d m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t

i|.

FLUID AND SEDIMENT PROPERTIES

4.1

F l u i d Properties

4.1.1

Introduction

Relevant f l u i d p r o p e r t i e s a r e : d e n s i t y and v i s c o s i t y .

4.1.2

Fluid density

The d e n s i t y o f f r e s h water v a r i e s w i t h temperature, as f o l l o w s :

p =

999.9

p = 1000

kg/m 3
kg/m 3

Te =
Te =

0C
4C

p =

999.5

kg/m 3

Te

p =

999.0

kg/m 3

p =

998.3

kg/m 3

Te = 16C
Te = 20C

p =

995.7

kg/m 3

p =

992.3

kg/m 3

Te = 30C
Te = 40C

The d e n s i t y o f sea water

1025 kg/m3) can be determined from t h e f o l l o w i n g

expression:

p = 1000 + 1.455 CL - 0.0065 (Te - 4 + 0.4 CL)^

in

(4.1.1)

which:

CL = C h l o r i n i t y ( i n /oo)
Te = temperature ( i n C)
p

= f l u i d d e n s i t y ( i n kg/m3)

The C h l o r i n i t y f o l l o w s from:

S = 0.03 + 1.805 CL

i n which: S - S a l i n i t y ( i n /oo)

(4.1.2)

-4.2-

4.1.3

Fluid

viscosity

The k i n e m a t i c v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t v i s d e f i n e d as:

(4.1.3)
i n which:
V = k i n e m a t i c v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t (m2/s)
n = dynamic v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t (Ws/m2)
p = f l u i d d e n s i t y (kg/m3)

The k i n e m a t i c v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t i s a f u n c t i o n o f temperature, as f o l l o w s
(see

a l s o F i g . 4.1.IA):

V = 1 .793

10-6 m2/s

V = 1 .567

10-6 m2/s

V = 1,.237

10-6 m2/s

V = 1.,112

10-6 m2/s

Te =

O-'C

= 4C
= 12

V = 0. 802 10-6 m2/s

Te
To
e
To
e
To
e
Te

V = 0.661 10-6 m2/s

Te -- 40C

V = 1.,011 10-6 m2/s

= 16C
= 20C
= 30C

The k i n e m a t i c v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t can be approximated by:

V = [1.14 - 0.031(Te-15) + 0.00068(Te-15)^] 10

-6

( 4 . 1.4)

The v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t i s i n f l u e n c e d by the sediment p a r t i c l e s . For d i l u t e


suspensions (c < 0.1) E i n s t e i n found:

v = v ( 1 + 2.5c)

(4.1.5)

i n which:
= kinematic viscosity c o e f f i c i e n t o f fluid-sediment mixture
V

= k i n e m a t i c v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f c l e a r water

= v o l u m e t r i c sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n

Based on experiments w i t h volume c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n the range o f c = 0. 1 t o


0.6, Bagnold

(1954) found:

= v(1 + X)(1 +

0.5X)

(4.1.6)

i n which:
X

[(0.74/c)

Equation

4.2

-1]-

= dimensionless c o n c e n t r a t i o n parameter

(4,1.6) i s shown i n F i g . 4.1.1B.

Sediment P r o p e r t i e s

4,2.1

Introduction

Sediment i s f r a g m e n t a l m a t e r i a l , p r i m a r i l y formed by the p h y s i c a l and

chemical

d e s i n t e g r a t i o n o f rocks from the e a r t h ' s c r u s t . Such p a r t i c l e s range i n s i z e


from l a r g e boulders t o c o l l o i d a l s i z e fragments and vary i n shape from rounded
t o a n g u l a r . They a l s o vary i n s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y and m i n e r a l c o m p o s i t i o n , the
predominant m a t e r i a l s being q u a r t z m i n e r a l and c l a y m i n e r a l s

(kaolinite,

i l l i t e , m o n t m o r i l l o n i t e and c h l o r i t e ) . The l a t t e r have a s h e e t - l i k e s t r u c t u r e ,


which can e a s i l y change ( f l o c c u l a t i o n ) i n a s a l i n e environment

under t h e

i n f l u e n c e o f e l e c t r o s t a t i c f o r c e s (cohesive f o r c e s ) . Consequently, t h e r e i s a
fundamental

d i f f e r e n c e i n sedimentary

behaviour between sand and c l a y

materials:

4.2,2

D e n s i t y and

porosity

The d e n s i t y o f q u a r t z and c l a y m i n e r a l s i s approximately equal t o p

= 2650
s

kg/m3. The s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y i s d e f i n e d as the r a t i o o f the sediment d e n s i t y


and the f l u i d d e n s i t y , s = p /p = 2.65.
s
The d r y sediment d e n s i t y i s the d r y sediment weight per u n i t volume (= concent r a t i o n ) and i s equal t o :
'dry
in

(^-P)Ps'

(^-^-D

which:

p = porosity factor.

The wet d e n s i t y or volume weight o f deposited m a t e r i a l i s the weight o f water


and sediment per u n i t volume and i s equal t o :

(4.2.2)

The

p o r o s i t y o f sediment m a t e r i a l i s o f t e n r e l a t e d t o the way

i n which the

sediment i s d e p o s i t e d . Loose packing occurs when sediments s e t t l e from suspens i o n i n s t i l l water. B a s i c a l l y , four packing arrangements are p o s s i b l e
s p h e r i c a l p a r t i c l e s . The

for

most unstable arrangement i s the cubic arrangement

w i t h the spheres c e n t r e s forming a cube y i e l d i n g a p o r o s i t y o f 48^.

The

Rhombohedral arrangement w i t h the spheres i n the h o l l o w s o f each o t h e r


the most s t a b l e packing and

yields

the s m a l l e s t p o r o s i t y o f 26^. Random packing o f

spheres y i e l d s p o r o s i t y ranges o f 3S% to 40^. N a t u r a l sediments w i t h p a r t i c l e s


o f v a r i o u s s i z e s have r e l a t i v e l y small p o r o s i t y values because the
p a r t i c l e s can occupy the l a r g e v o i d spaces. A p o u r l y s o r t e d
coarse sand has
sand has
and

a p o r o s i t y o f about 40^. A w e l l s o r t e d

a p o r o s i t y o f about 45^. The

s h e l l fragments) has

smaller

(many s i z e s )

(almost u n i f o r m ) f i n e

p o r o s i t y o f c o r a l sand ( m i x t u r e o f c o r a l

been found i n the range o f 0.5

to 0.65

(Van

der

Meulen, 1988).

Deposits c o n s i s t i n g o f c l a y , s i l t , sand and


deposits
The

and

o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l are c a l l e d

can have a l a r g e p o r o s i t y f a c t o r (upto

80%).

d r y sediment w e i g h t o f m i x t u r e s can be e s t i m a t e d from e m p i r i c a l

s h i p s . Based on the a n a l y s i s o f samples from the t o p l a y e r s


o f r e s e r v o i r s . Lane and

mud

(recent

relationdeposits)

Koelzer (1953) found:

^dry = 817 (100 P^^^^ . 2)0-13

in

2_3)

which:

^sand " ^''"action o f sand p a r t i c l e s (d > 50

Lara and

pm).

Pemberton (1963) analyzed r e s e r v o i r samples always submerged (A)

and

submerged 50^ o f the time ( B ) . They found:


^ = Pdry = 1550 P^^^^ . 1120

P^.^^ . 420

P^^^^

(4.2.4)

^ = -^dry = 1550 P^^^^ . 1135

P^,,, . 560

P^^^^

(4.2.5)

in

which:

^sand " f r ^ a c t i o n o f sand p a r t i c l e s (d > 62.5


^silt

ym)

f f ^ a c t i o n o f s i l t p a r t i c l e s (4 < d < 62.5

^ c l a y " ^''^^'^tion o f c l a y p a r t i c l e s (d < 4 ym)

ym)

Murthy and Banerjee (1976) analyzed t o p l a y e r samples (sampling depth 0.4 m)


from I n d i a n R e s e r v o i r s , which were about 50% o f t h e time empty (exposed t o t h e
sun) and f o u n d :

^dry = 1506 P^^^^ . 866 P^,,, ^ 56^ P^^^^

(4.2.6)

i n which:
^sand " ^ " " ^ ^ t i o " ^ sand p a r t i c l e s (20 ym < d < 200 ym)
^silt

" ^'"^'^^io"

s i l t p a r t i c l e s (2 ym < d < 20 ym)

P,^,, = f r a c t i o n o f c l a y p a r t i c l e s ( d < 2 ym)


ciay
Equations (4.2.3) t o (4.2,6) express v a l u e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i n i t i a l

(0 to

1 y e a r ) d r y weight o f t h e d e p o s i t s . The d r y weight i n c r e a s e s w i t h time due t o


consolidation.

Based on a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s o f a l a r g e amount o f s o i l samples, Allersma (1988)


proposed:

Pdry = '8*^" ^ (1300 - 280a) p j ^ ^ ^

i n which: a

(4.2.7)

= c o n s o l i d a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t ( a i n t h e range o f 0-2.4 w i t h a mean

v a l u e o f a = 1,2).

Equation (4.2,7) i s shown i n F i g . 4.2.1,

The presence o f o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l such as C e l l u l o s e , L i g n i n , P e c t i n , Coal

(with

d e n s i t i e s i n t h e range o f 1200 t o 1500 kg/m3) can g i v e a s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n


of

the density o f the mixture.

The wet sediment w e i g h t (p^^g^.) o r bulk d e n s i t y (pj^y^j^) can be expressed a s :

%et

- ' ^

^dry

('^^S)

-4.6-

4.2.3

Shape

The shape o f p a r t i c l e s g e n e r a l l y i s represented

by the Corey shape f a c t o r ,

d e f i n e d as:

SF =

^-Q-^
(a

(4.2.9)

hf-^

i n which:
a = l e n g t h along l o n g e s t a x i s perpendicular

t o other two axes

b = l e n g t h along i n t e r m e d i a t e a x i s p e r e n d i c u l a r
C = l e n g t h along s h o r t a x i s p e r p e n d i c u l a r

The SF-factor

t o other two axes

t o other two axes.

f o r n a t u r a l sand i s approximately

0.7.

The shape f a c t o r i s e s s e n t i a l l y a f l a t n e s s r a t i o and does n o t take

into

account t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e surface area and t h e volume o f t h e p a r t i c l e .


For example, a cube o f a given l e n g t h and a sphere o f a diameter equal t o t h e
l e n g t h o f t h e cube have t h e same shape f a c t o r (SF = 1 ) . To overcome t h i s ,
another shape f a c t o r i s a l s o a p p l i e d , d e f i n e d as:
d
SF' = SF ^

(4.2.10)
n

i n which:
SF = shape f a c t o r according

t o Eq. (4.2.10)

dg = diameter o f a sphere having t h e same surface area as t h a t o f t h e p a r t i c l e


djj = diameter o f a sphere having t h e same volume as t h a t o f t h e p a r t i c l e

SF' approaching u n i t y i m p l i e s i n c r e a s i n g s p h e r i c i t y o f t h e p a r t i c l e s ( s p h e r i c i t y i s r a t i o o f s u r f a c e area o f a sphere and surface area o f t h e p a r t i c l e a t


equal volume). A b e h a v i o u r a l

measure o f shape i s expressed by t h e r e l i a b i l i t y

parameter (Winkelmolen, 1971). The concept o f r e l i a b i l i t y i s a f u n c t i o n a l


shape p r o p e r t y measured by t h e time i t takes f o r g r a i n s o f equal s i z e and
density to travel the length o f a cylinder revolving with i t s axis i n c l i n e d a t
an angle o f 2.5 t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l .

Shape f a b r i c i s t h e a t t i t u d e i n space and degree o f p r e f e r r e d o r i e n t a t i o n


d i s p l a y e d by t h e g r a i n s d u r i n g sedimentation.

Shape f a b r i c has a p h y s i c a l

cause and i s t h e r e f o r e an i n d i c a t o r o f h y d r a u l i c c o n d i t i o n s .

4.2.4

Size

U s u a l l y , sediments a r e r e f e r r e d t o as g r a v e l , sand, s i l t o r c l a y . These terms


r e f e r t o the s i z e o f the sediment p a r t i c l e . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e presents t h e
g r a i n s i z e s c a l e o f t h e American Geophysical Union. This s c a l e i s based on
powers o f 2 mm, which y i e l d s a l i n e a r l o g a r i t h m i c s c a l e v i a the phi-parameter
d e f i n e d as ^ - - ^log d ( w i t h d i n mm).

Class Name

Millimeters

Micrometers

Phi

Values

Boulders

> 256

.< -8

Cobbles

256 - 64

-8 t o -6

Gravel

64-2

-6 t o -1

Very coarse sand

2.0 - 1.0

2000 - 1000

Coarse sand

1.0 - .0.50

1000 - 500

0 t o +1

Medium sand

0.50 - 0.25

500 - 250

+1 t o +2

Fine sand

0.25 - 0.125

250 - 125

+2 t o +3

-1

to

Very f i n e sand

0.125 - 0.062

125 - 62

+3 t o +4

Coarse s i l t

0.062 - 0.031

62 - 31

+4 t o +5

Medium s i l t

0.031

31 - 16

+5 t o +6

Fine

0.016 - 0.008

16-8

+6 t o +7

0.008 - 0.004

8-4

+7 t o +8

Coarse c l a y

0.004 - 0.0020

4-2

+8 t o +9

Medium c l a y

0.0020 - 0.0010

2 - 1

+9 t o +10

Fine c l a y

0.0010 - 0.0050

1 - 0.5

Very f i n e c l a y

0.0005 - 0.00024

silt

Very f i n e

Colloids

silt

- 0.016

< 0.0024

0.5 - 0.24
< 0.24

+10 t o +11
+11 t o +12
> +12

Various methods a r e a v a i l a b l e t o determine the p a r t i c l e s i z e . Cobbles can be


measured d i r e c t l y w i t h a r u l e r . Gravel, sand and s i l t a r e analyzed by wet or
dry

s i e v i n g y i e l d i n g s i e v e diameters. Clay m a t e r i a l s a r e analyzed

hydraulically

by u s i n g s e t t l i n g methods (Van R i j n , 1986) y i e l d i n g t h e p a r t i c l e f a l l

velocity

from which the standard f a l l diameter i s computed. Clay m a t e r i a l s can a l s o be


analyzed w i t h v a r i o u s e l e c t r o n i c techniques such as t h e C o u l t e r counter and t h e
Laser D i f f r a c t i o n technique (Van R i j n , 1986). Thus, t h e s i z e o f a sediment
p a r t i c l e i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the a n a l y s i s method.

-4.8-

T y p i c a l "diameters" a r e :

s i e v e diameter, which i s t h e diameter o f a sphere equal t o t h e l e n g t h o f


the

s i d e o f a square s i e v e opening through which t h e g i v e n p a r t i c l e

will

J u s t pass,
e

nominal diameter, which i s t h e diameter o f a sphere t h a t has t h e same


volume as t h e p a r t i c l e ,

s t a n d a r d f a l l diameter, which i s t h e diameter o f a sphere t h a t has a


s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y o f 2.65 and has t h e same f a l l v e l o c i t y as t h e p a r t i c l e i n
still,

d i s t i l l e d water o f 24C.

A n a t u r a l sample o f sediment p a r t i c l e s c o n t a i n s p a r t i c l e s o f a range o f s i z e s .


The s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f such a sample i s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f sediment mater i a l by percentages o f weight, u s u a l l y presented as a cumulative f r e q u e n c y
distribution.
The frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by:

median p a r t i c l e s i z e , d^Q which i s t h e s i z e f o r which 50% by w e i g h t i s


finer,

mean p a r t i c l e s i z e ,

(Pj^ d^)/100 w i t h p^ = percentage by w e i g h t o f

each g r a i n s i z e f r a c t i o n dj^,

- Z p. (d^-d^)^/100 o r

standard deviation,

= 0.5 (^50/^15 + dgi^/dgQ)

which i s a measure based on g r a p h i c v a l u e s .

Often t h e p h i - s c a l e i s used f o r s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n :

= -21og d

(4.2.11)

where d i s t h e p a r t i c l e diameter i n m i l l i m e t e r s .

C h a r a c t e r i s t i c values a r e the mean p h i - v a l u e


standard d e v i a t i o n ( s o r t i n g ) 0 ^ ,

t h e median value <t>^Q, t h e

t h e skewness (asymmetry) and k u r t o s i s

(peakedness):

standard d e v i a t i o n :

= 0.5 ('t'84~*i6^

(4.2.12)

skewness

(4.2.13)

""^ ^0
<!>

0.5 ('t'oc-'f'n) - cr.


kurtosis

: e

(4.2,14)

I d e a l l y , a sample has a normal (Gaussian) d i s t r i b u t i o n i n terms o f t h e (t)-scale


(log-normal d i s t r i b u t i o n ) ,

yielding:

^10 = s"^'^ ^50

(4.2.15)

d i 6 = s"^"

^50

(4.2.16)

d84 = S

%0

(4.2.17)

^90 = s^"^

<^50

(4.2.18)

w i t h 0^ - 0.5(d5Q/d^g + dg^/d^Q)

4.2.5

Particle f a l l

Sphere f a l l i n g
Basically,

velocity

in a s t i l l

fluid

the f a l l v e l o c i t y i s a b e h a v i o u r a l p r o p e r t y . The t e r m i n a l

fall

velocity

(w ) o f a sphere i s the f a l l v e l o c i t y when the f l u i d drag f o r c e c


s
the p a r t i c l e i s i n e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h the g r a v i t y f o r c e , g i v i n g

_ -

(1.2.19)

in which:
w

= t e r m i n a l f a l l v e l o c i t y o f a sphere i n a s t i l l

= sphere diameter

= specific gravity

fluid

(= 2.65)

Cp = drag c o e f f i c i e n t
g

= acceleration of gravity

The drag c o e f f i c i e n t C^ i s a f u n c t i o n

o f the Reynolds number Re = w^ d/v.

In t h e Stokes r e g i o n (Re < 1) the drag c o e f f i c i e n t i s given by: C^ - 24/Re,


yielding:

O u t s i d e t h e Stokes r e g i o n t h e r e i s no simple e x p r e s s i o n f o r the drag c o e f f i c i e n t . The C-value decreases r a p i d l y o u t s i d e the Stokes r e g i o n (Re < 1) and
0 5
becomes n e a r l y c o n s t a n t f o r 10^ < Re < 10^, y i e l d i n g w d ' .
s
The e f f e c t o f temperature on the f a l l v e l o c i t y i s taken i n t o account by t h e
k i n e m a t i c v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t v. The l a r g e s t
sphere d i a m e t e r s .

e f f e c t occurs f o r t h e s m a l l e s t

-4.10-

Won s p h e r i c a l

particles

The expressions

v a l i d f o r a sphere cannot be a p p l i e d f o r a n a t u r a l

sediment

p a r t i c l e because o f the d i f f e r e n c e s i n shape. The shape e f f e c t i s l a r g e s t f o r


r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e p a r t i c l e s (> 300 ym) which d e v i a t e most from a sphere.
Experiments show d i f f e r e n c e s i n f a l l v e l o c i t y o f the order o f 30^ f o r SF =

0.7

30^.
The

terminal

f a l l v e l o c i t y o f n o n - s p h e r i c a l sediment p a r t i c l e s can be d e t e r -

mined from the f o l l o w i n g

formulae:

2
"s ^ ^^sv^'^
=^li^.

1 < d < 100 ym


0.01(s-1)gd3^0.5

Wg = 1.1[(s-1)gd]-5

in

(4.2.21)

^ ^ ^ ^000 ym

(4.2.22)

d > 1000 ym

(4.2.23)

for

which:

d = sieve

diameter

s - s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y (=
V = kinematic v i s c o s i t y

2.65)
coefficient

F i g u r e 4.2.2

shows f a l l v e l o c i t i e s according t o the Stokes Equation

F i g u r e 4.2.3

shows f a l l v e l o c i t i e s as given by the U.S.

Inter-Agency

on Water Resources (1957) and i s l a r g e l y based on e x p e r i m e n t a l


Equation

(4.2.21).
Committee

results.

(4.2.22) i s a l s o shown.

The f a l l v e l o c i t y o f c o r a l sand may

be c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r as t h a t o f q u a r t z

sand (Van der Meulen, 1988). Figure 4.2.5


m a t e r i a l s a t a temperature

shows f a l l v e l o c i t i e s f o r both

o f 20''C. The d i f f e r e n c e s are mainly caused by

d i f f e r e n c e s i n shape. Coral sand p a r t i c l e s are more angular and have, t h e r e f o r e , a s m a l l e r f a l l v e l o c i t y . The d e n s i t y o f c o r a l sand may

a l s o be somewhat

s m a l l e r (- 2500 kg/m3).

E f f e c t o f sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n
The

f a l l v e l o c i t y o f a s i n g l e p a r t i c l e i s m o d i f i e d by the presence o f o t h e r

p a r t i c l e s . A small cloud o f p a r t i c l e s i n a c l e a r
c i t y which i s l a r g e r

f l u i d w i l l have a f a l l v e l o -

than t h a t o f a s i n g l e p a r t i c l e . Experiments w i t h

uniform

suspensions o f sediment and f l u i d have shown t h a t the f a l l v e l o c i t y i s s t r o n g l y

-4.11-

reduced w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h a t o f a s i n g l e p a r t i c l e , when the sediment

concen-

t r a t i o n i s l a r g e . This e f f e c t , known as hindered s e t t l i n g , i s l a r g e l y

caused

by t h e f l u i d r e t u r n f l o w induced by the s e t t l i n g v e l o c i t i e s . A s t a t e o f f l u i d i z a t i o n may occur when the v e r t i c a l upward f l u i d f l o w i s so s t r o n g t h a t t h e


upward drag f o r c e s on the p a r t i c l e s become equal t o the downward f o r c e s o f
g r a v i t y r e s u l t i n g i n no net v e r t i c a l movement o f the p a r t i c l e s .
According t o Richardson and Zaki (1954) the f a l l v e l o c i t y i n a f l u i d - s e d i m e n t
suspension can be determined as:

3^^ = ( 1 - c ) \

(4.2.24)

"s m " p a i ' t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y i n a suspension


w
s

- p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y i n a clear

fluid

= v o l u m e t r i c sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n

(-)

= coefficient

(-)

The Y- c o e f f i c i e n t v a r i e s from 4.6 t o 2.3 f o r Re = w d/v i n c r e a s i n g from 10"


3
^
to 10 . For p a r t i c l e s i n the range o f 50 t o 500 ym under normal f l o w c o n d i t i o n s
the

Y - c o e f f i c i e n t i s about Y = 4.

F i g u r e 4,2.4 shows Equation (4.2,24) and the e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s o f O l i v e r


(1961) and McMown-Lin (1952), As can be observed, Eq, (4.2,24) y i e l d s w
S f IT)

values which are 20 t o 30% too l a r g e f o r s m a l l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s .


The f o r m u l a o f O l i v e r which reads as:
w
, III

= (1-2,15c)(1-0.75c*33)
s

(4.2.25)

y i e l d s good r e s u l t s over the f u l l range o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n s (see F i g . 4,2.4).

Influence of o s c i l l a t o r y flow
The p a r t i c l e f a l l

v e l o c i t y o f a s i n g l e sediment p a r t i c l e i n f l o w i n g water i s

g e n e r a l l y assumed to be equal to i t s t e r m i n a l f a l l v e l o c i t y (w ) i n s t i l l
s
water. Various r e s e a r c h e r s have i n v e s t i g a t e d the p o s s i b l e r e d u c t i o n o f t h e
t e r m i n a l f a l l v e l o c i t y i n case o f an o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w . A review and

new

i n f o r m a t i o n has been presented by Hwang (1985) and N i e l s e n (1979, 1984). Thes^


s t u d i e s show t h a t the major mechanism governing the f a l l v e l o c i t y r e d u c t i o n i n
an o s c i l l a t i n g f l o w i s the drag n o n - l i n e a r i t y e f f e c t . According t o Hwang, t h e
f a l l v e l o c i t y r e d u c t i o n can be expressed as:

-4.12-

^
w

"s^
= F ( ^ ,
v

max
w

(4.2.26)

i n which:
V
= effective f a l l velocity
s
Vf.
= peak value o f f l u i d v e l o c i t y
I y max
Wg
= t e r m i n a l f a l l v e l o c i t y i n s t i l l water
d

= p a r t i c l e diameter

Equation (4,2.26) i s presented i n g r a p h i c a l form by Hwang (1984). The

ratio

V /w decreases f o r i n c r e a s i n g v a l u e s o f w d/v and v


/w . The r e s u l t s o f
s s

s
f,max s
Hwang suggest a r a t h e r l a r g e r e d u c t i o n o f the f a l l v e l o c i t y , ( v /w
==0.5 f o r
s s
v _,^/w

== 10). The r e s u l t s o f Hwang are somewhat s u g g e s t i v e , because the

i n f l u e n c e o f the o s c i l l a t i o n p e r i o d i s not shown. Some i n f o r m a t i o n o f the


i n f l u e n c e o f the o s c i l l a t i o n p e r i o d can be obtained from the r e s u l t s o f HO
(1964) given i n terms o f (see Hwang, 1985):
!s^p(V
s
wd

l ^ p a x )
^

(4.2.27)

i n which:
) = 2ir/T = angular o s c i l l a t i o n frequency.

Taking a 100 ym sediment p a r t i c l e and an o s c i l l a t i o n p e r i o d o f T = 10 s, and


^f,max = 0 . 1 m/s,

i t f o l l o w s t h a t v^/w^ ^ 1.

S i m i l a r values were a l s o found by N i e l s e n (1984), who concluded t h a t t h e


r e d u c t i o n o f the t e r m i n a l f a l l v e l o c i t y i s n e g l i g i b l e i n a pure o s c i l l a t i n g
motion (T > 1 s ) .

Turbulence i s a s p e c i a l type o f (random) o s c i l l a t i n g motion dominated by h i g h


f r e q u e n c i e s . I t has been shown by Murray (1970) t h a t the p a r t i c l e

fall

velocity

can be c o n s i d e r a b l y reduced by i s o t r o p i c t u r b u l e n c e e f f e c t s due t o drag nonl i n e a r i t i e s . Another mechanism may be eddy t r a p p i n g c l o s e t o t h e bed
v e r t i c a l l y upward motions u n t i l

inducing

the eddy d i s s o l v e s a t h i g h e r l e v e l s .

Jobson and Sayre (1970) r e v i e w i n g a l l a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n conclude t h a t t h e


t u r b u l e n t motions may s l i g h t l y increase the p a r t i c l e f a l l

velocity.

Ludwick and Domurat (1982) have s i m u l a t e d the movement o f 100 ym and 200 ym
sediment p a r t i c l e s i n a t u r b u l e n t v e l o c i t y f i e l d and found t h a t the s e t t l i n g
o f f i n e sand i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced when the v e r t i c a l t u r b u l e n t

fluid

-4.13-

v e l o c i t i e s have a symmetric d i s t r i b u t i o n . The b a s i c q u e s t i o n i s what type o f


v e r t i c a l v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i s present i n n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s ? A n a l y s i s o f
( t u r b u l e n t ) v e l o c i t y measurements near the bottom where most o f the sediment
i s t r a n s p o r t e d show the presence o f b u r s t i n g processes c h a r a c t e r i z e d by
up o f low-momentum f l u i d
the

lift-

( b u r s t s ) and a down-rush o f high-momentum f l u i d t o

w a l l (sweeps). T h i s i n d i c a t e s an asymmetric f l u i d motion i n v e r t i c a l

d i r e c t i o n w i t h r e l a t i v e l y h i g h ( s h o r t d u r a t i o n ) upward v e l o c i t i e s , which

may

r e s u l t i n a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e o f the f a l l v e l o c i t y because the downward v e l o c i t i e s are dominating. T h i s i s i n agreement w i t h the f i n d i n g s o f Jobson and
Sayre (1970).

4.2.6

Angle o f repose

Grains p i l e d up on each o t h e r have an e q u i l i b r i u m slope which i s c a l l e d the


angle o f repose. Experiments show l a r g e d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the angle o f
repose o f g r a i n s on a f i x e d bottom (== 50) and o f g r a i n s on a loose bed
(- 35). The angle increases w i t h decreasing s p h e r i c i t y .
Some i n v e s t i g a t o r s have determined the angle o f repose from i n i t i a t i o n o f
motion experiments w i t h sand. The c r i t i c a l bed-shear s t r e s s f o r a p a r t i c l e on
a s l o p i n g bottom reads as (see S e c t i o n 5 ) :

b,cr
T,

b,cr,o

sinlize)
sini}>

(4.2.28)

= c r i t i c a l bed-shear s t r e s s on a s l o p i n g bottom

T.
= c r i t i c a l bed-shear s t r e s s on a h o r i z o n t a l bottom
b,cr,o
(fl
= angle o f repose
6

= angle o f bottom s l o p e .

C h e p i l (1959) r e p o r t e d a value o f ()) - 25 f o r a h o r i z o n t a l bottom. Lysne


(1969) r e p o r t e d a value o f <)) - 38 f o r an u p s l o p i n g bottom and (!> - 50 f o r a
downsloping bottom. Luque (1976) r e p o r t e d <() = 47 f o r a downsloping

bottom.

Observations i n n a t u r e on the avalanche l e e slope o f d e s e r t dunes show values


of 4) =^ 33.

-4.14-

4.3

References

ALLERSMA, E., 1988


Composition and Density o f Sediments

( i n Dutch)

Report Z71.03, DELFT HYDRAULICS, D e l f t , The Netherlands

BAGNOLD, R.A., 1954


Experiments on a G r a v i t y - F r e e Dispersion o f Large S o l i d Spheres i n a Newtonian
F l u i d under Shear
Proc. Royal S o c , V o l . 225A, London, England

CHEPIL, W.S., 1959


Equilibrium

o f S o i l Grains o f the Threshold o f Movement by Wind

Proc, S o i l Science, Soc. o f America, V o l . 23, USA


HO, H,W,, 1964
Fall Velocity

o f a Sphere i n a F i e l d o f O s c i l l a t i n g

Fluid

Thesis, S t a t e Univ, o f IOWA, USA

HWANG, P.A., 1985


Fall Velocity

of Particles

i n Oscillating

Journal o f Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. I l l ,

Flow
No. 3

JOBSON, H.E. and SAYRE, W.W., 1970


V e r t i c a l T r a n s f e r i n Open Channels
Journal o f the Hydraulics Division,

ASCE, V o l . 96, HY3

LUDWICK, J.C. and DOMURAT, G.W., 1982


A D e t e r m i n i s t i c Model o f the V e r t i c a l Component o f Sediment
Motion i n a T u r b u l e n t F l u i d
Marine Geology, V o l , 45, p. 1-15
LUQUE, R.F., 1974
E r o s i o n o f Bed Load T r a n s p o r t
T h e s i s , D e l f t Univ. o f Technology, D e l f t , The Netherlands

-1.15-

LYSWE, D.K., 1 9 6 9
Movement o f Sand i n Tunnels
J o u r n a l o f the H y d r a u l i c s D i v i s i o n , ASCE, No. HY 6

MCNOWM, J.S. and LIN, P.N., 1 9 5 2


Sediment C o n c e n t r a t i o n and F a l l V e l o c i t y
Proc. Second Mid Western Conf., F l u i d Mechanics, Ohio S t a t e Univ., USA
p.

401-411

MURRAY, S.P., 1 9 7 0
S e t t l i n g V e l o c i t i e s and V e r t i c a l D i f f u s i o n o f P a r t i c l e s i n T u r b u l e n t Water
J o u r n a l o f Geophysical Research, V o l .

75,

No.

9,

pp.

1647-1654

MURTHY, B.N. and BANERJEE, B.K., 1 9 7 6


I n i t i a l U n i t Weight o f Deposited Sediment i n Reservoirs w i t h

Considerable

Drawdown
Diamond J u b i l e e Symp., V o l . I , paper A 6 , Poena, I n d i a

LANE, E.W. and KOELZER, V.A., 1 9 5 3


D e n s i t y o f Sediments Deposited i n Reservoirs
Report No. 9 , S t . Paul USA Eng. D i s t r i c t , St. Paul, Minnesota, USA

LARA, J.M. and PEMBERTON, E.L., 1 9 6 3


I n i t i a l U n i t Weight o f Deposited Sediments
Proc. Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conf. Publ. No.

970,

p.

818-845,

Dep. o f A g r i c u l t u r e , USA

NIELSEN, P., 1 9 8 4
On t h e Motion o f Suspended Sand P a r t i c l e s
J o u r n a l o f Geophysical Research, V o l . 8 9 , No. Cl

OLIVER, D.R., 1 9 6 1
The Sedimentation Suspension o f C l o s e l y - s i z e d S p h e r i c a l P a r t i c l e s
Chem.Eng. Science, V o l .

15,

p.

230-242

RICHARDSON, Y.F. and ZAKI, W.N., 1 9 5 4


S e d i m e n t a t i o n and F l u i d i z a t i o n , Part I
Trans. I n s t . Chem. Eng., V o l .

32,

p.

35-53

US

-4.16-

U.S. INTER-AGEWCY COMMITTEE ON WATER RESOURCES, 1957


Some Fundamentals o f P a r t i c l e Size A n a l y s i s
St.

Anthony F a l l s H y d r a u l i c Lab., Minneapolis, Minnesota

VAN DER MEULEN, A., 1988


F a l l V e l o c i t y o f C o r a l Sand ( i n Dutch)
Report Geopro 1988.01, Dep. o f P h y s i c a l Geography, U n i v e r s i t y o f U t r e c h t ,
U t r e c h t , The Netherlands

VAN RIJN, L.C, 1986


Manual Sediment T r a n s p o r t Measurements
Report S304, DELFT HYDRAULICS, The Netherlands

WINKELMOLEN,, A.M., 1971


R o l l a b i l i t y , A F u n c t i o n a l Shape Property o f Sand Grains
J o u r n a l Sedimentary

P e t r o l o g y , V o l . 4 1 , pp. 701-714

= KINEMATIC VISC05ITY(m^/ s )
1 : TEMPERArRE ( C)

"0

15

20

25

30

35

A. KINEMATIC VISCOSITY

TEMP, ( C )

COEFFICIENT

10^
8

>

volume concentration, c

B. KINEMATIC VISCOSITY COEFFICIENT AS A


OF CONCENTRATION

KINEMATIC

FUNCTION

VISCOSITY C O E F F I C I E N T

DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 4.1.1

100

92

85

77

70

62

55

47

40

32

25

O)
Ol
OJ

OJ
OJ

I
1^
CO

Pwet

O)
cn

cn

ID

If)

100

00
CO

OJ

80
s a n d (%)

i
j

60

40

20

/
/
0

a--2,4
80

0,2

/
/
/
0,4
0,6

/'

/
/

/
/
0,8
>

VOOR

/
/

/
\

60

' w

/f

40

1
1

silt (%)

1
1

20

1
1
1
i
11

/
/

/
^ - n

1
1
1

/
/

)lid
1 ^'^

fluid

kg/m0

/
/

RELATIES

N
O
O

Ol

ID
h-

MINERALE

WATERLOOPKUNDIG

1,0

1,2

1,4

1,6

1,8

100
2,0

Pdry (1000 kg/m^)

GRONDEN

LABORATORIUM

461

FIG.

4.2.1

PARTICLE

FALL

VELOCITY

DELFT

ACCORDING TO

HYDRAULICS

STOKES

461

FIG.

4.2.2

particle fall velocity, Ws(m/s)

PARTICLE

F A L L V E L O C I T Y IN C L E A R , S T I L L

DELFT

HYDRAULICS

WATER

461

FIG.

4.2.3

Oliver

Mc Nown and Lin


Richardson and Zaki
X

INFLUENCE
FALL

CONCENTRATION

VELOCITY
DELFT

(RG

tests of Mc Nown and Lin


tests of Oliver

ON

SMALL)

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 4 . 2 . 4

t = 20''C

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0,6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

diameter ( m m )

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.1

2.2

FALL VELOCITY OF CORAL SAND

DELFT HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 4 . 2 . 5

-5.1-

5.

INITIATK! OF MOTION AND

5.1

SUSPENSION

I n i t i a t i o n of motion

5.1.1

Current

P a r t i c l e movement w i l l occur when the h y d r a u l i c f o r c e s on a p a r t i c l e are

larger

than the c r i t i c a l h y d r a u l i c f o r c e f o r i n i t i a t i o n o f motion.


The

disturbing force

i s the r e s u l t i n g f o r c e o f f l u i d and drag f o r c e s a c t i n g

on the p a r t i c l e . T h i s f o r c e i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the bed shear s t r e s s T. and the


- 2
p a r t i c l e surface area ( F , a x.d ) . The s t a b i l i z i n g f o r c e F i s equal t o the
u

,^

submerged p a r t i c l e weight (F

(p -p)gd ) .
s
s
P a r t i c l e movement i s i n i t i a t e d when the moment o f the f l u i d f o r c e F, w i t h
d
respect

t o the c o n t a c t p o i n t P becomes l a r g e r than the moment o f the g r a v i t y

force, giving:
1 ^ b . c r ^ ' ^1 ^ ^^2^^ -

^ ^cr

i n which: x,
= c r i t i c a l bed-shear s t r e s s and
b,cr
The

s
1.,1^ = moment arms t o p o i n t
1' 2
^

- f a c t o r depends on the h y d r a u l i c c o n d i t i o n s near the bed, the

shape, the p a r t i c l e p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o the o t h e r p a r t i c l e s . The


c o n d i t i o n near the bed
Thus 0
= F(Rew).
cr
*

experiments o f Shields

particle

hydraulic

as a f u n c t i o n o f Re^^.

(1936) r e l a t e d t o a f l a t bed are most w i d e l y

used,

see F i g . 5.1.1. S h i e l d s used as h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f c r i t i c a l bed-shear s t r e s s


the v a l u e o f the bed-shear s t r e s s a t which the e x t r a p o l a t e d

transport rates

(measured) were zero.


I t i s noted t h a t c r i t e r i o n s based on bed-load t r a n s p o r t r a t e s may

not be

very

a c c u r a t e because the t r a n s p o r t r a t e (q^,^) i s r e l a t e d t o a r a t h e r h i g h power o f


the bed-shear

s t r e s s near the c r i t i c a l stage. For example, P a i n t a l (1971)

r e p o r t s q^ x^^.
Y a l i n (1972) showed t h a t the S h i e l d s ' curve can be expressed i n terms o f
dimensionless m o b i l i t y parameter 6
(3.1)).

P.

i s a f u n c t i o n o f the Reynolds number Re^j = Ujjd/v.

Many experiments have been performed t o determine the 8


The

(^.l.l)

and

the p a r t i c l e parameter

(Eq.

the

-5.2-

Applying these parameters, t h e S h i e l d s curve can be r e p r e s e n t e d as:

= 0.24 DZ
*

e
cr

for

i <

for

i| <

for

10 < Djf < 20

6^^ = 0.013 D2-^^


cr
*

for

20 <

9^^ = 0 . 0 5 5

for

0.64
9 ^ = 0-1^ D
0.1

< ii
Djj < 10
(5. 1.2)

< 150
D,j > 150

i n which:
9
cr

" b , c r / ( ( P . - P ) g d 5 o ) = c r i t i c a l S h i e l d s parameter
: [(S-1)g/v^]^/3^
50

b,cr

particle

parameter

time-averaged c r i t i c a l bed-shear

stress.

Influence of c r i t e r i o n
Experiments performed a t the D e l f t H y d r a u l i c s (1972) show t h a t p a r t i c l e movement can occur a t c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r c r i t i c a l values (see F i g u r e 5.1.2A).
Seven types o f c o n d i t i o n s f o r p a r t i c l e movement have been d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n
t h a t s t u d y . The S h i e l d s ' curve seems t o r e p r e s e n t permanent g r a i n movement a t
a l l l o c a t i o n s o f t h e sand bed.
L a v a l l e and M o f j e l d (1987) q u e s t i o n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c r i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r
initiation

o f m o t i o n . Given adequate time, movement o f p a r t i c l e s somewhere

w i l l always be observed because t u r b u l e n t f l o w b a s i c a l l y i s a s t o c h a s t i c


process and there w i l l always be a bed-shear s t r e s s l a r g e enough t o move a
p a r t i c l e . Although a c r i t i c a l stage below which no s i n g l e g r a i n i s moving n o t
r e a l l y e x i s t , a c r i t i c a l stage i s necessary f o r p r a c t i c a l design purposes.
Graf and Pazis (1977) have presented curves i n terms o f the number o f p a r t i c l e s moving per u n i t area (see F i g . 5,1,2B).
I n f l u e n c e o f shape and g r a d a t i o n
Experiments w i t h p a r t i c l e s o f d i f f e r e n t shapes show t h a t t h e 9^^- parameter i s
not

much a f f e c t e d by the p a r t i c l e shape. Gradation has an i n f l u e n c e i n case o f

p o o r l y s o r t e d bed m a t e r i a l (dgQ/d.,Q > 3 ) , because t h e l a r g e r p a r t i c l e s w i l l be


more exposed, w h i l e the s m a l l e r p a r t i c l e s a r e s h i e l d e d by the l a r g e r

particles.

-5.3-

Armoring may a l s o occur which means t h a t the s m a l l e r p a r t i c l e s a r e eroded,


w h i l e t h e r e l a t i v e l y coarse p a r t i c l e s form an armor l a y e r , which p r e v e n t s
f u r t h e r scour. Mantz (1977) s t u d i e d the i n i t i a t i o n o f motion o f f i n e cohesionl e s s f l a k y sediments w i t h p a r t i c l e s i z e s i n the range o f 10 t o 100 pm and
proposed t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t i c a l bed-shear s t r e s s (see F i g . 5 . 1 . 1 ) :
/ b e .

0 . 0 3 < ^ ^ ^ ^ < 1

^,,^^^1^^'-^

The data presented by M i l l e r e t a l (1977) a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t 6

(5.1.3)

o f Shields i s

l a r g e f o r f i n e sediments (D^ < 10). A b e t t e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e data

too

p r e s e n t e d by M i l l e r e t a l i s g i v e n by (see F i g . 5 . 1 . 4 B ) :

e = 0.11 D " - ^ ^
cr
*

for

D < 10
*

(5.1.4)

I n f l u e n c e o f bed slope
In case o f a streamwise s l o p i n g bed ( i n flow d i r e c t i o n ) , t h e e^^-parameter can
be expressed as:
e
cr
in

= k, e
1 cr,o

(5.1.5)

which:

e
cr,o

= c r i t i c a l m o b i l i t y parameter on a h o r i z o n t a l bottom
^

k.j

= sin((t)-B.j )/sin(t> f o r a downsloping bed

k.j

= sin((|)+3.j )/sin(t) f o r an u p s l o p i n g bed

4)

= angle o f repose

6.J

= bed slope angle

In case o f a sidewards s l o p i n g bed (normal t o f l o w d i r e c t i o n ) :

e
cr

= k^ 6
2 cr,o

(5.1.6)

i n which:
k^ = [ c o s &^][^-{tan^&^/tan^^)f'^
= s i d e slope angle

For a combination o f a streamwise and sidewards s l o p i n g bed i t f o l l o w s

that:

6 ^ ^ = k.k^ e^^ ^
cr
1 2 cr,o

(5.1.7)

I n f l u e n c e o f cohesive m a t e r i a l
When the bed c o n s i s t s o f s i l t y and muddy m a t e r i a l s , cohesive f o r c e s between
the sediment p a r t i c l e s become i m p o r t a n t . These f o r c e s cause a d i s t i n c t
of

increase

the s t r e n g t h o f the s o i l a g a i n s t e r o s i o n . Depending on the type o f c l a y

m i n e r a l s , t h i s e f f e c t may be more o r l e s s pronounced. Flume experiments

show

t h a t an amount o f 25% o f mud i n a sand bed causes a dramatic r e d u c t i o n ( f a c t o r


30) o f the sand c o n c e n t r a t i o n s generated

by wave a c t i o n (Van R i j n ,

1985).

Another i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r governing the e r o d i b i l i t y o f cohesive s o i l s i s t h e


r a t e o f c o n s o l i d a t i o n . Fresh mud d e p o s i t s have a very loose t e x t u r e o f mud
f l o e s which have a l r e a d y a low d e n s i t y themselves. The wet b u l k d e n s i t y o f
such a d e p o s i t may be w i t h i n the range o f 1050 t o 1100 kg/m^ o f which 95^ o r
more c o n s i s t s o f water. I n t h i s stage the cohesive f o r c e s i n the d e p o s i t a r e
s t i l l very low, and erosion can occur e a s i l y . I f the d e p o s i t s a r e not eroded
a g a i n , i t s d e n s i t y g r a d u a l l y increases as i n t e r s t i t i a l water i s pressed

out of

the f r e s h s o i l by the weight o f the d e p o s i t i t s e l f . This process o f c o n s o l i d a t i o n i n i t i a l l y goes r e l a t i v e l y f a s t but g r a d u a l l y slows down. With the compact i o n o f the s o i l t h e e r o s i o n r e s i s t a n c e r a p i d l y i n c r e a s e s . I t i s w e l l known
t h a t o l d compact c l a y s o i l s a r e h i g h l y r e s i s t a n t a g a i n s t e r o s i o n . Also sand
w i t h a s i l t / c l a y c o n t e n t o f some 10 percent ( s i l t y o r c l a y l y sand) a l r e a d y
shows a d i s t i n c t l y increased r e s i s t a n c e a g a i n s t e r o s i o n . L i t t l e i s known on
the e r o d i b i l i t y o f cohesive s o i l s i n a q u a n t i t a t i v e sense. More d e t a i l e d
i n f o r m a t i o n i s g i v e n i n Chapter 12.
B i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y a t the bed may a l s o i n f l u e n c e the c r i t i c a l values f o r
i n i t i a t i o n o f m o t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n muddy and s i l t y

5.1.2

environments.

Waves

In o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w t h e r e i s no g e n e r a l l y accepted

relationship for i n i t i a t i o n

of motion on a plane bed. Many equations have been proposed. S i l v e s t e r and


Mogridge (1970) present
One

o f the more popular equations i s t h a t o f Komar and M i l l e r

\ cr
,2A
( ^ I T t i d T - - 0-21
A

13 d i f f e r e n t equations c o l l e c t e d from the L i t e r a t u r e .


(1975):

0.5
for

< 500 ,m

(5.1.8)

for

d 5 . 500 u

(5.1.9)

2A

( i r f t i 5 ^ = l."? ( - ^ )

0 25

-5.5-

i n which:
U

= c r i t i c a l peak value o f o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y near the bed


6,cr

.-,

A
6

,cr

= c r i t i c a l peak value o f o r b i t a l e x c u r s i o n near the bed


^

A n a l y s i s o f E q s . ( 5 . 1 . 8 ) and (5.1.9) shows a weak i n c r e a s e o f U^^^^ f o r an


i n c r e a s e o f t h e wave p e r i o d T.
I n t h e p r e s e n t study an attempt i s made by van R i j n t o d e s c r i b e the c r i t i c a l
A

stage i n terms o f U

, d^-^ and the p e r i o d T (see F i g . 5.1.3A) and i n terms

o f the S h i e l d s parameter ( F i g . 5 . 1 . S B ) . Various s e t s o f p r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d


data have been analysed: Bagnold ( 1 9 4 6 ) , Manohar ( 1 9 5 5 ) , Ranee and Warren
( 1 9 6 8 ) , S i l v e s t e r and Mogridge

( 1 9 7 0 ) , D i n g i e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) , Bosman (1981) and

Davies ( 1 9 8 5 ) . Only experiments w i t h sand p a r t i c l e s

= 2650 kg/m3) and wave

p e r i o d s i n t h e ( f i e l d ) range o f 4 t o 15 seconds have been s e l e c t e d . The d a t a


r e p r e s e n t a p a r t i c l e range from 90 t o 3300 ym. The b a s i c data a r e p r e s e n t e d i n
Table 5 . 1 . 1 .
D e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f the data shows a c l e a r i n f l u e n c e o f t h e wave p e r i o d . For
most d a t a t h e c r i t i c a l stage ( i n terms o f the peak o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y , Ug^cr^
i n c r e a s e s w i t h the wave p e r i o d , which i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Eqs. ( 5 . 1 . 8 ) ,

(5.1.9).

The e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s o f S i l v e s t e r and Mogridge, however, show an o p p o s i t e


t r e n d . F i g u r e 5.1.3A shows the peak v a l u e o f the c r i t i c a l near-bed

orbital

v e l o c i t y as a f u n c t i o n o f the wave p e r i o d and sediment s i z e . The average

inac-

curacy o f t h e curves i s about 25^.


The e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s have a l s o been expressed i n terms o f t h e S h i e l d p a r a meter u s i n g t h e time-averaged bed-shear

s t r e s s {i^ ^^):

((p^-p)gd5Q
'^'WH
- P(D*)

(5.1.10)

i n which:
p
= i p f (U,
) = time-averaged wave-related bed-shear
w 6,cr
= wave f r i c t i o n f a c t o r , Eq. (2,3.20)
A

T,_
b,cr
f

stress

(Eq.2.3.l4)

AW

U
6

, cr

= peak value o f c r i t i c a l near-bed o r b i t a l

The time-averaged bed-shear

s t r e s s and n o t the maximum bed-shear

used i n t h i s a n a l y s i s because the S h i e l d s ' curve, o r i g i n a l l y


u n i d i r e c t i o n a l f l o w , i s based on time-averaged parameters.

velocity

stress i s

proposed f o r

To determine the (time-averaged) wave-related bed-shear s t r e s s , the f r i c t i o n


f a c t o r must be known, which means t h a t the g r a i n roughness

( k ) and the k i n e s

m a t i c v i s c o s i t y ( v ) must a l s o be known. The k -value i s assumed t o be equal t o


adgQ w i t h a i n the range o f 1 to 3 (Van R i j n , 1982). I n some cases the d^^ was
not

r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . To overcome t h i s , a v a l u e equal t o 1.5 d^^ was

assumed. When the water temperature was n o t r e p o r t e d , a v a l u e o f 20C was


assumed.
In the case o f t u r b u l e n t smooth c o n d i t i o n s the wave f r i c t i o n f a c t o r has been
computed from Eq.(2.3.17).

I n the case o f t u r b u l e n t rough c o n d i t i o n s Eq.

(2.3.20) has been a p p l i e d .


For the t r a n s i t i o n a l regime i t has been assumed ( i n analogy w i t h u n i d i r e c t i onal f l o w ) t h a t the wave f r i c t i o n f a c t o r can be determined from the e q u a t i o n
for

t u r b u l e n t rough c o n d i t i o n s (Eq, 2.3.20) r e p r e s e n t i n g the wave-related

roughness

by:

"s = "qo *

(5.1.11)

- ^'^ " 0 5

The a - c o e f f i c i e n t i s assumed t o be i n the range o f 1 t o 3 (van R i j n , 1982), To


determine the c r i t i c a l bed-shear s t r e s s f o r the t r a n s i t i o n a l regime, an
t i v e s o l u t i o n method i s necessary because the k - parameter
s
the

itera-

i s a function of

c r i t i c a l bed-shear s t r e s s (Eq.5.1.11). Figure 5.1.3B shows the dimension-

l e s s c r i t i c a l bed-shear s t r e s s as a f u n c t i o n o f the dimensionless Dj^-parameter


for

the s e l e c t e d d a t a . The S h i e l d s ' curve which i s proposed f o r u n i d i r e c t i o n a l

f l o w d a t a o n l y , i s a l s o shown, A v e r t i c a l bar i s used t o express the i n f l u e n c e


of the wave p e r i o d and the a-value (1 t o 3)

f o r each p a r t i c l e s i z e . The

varia-

t i o n between the r e s u l t s o f d i f f e r e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r s i s m a i n l y caused by t h e


d e f i n i t i o n problem f o r i n i t i a t i o n o f motion. For example. Ranee and Warren
d e f i n e the c r i t i c a l stage as the stage when one or two p a r t i c l e s are d i s l o d g e d
and moved over a s m a l l d i s t a n c e , w h i l e Bosman d e f i n e s the c r i t i c a l stage as
t h a t when about 10^ o f the s u r f a c e p a r t i c l e s are i n motion r e s u l t i n g i n a
r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e c r i t i c a l s h e a r - s t r e s s (see Figure 5 . 1 . 3 B ) .
Based on the p r e s e n t r e s u l t s , i t seems j u s t i f i e d

t o conclude t h a t the S h i e l d s '

curve can a l s o be a p p l i e d as a c r i t e r i o n f o r i n i t i a t i o n o f motion f o r o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w over a plane bed. The curve r e p r e s e n t s a c r i t i c a l stage a t which
o n l y a minor p a r t (say 1 t o 10^) o f the bed s u r f a c e i s moving.
F i n a l l y , i t i s noted t h a t the s c a t t e r i s r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e . T h i s may

n o t be too

s e r i o u s because a c c u r a t e r e s u l t s f o r plane bed c o n d i t i o n s are o n l y o f l i m i t e d

-5.7-

importance because o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w over a plane bed s u r f a c e i s a r a r e phenomenon i n n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s . U s u a l l y , s m a l l - s c a l e r i p p l e s a r e present and i n


t h a t case t h e c r i t i c a l values f o r i n i t i a t i o n o f motion a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r
due t o t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f v o r t e x - m o t i o n s . For example, Carstens e t a l (1969)
r e p o r t a 5 0 ^ - r e d u c t i o n o f t h e peak v e l o c i t y (U

5.1.3

) f o r a r i p p l e d bed.

Current and waves

I n f o r m a t i o n o f i n i t i a t i o n o f motion f o r combined u n i d i r e c t i o n a l and o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w i s r a t h e r scarce. Some r e s u l t s a r e presented by Larsen e t a l (1981)


f o r t h r e e c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l f s i t e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and i n A u s t r a l i a and
by Hammond and C o l l i n s (1979) f o r flume c o n d i t i o n s . The data o f Larsen e t a l
i n c l u d e measurements o f c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y and d i r e c t i o n a t 1 m above t h e sea
bed, mean bottom p r e s s u r e s , photographs o f t h e sea bed and bed m a t e r i a l samp l e s . The bed m a t e r i a l a t t h e two USA-sites

i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as sandy

silt

(d^Q = 35 ym and 42 ym). The bed m a t e r i a l a t t h e A u s t r a l i a n s i t e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as f i n e sand (d_.^ = 170 ym). The water depths a t t h e s i t e s a r e i n t h e
50
range o f 75 t o 90 m. I n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e l o c a l bed forms ( r i p p l e s o r plane bed)
i s n o t r e p o r t e d by Larsen e t a l .
The data have been used by the present w r i t e r (van R i j n ) t o determine t h e
i n i t i a t i o n o f motion parameters according t o t h e S h i e l d s method. The b a s i c
data a r e g i v e n i n Table 5.1.2. The r e s u l t i n g time-averaged t o t a l bed-shear
s t r e s s (T,

) i s computed from Eq.(2.4.17), n e g l e c t i n g t h e wave-current

D y CW

i n t e r a c t i o n . The (time-averaged) wave-related bed-shear s t r e s s (T,

) is

Q^W

determined from t h e peak value o f thes bed-shear s t r e s s r e p o r t e d by Larsen e t


a l (1981), a p p l y i n g

^ = z '^^^

The c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed-shear s t r e s s i s

computed from t h e measured v e l o c i t y ( u ^ a t a h e i g h t (z.^) o f 1 m above t h e


bed, assuming a l o g a r i t h m i c v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e near-bed regime, as
follows:
1

i n which:
k

= e f f e c t i v e roughness h e i g h t (Eq. 5.1.11)

The sea bed i s assumed t o be f l a t . The water temperature i s assumed t o be 15C.


A p p l y i n g t h e above-given approach, t h e computed t o t a l time-averaged bed-shear

s t r e s s e s (x,

a r e somewhat ( 1 5 ^ ) l a r g e r than those r e p o r t e d by Larsen e t

a l , because t h e wave-current
approach. The dimensionless

i n t e r a c t i o n has been neglected i n t h e present


parameters f o r i n i t i a t i o n

o f motion a r e presented

i n F i g . 5 . 1 . 4 B , showing c r i t i c a l values t h a t are s m a l l e r than t h e S h i e l d s '


v a l u e s , e s p e c i a l l y f o r the two sandy s i l t s i t e s i<i^Q= 3 5 ym and 42 ym). The
r e s u l t s a r e i n b e t t e r agreement w i t h t h e curve proposed by Mantz ( 1 9 7 7 ) .

The data o f Hammond and C o l l i n s ( 1 9 7 9 ) have been c o l l e c t e d i n a flume

(length

- 3 . 7 m, w i d t h = 0 . 3 m, depth = 0 . 3 m). I n t h e flume, a perspex c a r r i a g e was


i n s t a l l e d , which could be moved i n an o s c i l l a t i n g motion. The sediment m a t e r i a l
(d^Q = 1 4 2 , 3 6 3 , 7 7 1 and 1 1 3 4 ym) was l a i d i n a depressed area o f t h e t o p
s u r f a c e o f t h e c a r r i a g e . Time-averaged v e l o c i t i e s were measured a t 0 . 0 2 above
the sediment bed by using a m i n i a t u r e p r o p e l l e r - t y p e c u r r e n t meter. I n t h i s
study only t h e t e s t r e s u l t s o f t h e two f i n e s t sediments ( 1 4 2 and 1 6 3 ym) have
been used by van R i j n , because the t e s t r e s u l t s o f the two c o a r s e s t m a t e r i a l s
( 7 7 1 and 1134 ym) may have been i n f l u e n c e d by r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e i n e r t i a l

forces

a c t i n g on t h e g r a i n s produced by t h e h o r i z o n t a l a c c e l e r a t i o n o f t h e sediment
bed

(on t h e c a r r i a g e ) . The basic data a r e given i n Table 5 . 1 . 3 .

F i g u r e 5 . 1 . 4 A shows the c r i t i c a l combinations

i n terms o f t h e wave-related and

c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed-shear v e l o c i t i e s computed from Eqs. ( 2 . 3 . 1 4 ) ,


(5.1.12).

Probably,

and

As can be observed, under c o n d i t i o n s o f combined u n i d i r e c t i o n a l and

o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w l a r g e r c r i t i c a l c u r r e n t v e l o c i t i e s (u^
achieved

(5.1.11)

) are generally

f o r s m a l l wave periods than f o r l a r g e periods a t a g i v e n

^-value.

t h i s i s t h e r e s u l t o f a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r e d u c t i o n o f t h e near-bed

c u r r e n t v e l o c i t i e s o f s h o r t - p e r i o d waves f o r which the wave-induced v o r t e x


motions near t h e bed a r e r e l a t i v e l y i n t e n s e (see a l s o s e c t i o n 2 . 4 ) .
Consequently, t h e imposed c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y has t o be l a r g e r t o i n i t i a t e
for

motion

a s h o r t p e r i o d wave a t t h e same wave h e i g h t .

F i g u r e 5 . 1 . 4 B shows t h e experimental r e s u l t s i n terms o f t h e S h i e l d s ' parameters. The r e s u l t i n g c r i t i c a l bed-shear s t r e s s i s computed from Eq. ( 2 . 4 . 1 7 )
by summation o f t h e wave-related

and c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed-shear s t r e s s . The

v e r t i c a l bar i n d i c a t e s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e wave p e r i o d and t h e e r r o r i n t h e


e s t i m a t e d k^-value ( 1 t o 3 d g ^ ) . G e n e r a l l y , t h e long p e r i o d waves produce t h e
s m a l l e s t c r i t i c a l m o b i l i t y parameters. As can be observed, t h e mean c r i t i c a l
values a r e c l o s e t o t h e S h i e l d s curve. The extreme values a r e about 4 0 ^ s m a l l e r
and l a r g e r than the mean values.

-5.9-

5.2

I n i t i a t i o n of suspension i n currents

For i n c r e a s i n g values o f the bed-shear

v e l o c i t y , the p a r t i c l e s w i l l be moving

along the bed by more or l e s s r e g u l a r jumps ( s a l t a t i o n s ) . When t h e v a l u e o f t h e


bed-shear v e l o c i t y becomes comparable

t o t h a t o f the p a r t i c l e f a l l

velocity,

the sediment p a r t i c l e s may go i n t o suspension.


Bagnold (1966) s t a t e d t h a t a p a r t i c l e only remains i n suspension when t h e
t u r b u l e n t eddies have dominant v e r t i c a l v e l o c i t y components which exceed the
p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y (w ) , Assuming t h a t the v e r t i c a l v e l o c i t y component
(w') o f the eddies are o f the same order o f magnitude as t h e v e r t i c a l t u r b u l e n c e i n t e n s i t y ( w ) , the c r i t i c a l value f o r i n i t i a t i o n o f suspension can be
expressed as:
0.5
w = f(w')2]

> w^

Recent s t u d i e s on t u r b u l e n c e phenomena i n boundary l a y e r f l o w p r o v i d e d e t a i l e d


i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the t u r b u l e n c e I n t e n s i t y (Hinze,
1975). The v e r t i c a l t u r b u l e n c e i n t e n s i t y (w) has a maximum v a l u e o f t h e same
o r d e r as the bed-shear v e l o c i t y , both f o r h y d r a u l i c smooth and rough f l o w
conditions.
Using the above-mentioned

values o f the v e r t i c a l t u r b u l e n c e i n t e n s i t y , t h e

c r i t e r i o n f o r i n i t i a t i o n o f suspension becomes:

^
w
s

= 1

(5.2,1)

which can be expressed as:

^rs

(u
f
(w )2
*,crs
s
= (s-l)gd^Q - (s-Dgd^Q

i n which:
u
w

- c r i t i c a l bed-shear v e l o c i t y f o r i n i t i a t i o n o f suspension
,crs
s

= p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y i n c l e a r ( s t i l l ) water

d^Q

= p a r t i c l e diameter

= acceleration of gravity

- d e n s i t y o f sediment

= density o f f l u i d

(5 2 2)

-5.10-

Another c r i t e r i o n f o r i n i t i a t i o n o f suspension has been given by Engelund


Based on a r a t h e r crude s t a b i l i t y

(1965).

a n a l y s i s , he d e r i v e d :

= 0.25

(5.2.3)

s
Equations

and

(5.2.2)

An e x p e r i m e n t a l

(5.2.3)

are shown i n F i g u r e

i n v e s t i g a t i o n was

( D e l f t Hydraulics,

1982)

5.1.1.

r e c e n t l y c a r r i e d out a t the D e l f t

Hydraulics

t o determine the c r i t i c a l f l o w c o n d i t i o n s f o r i n i t i a -

t i o n o f suspension d e f i n e d as the stage o f f l o w a t which the p a r t i c l e s


a jump l e n g t h l a r g e r than about 100 p a r t i c l e diameters.

Visual

d u r i n g the ( c r i t i c a l ) f l o w c o n d i t i o n s showed instantaneous

perform

observation

upward p a r t i c l e

motions ( t u r b u l e n t b u r s t s ) w i t h jump h e i g h t s i n the range 0 - 1 0 0 p a r t i c l e d i a meters a t v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s of the


The

experimental

presented

< D^ <

bed.

r e s u l t s , which are shown s c h e m a t i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 5 . 1 . 1

can

be

by:

10:

f ^
W3

= ^,

or e

-D,'

V s

- (J3^j2

(s-Dgd^O
(5.2.4)

D^ >
*

10:

crs
^

= 0.4,

'

ore

crs

^^J^
= 0.16 , , f ,
(s-Dgd^Q

Summarizing, i t i s suggested t h a t the c r i t e r i o n o f Bagnold may

d e f i n e an

u p p e r - l i m i t a t which a c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s t a r t s to develop, w h i l e Equation


(5.2.4)

may

d e f i n e an i n t e r m e d i a t e stage a t which l o c a l l y t u r b u l e n t b u r s t s

w i t h sediment p a r t i c l e s are l i f t e d from the bed

i n t o suspension.

-5.11-

5.3

References

BAGNOLD, R.A., 1946


Motion o f Waves i n Shallow Water; I n t e r a c t i o n between Waves and Sand Bottoms
Proc.Royal Soc.London, Ser.A, 187, p. 1-15, England
BAGNOLD, R.A., 1966
An Approach t o the Sediment Transport Problem

form General

Physics

G e o l o g i c a l Survey P r o f . Paper 422-1, Washington

BOSMAN, J . , 1981
Bed Behaviour and Sand C o n c e n t r a t i o n under O s c i l l a t o r y water Motion
D e l f t H y d r a u l i c s L a b o r a t o r y , Report Ml695-1, D e l f t , The Netherlands

BREUSERS, H.N.C. and SCHUKKING, W.H.P., 1971


I n i t i a t i o n o f Motion o f Bed M a t e r i a l ( i n d u t c h )
D e l f t H y d r a u l i c s L a b o r a t o r y , Report S159-I, D e l f t , The Netherlands

CARSTENS, M.R., NEILSON, F.M. and ALTINBILEK, H.D., 1969


Bed Forms Generated

i n t h e Laboratory under an O s c i l l a t o r y

Flow

U.S. Corps o f Eng.,

Coastal Eng. Res. Center, Tech. Memo, No. 28, USA

DAVIES, A.G., 1985


F i e l d O b s e r v a t i o n o f the Threshold o f Sediment Motion by Wave A c t i o n
Sedimentology,

Vol.32, p. 685-704

DELFT HYDRAULICS, 1972


Systematic I n v e s t i g a t i o n

o f Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional

Scour ( i n

Dutch)
Report M648/M863, D e l f t , The Netherlands

DELFT HYDRAULICS, 1982


I n i t i a t i o n o f Motion and Suspension, Development o f C o n c e n t r a t i o n P r o f i l e s i n
a Steady, Uniform Flow w i t h o u t I n i t i a l Sediment Load
Report M 1 5 3 1 - I I I , D e l f t , The Netherlands

-5.12-

I
DINGLER, J.R., 1 9 7 4
Wave-Formed Ripples i n Nearshore Sands
Ph.D.Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , San Diego, USA
ENGELUWD, F., 1965
A C r i t e r i o n f o r the Occurence o f Suspended Load
La H o u i l l e Blanche, No. 8 , France

GRAF, W. H. and PAZIS, G.G., 1977


Les Phenomenes de D e p o s i t i o n e t D'Erosion dans un Canal

Alluvionnaire

J o u r n a l o f H y d r a u l i c Research, V o l . 1 5 , No. 2

HAMMOND, T.M. and C o l l i n s , M.B., 1 9 7 9

On the Threshold o f Transport o f Sand-Sized Sediment under the Combined


I n f l u e n c e o f U n i d i r e c t i o n a l and O s c i l l a t o r y Flow
Sedimentology, V o l .

2 6 , p. 7 9 5 - 8 1 2

HINZE, J.C, 1975


Turbulence
McGraw H i l l Book Company

KOMAR, P.D. and MILLER, M.C., 1975


On the Comparison between the Threshold o f Sediment Motion under Waves and
U n i d i r e c t i o n a l Currents w i t h a Discussion o f the p r a c t i c a l E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e
Threshold
J o u r n a l Sedimentary

LARSEN L.H.,

P e t r o l . , V o l . 4 5 , p. 3 6 2 - 3 6 7

'

STERNBERG, R.W., SHI, N.C., MARSDEN, M.A.H. and THOMAS, L., 1 9 8 1

F i e l d I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the Threshold o f Grain Motion by Ocean Waves and


Currents
Sedimentary
The

Dynamics o f C o n t i n e n t a l Shelves, E l s e v i e r ,

Amsterdam,

Netherlands

LAVELLE, J.A. and MOFJELD, H.O., 1987


Do C r i t i c a l Stresses f o r I n c i p i e n t Motion and Erosion R e a l l y E x i s t
J o u r n a l o f H y d r a u l i c E n g i n e e r i n g , V o l , 1 1 3 , No. 3

-5.13-

MANTZ, P.A.,

1977

I n c i p i e n t T r a n s p o r t o f Fine Grains and Flakes by Fluids-Extended S h i e l d s


Diagram
J o u r n a l o f the H y d r a u l i c s D i v i s i o n , ASCE, V o l . 103, HY6

MANOHAR, M.,

1955

Mechanics o f Bottom Sediment Movement due t o Wave A c t i o n


U.S. Army Corps Engineers, Beach Erosion Board, Tech. Memo No. 75
MILLER, M.C.,

McCAVE, I.N. and KOMAR, P.D.,

1977

Threshold o f Sediment Motion under U n i d i r e c t i o n a l


Sedimentology,

V o l . 24, p. 507-527

PAINTAL, A.S.,

1971

Current

Concept o f C r i t i c a l Shear Stress i n Loose Boundary Open Channels


J o u r n a l o f H y d r a u l i c s Research V o l . 9, No, 1

RANGE, P.J. and WARREN, N.F.,

1968

The Threshold o f Movement o f Coarse M a t e r i a l i n O s c i l l a t o r y


Proc.

Flow

11th Conf, Coastal Eng., V o l . I , p. 487-491, London, England

SHIELDS, A.,

1936

Anwendung der Ahnlichkeitsmechanik und der Turbulenz Forschung a u f d i e


Geschiebebewegung
M i t t , der Preuss, Versuchsamst. f i i r Wasserbau und S c h i f f b a u ,
H e f t 26, B e r l i n ,

Deutschland

SILVESTER, R, and MOGRIDGE, G.,

1970

Reach o f Waves t o t h e Bed o f the C o n t i n e n t a l S h e l f


Proc,

12th Conf. Coastal Eng., V o l . I I , p. 651-667, Washington, U,S,A.

VAN RIJN, L.C,,

1982

E q u i v a l e n t Roughness o f A l l u v i a l Bed
J o u r n a l o f the Hydr, D i v , , ASCE, No. HY 10, 1982
VAN RIJN, L.C.,

1985

The e f f e c t o f Waves on K a o l i n i t e / S a n d Beds


Report M2060, DELFT HYDRAULICS, D e l f t , The

Netherlands

YALIN, M.S.,

1972

Mechanics o f Sediment Transport


Pergamon Press

Investigator

^50

^^90

(pm)

(vim)

(s)

Bagnold 1946

90

(laboratory)

90

0.10

10

0.13

0.11

10

0.15

0.20

10

0.26

0.22

10

0.29

0.46

10

0.63

0.20

14

0.22

0.25

15

0.27

0.32

15

0.33

160
160
360
360
800

3300
3300

Ranee and Warren

240

( l a b o r a t o r y ) I968

240
390
390
820
820

(m/s)

800

"6,or

S i l v e s t e r and

420

0.29

Mogridge 1970

420

12

0.23

(laboratory)

580

0.32

580

15

0.22

D i n g i e r 1974

177

0.10

(field)

177

10

0.22

0.13

10

0.23

0.27

10

0.51

1454

0.33

1454

10

0.65

310
310
910
910

Table 5.1.1 Data o f i n i t i a t i o n o f motion f o r o s c i l l a t o r y

flow

Vor

(ym)

(s)

\ ill/ u /

210

320

0.25

210

320

10

0.32

163

180

0.14

163

180

10

0.23

230

250

0.17

230

250

10

0.25

Manohar 1955

280

400

4.5

0.25

(laboratory)

280

400

8.5

0.30

280

400

11

0.35

790

950

0.31

950

0.33

790

950

10.5

0,35

1010

1150

0.32

1010

1150

0.33

1010

1150

10

0.38

1830

2150

0,38

1830

2150

5.5

0.43

1830

2150

0,47

1980

2200

3.5

0,40

1980

2200

0,44

1980

2200

0.44

750

1350

11

0.36

%0

Investigator

Bosman

I98I

(laboratory)

790

D a v i e s 1985
(field)

T a b l e 5.1.1

(continued)

^90

location

bed m a t e r i a l
size

date

current velocity
a t 1 m above bed

%0
(ym)

"1
(m/s)

peak v a l u e o f
wave-induced
bed-shear s t r e s s
^b,w,max
(N/m2)

wave
period
T
(s)

Washington

Dec.

21

35

0.13

0.075

13.5

continental

Dec.

21

35

0.097

0,086

12.8

shelf,

Dec.

22

35

0.15

0,078

13.1

Dec.

24

35

0.10

0.081

13.6

1978

Australia

Mar.

42

0.158

0.075

10.8

continental

Mar.

42

,0.13

0,078

13.5

shelf,

Mar,

42

0,10

0,069

13.5

Mar.

42

0,089

0.076

13.0

Australia

Dec,

170

0,078

0,24

14.9

continental

Dec,

170

0.098

0.179

12.2

shelf,

Dec,

13

170

0.07

0.186

12,9

1979

1979

T a b l e 5.1,2

Data o f i n i t i a t i o n o f motion f o r combined u n i d i r e c t i o n a l and


o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w ( L a r s e n e t a l , 1981)

bed m a t e r i a l
size

wave
period

peak value
orbital velocity
A

(ym)

(s)

142

363

Table 5.1.3

current velocity
a t 0.02 m above bed

IT

(m/s)

U2

(m/s)

0.156

5.2

0.173

11.8

0.254

0.04

0.183

0.08

0.177

0.12

0,164

0.18

0.081

15

0.0267

0.156

15

0.06

0.14

15

0.10

0.125

15

0.12

0.109

15

0.16

0.096

15

0.20

0.069

0.219

4.8

0.25

11.1

0.27

0.04

0.216

0.08

0.204

0.12

0.18

0.18

0.155

15

0.0267

0.194

15

0.06

0.174

15

0.10

0.159

15

0.12

0.143

15

0.16

0.112

15

0.20

0.092

Data o f i n i t i a t i o n o f motion f o r combined u n i d i r e c t i o n a l and


o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w (Hammond and C o l l i n s , 1979)

1.

CD
t.t

JD

E
c
n
O

E
O
u

->

Q05
n-

Q2

0.3

0.5

particle parameter, D

H
>

10

20

30

p a r t i e l e diameter, dgo^lO ( m ) a t T, = 15C

INITIATION OF MOTION AND SUSPENSION


FOR UNIDIRECTIONAL FLOW
DELFT HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 5.1.1

0.10

Shields' c u r v e

Q08

IT)

"D
O)
Q.

0.05

tn
^Q.'

0.04

L.
U
JD"

-7

Q06

"^-^^

>

O03

>

3 - - "

<

1 % - - "

002
"s.

0.01

11

5 6 7 8 9io'

10^

'10

u d 5 0 /V

A.

measured

occasional

frequent

particle movement at some

frequent

p a r t i c l e m o v e m e n t a t m a n y locations

frequent

p a r t i c l e m o v e m e n t a t nearly all

frequent

p a r t i c l e m o v e m e n t a t all l o c a t i o n s

permanent

general t r a n s p o r t

EXPERIMENTAL

particle movement a t some

particle movement

locations

locations

locations

( i n i t i a t i o n of ripples)

RESULTS

ao7

at all

locations

DELFT

HYDRAULICS

(1972)

N=

Shields' c u r v e

Q06

o
in
"D
CJ)
Q.

0.05

Q04

DOO

Q.
in
'
I.

IH

10

0.03

,1

0.02

Q01
10"

6 8

>

N = n u m b e r of p a r t i c l e s m o v i n g p e r
B.

EXPERIMENTAL

RESULTS O F

6 8io^

Ud50/V

unit a r e a

G R A F AND PAZIS

(m^)

(1977)

INITIATION OF MOTION FOR UNIDIRECTIONAL


FLOW OVER A PLANE BED
D E L F T HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 5.1.2

10'

Dso =
n
<3
TJ-

c1

n
i1
>
.tl
u
O

11

pm

1600

jjm

11

-'

1
1^

3200

800
"

c
400

c5

""*^
c1
^^."^
\

,'
\

\
'

5
t;
'(_
u

<

200 jjm

^'

^^^^^ ^

150 jjm

100 p m

^^^^
<

10-^

(
^ w a v e p e r i o d , T
measured:

1 0 0 - 1 5 0 pm

400-

150 - 2 0 0 p m

8 0 0 - 1600 p m

V 2 0 0 - 4 0 0 ^im

(s)

800pm

1600 - 3 2 0 0 p m

B o s m a n (Flume)
Dingier

(Flume)

Bagnold

(Flume)

Silvester and M o g r i d g e ( F l u m e )
Ranee and W a r r e n ( F l u m e )
Manohar
Davies

(Flume)

(Field)

Shields' c u r v e equation (5.1.2)

5 6 7 8 10'

5 6 78 lo^

particle parameter,

5 6 7 8 IQ

D^

INITIATION OF MOTION FOR OSCILLATORY


FLOW OVER A P L A N E
DELFT

BED

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 5.1.3

in

0.02

0.02

d s o = 142 [irn

d s o = 3 6 3 \lvn

u
_o

T=5 s

T=15s

T=5 s

T = 15s

0.01

Q01

U)
I

I
I

>
O

Q01

'

Q02
>

A. CRITICAL

c u r r e n t - related

'

0.01

0.02

bed - shear velocity, u ^ c (m/s)

B E D - S H E A R VELOCITIES FOR CURRENT AND WAVES

7 8

p a r t i c l e p a r a n n e t e r , D.
B. SHIELDS'

CURVE

INITIATION OF MOTION FOR COMBINED


UNIDIRECTIONAL AND OSCILLATORY
FLOW OVER A PLANE BED
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG 5.1.4

6.

BED FORMS

6.1

Bed forms i n u n i d i r e c t i o n a l currents

6.1.1

Classification

Bed forms a r e r e l i e f f e a t u r e s generated by f l o w i n g water over a bottom o f


movable sediment m a t e r i a l s . Many types o f bed forms can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d and
b a s i c a l l y a l l types i n nature have a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l geometry. When t h e bed
form c r e s t i s p e r p e n d i c u l a r ( t r a n s v e r s e ) t o the main f l o w d i r e c t i o n , t h e bed
forms are c a l l e d t r a n s v e r s e bed forms, such as r i p p l e s , dunes and a n t i - d u n e s .
R i p p l e s and dunes t r a v e l downstream

by e r o s i o n a t the upstream f a c e ( s t o s s

s i d e ) and d e p o s i t i o n a t the downstream

f a c e ( l e e s i d e ) , Antidunes t r a v e l

upstream by l e e s i d e erosion and s t o s s s i d e d e p o s i t i o n . Bed forms w i t h

their

c r e s t p a r a l l e l t o the f l o w are c a l l e d l o n g i t u d i n a l bed forms such as r i b b o n s


and r i d g e s .
H e r e i n the bed forms are considered from a h y d r a u l i c p o i n t o f view and n o t from
a sedimentary p o i n t o f view. T h i s means t h a t the o v e r a l l shape, dimensions and
e f f e c t i v e roughness o f the bed forms are d e s c r i b e d , w h i l e t h e d e t a i l e d

internal

sedimentary processes are n o t considered. D e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n o f these l a t t e r


processes i s presented by A l l e n ( 1 9 6 8 ,

1982),

The m o r p h o l o g i c a l regimes f o r u n i d i r e c t i o n a l c u r r e n t s can be c l a s s i f i e d


(see

a l s o F i g . 6 . 1 , 1 and

into

6.1.2):

lower regime w i t h f l a t bed, ribbons and r i d g e s , r i p p l e s , dunes and b a r s ,

t r a n s i t i o n a l regime w i t h washed-out dunes,

upper regime w i t h f l a t mobile bed, sand waves and a n t i - d u n e s .

In

t h e l i t e r a t u r e , roughly two groups o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n methods a r e d e s c r i b e d ,

Engelund ( 1 9 6 7 ) uses the Froude number as a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n parameter, w h i l e


Simons-Richardson

( 1 9 6 6 ) d e s c r i b e the type o f bed forms i n terms o f a suspen-

s i o n parameter and a p a r t i c l e - r e l a t e d Reynolds number.


H e r a i n , the a t t e n t i o n i s focused on the lower and t r a n s i t i o n a l f l o w regimes
o n l y , because these regimes are the most i m p o r t a n t f o r f i e l d

conditions.

As

w i l l be shown, these regimes can be q u i t e w e l l - d e f i n e d w i t h o u t t h e use o f t h e


Froude number, s i n c e the sediment t r a n s p o r t i s n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e Froude number
i n t h i s regime.

This may a l s o be i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t t h a t the t r a n s i t i o n a l stage w i t h washedout dunes i s generated f o r a Froude number o f about 0.6 i n flume c o n d i t i o n s , a n d
o f about 0,2-0.3 i n f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s . Only i n the upper f l o w regime w i t h a n t i dunes i s the Froude number o f importance, since t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f a n t i - d u n e s i s
m a i n l y governed by f r e e - s u r f a c e phenomena, as i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t t h a t t h e
l e n g t h o f the a n t i - d u n e s i s equal t o the wave l e n g t h o f the f r e e s u r f a c e .

Since t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e Froude number seems t o be r e s t r i c t e d t o the upper


f l o w regime, t h i s parameter i s , t h e r e f o r e , n o t used as a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n parameter by Van R i j n ( 1 9 8 ^ ) , but the type o f bed forms are d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f
a d i m e n s i o n l e s s bed-shear s t r e s s parameter (T) e x p r e s s i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e
g r a i n - s h e a r s t r e s s and a p a r t i c l e parameter (D^), as shown i n F i g u r e 6,1,2.
Both flume and f i e l d data have been used t o develop t h i s diagram.
I n t h e lower f l o w regime, which seems t o be p r e s e n t f o r T s m a l l e r than 15, t h e
dune-type bed forms a r e t h e dominant f e a t u r e s . A combination o f mega-ripples
and dunes may be p r e s e n t f o r
dominant bed forms f o r

< 10 and 3 < T < 10. M i n i - r i p p l e s a r e the

< 10 and T < 3.

The upper f l o w regime w i t h plane bed and a n t i - d u n e s can be d e f i n e d

t o occur

f o r T l a r g e r than 25. The a c t u a l onset o f anti-dunes cannot be p r e d i c t e d f r o m


F i g u r e 6.1.2, because the Froude number i s not used as a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n parameter. I n t h e t r a n s i t i o n zone (15 < T < 25) the bed c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s somewhat
obscure. I t may range from t h a t t y p i c a l o f the lower f l o w regime (dunes) t o
t h a t t y p i c a l o f t h e upper f l o w regime (plane bed), depending m a i n l y on t h e
proceeding f l o w c o n d i t i o n s ( r i s i n g or f a l l i n g

stage).

Summarizing, the f o l l o w i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s proposed:

Bed f o r m c l a s s i f i c a t i o n

1 <

< 10

(50 um < d(-^ < i|50 ym)

Lower f l o w

0 < T < 3

Mini r i p p l e s

regime

3 < T < 15

Mega r i p p l e s and dunes

Transitional

15 S T < 25

Washed-out dunes and plane bed

f l o w regime
Upper f l o w
regime

T > 25

Plane bed and a n t i - d u n e s

Djj > 10
(d

50

> 450

Dunes

ym)

and 6.1.4

F i g u r e s 6.1.3

show the bed form c l a s s i f i c a t i o n diagrams o f Van

den

Berg and Van Gelder (1989). These diagrams are based on a l a r g e amount o f
flume and f i e l d d a t a . The b a s i c parameters are the dimensionless p a r t i c l e
parameter D and t h e m o b i l i t y parameter 0' = ( u ; ) 2 / ( ( s - 1 ) g d^^) w i t h
(g'^/C') and C'

= 18 log(12h/3dgQ). A l l flume data have a water depth l a r g e r

than 0.1 m and a w i d t h l a r g e r than 0.3 m. A l l f i e l d data have a water d e p t h


l a r g e r than 1 m and a w i d t h l a r g e r than 2 m. The method o f Vanoni-Brooks
has been used t o e l i m i n a t e s i d e w a l l roughness

6.1.2

Flat

(1957)

effects.

bed

A f l a t immobile bed may

be observed Just b e f o r e the onset o f p a r t i c l e m o t i o n ,

w h i l e a f l a t m o b i l e bed w i l l be present Just beyond t h e onset o f motion.


The bed s u r f a c e b e f o r e the onset o f motion may

a l s o be covered w i t h r e l i c t

bed

forms generated d u r i n g stages w i t h l a r g e r v e l o c i t i e s .

6.1.3

Ribbons and

ridges

S m a l l - s c a l e r i b b o n and r i d g e type bed forms p a r a l l e l t o the main f l o w d i r e c t i o n


have been observed i n l a b o r a t o r y flumes and s m a l l n a t u r a l channels, e s p e c i a l l y
in case o f f i n e sediments

(d^Q < 100 ym) and are p r o b a b l y generated by

dary f l o w phenomena and near-bed

secon-

t u r b u l e n c e e f f e c t s (burst-sweep c y c l e ) i n t h e

lower f l o w regime and t r a n s i t i o n f l o w regime. These bed forms are a l s o c a l l e d


p a r t i n g l i n e a t i o n s because o f the streamwise r i d g e s and h o l l o w s w i t h a v e r t i c a l
s c a l e equal t o about 10 g r a i n diameters and are mostly found i n f i n e
(say

50 t o 250 ym), The w i d t h s c a l e i s o f the o r d e r o f 100

6.1.4

v/u^.

Ripples

When t h e v e l o c i t i e s are somewhat l a r g e r (10-20^) than the c r i t i c a l


for

sediments

velocity

i n i t i a t i o n o f motion and the median p a r t i c l e s i z e i s s m a l l e r than about

450 ym, s m a l l ( m i n i ) r i p p l e s are generated a t the bed s u r f a c e . R i p p l e s t h a t


are

developed d u r i n g t h i s stage remain s m a l l w i t h a r i p p l e l e n g t h much s m a l l e r

than t h e water depth ( x ^ < < h ) , Y a l i n (1985) r e p o r t values i n the range o f


= 50 t o 200 d^Q and

= 500 t o 1000 d^^. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f m i n i

r i p p l e s are commmonly assumed t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e t u r b u l e n c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s


near t h e bed (burst-sweep c y c l e ) . Current r i p p l e s have an asymmetric

profile

-6.il-

w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y steep downstream face ( l e e s i d e ) and a r e l a t i v e l y g e n t l e


upstream face ( s t o s s s i d e ) . As the v e l o c i t i e s near the bed become l a r g e r , the
r i p p l e s become more i r r e g u l a r i n shape, h e i g h t and spacing y i e l d i n g

strongly

t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l r i p p l e s ( F i g . 6.1.5. A). I n t h a t case the v a r i a n c e o f the


r i p p l e l e n g t h and h e i g h t becomes r a t h e r l a r g e . These r i p p l e s are c a l l e d l u n a t e
r i p p l e s when the r i p p l e f r o n t has a concave shape i n the c u r r e n t d i r e c t i o n
( c r e s t i s moving slower than wing t i p s ) and are c a l l e d l i n g u o i d r i p p l e s when
the r i p p l e f r o n t has a convex shape ( c r e s t i s moving f a s t e r than wing
The l a r g e s t r i p p l e s may

have a l e n g t h upto the water depth and are commonly

c a l l e d mega-ripples. F i g u r e 6.1.6
r i p p l e s observed

tips).

shows the r e l a t i v e h e i g h t (A/h) o f mega-

i n Pakistan i r r i g a t i o n channels (Mahmood ,et a l , 1984) as a

f u n c t i o n o f a dimensionless bed-shear s t r e s s parameter, T (Eq, 3.3).

The

r e l a t i v e h e i g h t o f the mega-ripples v a r i e s i n the range o f 0.02 t o 0.06.

c l e a r i n f l u e n c e o f the T-parameter cannot be d e t e c t e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s


r e a l i s t i c t o assume t h a t the r e l a t i v e h e i g h t has a maximum value f o r a

T-value

o f about 5. For s m a l l e r and l a r g e r T-values the r i p p l e h e i g h t i s reduced.


Here, i t i s assumed t h a t the r i p p l e s w i l l completely disappear f o r T
also Fig.

10 (see

6.1.2).

T e n t a t i v e expressions f o r the r e l a t i v e h e i g h t and l e n g t h o f mega-ripples

are

g i v e n by:

= 0.02

XJ, = 0.5

d-e"'^-^'^) (10-T)

f o r 1 < 0,^ < 10

(6.1.1)

(6.1.2)

Equation (6.1.1) i s shown i n F i g u r e 6.1.6A.


A n a l y s i s o f bed m a t e r i a l samples has shown t h a t coarser p a r t i c l e s are concent r a t e d i n t r o u g h areas o f the r i p p l e s . Thus, samples o f the trough area show
l a r g e r median p a r t i c l e diameters and are l e s s s o r t e d than samples from the
c r e s t areas (Harms, 1969).
6.1.5

Another

Dunes

t y p i c a l bed form type o f the lower f l o w regime i s the dune-type

bed

form. Dunes have an asymmetrical ( t r i a n g u l a r ) p r o f i l e w i t h a r a t h e r steep


l e e s i d e and a g e n t l e s t o s s s i d e ( F i g . 6.1.5C). A g e n e r a l f e a t u r e o f dune type
bed forms i s l e e s i d e f l o w s e p a r a t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n s t r o n g eddy motions down-

stream o f t h e dune c r e s t ( F i g . 6.1.7). The presence o f these phenomena a r e


e a s i l y observable a t the water s u r f a c e i n the form o f l a r g e b o i l s r i s i n g up
from t h e s e p a r a t i o n r e g i o n s . The l e n g t h o f the dunes i s s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o
the water depth w i t h values i n t h e range o f 3 t o 15 h. Extremely

l a r g e dunes

w i t h h e i g h t s o f t h e order o f 7 m and l e n g t s o f the order o f 500 m have been


observed i n t h e Rio Parana r i v e r i n water depths o f about 25 m, v e l o c i t i e s o f
about 2 m/s and bed m a t e r i a l s i z e s o f about 300 ym.
The f o r m a t i o n o f dunes may be caused by l a r g e - s c a l e eddies as d e s c r i b e d by
Y a l i n (1972). Due t o the presence o f l a r g e (low frequency) eddies, t h e r e

will

be r e g i o n s a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s w i t h decreased and increased bed-shear s t r e s ses, r e s u l t i n g i n the l o c a l d e p o s i t i o n and e r o s i o n o f sediment p a r t i c l e s .


When the bed m a t e r i a l i s non-uniform,

v e r t i c a l s o r t i n g takes p l a c e , which

means t h a t the coarser p a r t i c l e r accumulate i n the dune t r o u g h r e g i o n (see


S e c t i o n 8.2.7).

Based on the a n a l y s i s o f flume and f i e l d

data, the p r e s e n t w r i t e r has proposed

t h e f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r t h e dune h e i g h t and l e n g t h (Van R i j n , 1 9 8 2 ,


1984):

jT

0.11 i-f)

(6.1.3)

(l-e"-5^) (25-T)

. 7.3 h

(6.1.4)

The dune c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a c c o r d i n g t o Eqs. ( 6 . 1 . 3 ) and ( 6 . 1 . 4 ) a r e shown i n


Fig,

6.1.8. The dunes are assumed t o be washed o u t r e s u l t i n g i n a f l a t

bed f o r T > 25 (see F i g . 6.1.2). Equation

(mobile)

( 6 . 1 . 3 ) y i e l d s a maximum dune h e i g h t

i n t h e range o f 0.1 t o 0.2 h f o r T =^ 5. Figure 6 . 1 . 6 A shows measured and computed dune h e i g h t f o r some P a k i s t a n I r r i g a t i o n channels (Mahmood e t a l 1984).
The g e n e r a t i o n o f m i n i or mega-ripples

on the s t o s s s i d e s o f t h e dunes i s a l s o

a t y p i c a l phenomenon o f t h e lower f l o w regime ( F i g . 6.1.5B).


Other i n v e s t i g a t o r s who have proposed r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r dune dimensions, a r e :

Tsubaki-Shinohara,

1959

O r i g i n a l l y , they presented

t h e i r r e s u l t s i n g r a p h i c a l form. A best f i t o f

t h e i r r e s u l t s (determined by the present w r i t e r ) can be r e p r e s e n t e d by:

r:^ = 2.1 ( 0 ' ) ^ - ^

f o r 0.05 <

G' < 0.3

(6.1.5)

-6.6-

7^ = 0.5 ( 0 ' ) ^ - ^

(6.1.6)

(6.1.7)

= 4-2

in which:
0.

rV~ri
tPg- P) g
= y T|_^

~ particle mobility

parameter

= grain-shear s t r e s s

C_
C'

= TTT

= r i p p l e or e f f i c i e n c y

factor

= o v e r a l l Chzy-coefficient

12 h
C' 18 l o g ( j )
^65

= Chzy-coefficient r e l a t e d

to grains

= water depth

U s u a l l y , the bed-form f a c t o r i s r e l a t e d

t o t h e second power o f t h e C / C - r a t i o ,

but Tsubaki-Shinohara proposed a l i n e a r

relationship.

Yalin_1964, 1972

= ^

(6.,.8,

b
X ,
f

= 5

(6.1.9)

i n which:
= p g h 1 = o v e r a l l bed-shear

stress

- c r i t i c a l bed-shear

stress

Based on t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , Y a l i n proposed i n 1972:


X
h " = 2TT

(6.1.10)

Ranga_RaJu-Soni, 1976
^ 6.5 10^ ( 0 ' ) ^
So

for

0.03 < 0' < 0.6

(6.1.11)

-6.7-

(6.1.12)

So
in

h
which:

F. =
r^
(gh)-5

= Froude number

F^ =

= particle mobility

parameter

= particle mobility

parameter

jT"^
( ( 3 - 1 ) g d^o)'-^
^b
(Pg- P)g d^Q

Tjl^ = p g h' i
h' = 0 . 0 0 8 5
s

= grain-shear stress

(i-q)^'^^

= p /p
s

()^ ^ ( i ) " ' ^ " ' ^ ^

= depth r e l a t e d t o g r a i n s
= s p e c i f i c density

= energy g r a d i e n t

= mean f l o w v e l o c i t y

O r i g i n a l l y , t h e data f o r t h e bed-form l e n g t h were g i v e n i n g r a p h i c a l f o r m .


Equation ( 6 . 1 . 1 2 )

i s a r a t h e r crude r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e g r a p h i c a l

results.

However, a l s o t h e o r i g i n a l data a r e n o t very r e l i a b l e because t h e p r e d i c t e d


bed form l e n g t h s a r e a t l e a s t a f a c t o r 1 0 t o o s m a l l f o r f i e l d

conditions,

p r o b a b l y because o n l y flume data were used f o r c a l i b r a t i o n .

Allei2^_1968

= 0 . 0 8 6 h'^^

(6.1.13)

(6.1.14)

^=hO-^

Freds^e^_1980

Equation ( 6 . 1 . 1 5 )

i s g i v e n i n g r a p h i c a l form by Fredseie

The 0^^p -parameter


of

(1980).

i s the p a r t i c l e m o b i l i t y parameter a t t h e c r e s t ( o r t o p )

t h e bed forms. Since Fredse^e i s n o t c l e a r about t h e computation o f t h e

top ~P^'"^"'6ter, t h e present w r i t e r has used t h e f o l l o w i n g method:

-6.8-

i)^Qp

" p a r t i c l e m o b i l i t y parameter a t
the top o f the bed forms

u't o p
^

0.5 g
u,
" p C'
ri
^
top

'^top

~ h

~ depth-averaged v e l o c i t y a t the
^

top o f the bed forms

12(h-iA^)
- 18 l o g ( 5 1
)
^"^^ 2 dg^

C'
'top

= grain-shear v e l o c i t y a t the top


o f the bed forms

= Chzy-coefficient r e l a t e d t o the g r a i n s
a t the top o f the bed forms-

= discharge per u n i t w i d t h

Freds^e^_1982

, ^

(6.1.16)

= F(0', S o )

i n which:

' " ( s - 1 ) g d
0.5

" P^'"til^ m o b i l i t y parameter

= p ,
C'

= grain-shear v e l o c i t y

C' = 18 l o g ( - 2 ^ ]

- Chzy-coefficient r e l a t e d t o g r a i n s

^65

h'

= ( t u r b u l e n t ) boundary l a y e r t h i c k n e s s
a c c o r d i n g t o Engelund and Hansen, I 9 6 7

For reasons o f s i m p l i c i t y , the h'-parameter

i s assumed t o equal t o 0 . 5 h

(by

the p r e s e n t w r i t e r ) .

Comparsion_of methods
The r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r t h e bed-form h e i g h t were e v a l u a t e d by computing t h e bedform h e i g h t f o r a sand bed w i t h a p a r t i c l e diameter d^^ = 6OO ym ( d g ^ = 750
dgo = 1500 ym), mean f l o w depths h = 1 and 10 m and mean f l o w v e l o c i t i e s =
0.5,

1.0 and

1.5

m/s.

ym,

As t h e methods o f Tsubaki-Shinohara, Y a l i n and Ranga Raju-Soni r e q u i r e t h e


s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f the bed-shear s t r e s s and/or the energy g r a d i e n t , these methods
were used i t e r a t i v e l y

_2
= pghi, i . ^
h C

with:

, C = 18 l o g ( ^ ) ,
s

and k^ . 0.5 A^.

The r e s u l t s are shown i n F i g u r e 6 , 1 . 9 . As can be observed, the methods o f Ranga


Raju-Soni, Tsubaki-Shinohara and Fredseie (1980) show an i n c r e a s i n g t r e n d , t h e
l a t t e r two y i e l d i n g extremely l a r g e v a l u e s . The method o f Y a l i n produces v a l u e s
which approach to

= j h. Only e q u a t i o n ( 6 . 1 . 3 ) and Fredszie, 1982 p r e d i c t a

decreasing bed-form h e i g h t f o r i n c r e a s i n g f l o w v e l o c i t e s (washed-out dunes).


For a s m a l l depth ( h = 1 m) the methods o f Van R i j n and Fredseie ( 1982) show
good agreement, w h i l e f o r a l a r g e depth (h = 10 m) the method o f Freds(z)e y i e l d s
v a l u e s which are about two times as l a r g e as a c c o r d i n g t o t h e method o f Van
R i j n . The method o f Ranga Raju-Soni y i e l d s remarkably s m a l l bed-form h e i g h t s
i n t h e case o f l a r g e f l o w depths, probably because o n l y flume data were used
for

calibration.

6.1.6

Washed-out dunes

I t i s a well-known phenomenon t h a t the bed forms generated a t low v e l o c i t i e s


are washed o u t a t h i g h v e l o c i t i e s . I t i s not c l e a r , however, whether t h e d i s appearance o f the bed forms i s accomplished by a decrease o f t h e bed f o r m
h e i g h t , by an i n c r e a s e o f the bed form l e n g t h or b o t h . Recent flume e x p e r i ments (Termes,

1986) w i t h sediment m a t e r i a l o f about 450 ym show t h a t t h e

t r a n s i t i o n from t h e lower t o the upper regime I s e f f e c t u a t e d by an i n c r e a s e o f


the bed form l e n g t h and a simultaneous decrease o f the bed form h e i g h t .
U l t i m a t e l y , r e l a t i v e l y l o n g and smooth bed forms w i t h a roughness equal t o
g r a i n roughness a r e generated (see F i g . 6 , 1 . 6 B ) .
The t r a n s i t i o n process s t a r t s a t T-values o f 15 (see F i g . 6 . 1 . 2 ) , w h i l e f o r
T > 25 t h e bed s u r f a c e becomes wavy w i t h l a r g e f l a t r e g i o n s (see F i g . 6.1.5D).
L o c a l l y , s m a l l s c a l e r i b b o n s or r i d g e s may
due t o secondary

currents.

be generated p a r a l l e l t o the f l o w

-6.10-

6.1.7

Bars

The l a r g e s t bed forms i n the lower regime are sand bars (such as s i d e b a r s ,
b r a i d bars and t r a n s v e r s e b a r s ) , which u s u a l l y are generated i n areas w i t h
r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e t r a n s v e r s e f l o w components ( r i v e r bends).
B r a i d bars a c t u a l l y are a l l u v i a l " i s l a n d s " which separate the anabranches o f
b r a i d e d streams. Numerous bars can be observed d i s t r i b u t e d over the c r o s s s e c t i o n s . These bars have a marked streamwise e l o n g a t i o n . Transverse bars a r e
d i a g o n a l shoals o f t r i a g u l a r - s h a p e d p l a n along the bed. One

s i d e may

be

a t t a c h e d t o the channel bank. These type o f bars g e n e r a l l y are generated i n


steep s l o p e channels w i t h a l a r g e w i d t h - d e p t h r a t i o . The f l o w over t r a n s v e r s e
bars i s sinuous (wavy) i n p l a n . Side bars are bars connected t o r i v e r banks i n
a meandering

channel. There i s no f l o w over the bar. The p l a n f o r m i s r o u g h l y

t r i a n g u l a r . S p e c i a l examples o f s i d e bars are p o i n t b a r s and s c r o l l b a r s .

6.1.8

Upper regime with Anti-dunes

For i n c r e a s i n g v e l o c i t i e s (Froude number > 1) anti-dunes are generated i n the


upper regime. These type o f bed formes do not e x i s t as a c o n t i n u o u s t r a i n o f
bed waves, but they g r a d u a l l y b u i l d up from a f l a t bed. As the a n t i - d u n e s form,
they move uptream due t o s t r o n g l e e - s i d e e r o s i o n and s t o s s - s i d e d e p o s i t i o n .
Anti-dunes are bed forms o f s m a l l a m p l i t u d e and a l e n g t h s c a l e o f about

10

times the water depth (X ^ 10 h ) . The l o n g i t u d i n a l p r o f i l e has a s i n u s o i d a l


shape i n phase w i t h the water s u r f a c e .
When the f l o w v e l o c i t y f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e s , f i n a l l y a stage w i t h chute and p o o l s
i s generated ( F i g . 6.1.1H).

6.2

6.2.1

Bed forms i n non-steady c u r r e n t s

Non-steady r i v e r flow

I n r i v e r f l o w the d i s c h a r g e and water l e v e l vary as a f u n c t i o n o f time


and f a l l i n g stages) depending on seasonal and c l i m a t o l o g i c a l
S m a l l - s c a l e bed forms l i k e r i p p l e s respond r a p i d l y t o a new

(rising

conditions.
s i t u a t i o n but

l a r g e - s c a l e bed forms l i k e dunes have a l e s s r a p i d response and t h e r e may


c o n s i d e r a b l e phase l a g between the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the new
time

be a

flow conditions at

and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the new dune dimensions a t time

-6.11-

T h i s l a g behaviour o f dunes has been s t u d i e d by A l l e n ( 1 9 7 6 ) , FredseJe ( 1 9 7 9 ) ,


Wijbenga-Klaassen ( 1 9 8 1 ) ,

Tsujimoto-Nakagawa ( 1 9 8 3 ) ,

by F o u r n i e r ( 1 9 8 4 )

and

by

Termes ( 1 9 8 6 ) . A l l e n developed a s t o c h a s t i c model d e s c r i b i n g t h e c r e a t i o n and


d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e dunes. A f t e r a dune has t r a v e l e d a c e r t a i n assigned
i t i s destroyed

distance

and a new dune i s created. At t h e moment o f c r e a t i o n t h e dune

dimensions correspond t o t h e p r e v a i l i n g f l o w c o n d i t i o n s assuming steady f l o w .


D u r i n g t h e l i f e o f t h e dunes t h e dune h e i g h t can a d j u s t t o changes i n t h e f l o w
c o n d i t i o n s , b u t t h e dune l e n g t h remains constant.
Fredseie proposed an a n a l y t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r t h e i n i t i a l change o f t h e dune
h e i g h t which i s based on f l o w and sediment t r a n s p o r t parameters a t t h e dune
c r e s t . The dune shape i s e s s e n t i a l l y constant.
Wijbenga and Klaassen performed flume experiments t o study

t h e changes o f dune

dimensions f o r unsteady f l o w c o n d i t i o n s (sudden increase and decrease o f


d i s c h a r g e ) . Comparison o f the experimental

r e s u l t s and t h e model r e s u l t s o f

A l l e n and Fredseie d i d n o t g i v e s a t i s f a c t o r y agreement.


T s u j i m o t o and Wakagawa ( 1 9 8 3 ) performed flume experiments and proposed semie m p i r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r t h e change i n time o f t h e dune h e i g h t and t h e dune
l e n g t h . Various cases were s t u d i e d : dune development from an i n i t i a l l y
bed under a constant d i s c h a r g e ,

flat

dune t r a n s i t i o n under a suddenly d e c r e a s i n g

d i s c h a r g e and dune t r a n s i t i o n under a g r a d u a l l y v a r y i n g

discharge.

F o u r n i e r a l s o performed flume experiments and proposed e x p r e s s i o n s f o r t h e


dune h e i g h t change and t h e t r a n s i t i o n time s c a l e . According t o F o u r n i e r , t h e
dune l e n g t h f i r s t a d j u s t s i t s e l f i n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d t o t h e new f l o w
c o n d i t i o n s , w h i l e t h e dune h e i g h t remains e s s e n t i a l l y c o n s t a n t .

After this

p e r i o d ("coalescence" time) t h e growth i n dune h e i g h t becomes s i g n i f i c a n t .

According t o t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r (Van R i j n ) , t h e dune t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d T^,


d u r i n g which t h e dune dimensions change from those o f stage 1 t o those o f
stage 2 , i s r e l a t e d t o t h e r a t i o o f t h e change i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l area o f t h e
dune and t h e average bed l o a d t r a n s p o r t i n the t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d . Thus,
(1-p) (AX - A.X.)

Assuming a f i r s t order adjustment process, the changes i n dune h e i g h t and dune


l e n g t h can be expressed as:
t

= e

(6.2.2)

-6.12-Yt/T
(6.2.3)

i n which:
\ '

^1'

^1

dune h e i g h t , l e n g t h a t time t
e q u i l i b r i u m dune h e i g h t , l e n g t h a t stage 1
e q u i l i b r i u m dune h e i g h t , l e n g t h a t stage 2

% , 1 '

e q u i l i b r i u m bed load t r a n s p o r t r a t e s a t stage 1 , 2

%,2

p o r o s i t y o f bed m a t e r i a l
dune t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d
coefficients.

a, e, Y

The experimental

r e s u l t s ( T 2 6 , T 2 7 ) o f Wijbenga-Klaassen (1981) have been used

t o determine the a, 6 and y - c o e f f i c i e n t s . The t e s t s were performed i n a l a r g e


100 m, w i d t h

s c a l e flume ( l e n g t h

1.5 m, depth ^ 1 m) w i t h bed m a t e r i a l o f

770 ym. The dune h e i g h t and l e n g t h were measured as a f u n c t i o n o f time a f t e r a


sudden i n c r e a s e o f t h e discharge.
h = 0.4 m. The e x p e r i m e n t a l

The water depth changed from h^= 0 . 2 m t o

r e s u l t s a t stage 1 , a t stage 2 and d u r i n g t h e

t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d o f about 4 hours (= T^^) a r e , as f o l l o w s :

stage 1

f l o w parameters

stage 2

discharge

(mVs)

0.1

0.27

water depth

(m)

0.2

0.4

bed

q^^ ( m 2 / s )

7.3

load t r a n s p o r t

10"^

20

10"^

dune h e i g h t

'A

(m)

0.07

0.11

dune l e n g t h

(m)

1.35

1.55

Time

dune h e i g h t A

dune l e n g t h X

(hours)

(m)

(m)

t = 0

0.07

1.35

t = 0.5

0.09

1.35

t = 1

0.10

1.40

t = 2

0.105

1.45

t = 3

0.105

1.50

t = 4

0.11

1.55

-6.13-

A p p l y i n g these v a l u e s , i t f o l l o w s t h a t a =^ 4, 6 =^ 3 and y ^ ^. k v a l u e o f 6 =^
has a l s o been found by F o u r n i e r (1984).
The above g i v e n expressions can be a p p l i e d t o o b t a i n on order o f magnitude
e s t i m a t e o f t h e dune t r a n s i t i o n parameters

i n unsteady r i v e r f l o w . The e q u i l i -

brium dune dimensions are given by Eqs. (6.1.3) and ( 6 . 1 . 4 ) .

6.2.2

T i d a l flow

The bed forms most f r e q u e n t l y found i n t i d a l c u r r e n t s i n e s t u a r i e s a r e megar i p p l e s , asymmetrical sand dunes and symmetrical sandwaves. T i d a l c u r r e n t s may
have an asymmetrical v a r i a t i o n depending on t h e channel and shoal

system.

Mega r i p p l e s have a h e i g h t o f t h e order o f 0.5 t o 1 m and a l e n g t h o f t h e


o r d e r o f t h e water depth( 5 t o 20 m). G e n e r a l l y , they a r e generated i n t h e
main f l o o d and ebb channels w i t h bed m a t e r i a l s i z e s s m a l l e r than 300 ym. The
l e e s l o p e o f t h e mega r i p p l e s i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y equal t o t h e angle o f repose
(avalanche a n g l e ) . The shape i s t y p i c a l l y asymmetrical i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e
main c u r r e n t . Thus, r e o r i e n t a t i o n takes p l a c e w i t h t h e r e v e r s a l o f t h e t i d e .
The sand dunes and sand waves have l e n g t h s o f s e v e r a l times t h e water depths.
These l e n g t h s , however, a r e s m a l l e r than those o f t h e sand dunes i n steady
r i v e r f l o w because t h e t i d a l p e r i o d i s n o t l a r g e enough f o r t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f
e q u i l i b r i u m v a l u e s . G e n e r a l l y , t h e sand dunes and waves a r e found i n t h e
deeper wider t i d a l channels w i t h bed m a t e r i a l s i z e s l a r g e r than about 300 ym.
Sand waves a r e t y p i c a l l y symmetrical w i t h t h e i r c r e s t s a p p r o x i m a t e l y midway
between t h e t r o u g h s . The l e e s i d e angles a r e much s m a l l e r than t h e a n g l e o f
repose and seldom exceed 10. This means t h a t f l o w s e p a r a t i o n w i l l n o t ocur
y i e l d i n g s m a l l e f f e c t i v e roughness v a l u e s . Sand waves a r e t y p i c a l l y found i n
areas w i t h symmetrical t i d a l c u r r e n t s g e n e r a t i n g an equal amount o f sediments
t r a n s p o r t e d backwards and forwards over t h e c r e s t on each phase o f t h e t i d e .

Bucx and Tobias (1986) have analyzed a s e r i e s o f echo soundings c a r r i e d o u t


over a l e n g t h o f 20 km i n t h e e a s t e r n (landward) p a r t o f t h e Westerschelde
e s t u a r y i n t h e Netherlands. The t o t a l t r a c k l e n g t h o f t h e bed forms i n t h e
v a r i o u s ebb and f l o o d channels was about 100 km. The water depths i n t h a t p a r t
o f t h e e s t u a r y were i n t h e range o f 7 t o 25 m. The t i d a l range was 4 t o 5 m.
The c u r r e n t v e l o c i t i e s were i n the range o f 1 t o 1.5 m/s. The ebb c u r r e n t s a r e
s l i g h t l y d o m i n a t i n g i n most channels. V e r t i c a l s a l i n i t y s t r a t i f i c a t i o n does
n o t occur. The s i z e o f the bed m a t e r i a l was i n t h e range o f 200 t o 300 ym.

-6.14-

A n a l y s i s o f the echo sounding t r a c k s shows the presence o f megaripples i n most


channels. The h e i g h t s o f the megaripples were i n the range o f 0.2

to 1 m w i t h

a mean v a l u e o f about 0.6 m. The l e n g t h s were mostly i n the range o f 1 t o 20 m


w i t h a mean v a l u e o f about 10 m. About 20^ o f the bed forms had a l e n g t h
l a r g e r than 20 m. Large asymmetrical sand waves w i t h a l e n g t h o f 100 m and a
h e i g h t o f 2 m were p r e s e n t i n some deep channels ( d e p t h ^ 25 m). Most (80^) o f
the megaripples were s l i g h t l y asymmetrical i n the d i r e c t i o n o f the d o m i n a t i n g
c u r r e n t . About 10^ o f the megaripples had a symmetrical shape and about ^0% o f
the bed forms were more or l e s s plane (steep slope a r e a s , d r e d g i n g a r e a s ,
muddy a r e a s ) .

Voogt e t a l

(1989)

observed asymmetrical mega-ripples w i t h a h e i g h t o f about

0.5 m and a l e n g t h o f about 10 m i n water depths o f about 10 m, bed m a t e r i a l


s i z e s o f about 250 ym and mean v e l o c i t i e s up t o 1.75 m/s.

These asymmetrical

mega-ripples changed i n t o s y m m e t r i c a l sand waves w i t h a reduced h e i g h t o f


about 0.4 m and an increased l e n g t h o f 30 m f o r i n c r e a s i n g v e l o c i t i e s up t o
2.5 m/s.

The t i d a l p e r i o d was too s h o r t t o generate a f u l l y

the h i g h e s t v e l o c i t y o f 2.5

6.3

m/s.

Bed forms i n Waves

6.3.1

Two

plane bed even a t

Classification

t y p i c a l regimes can be observed i n n a t u r e :

lower regime w i t h f l a t immobile bed, r i p p l e s and b a r s ,

upper regime w i t h f l a t mobile bed (sheet f l o w ) .

A t y p i c a l t r a n s i t i o n regime does n o t occur. F i g u r e 6.3.1

shows a c l a s s i f i c a -

t i o n diagram g i v e n by Bosman ( I 9 8 I ) f o r sediments i n the range o f 150 t o


250 ym. F i g . 6.3.2

shows a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n diagram g i v e n by A l l e n (1982) and

based on 648 s e t s o f d a t a .
R i p p l e s are g e n e r a l l y generated when the peak o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y
bed i s about 1.2 times the c r i t i c a l

peak v e l o c i t y

(U^) near t h e

f o r i n i t i a t i o n o f motion o f

a f l a t bed. R i p p l e s are washed out again when the parameter

(U^) / ( ( s - l ) g d g Q )

i s l a r g e r than about 200 t o 250 ( D i n g l e r - I n m a n , 1976 and Horikawa

et al,1982).
A

According t o Wilson ( 1 9 8 9 ) , the sheet f l o w regime i s p r e s e n t f o r 0 = T , /

((Pg-p)g CI^Q) > 0 . 8 . S u r f zone bars may be generated near t h e breaker l i n e and
t y p i c a l l y r e f l e c t t r a n s p o r t processes r e l a t e d t o b r e a k i n g waves.

6.3.2

Ripples

Types
Wave r i p p l e s a r e formed once t h e o s c i l l a t o r y motion i s o f s u f f i c i e n t s t r e n g t h
t o cause g e n e r a l movement o f t h e s u r f a c e p a r t i c l e s . The h e i g h t and l e n g t h o f
the r i p p l e s grow u n t i l a s t a b l e r i p p l e i s o b t a i n e d depending on t h e p r e v a i l i n g
c o n d i t i o n s . Wave-generated r i p p l e s show an almost s y m m e t r i c a l and rounded
p r o f i l e . Wave r i p p l e s occur i n a wide range o f environments: f l o o d e d overbank
areas o f r i v e r s , f l o o d p l a i n s , l a k e bottoms, i n t e r t i d a l f l a t s , deep-sea bottom,
s h e l f bottoms and nearshore sea bottoms. Wave r i p p l e s have been observed i n
depths upto 2 0 0 m. I n deep water wave r i p p l e s a r e probably formed by i n t e r n a l
d e n s i t y c u r r e n t s r a t h e r than by s u r f a c e waves. F i g u r e 6 . 3 . 3 shows a symmetry
parameter
1985).

f o r o f f - s h o r e r i p p l e s generated by r e g u l a r waves (Sakakiyama e t a l ,

The r i p p l e s a r e s l i g h t l y asymmetrical (X^^/X^ -

t i o n , probably due t o a s m a l l wave asymmetry. Bagnold

0.45)
(1946)

i n the wave d i r e c d e f i n e d two t y p e s

o f r i p p l e s : two-dimensional r i p p l e s r e l a t e d t o r o l l i n g g r a i n s and three-dimens i o n a l r i p p l e s r e l a t e d t o eddy motions. According t o Bagnold, t h e r o l l i n g

grain

r i p p l e s a r e s t a b l e a t v e l o c i t i e s s m a l l e r than two times t h a t o f i n i t i a t i o n o f


m o t i o n . When f u l l y developed, r o l l i n g g r a i n r i p p l e s a r e g e n e r a l l y two-dimens i o n a l , r e g u l a r and have a s i n u s o i d a l shape. A t l a r g e r v e l o c i t e s t h e f l o w i s
separated from t h e r i p p l e s and s t r o n g eddies a r e generated which can sweep t h e
p a r t i c l e s from t h e troughs t o c r e s t s and v i c e versa. S e p a r a t i o n s t a r t s when t h e
o r b i t a l diameter exceeds t h e r i p p l e l e n g t h .
The time s c a l e o f r i p p l e growth from f l a t bed t o e q u i l i b r i u m values can v a r y
from about 1 hour i n case o f r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l waves (Davies, 1 9 8 5 ) t o about 1
minute i n case o f r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e waves ( D i n g i e r ,

1975).

I n deeper water where

t h e wave a c t i o n g e n e r a l l y i s t o o weak t o move t h e sand p a r t i c l e s , t h e bed may


c o n s i s t o f r e l i c t r i p p l e s formed under e a r l i e r more i n t e n s e wave a c t i o n .
A c o n c e p t u a l model f o r wave-formed sedimentary s t r u c t u r e s was g i v e n by C l i f t o n
(1976).

For waves o f u n i f o r m h e i g h t and p e r i o d p r o p a g a t i n g normal t o a s t r a i g h t

s h o r e l i n e over a g e n t l e s l o p i n g bottom, C l i f t o n assumes:

Bed c o n f i g u r a t i o n = F (U^, AU^ T, d)

( 6 . 3 . 1 )

-6.16-

i n which:
Ug

= peak v e l o c i t y near the bed

AUg = d i f f e r e n c e between (near-bed) peak v e l o c i t i e s under t h e c r e s t


and

trough o f a wave

= wave p e r i o d

= p a r t i c l e diameter
A

The

AUg -parameter i s a measure o f the v e l o c i t y asymmetry and i t a p p l i e s t o

f u l l y o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w and t o o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w superimposed by a c u r r e n t .
Thus, A U . = U
- U p + u . The main reason f o r wave-induced asymmetry i s t h e
6
on
off
c
J
J
s h o a l i n g process. As a wave begins t o shoal, the c r e s t e l e v a t e s and steepens
A

and

t h e trough shallows and becomes f l a t t e r . The volume o f water c a r r i e d

forward

( i n wave d i r e c t i o n ) under the c r e s t must be equal t o the volume o f

water c a r r i e d backward under t h e t r o u g h . Because t h e steepened c r e s t passes a


g i v e n p o i n t i n a s h o r t e r time than the broader t r o u g h , t h e v e l o c i t y under t h e
wave c r e s t w i l l be l a r g e r than under t h e trough. C l i f t o n used second-order
A

wave t h e o r y t o e s t i m a t e

AU . The t r a n s i t i o n from symmetric t o asymmetric


0
A

r i p p l e s w i l l occur f o r AU^ > 0.05 m/s

caused by asymmetric o s c i l l a t o r y m o t i o n

w i t h o r w i t h o u t a superimposed longshore c u r r e n t .
Mobile asymmetric r i p p l e s g e n e r a l l y m i g r a t e

i n the d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i r

leeside

slope. According t o C l i f t o n , t h r e e types o f r i p p l e s can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d


A

depending on the v a r i a b l e s d_, A^ and X . , :


A
50* 6
ripple
1.

O r b i t a l r i p p l e s {Zk^/^^ < 1000), which form under s h o r t p e r i o d waves, t h e


l e n g t h depends d i r e c t l y on t h e l e n g t h o f the o r b i t a l diameter.
A

2.

S u b o r b i t a l r i p p l e s (1000 < 2A^/d^Q < 5000) which form under l o n g e r


waves, the l e n g t h increases

period

w i t h i n c r e a s i n g g r a i n s i z e b u t decreases w i t h

i n c r e a s i n g o r b i t a l diameter.
A

3.

A n o r b i t a l r i p p l e s (2A^/d^Q > 5000) which form under waves w i t h very

large

o r b i t a l diameters, t h e l e n g t h depends on g r a i n s i z e b u t i s independent on


o r b i t a l diameter.
Observations i n c o a s t a l zones w i t h medium t o coarse-grained

sand (250-750 ym)

i n d i c a t e t h a t asymmetric bed forms develop i n a c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n , as shown


in Figure 6 . 3 . 4 ( c l i f t o n ,

1976). The most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s

are:

r i p p l e s become i n c r e a s i n g l y i r r e g u l a r f o r i n c r e a s i n g energy c o n d i t i o n s
(longshore

bar and upper

shoreface),

-6.17-

i r r e g u l a r r i p p l e s may

grade i n t o c r o s s - r i p p l e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g wave h e i g h t s

and o r b i t a l asymmetry; c r o s s - r i p p l e s c o n s i s t o f two s e t s o f r i p p l e s both


o r i e n t e d o b l i q u e t o the o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w , one s e t tends t o be
and

long-crested

the other set i s composed o f s h o r t e r r i p p l e s i n the troughs o f

the

l o n g e r r i p p l e s ; c r o s s - r i p p l e s are not d e t e c t i b l y r e l a t e d t o longshore


c u r r e n t s or t o waves approaching from d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s ,

c r o s s - r i p p l e s may

grade i n t o l u n a t e mega-ripples f o r i n c r e a s i n g

orbital

asymmetry; these mega-ripples have a l e n g t h scale o f about 1 m and


common i n medium t o coarse-grained

sand (250-750 ym)

are

in conditions of

i n t e n s e asymmetric o r b i t a l motion (AU^ > 0.25

m/s)

generated by l o n g

period

waves.
Shipp (1984) used the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f C l i f t o n (1976) t o d e s c r i b e

the

form types observed i n a s i n g l e - b a r r e d c o a s t a l system a t L o n g - I s l a n d ,


York. The

bed
New

r e s u l t s of Shipp are v a l i d f o r f a i r weather c o n d i t i o n s ; longshore

c u r r e n t s were not present. The most i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e s are (see a l s o

Figure

6.3.4B).

upper shore face

: l i n e a r r i p p l e s , asymmetric r i p p l e s , f l a t
(sheet

longshore

trough

landward slope of__bar

bed

flow)

: l i n e a r r i p p l e s (X^ ^ 0.7

m,

A^ ^ 0.15

: cross r i p p l e s , i r r e g u l a r r i p p l e s and

m)
linear ripples

(from top t o bottom)


l o n g s h o r e bar c r e s t

i r r e g u l a r and

cross r i p p l e s f o r low-energy c o n d i t i o n s

l u n a t e mega-ripples (X^ = 0.7

m,

A^

0.15

m)

f o r higher energy c o n d i t i o n s
seaward slope o f bar

c r o s s - r i p p l e s and l i n e a r r i p p l e s

t r a n s i t i o n a l zone

l i n e a r r i p p l e s o f f i n e sand (200
l o c a l l y coarse-grain

deposits

l i n e a r mega-ripples ( x ^ = 0.7
offshore

ym);

(600 ym)
m,

forming

A^ = 0.15

l i n e a r r i p p l e s o f f i n e sand (150-200

ym)

m)

-6.18-

F i g u r e 6 . 3 . 5 show r i p p l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s along a beach p r o f i l e , as measured by


Sakakiyama e t a l ( 1 9 8 5 )

i n a l a r g e scale wave flume.

Case 3 - 2 shows a r i p p l e d bed i n the o f f s h o r e and onshore zone, w h i l e a f l a t


bed can be observed near t h e breaker p o i n t ( p l u n g i n g b r e a k e r s ) . I n case 3 - 4
r i p p l e s can a l s o be observed near t h e breaker p o i n t , probably because s p i l l i n g
breakers a r e p r e s e n t which cannot wash o u t t h e bed forms.

Dimensions
In t h e l i t e r a t u r e many equations are a v a i l a b l e t o determine t h e dimensions o f
wave-generated bed forms ( r i p p l e s ) . I m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s were made by
Inman(1957),

Mogridge and

Kamphuis ( 1 9 7 2 ) ,

Dingier ( 1 9 7 5 )

and

Nielsen

Based on t h e a n a l y s i s o f l a b o r a t o r y and f i e l d d a t a , N i e l s e n concluded

(1981).

that:

t h e s i z e and shape o f t h e r i p p l e s are i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r r e g u l a r i t y o f t h e


waves; f o r i r r e g u l a r waves t h e r i p p l e s a r e s h o r t e r and f l a t t e r than f o r
r e g u l a r waves,

f i e l d data conform best w i t h l a b o r a t o r y data when t h e f i e l d wave

parameters

are based on t h e s i g n i f i c a n t wave h e i g h t .

For l a b o r a t o r y c o n d i t i o n s N i e l s e n proposes
A
-

"A"

= 0.275

0.022

= 2.2

0.345

iP-^

(6.3.2)

A
6
^

iP-^^

(6.3.3)

For f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s N i e l s e n

proposes:

A
^

= 21

10

(6.3.4)

>. 10

(6.3.5)

f o r ll) >

V = e.p
Ag

in

1000 + 0 . 7 5

1" )
ln'i|)

for

which:

A^ = r i p p l e h e i g h t
= r i p p l e length
^r
A. = peak value o f o r b i t a l e x c u r s i o n
i|)

= peak v a l u e o f o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y
= m o b i l i t y parameter = ( U ) / ( ( s - l ) g d

50'

-6.19-

I n t h e p r e s e n t study another a t t e m p t i s made by Van R i j n t o analyze t h e a v a i l a b l e r i p p l e data f o r non-breaking wave c o n d i t i o n s . The data a r e s e l e c t e d from
l a b o r a t o r y and f i e l d experiments w i t h sand beds having mean p a r t i c l e s i z e s i n
t h e range o f 1 0 0 t o 5 0 0 ym. Regular and i r r e g u l a r wave c o n d i t i o n s a r e c o n s i dered.
With r e g a r d t o r e g u l a r waves t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a u t h o r s have been
used: Carstens e t a l ( 1 9 6 9 ) ,
al (1984)
(1957),

Hayakawa e t a l ( 1 9 8 3 ) ,

and Sakakiyama e t a l ( 1 9 8 5 ) .

Dingier

der K a a i j ( 1 9 8 7 ) .

(1975),

Ribberink

Steetzel ( 1 9 8 4 ) ,

DuToit e t

With regard t o i r r e g u l a r waves: Inman

et a l (1987),

Van R i j n ( 1 9 8 7 ) ,

Nieuwjaar-Van

The b a s i c data a r e g i v e n i n Table 6 . 1 and 6 . 2 . The f i e l d

experiments o f Inman ( 1 9 5 7 )

and D i n g i e r ( 1 9 7 5 )

are d e s c r i b e d i n more d e t a i l

below.

Inman_(1957)

Data were c o l l e c t e d i n shallow and deep water ( u p t o 5 0 m) by d i v e r s . The r i p p l e


dimensions were determined by marking w i t h a grease p e n c i l on a p l a s t i c

strip

l a i d on t o p o f t h e r i p p l e s . I n a l l , about 1 0 0 0 r i p p l e s were measured d u r i n g


about 2 0 0 o b s e r v a t i o n s ( d i v e s ) . Surface waves were recorded by use o f a f a t h o meter mounted on a s m a l l boat. F i r s t - o r d e r wave theory was used t o compute t h e
near-bed o r b i t a l e x c u r s i o n and v e l o c i t y (based on t h e s i g n i f i c a n t wave h e i g h t
and p e r i o d ) . S o l i t a r y wave t h e o r y was used f o r t h e wave data o f s h a l l o w w a t e r s .
The r i p p l e d a t a o f t h e f i n e sand beds ( 1 5 0 ym) were n o t used i n t h e p r e s e n t
study because these r i p p l e s may have been d i s t u r b e d by t h e d i v i n g

activities.

As s t a t e d by Inman, t h e s m a l l r i p p l e h e i g h t s o f a few m i l l i m e t e r s p r e v e n t e d
a c c u r a t e measurements because t h e measuring

instruments f l a t t e n e d the r i p p l e

crests.

Dingler_(1974)

The r i p p l e d a t a were c o l l e c t e d by u s i n g a h i g h - r e s o l u t i o n sonar capable o f a


v e r t i c a l r e s o l u t i o n o f 1 mm. The sonar head was mounted i n an open a l u m i n i u m
framework

a t about 0 . 2 5 m above t h e bed. Simultaneous wave-pressure

measure-

ments were made t o determine t h e wave parameters. The pressure meter was
a t t a c h e d t o t h e sonar frame, which was lowered t o t h e bed by d i v e r s . Each
experiment l a s t e d a t l e a s t 8 minutes. A f t e r removing t h e frame, a bed m a t e r i a l
sample was c o l l e c t e d .

-6.20-

F i r s t - o r d e r wave t h e o r y was used t o compute the near-bed wave parameters u s i n g


the root-mean-square value o f t h e wave h e i g h t s . I n t h e present a n a l y s i s these
values a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n t wave h e i g h t ( H = / 2 H
).
s
rms
The p r e s e n t w r i t e r r e l a t e s t h e r i p p l e h e i g h t and l e n g t h t o t h e peak v a l u e o f
the o r b i t a l e x c u r s i o n
A

(A^) and a p a r t i c l e m o b i l i t y parameter

as f o l l o w s :

A
(6.3.6)

in which:
^ = ( U g ) 2 / ( ( s - 1 ) g d^Q)

F i g u r e 6 . 3 . 6 shows the r i p p l e h e i g h t f o r r e g u l a r and i r r e g u l a r waves. F i g u r e


6.3.7

shows t h e r i p p l e steepness (A^/X^). The r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f N i e l s e n (Eqs.

6.3.2

to 6 . 3 . 5 )

f o r r e g u l a r and i r r e g u l a r waves a r e a l s o shown.

Comparing t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l

r e s u l t s o f r e g u l a r and i r r e g u l a r waves, i t appears

t h a t t h e r i p p l e h e i g h t and steepness a r e s m a l l e r f o r i r r e g u l a r waves than f o r


r e g u l a r waves when the ifi-parameter i s l a r g e r than about 2 5 . For these

latter

c o n d i t i o n s t h e r i p p l e g e n e r a t i o n i s i n c r e a s i n g l y dominated by suspended s e d i ment t r a n s p o r t processes t h a t have a more d i f f u s i v e c h a r a c t e r r e s u l t i n g i n a


smoothing o f t h e r i p p l e s . This was a l s o r e p o r t e d by N i e l s e n

(1981).

The r e l a -

t i o n s h i p s o f N i e l s e n f o r i r r e g u l a r waves seem t o g i v e a r i p p p l e h e i g h t t h a t i s
somewhat t o o s m a l l f o r i|j-values i n t h e range o f 2 0 t o 6 0 . F u r t h e r i t i s noted
t h a t t h e f i e l d d a t a o f D i n g i e r ( 1 9 7 5 ) a r e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l compared w i t h t h e
l a b o r a t o r y d a t a f o r i|)-values i n the range o f 4 0 t o 8 0 . The reason f o r t h i s i s
not c l e a r . I t may be caused by t h e l i m i t e d accuracy o f t h e r i p p l e h e i g h t measurements i n f i e l d

c o n d i t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e r i p p l e h e i g h t s a r e s m a l l .

More f i e l d experiments a r e necessasry t o v e r i f y t h e r e s u l t s o f D i n g i e r .


The p r e s e n t w r i t e r (Van R i j n ) proposes t h e f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r i r r e g u l a r waves:

'

for

i|) <

10

(6.3.7)

for

i|) >

250

-6.21-

for

^ = 0 . 1 8

= 2.10"'(250

- ll))

2.5

ll) < 10

for

10 < ll) < 2 5 0

for

i|) > 2 5 0

(6.3.8)

The upper regime w i t h sheet f l o w c o n d i t i o n s i s assumed t o be p r e s e n t f o r


ll) > 2 5 0 .
From E q s . ( 6 . 3 . 7 ) and ( 6 . 3 . 8 ) ,

X^ = 1 . 2 2
r

i t can be d e r i v e d

for

A.
6

which i s c l o s e t o t h e value

that:

ll) < 10

= 1.3

(6.3.9)

r e p o r t e d by D i n g i e r and Inman ( 1 9 7 6 ) ,

M i l l e r and Komar ( 1 9 8 0 ) and N i e l s e n ( 1 9 8 1 ) .


The proposed expressions are v a l i d f o r non-breaking wave c o n d i t i o n s . I n case
of

b r e a k i n g wave c o n d i t i o n s t h e m o b i l i t y parameter

(ili) w i l l , i n g e n e r a l , be

l a r g e r than 2 5 0 y i e l d i n g sheet f l o w over a f l a t bed. I n s p i l l i n g b r e a k i n g


waves t h i s may be r e a l i s t i c . However, i n p l u n g i n g b r e a k i n g waves t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e waves w i t h the bed i s so v i g o r o u s l y t h a t a r a t h e r i r r e g u l a r bed
s u r f a c e may be generated.

6.3.3

Sheet flow regime

Based on F i g . 6 . 3 . 6 ,
for

the sheet f l o w regime w i t h a plane mobile bed w i l l

ilj = U g / ( ( s - 1 ) g d^^) > 2 5 0 . According t o Wilson ( 1 9 8 9 ) ,

t i o n s w i l l be generated f o r 0 =

T^/[{p^-p)g

occur

sheet f l o w c o n d i -

d^^) > 0 . 8 .

G e n e r a l l y , sheet f l o w c o n d i t i o n s a r e assumed t o be p r e s e n t i n t h e s u r f zone


where b r e a k i n g waves are dominant. Kroon and Van R i j n ( 1 9 8 9 ) ,

however, d i d n o t

observe a f u l l y plane bed i n t h e s u r f zone. The bed was always i r r e g u l a r

with

bumps and h o l e s o f t h e order o f 0 . 0 2 m h i g h and about 1 m l o n g .

6.3.4

S u r f zone bars or longshore

bars

These type o f bars have t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n ( c r e s t s ) p a r a l l e l t o t h e c o a s t l i n e


and a r e found i n t h e s u r f zone near the b r e a k e r l i n e ( F i g . 6 . 3 . 3 ) .

The b a s i c

mechanism may be the g e n e r a t i o n o f n e t o n s h o r e - d i r e c t e d v e l o c i t i e s seaward o f

"6.22-

the b r e a k e r l i n e and net o f f s h o r e - d i r e c t e d v e l o c i t i e s (undertow) i n the s u r f


zone. Incase o f high-energy coasts c o n s i s t i n g o f f i n e sediment m a t e r i a l

(200

3 0 0 ym) two or more p r a l l e l bars are generated, w h i l e no bars are generated i n


case o f low-energy coasts o f r e l a t i v e l y coarse sediment (> 5 0 0 ym).
Longshore v a r i a t i o n s i n bar shape and dimensions may be a f f e c t e d by t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f s w e l l waves and edge waves y i e l d i n g beach cusps and w i n g - t y p e bars
connected t o t h e beach i n case o f high-energy r e f l e c t i v e

6.4

6.4.1

beaches.

Bed forms i n c u r r e n t s and waves

Class i f i c a t i o n

R i p p l e s are the d o m i n a t i n g type o f bed forms i n the nearshore and s u r f zone.


Two g e n e r a l types o f c u r r e n t s e x i s t : cross-shore r e t u r n f l o w and l o n g s h o r e
c u r r e n t s . T i d a l c u r r e n t s are a l s o i m p o r t a n t , e s p e c i a l l y i n p e r i o d s w i t h calm
weather.
The cross-shore r e t u r n f l o w s r e f e r t o a g e n e r a l seaward f l o w o r t o a c h a n n e l i zed narrow seaward

r i p c u r r e n t . General seaward f l o w i s most s i g n i f i c a n t

close

t o the shore under b r e a k i n g wave c o n d i t i o n s and accounts f o r s e a w a r d - f a c i n g


bed forms. I n r i p c u r r e n t s which are opposing the waves, seaward-facing megar i p p l e s have been commonly observed ( C l i f t o n ,

1976).

Longshore c u r r e n t s r e f e r t o the c u r r e n t i n the zone between the l o n g s h o r e bar


and the s h o r e l i n e . They feed the r i p c u r r e n t s a t breaks i n the l o n g s h o r e bar.
U s u a l l y , the wave p r o p a g a t i o n d i r e c t i o n i s almost normal t o t h e c u r r e n t d i r e c t i o n . L i t t l e i s known o f the type o f bed forms which are generated under these
conditions.Some i n f o r m a t i o n i s g i v e n by N i e l s e n ( 1 9 8 3 ) , who r e p o r t s t h e p r e sence o f wave-generated

r i p p l e s w i t h t h e i r c r e s t l i n e s p a r a l l e l t o t h e shore

i n t h e l i t t o r a l d r i f t zone, showing no i n f l u e n c e o f t h e (weak) l o n g s h o r e c u r r e n t o f about 0 . 3

m/s.

Shipp ( 1 9 8 4 ) r e p o r t s the g e n e r a t i o n o f c r o s s - r i p p l e s

and i r r e g u l a r 3 D - r i p p l e s i n the s u r f zone (see F i g . 6 . 3 . 4 ) . Complex r i p p l e


p a t t e r n s (sometimes c a l l e d i n t e r f e r e n c e r i p p l e s ) are found i n areas where wave
and c u r r e n t s cross a t a c e r t a i n a n g l e , r i p c u r r e n t s w i t h waves o r

cross-waves

r e f l e c t i o n s with longshore currents.


Bed forms i n the o f f s h o r e zone are generated by t i d a l c u r r e n t s superimposed
waves. The c u r r e n t s may

be f o l l o w i n g , opposing o r o b l i q u e t o t h e waves. Bed

forms i n t i d a l seas are r e l a t e d t o t h e peak c u r r e n t v e l o c i t i e s , water d e p t h ,


sediment diameter and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f sediment.

by

-6.23-

The

bed forms i n the o f f s h o r e zone f a l l i n t o two main c a t e g o r i e s :

t r a n s v e r s e r i p p l e s and sand waves w i t h t h e i r c r e s t s almost p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o


the

current direction,

l o n g i t u d i n a l f u r r o w s , r i b b o n s , r i d g e s and banks w i t h t h e i r c r e s t s and


t r o u g h s almost p a r a l l e l t o the peak t i d a l

L o n g i t u d i n a l f u r r o w s may

current.

develop i n t i d a l seas o v e r l y i n g a rocky f l a t

bottom

covered w i t h g r a v e l , pebbles and cobbles and where t h e r e are s t r o n g c u r r e n t s


(1-1.5

al.,

m/s)

and a shortage o f mobile sediments.

Observations

(Henderson e t

1 9 8 8 ) have shown t h a t v a r i a b l e amounts o f coarse sand and f i n e g r a v e l are

t r a n s p o r t e d along the axes o f the f u r r o w s . With decreasing v e l o c i t i e s

these

f u r r o w s develop through a t r a n s i t i o n zone i n t o sand r i b b o n s (see F i g . 6 . 4 . 3 A ) .


f u r r o w s can have a l e n g t h o f the order o f 1000 m, a w i d t h o f the o r d e r o f

The

10 m and a depth o f the o r d e r o f 1 m. The


may

c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l shape o f t h e f u r r o w s

be somewhat a s y m m e t r i c a l . The p l a n form i s s l i g h t l y

sinuous.

A n a l y z i n g some a v a i l a b l e d a t a , the present w r i t e r has composed a

classifi-

c a t i o n diagram f o r t r a n s v e r s e bed forms under combined c u r r e n t s and waves


(Fig.

6.4.2).

The

b a s i c parameters are the c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d and the wave-

r e l a t e d m o b i l i t y parameters d e f i n e d a t :

0'
>^
c " ( s - l ) g d 50

(6.4.1)

01
w

(6.4.2)

in

i'^
( s - l ) g d 50
which:
c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d e f f e c t i v e bed-shear v e l o c i t y
wave-related e f f e c t i v e bed-shear v e l o c i t y

c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d f r i c t i o n f a c t o r according to
Eq.

f'
w

w i t h k^ = 3 d

wave-related f r i c t i o n f a c t o r a c c o r d i n g t o
Eq.

(2.2.12)

(2.3.20)

depth-averaged

w i t h k^ = 3 d
velocity

peak o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y a t bed based on


wave p e r i o d .

relative

^6.24

The r i p p l e data o f Nieuwjaar- Van der K a a i j (1987) y i e l d the f o l l o w i n g

wave-dominated r i p p l e s

(X,/X < 1 . 3 )

\ c u r r e n t - d o m i n a t e d r i p p l e s (X./X > 1 . 5 )

results:

< 0.25

for

u^

for

JC
JW
u^ /u^
>

/u^

F i g u r e 6 . 4 . 2 shows d i s t i n c t r e g i o n s w i t h 2 dimensional r i p p l e s which become 3 dimensional a t increasing m o b i l i t y .


According t o Amos and C o l l i n s

(1978),

who analyzed f i e l d measurements i n t h e

i n t e r t i d a l zone o f a sand f l a t , r i p p l e s can be c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w s :


f o r U./u
> 10
A
*, c
c u r r e n t - d o m i n a t e d r i p p l e s f o r U /u^j
< 1

wave-dominated r i p p l e s

in which:

= o v e r a l l c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed-shear v e l o c i t y .

The bed forms generated by combined c u r r e n t s and waves bear some f e a t u r e s o f


both h y d r a u l i c e f f e c t s . Where t h e wave component dominates, t h e bed forms a r e
s i m i l a r t o f u l l y developed wave-related bed forms. As t h e c u r r e n t component
g a i n s i n s t r e n g t h , t h e bed forms become more asymmetrical and l a r g e r i n h e i g h t
and l e n g t h , e s p e c i a l l y i n case o f an opposing c u r r e n t . The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e
waves i s t h a t t h e bed form c r e s t w i l l become more rounded.

6.4.2

Transverse r i p p l e s

In n a t u r e mega-ripples a r e found as t h e dominant f e a t u r e s i n t h e s u r f zone and


as t h e secondary f e a t u r e s on the back o f sand waves i n the o f f s h o r e zone. T h e i r
shape i s asymmetrical w i t h a steep l e e s i d e slope and they respond r a p i d l y t o
l o c a l c u r r e n t s and waves. They a r e generated e a s i l y , b u t they a r e a l s o e a s i l y
washed o u t a t h i g h e r v e l o c i t i e s . Wave-current
and

r i p p l e s w i t h l e n g t h s between 0 . 1

m have been observed on i n t e r t i d a l f l a t s (Reineck and Wunderlich,

1968).

These type o f r i p p l e s have more rounded c r e s t s than c u r r e n t - r i p p l e s . The r i p p l e


steepness l i e s between those o f wave r i p p l e s (==
ripples

0.15-0.2)

and those o f c u r r e n t

0.05-0.15).

The g e n e r a t i o n o f r i p p l e s ( l e n g t h s m a l l e r than water depth) have been s t u d i e d


i n f l u m e s w i t h f o l l o w i n g and opposing c u r r e n t s by Harms
Shuto

(1984),

Nieuwjaar - Van der K a a i j

(1987)

(1969),

Tanaka and

and Nap- Van Kampen

(1988).

F i g u r e 6 . 4 . 1 shows some r i p p l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (d^Q^^ 2 0 0 pm) as a f u n c t i o n o f


the

c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d and wave-related g r a i n - s h e a r v e l o c i t i e s ( u ^

/u^

).

-6.25-

Figre

6.4.IA

shows t h a t the wave-generated r i p p l e s are a p p r o x i m a t e l y symme-

t r i c a l , b u t become almost d i r e c t l y asymmetrical when a c u r r e n t i s

superimposed.

G e n e r a l l y , t h e r i p p l e s i n a c u r r e n t opposing the waves are l e s s a s y m m e t r i c a l


than i n a c u r r e n t f o l l o w i n g the waves. T h i s i s caused by the f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s
a r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g (wave-induced)

r e d u c t i o n o f the near-bed

i n case o f ah opposing c u r r e n t (see S e c t i o n 2 . 4 . 3 ) . For u^

current v e l o c i t i e s
> 1.5 a 2 the

/u^
,c

,w

asymmetry o f the r i p p l e s i s about equal t o t h a t f o r r i p p l e s i n a c u r r e n t a l o n e .


I n t h i s l a t t e r case an asymmetry parameter
Van der K a a i j
Figure

6.4.IB

X^^/X^

1.65

was found by N i e u w j a a r

(1987).

shows a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e o f the r i p p l e l e n g t h when a c u r -

r e n t i s superimposed

on the waves, e s p e c i a l l y when the c u r r e n t i s opposing

the

waves. T h i s e f f e c t s t a r t s f o r u i / u i
> 0 . 6 a 0 . 7 . V a r i a t i o n s s m a l l e r than
*,c '*,w
2 0 ^ a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t because o f the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e standard d e v i a t i o n o f
the

r i p p l e l e n g t h . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were observed by Harms

Shuto

(1984).

Figure

6.4.10

and by Tanaka-

(1969)

shows a s m a l l increase o f the r i p p l e h e i g h t when an

opposing c u r r e n t i s superimposed; a f o l l o w i n g c u r r e n t does n o t y i e l d a s i g n i f i cantly larger r i p p l e height.


6 . 4 . 3 Transverse sand waves

F i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t the f o r m a t i o n o f symmetrical and


sand waves i s r e l a t e d to the c u r r e n t c o n d i t i o n s . S t r i d e
lower l i m i t i s a peak t i d a l c u r r e n t o f 0 . 6 5 m/s
(<

(1982)

asymmetrical

s t a t e s t h a t the

f o r f i n e t o medium sediments

5 0 0 ym). Sand waves probably have an o r i g i n r e l a t e d t o t i d a l

velocities

( i n t e n s i f i e d by wave o r b i t a l v e l o c i t i e s ) . They are found i n areas w i t h a v a i l a b l e sediments. They could have grown up from a f l a t bed w i t h o n l y s m a l l s c a l e bed forms. Sand waves are r e s t r i c t e d t o t i d a l environments o c c u r i n g i n
e s t u a r i e s and i n s h e l f seas.
At h i g h c u r r e n t v e l o c i t i e s the sand waves tend t o disappear, s i m i l a r l y t o t h e
disappearance

o f dunes i n the upper r i v e r f l o w regime. Sand waves can

be

s y m m e t r i c a l w i t h an almost t r o c h o i d a l shape or s l i g h t l y asymmetrical w i t h a


g e n t l e s t o s s s i d e and a steeper l e e s i d e . Symmetrical sand waves are expected
to be found under almost symmetrical t i d a l f l o w and are n o t expected t o
m i g r a t e s u b s t a n t i a l l y . The asymmetrical sand waves are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n e t
sediment t r a n s p o r t r a t e i n the d i r e c t i o n faced by the steeper l e e s i d e .
sand wave l e n g t h i s i n the range o f 3 t o 2 0 times the water depth. The

The
sand

wave h e i g h t i s i n the range o f 0 . 1 t o 0 . 3 times the water depth. Smaller sand

-6.26-

waves may

have l e e s i d e slopes c l o s e t o the angle o f repose, w h i l e l a r g e

sand

waves (> 2 m) have g e n t l e l e e s i d e s l o p e s . M i g r a t i o n v e l o c i t i e s are i n t h e


o r d e r o f 0-1 m per week i n t i d a l c u r r e n t s ( a s y m m e t r i c ) . O f t e n , m e g a - r i p p l e s
are

m i g r a t i n g over the sand waves. The t r a n s i e n t behaviour o f sand waves due

t i d a l v a r i a t i o n s ( n e a p - s p r i n g c y c l e ) and storm events ( h i g h waves) i s a l s o o f


i n t e r e s t . The e f f e c t o f a storm has been observed t o cause a s i g n i f i c a n t
decrease o f t h e sand wave h e i g h t (50% r e d u c t i o n , Langhorne 1982). The
of

effects

t i d a l v a r i a t i o n s seem t o be c o n f i n e d t o the c r e s t r e g i o n o f t h e sand waves.

(Langhorne, 1982), showing o s c i l l a t i n g c r e s t movements (over 2 m) i n t h e neapspring cycle.

Tobias (1989) analyzed echo sounding data c o l l e c t e d i n 10 areas near t h e


approach channel ( E u r o g e u l ) t o the harbour o f Rotterdam ( p e r i o d

1975-1985).

The water depths ( t o mean bed l e v e l ) were i n the range o f 20 t o 35 m. The peak
c u r r e n t v e l o c i t i e s o f the s p r i n g t i d e were 0 . 8 m/s
which i m p l i e s an asymmetry o f Au = 0.1 m/s

( f l o o d ) and 0.7 m/s

i n the f l o o d d i r e c t i o n .

(ebb),

The

1.4 m d u r i n g
s
1.0 m d u r i n g t h e summer p e r i o d

monthly-mean s i g n i f i c a n t wave h e i g h t i n the area was about H


the

w i n t e r p e r i o d (November-February)

and H
s

(May-September). The monthly-maximum s i g n i f i c a n t wave h e i g h t s were r e s p . 4 m


and 2 . 8 m. The bed m a t e r i a l s i z e s were i n t h e range o f 250 t o 500

ym.

A n a l y s i s o f t h e echo soundings shows t h e presence o f t r a n s v e r s e sand waves


w i t h m e g a r i p p l e s m i g r a t i n g over the back o f t h e sand waves (see F i g . 6 . 4 . 3 B ) .
The b a s i c data o f t h e sand waves (X > h) and megaripples ( x < h) a r e g i v e n i n
the

following

tables.
MEGARIPPLES

areas

relative
height

relative
length

number o f
r i p p l e s on
stoss-side

number o f
r i p p l e s on
lee-side

A/h

X/h

0.012

0.66

12

0.03

0,95

0.014

0.37

-6.27-

SAND WAVE DATA

areas

relative
height
A/h

relative
length
X/h

asymmetry

relative crest
w i d t h normal
to current

X2/X.,

X /h
c

water depth
h

(m)

propagation
velocity
c (m/year)
-

0.122

9.4

0.76

82

24

0.260

12.6

0.42

104

20

0.131

9.0

0.49

105

22

0.226

15.9

0.28

278

24

0.103

10

0.76

58

30

0.153

12.4

0.37

65

28

0.148

15.6

0.36

52

24

0.128

5.7

0.71

77

34

0.124

7.9

0.88

30

0.181

9.5

0.64

26

35

10

m to

2.5

m to

NE

m to

As can be observed, the megaripples are an order o f magnitude s m a l l e r than

the

sand waves.

Computation o f the r a t i o

/
, w i t h U.
= peak o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y
6, max
mean'
6, max
r e l a t e d t o the maximum s i g n i f i c a n t wave and
= peak c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y

mean

r e l a t e d t o the mean t i d e shows a value s m a l l e r than u n i t y f o r the summer


p e r i o d and a v a l u e l a r g e r than u n i t y f o r the w i n t e r p e r i o d . This means a
current-dominated

t r a n s p o r t mechanism d u r i n g the summer and a wave-dominated

t r a n s p o r t mechanism d u r i n g the w i n t e r p e r i o d .
A n a l y s i s o f bed m a t e r i a l samples shows the presence o f s m a l l e r s i z e s i n the
t r o u g h s and

l a r g e r s i z e s on the c r e s t s o f the bed forms. Probably, the

smaller

p a r t i c l e s are suspended by r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e v e l o c i t i e s a t the c r e s t , a f t e r


which the p a r t i c l e s are deposited

6.4.4

i n the t r o u g h r e g i o n s

Longitudinal ribbons, ridges and

bed

features.

(smaller v e l o c i t i e s ) .

banks

S m a l l - s c a l e r i b b o n s and l a r g e - s c a l e r i d g e s and

NE

banks are t y p i c a l l o n g i t u d i n a l

SW

-6.28-

The

s m a l l - s c a l e r i b b o n s ( h e i g h t = 0.1 m) are a l i g n e d ( p a r a l l e l ) w i t h the main

f l o w d i r e c t i o n and are b e l i e v e d t o be generated by secondary c u r r e n t s superimposed on the main f l o w y i e l d i n g a s p i r a l type o f f l u i d motion.


Sand r i d g e s and banks (North Sea,

East China Sea)

are the l a r g e s t sedimentary

f e a t u r e s i n marine c o n d i t i o n s w i t h h e i g h t s o f the order o f 10 m, w i d t h s o f the


order o f 1 km and l e n g t h s o f the order o f 10 km. T h e i r p a r a l l e l spacing
the o r d e r o f the w i d t h (=' 1 km). G e n e r a l l y ,

i s of

sand banks are formed from medium

to coarse sand (> 500 pm) and are l a r g e sources o f sediment. Sand banks are
q u i t e s t a b l e f e a t u r e s . Mega-ripples and sand waves may

m i g r a t e over the banks

i n r e g i o n s where the v e l o c i t i e s are l a r g e enough t o i n i t i a t e p a r t i c l e m o t i o n .


C l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the s t r e n g t h and d i r e c t i o n o f the c u r r e n t s , sediments are
c i r c u l a t i n g round and over the bank. The
c a l l y about 10 t o 20

c r e s t a x i s o f the bank d e v i a t e s

from the d i r e c t i o n o f the peak t i d a l c u r r e n t , which

be caused by C o r i o l i s e f f e c t s g i v i n g an a n t i c l o c k w i s e r o t a t i o n on the
hemisphere ( S t r i d e ,

Chang-Shu and J i a Song (1988). They are mainly present


p a l a e o v a l l e y o f the Changjlang r i v e r and
have a l e n g t h i n the range o f 10-60
o f 8-14

may

Norhtern

1982).

Large t i d a l sand r i d g e s have been observed i n the East China Sea

spacing

typi-

km,

km and a h e i g h t o f 5-20

Shelf

by

i n the submerged

the a d j a c e n t area. The

sand r i d g e s

a w i d t h i n the range o f 2-5

km,

m. They mainly c o n s i s t o f w e l l - s o r t e d

f i n e sands w i t h abundant d e b r i s o f marine s h e l l s . The

l o c a l water depths v a r y

i n the range o f 50 t o 100 m. The presence o f ( s h a l l o w ) marine f o s s i l s suggests


t h a t the sand r i d g e s are probably

developed d u r i n g the p o s t - g l a c i a l sea

level

t r a n s g r e s s i o n ( r e l i c t sand r i d g e s ) when the water depths were much s h a l l o w e r


and

t i d a l c u r r e n t s were s t r o n g e r . As the sea l e v e l rose and

the t i d a l

currents

became weaker, the sand r i d g e s g r a d u a l l y ceased growing and became " r e l i c t "
sand bodies.

I n the nearshore area they were l a t e r covered by f i n e - g r a i n e d

sediments o f the l a t e Holocene age


peak c u r r e n t s

0.2

m/s)

( b u r i e d sand r i d g e s ) . The

present-day

tidal

are almost p a r a l l e l t o the l o n g axes o f the r i d g e s .

-6.29-

6.5

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CASTENS, M.R., NEILSON, P.M. and ALTINBILEK, H.D., 1969


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1976

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1975

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1976

Wave-formed R i p p l e s In Nearshore Sands


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1981

V e l o c i t y Measurements Close t o Rippled Beds i n O s c i l l a t o r y


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1967

A Monograph on Sediment T r a n s p o r t
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FOURNIER, CP.,

1984

Time Development

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T h e s i s , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y ,

K i n g s t o n , Canada

Flow

-6.31-

FREDS0E, J . , 1 9 7 9
Unsteady Flow i n S t r a i g h t A l l u v i a l Streams: M o d i f i c a t i o n o f I n d i v i d u a l Dunes
J o u r n a l o f F l u i d Mechanics, V o l .

9 1 ,

Part

3,

497-512

FREDS0E, J . , 1 9 8 0
The Formation o f Dunes
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FREDS0E, J . , 1 9 8 2
Shape and Dimensions o f S t a t i o n a r y Dunes i n Rivers
J o u r n a l o f t h e H y d r a u l i c s D i v i s i o n , ASCE, Hy. 8
GARDE, R.J. and ALBERTSON, M.L., 1 9 5 9
Sand Waves and Regimes o f Flow i n A l l u v i a l Channels
lAHR-Congres, Paper 2 8 , Montreal Canada

HARMS, J . C , 1 9 6 9
H y d r a u l i c S i g n i f i c a n c e o f Some Sand Ripples
G e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y o f America B u l l e t i n , V o l .

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p.

363-396,

USA

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V e l o c i t y D i s t r i b u t i o n and Suspended Sediment C o n c e n t r a t i o n
over Large Scale

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HORIKAWA, K., WATANABE, A. and KATORI, S., 1 9 8 2


Sediment T r a n s p o r t under Sheet Flow C o n d i t i o n s
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p.

1335-1352,

Cape Town, S . A f r i c a

INMAM, D.L., 1 9 5 7
Wave-generated R i p p l e s i n Nearshore Sands
Tech. Memo 100, Beach Erosion Board, USA
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Space Averaging Aspects o f Sediment C o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n t h e S u r f Zone near
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Geopro

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LANGHORNE, D.N., 1978


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A Study o f Dynamics o f a Marine Sand Wave
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The S t a b i l i t y o f the Top Metre o f the Sea Bed
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O s c i l l a t i o n Sand Ripples generated by Laboratory Apparatus
J o u r n a l Sedimentary P e t r o l o g y , 50, p. 173-182

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Entrainment and D i s t r i b u t i o n o f D i f f e r e n t Sand Sizes under Water Waves


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-6.33-

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Sand Movement due t o Wave-Current Combined Motion
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Morphology o f Sand Waves i n R e l a t i o n t o C u r r e n t , Sediment and Wave Data a l o n g
the Eurogeul, Worth Sea
Dep. o f P h y s i c a l Geography, Univ. o f U t r e c h t , The Netherlands

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P r e d i c t i o n o f Bed Forms, A l l u v i a l Roughness and Sediment T r a n s p o r t
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1959

-6.35-

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F r i c t i o n o f Wave-Induced Sheet Flow
C o a s t a l E n g i n e e r i n g , 12
{

YALIM, M.S., 1 9 7 2
Mechanics o f Sedimnts T r a n s p o r t
Pergamon Press

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On t h e D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Ripple Geometry
Journal o f Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. I l l ,

No. 8

source

^50

X
r
(m)

source

'^50

im)

(s)

(pm)

(s>

(m/s)

r
(m)

Steetzel,

220

0.325

0.03

0.2

Sakakiyama

270

1984

220

0.2

0.028

0.19

e t a l , 1985

270

(wave

270

flume)

r
(m)

(m/s)

(m)

1.14

1.18

1.21

(wave

220

0.25

0.033

0.24

tunnel)

220

0.29

0.035

0.22

270

1.02

220

0.35

0.025

0.175

270

1.12

220

0.35

0.032

0.22

270

0.7

0.055

0.903

0.035

0.26

270

0.84

0.065

0.701

270

1.5

0
0.471

220

0.35

Sakakiyama

270

3.5

0.2

0.026

0.143

270

.6

0,61

0.049

e t a l , 1985

270

3.5

0.3

0.025

0,152

270

0,83

0.0482

1.05

(wave

flume)

Table 6.1

270

3.5

0.42

0.019

0.154

270

1.64

270

3.5

0.53

0.032

0.191

270

12

0.77

0.117

1.10

270

3.5

0.79

0.046

0.325

270

12

1.39

270

4.5

0.62

0.036

0.247

270

12

1.68

270

4.5

0.71

0.059

0.374

270

3.1

0.45

0.038

0.247

270

5.8

1.97

270

3.1

0.60

0.041

0.637

270

5.8

0.31

0.032

0.175

270

3.1

0.81

0.033

0.246

270

5.8

0.51

0.036

0.221

270

3.1

1.36

270

5.8

0.6

0.046

0.345

270

3.1

0.82

0.024

0.304

270

5.8

0.67

0.055

0.407

270

0.85

0.104

0.83

270

5.8

0.83

0.048

0.398

470

1.02

0.089

0.769

270

5.8

0.9

0.056

0.427

470

0.37

0.022

0.154

270

1.19

470

0.63

0.063

0.41

270

0.57

0.053

0.458

470

4.5

0.4

0.043

0.239

270

0.67

0.033

0.30

470

4,5

0.49

0.037

0.215

270

0.75

0.06

0.725

470

4.5

0.25

0.043

0.248

270

0.85

0.117

1.48

470

4.5

0.43

0.029

0.183

270

0.94

0.095

0.95

470

4.5

0.36

0.043

0.265

270

0.99

0.036

1.47

R i p p l e d a t a f o r r e g u l a r wave m o t i o n

source

^50

(m/s)

source

X
r
(m)

(s)

(m/s)

470

1.14

0.094

0.749

et a l , 1 9 8 5 470

0.93

0.04

0.302

470

1.01

0.04

0.475

470

1.2

0.64

0.47

0.218

470

1.78

0.87

0.056

0.431

0.8

0.058

0.531

(pm)

(s)

Sakakiyama

470

4.5

0.51

0.037

0.217

Sakakiyama

et a l , 1985

470

4.5

0.44

0.052

0.298

470

4.5

0.17

0.029

0.171

470

4.5

0.31

0.027

0.155

0.5

0.035

T a b l e 6.1

r
(m)

(pm)

(m)

^50

(m)

470

4.5

470

0.65

0.051

0.359

470

470

0.72

0.067

0.42

470

470

0.98

0.074

0.724

470

0.87

0.052

0.53

470

0.54

0.078

0.464

470

0.69

0.074

0.484

470

0.85

0.073

0.538

470

0.97

0.069

0.691

470

0.69

0.087

0.601

470

4.5

0.25

0.04

0.221

470

4.5

0.37

0.049

0.274

470

4.5

0.65

0.06

0.465

470

4.5

0.69

0.031

0.203

470

4.5

0.19

0.042

0.24

470

4.5

0.29

0.028

0.181

470

4.5

0.4

0.031

0.187

470

4.5

0.51

0.042

0.238
0.342

470

4.5

0.63

0.048

470

0.39

0.042

0.27

470

0.59

0.058

0.356

470

0.84

0.044

0.317

470

0.58

0.055

0.375

470

1.19

0.048

0.406

R i p p l e d a t a f o r r e g u l a r wave m o t i o n

source

So

Carstens
et

al,

1969

(wave
tunnel)

A
r
(m)

source

^^50

(pm)

P
(s)

(m/s)

r
(m)

r
(m)

(pm)

(s)

(m/s)

190

3.6

0.16

0.021

0.12

DuTolT

410

0.094

0.010

0.076

190

3.6

0.21

0.025

0.15

et

410

3.9

0.105

0.0118

0.065

190

3.5

0.32

0.015

0.11

(wave

410

4.7

0.113

0.0216

0.120

190

3.5

0.42

0.0133

0 . 11

410

0.138

0.0279

0.164

410

5.4

0.142

0.0292

0.172

(m)

a l , 1981
flume)

190

3.5

0.55

0.005

0.10

190

3.5

0.15

0.021

0.11

410

4.2

0.144

0.0327

0.116

297

3.6

0.16

0.0184

0.11

410

3.2

0.198

0.0272

0.136

297

3.6

0.24

0.026

0.15

410

4.9

0.250

0.0430

0.253

297

3.6

0.37

0.033

0.20

410

3.2

0.277

0.0336

0.210

297

3.5

0.46

0.033

0.25

410

5.8

0.088

0.0205

0,108

297

3.5

0.63

0.022

0.20

410

4.6

0.116

0.0189

0.099

297

3.5

0.79

0.005

0.19

410

4.7

0.221

0.0439

0,244

410

3.8

0.178

0.030

0.150

297

3.5

0.69

0.015

0.22

297

3.6

0.5

0.032

0.25

297

3.7

0.17

0.021

0.12

Steetzel,

220

0.25

0.02

0.135

297

3.8

0.14

0.018

0.11

1984

220

0.3

0.025

0.14

(wave

220

0.34

0.03

0,16

Hayakawa

210

4.05

0.372

0.0352

0.257

tunnel)

220

0,40

0.03

0.25

et

240

4.05

0.468

0.0381

0.275

220

0.44

0.035

0.205

4.05 0.547

0.0381

0.260

220

0,5

0.035

0.28

0.0377

0,287

220

0,2

0.025

0.155

0.0265

0.341

220

0,25

0.033

0.15

220

0.45

0.045

0.3

220

0.48

0.033

0.315

a l , 1983

(wave

210

tunnel

240

5.0

0.379

data)

240

6.02

0.315

Table

6.1

Ripple

data

f o r

regular

wave

motion

220

0.225

0.025

0.13

220

0.25

0.03

0.16

220

0.275

0.035

0.195

220

0.3

0.045

0.28

source

source

0.10

O.OI6

0.36

10.3

0.21

0.067

0.16

110

10.0

0.21

0.113

0.71

0,09

110

12

0.27

0.125

0.81

0.011

0.13

100

11

0.26

0.133

0.78

0.501

0.0175

0.10

160

12

0.21

0.137

0.78

0.301

0.011

0.105

310

0.30

0.091

0.62

0.011

0.135

310

11

0.21

0.121

0.79

0.017

0.125

150

9.7

0.27

0.116

0.91

160

10.3

0.18

0.116

0.91

Ribberink

210

et

210

(wave

210

tunnel)

210

^50
(pm)

r
(m)

r
(m)

0.287

0.015

0.08

I n m a n , 1957

260

9.7

0.381

0.01

0.09

(Field

300

0.177

0.015

0.107

0.272

0.0175

210

0.101

210

210

210
210

0.391
5

(s)

"6
(m/s)

a l , 1987

r
(m)

^50
(pm)

0.309

data)

(s)

(m/s)

(m)

Nieuwjaar

200

2.5

0.15

0.015

0.090

130

12

0.21

0.133

0.83

et

200

2.1)

0.176

0.011

0.093

160

10

0.36

0.076

0.53

310

0.10

0.115

0.70

0.15

0.0036

0.088

a l , 1987

(wave

Van
1987

flume)

Rijn,

200

2.5

0.205

0.015

0.091

210

2.1)

0.239

0.018

0.085

205

2.5

0.301

0.018

0.090

6.3

1.26

0.001

190

5.9

1.22

0.001

190

5.5

0.98

0.003

190

1.8

0.89

0.001

190

Dingier,

177

1975

158

(Field

data)

3.5

10
6.9

0.19

0.0038

O.O8I

176

10,9

0.18

0.OOI7

0.079

151

8.1

0.56

0.0011

0.080

132

8.2

0.12

0.0019

0.077

128

10.9

0.51

0.0056

0.079
0.072

190

1.8

0.70

0.005

0.2

131

12

0.38

0.0052

190

1.6

0.11

0.02

0.2

131

10.9

0.55

0.0050

0.082

170

11

0.52

0.0018

0.079

170

11

0.11

0.0063

0.08

155

12.1

0.17

O.OOI8

0.075
0.071

155

12.1

0.12

0.0016

176

9.7

0.33

0.0062

0.076

206

9.3

0.18

0.0060

0.085

0.19

0.0018

0.081

0.69

0,0025

0.083

159
159

Table 6.2 R i p p l e d a t a f o r i r r e g u l a r wave m o t i o n

13
12.7

water surface

water surface

A Typical ripple p a t t e r n
^weak boH

F
B Dunes and superposed ripples
boil

Antidune standing waves

boil

C Dunes

Antidune

breaking waves

Chute and pool

iiifcpliiii
D Washed-out dunes or t r a n s i t i o n

BED FORM T Y P E S AFTER SIMONS


AND

RICHARDSON

1966

D E L F T HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 6.1.1

Q
O
a
(fl
c
o

'0.05

0.1

0.2
->

0.3 0.4 0.5


1.0
2.0
v3 (m) at Tc = 15 C
d5o IO'-"

102

3.0 4.0

plane bed (no motion)

washed-out dunes (transition)

miniripplcs

plane bed

megaripples and dunes

anti - dunes (standing waves)

dunes

antl -dunes (breaking waves)

B E D - F O R M CLASSIFICATION DIAGRAM
FOR

UNIDIRECTIONAL

FLOW, VAN RIJN

D E L F T HYDRAULICS

461

FK3. 6.1.2

BED FORM CLASSIFICATION DIAGRAM FOR


UNIDIRECTIONAL FLOW, VAN DEN BERG ( 1 9 8 9 ) ,
FLUME DATA
DELFT HYDRAULICS

461

FIC. 6.1.3

10

r-

4^

0)

3^

7B

15^6

sts

6Z5

25

25

500

TOOO

2000

4000

D50(/< m)at 20C

BED FORM CLASSIFICATION DIAGRAM FOR


UNIDIRECTIONAL FLOW, VAN DEN BERG ( 1 9 8 9 ) ,
FIELD DATA
DELFT HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 6.1.4

flow

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120 130

140

150

160

170 180

A. RIPPLES (water depth =6 feet)

150

50
B. RIPPLES AND DUNES ( w a t e r depth = 11 feet)

180

160

x:
4 2

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

170 180

C. DUNES (water depth = 5 f e e t )

50
60
70
80
90
100 110 120 130 140 150 160
D. WASHED-OUT DUNES (transition) (water depth = 8 feet

170

180

> distance (feet)

BED

FORMS IN PAKISTAN IRRIGATION

CHANNELS

MAHMOOD E T A L . 1984
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 6.1.5

0.25,

020

1O

d
0.15

0.10

0.05 K

4
7

10"

bed-shear

mega

ripples

mega

ripples

dunes

4
stress

s.

5 6 7 8 9 io'
parameter,

(X<h)
and

dunes

(h<X<3h)

( X >3h)

dso

= 100 - 3 5 0

= 1 . 5 - 4

p m
m

O = 0.5-1

m/s

A. P A K I S T A N IRRIGATION CHANNELS
1.0

bed m a t e r i a l

:C^=450pm

0.9 + 18

oa + 1 6

^- I

0.7 -j-14

c
O)

c
w

O)

CT)

0.6 -1-12

0.5 -1-10

c
O

0.4-1-8

03 - 6

'

1 1k

A/h

02 4
0.1 - 2

L
10

12

14

bed-shear

16

18

stress

20

22

parameter

24

26

28

30

, T

B. FLUME TESTS (TERMES, 1 9 8 6 )

RELATIVE HEIGHT OF BED FORMS

DELFT HYDRAULICS

461

FIG, 6.1.6

FLOW,

PRESSURE AND

A DUNE (AFTER LANGHORNE,


DELFT

SHEAR STRESS OVER


1978

HYDRAULICS

461

1 FIG

6.1.7

>

1
/

DO

<

11

\,6

"

IS

/'

--

Ih.4?

"n"

<

If

ll

"--^

-t

"^50
h

= 0.1

-0.5

5-TD

-e

\
,\

r i r

\\
10

10

15

transport

paramatar,

25

20

Ml

--

i
i

4,"o

r - --

i ^ ^

Tr- = ^

n^

$
- [

t
1/

- - J

+/

\
\

v. \
c

10
8

\ h /

\
-\

\\

mK M _ , - o . s

;a"

^,

6
4

10

10

15

transport
flow v e l o c i t y
C(m/s)

soufce

f l o w depth
h(m)

parameter,

particle i e temperature
r o
dgodrni)

0 G u y et a 1

Q34-1.17

0.16-0.22

190

8-34

X Ouy et al

OA 1 - 0 . 6 5

0.14-0.34

270

8-34

A G u y et al

a47-1.1S

0.16-0.32

280

8-34

0.77-0.98

o.ie

330

8-34

048-1.00

ato-oj3

490

8-34

0.83-1.1S
0.54-1j08

0.12-0.34
0.15-0.22

630
1350

^ O e l f t Hydr. L a b .

0;4S-Q87

028-046

790

8-34
2 5 ^
12-18

QS2-a^
aS3-0jBO

0.24-0.31
0.11-0.21

400
BOO

b G u y et al
f l u n w G u y e t al
dato
9 G u y et al
e Williams
Stln
Znamentliaya

25

20

souroe

(m/)

(m)

0.B5-1.B5 4 . 4 - 6 . 5
e Dutch Rivers
field ^ R l o P a r a n a
12.7
1.0
data
f J t ^ n s s e Channels 0.53-0.89 a 2 5 - 0 8
1.35-145
6-16

dso

Uim)

temp.
CO

480-3600 5-20
40O
1100-2300
350-

550

20-26

DUNE CHARACTERISTICS A F T E R VAN RIJN. 1982

DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 6.1.8

van

Rijn

Tsubaki - Shinohara

Yalin
Rangu Roju - Soni

o
o

Allen

Freds0c, 1980
Freds0e, 1982

COMPARISON OF COMPUTED

BED-FORM HEIGHTS

DELFT HYDRAULICS

H 461

1 FIG.

6.1.9

5.0

dgo 150 - 2 5 0
H / h = 0.7,
h

20

period T ( s )

\lm

maximum

= water

10

depth

in

wave

height

breaking

at

breaking

waves

BED FORM REGIMES IN OSCILLATORY FLOW,


BOSMAN. 1981
D E L F T HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 6.3.1

12

Author
Manohar, 1955
inman, 1957
Inmon a Bowen, 1963
Hom-mo et ol., 1965
Kennedy 8 Foloon, 1965
Carstens 'et ol., 1969
Lofquist, 1978
Sleattl a Ellis, 1978

Omtan, ^50X10'' m

2-8,101
0-81-9-28
2-2
178, 1-85
0 95, 3 2
1-9, 5-85
1-8, 21,5-5

0-5

0-2 h

NO BED-MATERIAL
00004

MOVEMENT

00006

00008

00010

00012

Sediment particle diometer (m)

Vertical form-Index, VFI = L/H


L

08

06
05
E
D

02

NO BED-MATERIAL
J

MOVEMENT
\

0 0001 0O002 0 0003 0 0004 0 0005 0 0006 0OO07 0 0008 00009 0 001 OOOli 0 0012
Sediment partiele diameter (ml

BED FORM REGIMES IN OSCILLATORY FLOW,


ALLEN,

1982
DELFT HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 6 . 3 . 2

1,6

270 |lm

(Sakakiyama c t

al,

1985)

4 7 0 |i m

(Sakakiyama ct

al, 1 9 8 5 )

1.4
CM

-i->

E
o
L.
O

1.2

1.0

a
>. 0 . 8
L.
-t-'
C

E
E

0.6
@

0.4

0.2

10"

5 6 78
^

>
offshore

wave

2
mobility

parameter

5 6 7 8

6 7 8 10-=

5^/((s-1) g d s o )

direction
onshore

SYMMETRY O F WAVE - GENERATED RIPPLES


O F F S H O R E O F BREAKING ZONE
D E L F T HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 6.3.3

->

X no current

o following current

opposing current

2,0

value for current

ripples (G = 0 . 4 5 m/s, e = 0 )

1.5

1.0

oo

05

1.5

1.0

3.0

2.5

2.0

u',c/u'.w
2.0
B

13

1.5

o
o

O
<

1.0

0% ^
0

= r ip p l e

length

fc)r

waves

o n e!

pple

length

fc) r

waves

olori e

^=o=
Q5

0 5

1.5

1.0

current

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

13

()
1.0
O

0# 9

O
A
1

0.5

= r i pple h e i g h t

AG=O = r i Dpie h e i g h t

f or

waves

fo

waves

and current
alone

1
0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

U'

RIPPLE CHARACTERISTICS FOR COMBINED


WAVES AND CURRENT (DATA O F
NIEUWJAAR-VAN KAMPEN, 1987)
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

F(G. 6.4.1

10'
8
6
5
4

7 ^

7
current

flat

bed

o
in
^

cn

flat

bed

10
current

d u n e s a n d w a v e s (3D)

;4

53
current

ripples

(3D)

3D

,5

3P
10'
-current

ripples

(2D)

a!

3D
2D
no

9^

3D,

P2D

IM

u'^.c =1/4 u'*t,w

7?

motion

s
2D

2D

tl

10"^
8

IE

6
5
4

0
7'

7 ^

wave
no

motion

10

4 56

8 10'

wave
r i p p l e s (3D)|

_J

i_

10'

ripples (2D)
4 56

8 10"

wave-related

w a v e flat bed
(sheet flow)

LJ

l_

4 56

8 10"

4 56

8 10'

m o b i l i t y , (u'*^,w) / ( s - 1 ) g d s o

u
asymmetry
p a r a m e t e r , X1/X2

2D

= 2 dimensional
bed

following

opposing

current

current

current

wave

0.9 -

dominated

1.1

transition

1.3 -

1.5

current

1.5 -

1.7

>

1.7

1,1

- 1,3

forms

3D = 3 dimensional
bed

no

forms

dominated

B E D FORM C L A S S I F I C A T I O N D I A G R A M FOR
COMBINED UNIDIRECTIONAL AND OSCILLATORY
FLOW ACCORDING TO VAN RIJN

DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 6.4.2

land
asymmetric

symmetric

lunate
inactive

linear

bed

ripples

irregular ripples

/
I

A.

SEQUENCE

OF

BED FORMS

c r o s s - ripples
4

megaripples

flat

beds
7

'/

( I ( ( / / / / .

IN C O A S T A L

ZONE

(Clifton, 1976)

= 300 m

INNER

SHOREFACE

SHELF

longshore
offshore

longshore

upper
shoreface

transition

1600 [J.m;

SAND

BED

'
10 a

e
D

1 5 0 ^ 2 0 0 M-m
1 5 0 - 2 0 0 M - m . - i I . :

J-15
B.

TYPE
(Shipp,

OF

BED

FORMS

IN C O A S T A L

ZONES

DURING

FAIR W E A T H E R

CONDITIONS

1984)

BED FORM TYPES IN COASTAL ZONES ACCORDING


TO CLIFTON. 1976

AND SHIPP. 1984

DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 6.3.4

CASE 3-2 6.5h


Ho = 1.05 m
T = 6.0 s
Ho/Lo = 0.019
DgQ = 0.27 mm

CASE 3-4 6.1h


Ho = 1.62 m
T =3.1 s
Ho/Lo = 0.108
D^Q
= 0.27 mm

n = ripple height
X = ripple length
dp = o r b i t a l d i a m e t e r
Hp = wave h e i g h t deep w a t e r ( r e g u l a r waves)
dgQ = 270 ^m
B.P.= b r e a k e r p o i n t

RIPPLE CHARACTERISTICS

ALONG BEACH

A F T E R SAKAKIYAMA ET AL,
DELFT

PROFILE

1985

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 6.3.5

DATA

REGULAR

WAVES

0.8
I.

0.7

S a k a k i y a m a (zt a l , 1985

(270

[im)

Sakakiyama

(470

p.m)

c t a l , 1985

C a r s t e n s c t al,

Dutoit

U)

Hayakawa

r:

S t e e t z e l , 1984

<
06

et al,

1969 (190-300 \im)


1981

e t a l , 1983
(220

(410

flm)

(240

|im)

\im)

Q5
Q.

Q.
(fl
(fl

Q4

s
2
(fl 03
c
E

O2
0.1
0
10^

5 6 78
>

DATA

10

IRREGULAR

2
mobility

5 6 7 8 lo^

parameter

Ue^/((s-1 ) g d 5 o )

WAVES

5 6 7 8 10'
>

nnobility

.mi

parameter

I I

5 6 78 10^

5 6 7 8 lo^
52 / ( ( s - D g d s o )

RIPPLE HEIGHT IN OSCILLATORY FLOW


ACCORDING TO VAN RIJN
D E L F T HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 6.3.6

DATA

REGULAR

WAVES

0.40

<

0.30

in

c
a

0.25

e
0.20

;;
XX

X
X<

>

L,
D

0.15

A
iNie sen

X
0.10

So
do
s

0
C

fid

O 05

(]

ol

10^

10"
>
DATA

10"

IRREGULAR

nnobility paranneter

Ue^/CCs-l ) g d 5 o )

WAVES

5 6 7 8 10'
->

5 6 7 8 10^

nnobility p a r a m e t e r

5 67

a 10^

Ug^/((s-Dgdso)

RIPPLE STEEPNESS IN OSCILLATORY FLOW


ACCORDING

TO VAN RIJN
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 6.3.7

'^

100
recording

200
July 1975

300
F e b r u a r y 1976

400

500

600 m

April 1976

B. TRANSVERSE S A N D WAVES WITH MEGARIPPLES IN NORTH


(TOBIAR,

SEA

1989)

BED FORM IN TIDAL SEAS


DELFT HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 6 . 4 . 3

-7.1-

7.

7.1

EFFECTIVE BED ROUGHNESS

Introduction

Nikuradse (1932) i n t r o d u c e d t h e concept o f an e q u i v a l e n t o r e f f e c t i v e sand


roughness h e i g h t ( k g ) t o s i m u l a t e the roughness o f a r b i t r a r y roughness

ele-

ments o f t h e boundary. I n case o f a movable bed c o n s i s t i n g o f sediments t h e


e f f e c t i v e bed roughness ( k ^ ) mainly c o n s i s t s o f g r a i n roughness ( k ^ generated
by s k i n f r i c t i o n f o r c e s and o f form roughness ( k ' ' ) generated by p r e s s u r e
f o r c e s a c t i n g on t h e bed forms. The e f f e c t i v e bed roughness f o r a g i v e n bed
m a t e r i a l s i z e i s n o t c o n s t a n t but depends on t h e f l o w c o n d i t i o n s ( d e p t h , v e l o c i t y , wave h e i g h t ) which a f f e c t t h e bed form dimensions. For example. F i g u r e
7.1.1A shows kg-values o f t h e M i s s i s s i p p i r i v e r determined from measured s u r face s l o p e s , depths and c u r r e n t v e l o c i t i e s a p p l y i n g Eqs.(2,2.7) and ( 2 . 2 . 1 3 ) .
As can be observed, t h e k^-values s t r o n g l y decrease f o r i n c r e a s i n g v e l o c i t i e s
because t h e bed forms a r e washed o u t a t l a r g e v e l o c i t i e s . U l t i m a t e l y , g r a i n
roughness w i l l be present.

7.2

C u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed roughness

Assuming a c o n s t a n t plane bed f r i c t i o n f a c t o r ( o r Chzy-coefficient), E q u a t i o n


(2.2.7) shows a p a r a b o l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between

and (see F i g . 7.2.1A).

When bed forms a r e generated, the f r i c t i o n i n c r e a s e s due t o t h e presence o f


form roughness.

B a s i c a l l y , two approaches can be found i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t o e s t i m a t e t h e bed


roughness:

methods based on bed-form and g r a i n - r e l a t e d parameters such as bed-form


l e n g t h , h e i g h t , steepness and b e d - m a t e r i a l s i z e ,

methods based on i n t e g r a l parameters such as mean depth, m e a n - v e l o c i t y and


bed m a t e r i a l s i z e .

7.2.1

Methods based on bed-form parameters

The bed-shear s t r e s s (x^) i n an a l l u v i a l channel can be d i v i d e d

f r i c t i o n r e l a t e d t o g r a i n roughness (xjl^),

f r i c t i o n r e l a t e d t o form roughness ( T " ) .

into:

-7.2-

Based on F i g . 7 . 2 . I B r e p r e s e n t i n g

the f o r c e s on a bed f o r m , i t f o l l o w s t h a t :

V, +
p
G r a i n - r e l a t e d f r i c t i o n : T' = 7^ =
b
X
^
F

Form-related f r i c t i o n
in

= 3^ = ^

" ^ 1 T = i pf'^
X
' s
o
A
| P
0

^'^'^

(7.2.2)

(7.2.3)

= g pf"'"^

which:

F = s k i n - f r i c t i o n

force

F|. = p r e s s u r e f o r c e
X

= bed form l e n g t h

A
T

= bed form h e i g h t
= g r a i n - r e l a t e d shear

= c o e f f i c i e n t {'^ 5)

Cq = drag
u

coefficient

= l o c a l flow v e l o c i t y

From Eqs.

stress

= f

(.7.2.1),

( 7 . 2 . 2 ) and

(7.2.3)

i t follows that:

(7.2.11)

+ f"

I n the p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s i t assumed, f o r reasons o f s i m p l i c i t y , t h a t :

k^ ^

= k'

(7.2.5)

k''

OfC

OyC

i n which: k'

= g r a i n roughness h e i g h t and k"

= form roughness h e i g h t .

S Jc

S JC

Assuming h y d r a u l i c a l l y rough f l o w , the c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d f r i c t i o n

f ^ = 8g C " ^ = 0.24

factor i s :

(7.2.6)

[log(P^)]"^
s, c

= 18 l o g ( P ^ )
s ,c

(7.2.7)

G r a i n roughness
G r a i n roughness i s the roughness o f i n d i v i d u a l sediment

p a r t i c l e s as p r e s e n t

i n the t o p l a y e r o f a n a t u r a l plane movable o r non-movable bed.

-7.3-

Experimental r e s e a r c h shows t h a t g r a i n roughness i s l a r g e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e


l a r g e s t p a r t i c l e s o f t h e t o p l a y e r o f t h e bed (dgQ). The p r e s e n t w r i t e r (Van
R i j n , 1982) has analyzed about 120 sets o f flume and f i e l d data w i t h and
w i t h o u t a mobile bed t o determine the g r a i n roughness. The k'

values were

computed from t h e Chzy-coefficients, which were d e r i v e d from t h e measured


water depths, depth-averaged v e l o c i t i e s and energy g r a d i e n t s . Based on t h i s
a n a l y s i s , the g r a i n roughness was found t o be i n t h e range o f 1 t o 10 d^Q o f
the bed m a t e r i a l as shown i n F i g . 7.1.IB. A c l e a r i n f l u e n c e o f t h e m o b i l i t y o f
t h e p a r t i c l e s cannot be observed. Experiments w i t h an i n t e n s i v e m o b i l e bed do
n o t show a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r gain roughness than those w i t h an immobile
bed.
Van R i j n proposed (1982):

K,c

= 3

(7.2.8)

S i m i l a r values have been r e p o r t e d by:


Kamphuis (1974)

: kg

= 2.5 d^Q

(7.2.9)

G l a d k i (1975)

: k''^ = 2.3 dgn

(7.2.10)

Hey (1979)

: k^'^ = 3.5 dgn

(7.2.11)

Mahmood (1971)

(7.2.12)

c ^ ^'^ ^^84

Form roughness
The e f f e c t i v e form roughness i s r e l a t e d t o t h e bed-form h e i g h t A, t h e bed-form
steepness (A/x) and t h e bed-form shape ( y ) . The f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n a l

relation-

s h i p i s assumed t o be v a l i d :

''sic =

(7.2.13)

Data o f r i p p l e s and dunes have been analyzed t o determine Eq. (7.2.13).

Ripples
R i p p l e s a r e h e r e i n d e f i n e d as bed forms w i t h a l e n g t h s m a l l e r than t h e water
depth. Assuming h y d r a u l i c a l l y rough f l o w and a dominant form roughnes, t h e
k^'^-value can be determined from t h e Chzy-coefficient

C = 18 l o g (12 h/

k ^ ' ^ ) . A n a l y s i s o f t h e r i p p l e data o f B a r t o n - L i n (1955), Ackers (1964),


Vanoni-Brooks (1957) and o f Mahmood e t a l (1984), t h e l a t t e r

representing

f i e l d data o f Pakistan i r r i g a t i o n channels, show two d i s t i n c t ranges ( F i g .


7.2.2A). The k'' -value v a r i e s i n t h e range o f 0.5 t o 1.5 A f o r A/X
< 0.1
sJ c
f
r* 1?
and i n t h e range o f 1 t o 4

f o r A^/X^ > 0.1. The data can be reasonably

r e p r e s e n t e d by:
(7.2.14)

k-^ = 2 0 A ^ ( ^ )

in

which:

A^ = r i p p l e h e i g h t
X^ = r i p p l e l e n g t h
Dunes
Based on t h e a n a l y s i s o f dune d a t a , t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r (1984) has proposed
(see F i g .

k"

7.2.2B):

(7.2.15)

= 1.1 A. (l-e'^^^d^'^d]

S yC

E q u a t i o n ( 7 . 2 . 1 5 ) i s v a l i d f o r t y p i c a l t r i a n g u l a r - s h a p e d dunes w i t h a l e e s i d e
s l o p e equal t o the angle o f repose. Ogink (1988) analysed f i e l d data o f dunes
and found t h a t r i v e r dunes o f t e n have r e l a t i v e l y m i l d l e e s i d e s l o p e s . Based on
t h i s , Ogink (1988) i n v e s t i g a t e d the i n f l u e n c e o f t h e l e e s i d e slope i n a
l a b o r a t o r y f l u m e . He found a c o n s i d e r a b l e r e d u c t i o n o f t h e form roughness f o r
s m a l l e r l e e s i d e slopes (no f l o w s e p a r a t i o n ) . T h i s e f f e c t can s i m p l y be r e p r e sented by a p p l y i n g a form f a c t o r y^,

in

as f o l l o w s :

which:

A^ = dune h e i g h t
X j = dune l e n g h t
= form f a c t o r

Using t h e data o f Ogink, t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r determined t h e Yj-pat'ameter as a


f u n c t i o n o f a l e e s i d e slope parameter

(X.j/A), as shown i n F i g . 7 . 2 . 3 r e l a t i -

v e l y l a r g e r e d u c t i o n o f the form roughness can be observed


l e e s i d e slope (X^^/A

i n case o f a m i l d

10), which i s caused by the f a c t t h a t f l o w s e p a r a t i o n

does n o t occur f o r these c o n d i t i o n s .

-7.5-

R i p p l e s and dunes
I n case o f dunes superimposed by r i p p l e s i t i s proposed t o combine Eq,
and Eq. (7.2.15) i n t r o d u c i n g a r i p p l e - p r e s e n c e parameter

(7.2.14)

t o account f o r t h e

number o f r i p p l e s present on the back o f a dune, as f o l l o w s :

k' ' = k' '


+ k'
s,c
" s , r i p p l e * s,dune

o i-TX
(7.2.17)

A
K',c

20

+ 1.1 Yd ^d (1-e"^^'d/^d)

(7.2,18)

i n which:
A^, A^ = r i p p l e and dune h e i g h t
^ r ' ^d " '"^PP-'- ^""^ ^^^^ l e n g h t
= form f a c t o r
= "
n

= i^ippie presence parameter (0.6 - 0.8)

= number o f r i p p l e s on a dune

To a p p l y Eq. (7.2.18), the

and Y ^ - parameters must be known. At p r e s e n t

stage o f r e s e a r c h these parameters can o n l y be determined when bed f o r m


r e c o r d i n g s are a v a i l a b l e .
To show t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h i s approach, the present w r i t e r has a p p l i e d

Eq.

(7.2.18) t o determine the o v e r a l l roughness o f ( a r t i f i c i a l ) dunes superimposed


by r i p p l e s , as t e s t e d by Ogink (1988). Sand p a r t i c l e s w i t h a median s i z e o f
780 ym were g l u e d on the bed forms t o s i m u l a t e g r a i n roughness. The b a s i c bed
form dimensions are presented i n F i g . 7.2.4. The g r a i n roughness ( k '

) is

S yc

assumed t o be k^ ^ = 0.001 m. The p r e d i c t e d and computed kg ^-values a r e g i v e n


i n the f o l l o w i n g
Test

table.

p r e d i c t e d k_ .

measured k .

(m)

(m)

0,018

0.027

0,025

0.029

0,022

0.025

0,024

0.019

0,018

0.014

The l a r g e s t d e v i a t i o n i s about 60^ f o r t e s t A, which seems r a t h e r l a r g e . However, t h e p r e d i c t e d and measured Chzy-coefficient do n o t d i f f e r more than ]0%.

7.2.2

Methods based on i n t e g r a l parameters

Two i n t e g r a l methods, as proposed i n t h e L i t e r a t u r e , a r e g i v e n here: t h e method


o f Engelund-Hansen (1967) and t h a t o f White e t a l (1979). These two methods
gave t h e b e s t r e s u l t s i n an e x t e n s i v e a p p r a i s a l o f a v a i l a b l e methods,

reported

by White e t a l (1979) f o r r i v e r f l o w c o n d i t i o n s .

Engelund-Hansen, 1967
T h i s method, which i s based on flume data o n l y , i s as f o l l o w s :
1.

Compute h y d r a u l i c r a d i u s , R

2.

Compute p a r t i c l e m o b i l i t y parameters, 0 and 0'


R i
- ( s - 1 ) d^o
0' = 0.4 0^ + 0.06

for

0' = 0

f o r 0.55 < 0' < 1

0' = [0.3 + 0.7 0"''-^]"O-56

fof,

s =

(s-1) d^. 0'


T^

(7.2.21)

Compute average f l o w v e l o c i t y ,

(7.2.22)

Compute bed-shear v e l o c i t y , u

6.

Qt > ^

gradient

= [ g R' i]-5 [6 + 2.5 l n [ ^ 4 ) ]


2 "^65
5.

(7.2.20)

Compute h y d r a u l i c r a d i u s r e l a t e d t o g r a i n s , R'

R' =
4.

0' < 0.55

Pg/P

i = energy
3.

(7.2.19)

= [ g R i]-5

Compute Chzy-coefficient, C
,

0.5
_ K
u

(7.2.23)

c
(7.2.24)

-7.7-

T h i s method, which i s based on e x t e n s i v e flume data (1432) and f i e l d a t a ( 2 6 3 )


i n t h e lower f l o w regime, i s as f o l l o w s :

1.

Compute p a r t i c l e parameter D^t, n, Y^^,, P


1 /2
D = d35 [ ^ ^ ]
V

(7.2.25)

n = 1 - 0.56 log(D)

f o r 1 < D,j < 60

^cr =

for1 <

< 60

n = 0

for

< 60

Ycr = 0-17

for

'^o 5 + 0.14

D,, < 60

P = [log(D)]^-7

2.

(7.2.27)

Compute bed-shear v e l o c i t y , u^

",c =

(7.2.28)

3.

Compute m o b i l i t y parameter, Y^^g

4.

Compute m o b i l i t y parameter, Yg^


Y

- Y

Y ^ " " _ Y'''' = 1 - 0.76 [1-e-P]


fg
cr
5.

(7.2.30)

Compute average f l o w v e l o c i t y , from


Y

^"^c^"

V(s-1)g d3.]0-5^
6.

(7.2.26)

0
5.66

l o g ( ^ ) ^

Compute Chzy-coefficient, C^

^
=

(7.2.32)
,c

To apply the method o f Engelund-Hansen as w e l l as t h a t o f White e t a l , t h e


h y d r a u l i c r a d i u s ( R ) , the f l o w w i d t h ( b ) , the s u r f a c e slope ( i ) and the
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a r t i c l e parameters must be known. The d i s c h a r g e need n o t be
known. I n case o f a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e w i d t h - d e p t h r a t i o (b>>h) i t f o l l o w s t h a t
R - h.

7.2,3

Comparison o f methods

The methods o f Engelund-Hansen, White e t a l and Van R i j n have been compared


for

a l a r g e amount o f flume and f i e l d data. The method o f Van R i j n was based

on t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f the dune h e i g h t and l e n g t h by Eqs,


The e f f e c t i v e roughness was determined from Eqs,
t i n g t h e form roughness r e d u c t i o n parameter
(A

( 7 . 2 . 8 )

( y ^ = ' ^ ) -

( 6 , 1 , 3 )

and

and

( 7 . 2 . 1 6 )

( 6 , 1 , 4 ) ,

neglec-

Ripples were a l s o n e g l e c t e d

=0).

To e v a l u a t e the accuracy o f the t h r e e p r e d i c t i o n methodes, t h e percentage o f


the

p r e d i c t e d values i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e r r o r ranges were determined:

^measured ^ 0 ^ , C^^^^^^^^ 20% and C^^^^^^^^ 30%.

The r e s u l t s are presented i n t h e f o l l o w i n g

Flume data ( 7 5 8 )

10^

error

table.

20^

error

30^

error

1.

Engelund-Hansen

37^

65^

75%

2.

Van R i j n

345J

56%

3.

White e t a l

335^

5H

66%

F i e l d data ( 7 8 6 )
1.

Van R i j n

43^

n%

89%

2,

White e t a l

33^

5S%

79%

3,

Engelund-Hansen

25^

47^

62%

For flume c o n d i t i o n s the method o f Engelund-Hansen produces t h e best r e s u l t s ,


w h i l e f o r f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s t h e ( p r e s e n t ) w r i t e r ' s method i s s u p e r i o r .
P a r t i c u l a r l y , the method o f Engelund-Hansen produces r a t h e r poor r e s u l t s f o r
f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s , probably because o n l y flume data were used f o r c a l i b r a t i o n .

-7.9-

For f i e l d data the method o f Engelund-Hansen and White e t a l y i e l d v a l u e s


which a r e , on the average, too l a r g e .

7.3

Wave-related bed

roughness

The e f f e c t i v e wave-related bed roughness i s expressed as:

= k'
S,W

(7.3.1)

+ k' '

S,W

S,W

I ' 3 '

IJ

The wave-related f r i c t i o n f a c t o r (f^_^) i s expressed by

f = e x p [ - 6 .

Grain

5.2(Vk^^J-0-19]^

,ith

f^^^^^= 0 . 3

(7.3.2)

roughness

G r a i n roughness i s dominant when the bed i s plane or when the peak o r b i t a l


e x c u r s i o n a t the bed i s s m a l l e r than the r i p p l e l e n g t h
Based on l a b o r a t o r y
500,

2200,

12200

(A^ < X^).

experiments w i t h a p e r f e c t l y f l a t non-movable bed (d^Q =

and 4 6 0 0 0 ym), Kamphuis ( 1 9 7 5 )

In n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s

proposed:

t h i s value may be somewhat l a r g e r , because a p e r f e c t l y

arranged f l a t bed w i l l n o t be p r e s e n t .
r"

Grant and Madsen (1982) re-analyzed the movable bed data o f Carstens e t a l
(1969) and concluded t h a t the g r a i n roughness f o r a mobile bed s h o u l d be
r e l a t e d t o the t h i c k n e s s o f the moving bed-load l a y e r . Based on data a n a l y s i s .
Grant and Madsen have proposed a f u n c t i o n t h a t y i e l d s :

s,w
50
K ,, " 3 5 0 d^^
s,w
50

for

cr
0' - 2 0 0
cr

in which:
0'

= e f f e c t i v e m o b i l i t y parameter (based on k^ ^ = d^^)

0^^ = c r i t i c a l m o b i l i t y

parameter

-7.10-

The method o f Grant and Madsen y i e l d s i r r e a l i s t i c l a r g e k'

- v a l u e s , which

may

be caused by the f a c t t h a t r i p p l e regime d a t a have been analyzed by Grant and


Madsen. T h i s i n t r o d u c e s the problem o f e s t i m a t i n g the r i p p l e form roughness.
Small e r r o r s i n t h i s l a t t e r parameter may
the grain

lead t o r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e e r r o r s i n

roughness.

S i m i l a r i r r e a l i s t i c l a r g e g r a i n roughness values were found by R a u d k i v i (1988)


a p p l y i n g the same data s e t o f Carstens e t a l (1969). R a u d k i v i proposes

an

e x p r e s s i o n which y i e l d s k'
= 0.16 m f o r U = 1 m/s.
s Jw
0
According t o the p r e s e n t w r i t e r , the e f f e c t i v e g r a i n roughness o f a sheet f l o w
bed i s o f the order o f the boundary l a y e r t h i c k n e s s ( k '

6 ) . T h i s i s based

on the e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s o f Horikawa e t a l (1982), who measured t h e boundary


l a y e r t h i c k n e s s ( 6 ^ ^ 0.02 m f o r
dgQ

= 1.27 m/s,

T = 3.6 s, d^^ = 200

300 ym). A p p l y i n g Eq. (2.3.8) o f Jonsson-Carlsen

6 /A, = 0.072 (A,/k)~"2^, i t f o l l o w s t h a t k


W o

ym,

( 1976):

=^ 0.015

m which i s somewhat

S,W

O S

s m a l l e r than the observed boundary l a y e r t h i c k n e s s o f 6


w
Since dgQ =^ 300 ym, i t f o l l o w s t h a t

0.02

m.

= 50 dg^ f o r the Horikawa-experiment.

S i m i l a r r e s u l t s have been found by Wilson (1989). Based on p i p e experiments


w i t h u n i d i r e c t i o n a l f l o w , Wilson found kg-values i n the range o f 1 t o ^0 d^Q
f o r 0 = Tj^/((p-Pg)g dgg) i n the range o f 0.8

t o 8 ( g i v i n g k^/d^^ ^ 5 0 ) .

The p r e s e n t w r i t e r proposes the f o l l o w i n g v a l u e s :

k^ M= 3 dgQ

i n the r i p p l e regime

k^ = 3(0.044)-9)dgQ i n the sheet f l o w regime

(U ) ^
f o r ip = (g_,,g^

< 250

(7.3.4)

(U )'^
f o r 4) = ^g_.j^g^

> 250

(7.3.5)

Equation (7.3.5) y i e l d s a roughness value i n the range o f 3 dgQ t o 33 dgQ f o r


i> = 250 t o 500. More research i s necessary t o i n v e s t i g a t e the v a l i d i t y o f t h e
proposed e x p r e s s i o n , which i s now t e n t a t i v e l y based on i n t u i t i v e c o n s i d e r a tions.

Form roughness
R i p p l e s are the dominant bed forms generated by o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w . R i p p l e s may
be p r e s e n t on a h o r i z o n t a l bed o r on the back o f l a r g e sand waves. I n the

-7.11-

l a t t e r case t h e sand waves have no f r i c t i o n e f f e c t on the water waves, because


the

water waves experience t h e sand waves as a g r a d u a l bottom topography. When

the

near-bed

o r b i t a l e x c u r s i o n i s l a r g e r than the r i p p l e l e n g t h , t h e r i p p l e s

are t h e dominant roughness elements on t h e bed. Sayao


e x p e r i m e n t a l r i p p l e data o f Carstens e t a l

(1969)

(1982)

analyzed t h e

and L o f q u i s t

(1980)

and

found k'' -values i n t h e range o f 2 t o 4 times t h e r i p p l e h e i g h t . No i n f l u e n c e


S Jw
o f t h e r i p p l e steepness was n o t i c e d ( 0 . 1 < A^/X^ < 0 . 2 5 ) : Thus,
Sayao

(1982):

Equation

k'
t>,w

= 3

for

2 <

< 5

(7.3.6)

i s a l s o assumed t o be v a l i d f o r A./X

(7.3.6)

>

because eddy

o r

motions a r e dominant i n t h i s range. For A^/X^ < 2 Equation ( 7 . 3 . 6 ) becomes


l e s s r e l i a b l e because o f t h e reduced importance o f t h e eddy g e n e r a t i o n
A

mechanism. For A^/X^< 1 t h e f l o w along t h e bed forms w i l l be n o n - s e p a r a t i n g


( p o t e n t i a l ) f l o w mainly a f f e c t e d by g r a i n roughness ( H o n j i e t a l ,
Davies,

1985).

= 20

Equation

The present w r i t e r proposes (see Eq.

1 9 8 0 and

(7.2.14)):

( ^ )

(7.3.7)

r i p p l e steepness

(7.3.7)

y i e l d s values i n agreement w i t h those o f Sayao

(1982)

for a

i n t h e range o f 0 . 1 t o 0 . 2 .

Other e x p r e s s i o n s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e L i t e r a t u r e a r e :
A^
Swart

(1976)

: k'- , =

25

A^

(-^)

: k"
=
s,w

28

()

: k"
=
i.,w

16

(7.3.8)

A
Grant-Madsen

Raudkivi

7.4

(1984)

(1988)

(7

3 9)

V ( . 3 . :>/

A
A^ (-^)
r

(7.3.10)

Bed roughness i n combined c u r r e n t s and waves

The most i m p o r t a n t bed form regimes a r e :

r i p p l e s i n case o f weak c u r r e n t s and low waves,

sand waves w i t h r i p p l e s i n case o f s t r o n g c u r r e n t s and low waves,

plane bed w i t h sheet f l o w i n case o f s t r o n g c u r r e n t s and h i g h waves ( s u r f


zone),

-7.12-

sand waves w i t h sheet f l o w i n case o f s t r o n g c u r r e n t s and h i g h waves


( o u t s i d e s u r f zone)

Grain roughness
G r a i n roughness i s dominant f o r both the wave-related and

current-related

f r i c t i o n when the bed i s plane. When bed forms are p r e s e n t and

the^peak

o r b i t a l e x c u r s i o n a t the bed i s smaller than the bed form l e n g t h (A^ < X^),
the

g r a i n roughness i s a l s o dominant f o r the wave-related f r i c t i o n . I n t h a t

case t h e waves f e e l the bed forms as topographic f e a t u r e s .


Equation ( 7 . 3 . 4 )

and

(7.3.5)

are assumed t o be

valid.

Form roughness
Ripples:
The r i p p l e roughness i s dominant f o r the c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d f r i c t i o n .

Ripple

roughness i s a l s o dominant f o r the wave-related f r i c t i o n when the peak v a l u e o f


the

o r b i t a l e x c u r s i o n a t the bed i s l a r g e r than the r i p p l e l e n g t h (A^ > X^).

Nap and Van Kampen

(1988)

performed flume experiments w i t h combined c u r r e n t s

and waves over a sediment bed o f 100 ym. R i p p l e type bed forms ( 0 . 1 < A^/X^
< 0 . 2 ) were generated d u r i n g the experiments. The e f f e c t i v e roughness o f t h e
r i p p l e s was s t u d i e d by g e n e r a t i n g a c u r r e n t ( w i t h o u t waves) over the r i p p l e s
and measuring the v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the v e l o c i t i e s and the water s u r f a c e
s l o p e s . The f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d :

k''

s yc

k''
s,c

= 3

7 A

r*

from measured water s u r f a c e slopes

(7.4.1)

from measured v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e s
^

(7.4.2)

A c l e a r i n f l u e n c e o f the r i p p l e steepness, which v a r i e d i n the range o f 0 . 1 t o


0.2,

was n o t observed. E q u a t i o n ( 7 . 4 . 1 ) probably y i e l d s t h e most r e a l i s t i c

r e s u l t s because i t i s based on the measured water s u r f a c e slope which i s an


i n t e g r a l parameter over the flume l e n g t h , w h i l e v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e data r e p r e s e n t
l o c a l data a t a p a r t i c u l a r c r o s s - s e c t i o n .
The r e s u l t s o f Nap and Van Kampen (Eq. 7 . 4 . 1 )
Eq.

can reasonably be represented by

which y i e l d s k'' -values i n the range o f 2 t o


S Jc
h e i g h t f o r a r i p p l e steepness o f 0 . 1 < A^/X^ < 0 . 2 . Thus,
(7.2.14)

times the r i p p l e

-7.13-

Equation ( 7 . 4 . 1 ) or Eq.

( 7 . 4 . 3 ) express the p h y s i c a l form roughness o f the

r i p p l e s generated by a c u r r e n t (superimposed

by waves). The o v e r a l l roughness

experienced by the c u r r e n t ( i n the presence o f waves) may

be c o n s i d e r a b l y

l a r g e r than the p h y s i c a l bed roughness ( k ^ ^ ) , as shown i n s e c t i o n

2.4.3.

This

roughness increase can be represented as an apparent roughness ( k ^ ) , which i s


r e l a t e d t o the e f f e c t o f the wave boundary l a y e r on the c u r r e n t . The
roughness s t r o n g l y depends on the r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h o f the wave and

apparent
current

m o t i o n . I n case o f a decreasing wave h e i g h t and a c o n s t a n t c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y


the apparent roughness reduces t o the e f f e c t i v e bed roughness
'^s.c

"6-0).

Sand waves w i t h or w i t h o u t r i p p l e s :
Sand waves have a l e n g t h (X) much l a r g e r than the o r b i t a l e x c u r s i o n a t the
bed

( A ^ ) . Thus, the wave-related f r i c t i o n f a c t o r i s n o t determined by the l a r g e

sand wave dimensions, but by the small s c a l e r i p p l e s generated on the back o f


the sand waves. When the o r b i t a l v e l o c i t i e s near the bed become r e l a t i v e l y
l a r g e ( i n storm p e r i o d s ) , the r i p p l e s w i l l be washed out r e s u l t i n g i n a plane
s l o p i n g bed w i t h sheet f l o w on the back o f the sand waves. I n t h i s l a t t e r case
the wave-related f r i c t i o n f a c t o r i s determined by g r a i n

roughness.

The c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d f r i c t i o n f a c t o r i s determined by a combination o f g r a i n


roughness,
approach

r i p p l e form roughness ( i f p r e s e n t ) and sand wave form roughness.

s i m i l a r t o Eq.

(7.2.18)

An

i s proposed. The r i p p l e o r the g r a i n roughness

should be r e p l a c e d by the apparent roughness (see s e c t i o n 2 . 4 . 3 ) .

-7.14-

7.5

References

ACKERS, P. 1964
Experiments on Small Streams i n A l l u v i u m
J o u r n a l o f t h e H y d r a u l i c s D i v i s i o n , ASCE, V o l . 90, NO. HY4

BARTON J.R., and LIN, P.N., 1985


A Study o f t h e Sediment T r a n s p o r t i n A l l u v i a l Streams
Civ.

Eng. Dep., Colorado C o l l e g e , Rep. No. 55JRB2, F o r t C o l l i n s , USA

CARSTENS, M.R., MEILSON, F.M. and ALTINBILEK, H.D., 1969


Bed Forms Generated i n the L a b o r a t o r y under an O s c i l l a t o r y Flow
C.E.R.C., T e c h n i c a l Memo 28, USA

DAVIES, A.G., 1978


F i e l d Observations o f the Threshold o f Sediment Motion by Wave A c t i o n
Sedimentology, V o l . 32

ENGELUND, F. and HANSEN, E., 1967


A Monograph on Sediment T r a n s p o r t
Technisk F o r l a g , Copenhagen, Denmark

GLADKI, H., 1975


D i s c u s s i o n s o f D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Sand Roughnes f o r Fixed Beds
J o u r n a l o f H y d r a u l i c Research, V o l . 13, No. 2

GRANT, W.D. and MADSEN, O.S., 1982


Movable Bed Roughness i n Unsteady O s c i l l a t o r y Flow
J o u r n a l o f Geophysical Research, v o l . 87, No. C l , p. 469-481

HORIKAWA, K. WATANABE, A. and KATORI, S., 1982


Sediment T r a n s p o r t under Sheet Flow C o n d i t i o n s
C o a s t a l Eng. Conf., V o l . 2, Cape Town, South A f r i c a

HEY, R.D., 1979


Flow Resistance i n Gravel-bed Rivers
J o u r n a l o f H y d r a u l i c D i v i s i o n , ASCE

-7.15-

HONJI, H., KANEKO, A. and MATSUNAGA, N., 1980


Flow Above O s c i l l a t o r y Ripples
Sedimentology, V o l . 2 7

KAMPHUIS, J.W., 1974


D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Sand Roughness f o r Fixed Beds
J o u r n a l o f H y d r a u l i c Research, V o l . 12, No. 2

KAMPHUIS, J.W., 1 9 7 5
F r i c t i o n Factor under O s c i l l a t o r y Waves
J o u r n a l o f t h e Waterway, P o r t , Coastal and Ocean D i v . ,
ASCE, V o l . 101, No. WW2, p. 135-144

LOFQUIST, K.E.B., 1980


Measurements o f O s c i l l a t o r y Drag on Sand Ripples
Proc. 17th Coastal Eng. Conf., V o l . I l l ,

p. 3 0 8 7 - 3 1 0 6 ,

Sydney, A u s t r a l i a

MAHMOOD, K., 1971


Flow i n Sand Bed Channels
Water Management T e c h n i c a l Report No. 11, Colorado S t a t e
U n i v e r s i t y , F o r t C o l l i n s , Colorado, USA

MAHMOOD, K., MEHRDAD, M.H. and HAQUE, M.I., 1984


Bed form Data i n ACOP-canals 1979-1980
George Washington Univ., C i v . Mech. and Environmental Eng. Dep., USA

NAP, E. and VAN KAMPEN, A., 1988


Sediment T r a n s p o r t i n I r r e g u l a r Non-Breaking

Waves w i t h a C u r r e n t

C o a s t a l Eng. Dep., D e l f t Univ. o f Technology, d e l f t , The Netherlands


NIKURADSE, J., 1932
Gesetzmassigkeiten der T u r b u l e n t e Strmung i n G l a t t e n Rohren
Ver. Deut. I n g . Forschungsheft 356

OGINK, H., 1 9 8 8
H y d r a u l i c Roughness o f Bed Forms
D e l f t H y d r a u l i c s , Report M2017, D e l f t , The Netherlands

-7.16-

RAUDKIVI, A.J., 1988


The Roughness Height under Waves
J o u r n a l o f H y d r a u l i c Research, V o l . 26, No. 5

SAYAO, O.D.S.F.J., 1982


Beach P r o f i l e s and L i t t o r a l Sand Transport
Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , Kingston, O n t a r i o , Canada

SWART, D.H., 1 9 7 6
P r e d i c t i v e Equations r e g a r d i n g Coastal T r a n s p o r t s
Coastal Engineering Congress, Honolulu, Hawaii

VANONI, V.A. and BROOKS, N.H., 1957


L a b o r a t o r y S t u d i e s o f t h e Roughness and Suspended Load o f A l l u v i a l

Streams

Sedimentation L a b o r a t o r y , C a l i f o r n i a I n s t , o f Techn., Report E - 6 8 , USA

VAN RIJN, L.C., 1982


E q u i v a l e n t Roughness o f A l l u v i a l Bed
J o u r n a l o f t h e H y d r a u l i c s D i v i s i o n , ASCE, V o l . 108, No. HY10

VAN RIJN, L.C., 1984


Sediment T r a n s p o r t , Part I I I :

A l l u v i a l Roughness

J o u r n a l o f H y d r a u l i c Engineering, V o l . 110, No. 12


WHITE, W., PARIS, E. and BETTESS, R., 1 9 7 9
A New General Method f o r P r e d i c t i n g the F r i c t i o n a l
Alluvial

Streams

H.R.S. W a l l i n g f o r d , Report No. I T 187, England

WILSON, K.C., 1 9 8 9
Friction

o f Wave-Induced Sheet Flow

C o a s t a l E n g i n e e r i n g , 12

Characteristics o f

10
USA - rivers
O d5o= 150-210 urn, h=

5-10

e d5o= 150-210 um,

h= 10-15 m

X d5o= 2 1 0 - 3 0 0 um,

h=

1- 2 m

a dso- 2 1 0 - 3 0 0 um, h=

5-10 m

10'

W 3 \

O O

ia

10'

3=S

tv

10^
8
6
4

10
Q25

050

0.75
>

1.00

1,25

A. k s - V A L U E S O F MISSISSIPPI

1.50

1.75

2.00

2,25

2.50

depth - averaged flow velocity (m/s)

RIVER

1J

?'

1i

A
T
f

11

dgo
A

"

1
e

(1

AA

a
a

e9

0.4

0.8

1.2

1.6

2.0

2.4

2.8

*. e-Gcr
B. GRAIN

EFFECTIVE

DELFT

ROUGHNESS

BED ROUGHNESS

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 7.1.1

A. RELATIONSHIP

BETWEEN

Tb AND D

aA

>i

B. FORCES ON BED

CURRENT -

FORMS

RELATED BED ROUGHNESS

DELFT HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 7.2.1

6 7 8 910"'

A.

FORM

Barton-Lin, 1955 (180


Ackers, 1964 (180 (im)
Vanoni - Brooks, 1957 (140 |lnn)
Mahmood et al, 1984 ( 1 5 0 - 3 0 0 ^im)

5 6 7 8 9io

ripple steepness,-Ap/Xr

ROUGHNESS OF RIPPLES

1.6
\< 1.4
u

tn

1.2
X

c
x: 1.0
O)
0.8
O

i_
I

0.6

k'i
/
-25 ^ \
^ = 1 . 1 (l-e

0.4

\,

\
3 -

0.2

CP a

8 10"

10"

bed-form steepness,

FORM

B.

>

8 10-1
^rA.

ROUGHNESS OF DUNES

FORM ROUGHNESS O F RIPPLES AND DUNES

DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 7.2.2

FORM FACTOR O F DUNES

D E L F T HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 7.2.3

-8.1-

8.

BED MATERIAL SUSPENSION AND TRANSPORT IN STEADY UNIFORM CURRENTS

8.1

The

Introduction

t r a n s p o r t o f bed m a t e r i a l p a r t i c l e s by a f l o w o f water can be in t h e form

o f bed-load and suspended l o a d , depending on the s i z e o f the bed m a t e r i a l


p a r t i c l e s and the f l o w c o n d i t i o n s . The suspended load may a l s o c o n t a i n some
wash l o a d , which i s g e n e r a l l y d e f i n e d as t h a t p o r t i o n o f the suspended load
which i s governed by the upstream supply r a t e and not by the c o m p o s i t i o n and
p r o p e r t i e s o f the bed m a t e r i a l . Although i n n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s t h e r e w i l l be
no sharp d i v i s i o n between the bed-load t r a n s p o r t and suspended load

transport,

i t i s necessasry t o d e f i n e a l a y e r w i t h bed-load t r a n s p o r t f o r m a t h e m a t i c a l
representation.
Usually,

t h r e e modes o f p a r t i c l e motion a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d : (1) r o l l i n g and

s l i d i n g motion o r b o t h ; (2) s a l t a t i o n motion; and (3) suspended p a r t i c l e


motion.
When t h e value o f the bed-shear v e l o c i t y j u s t exceeds the c r i t i c a l

value f o r

i n i t i a t i o n o f m o t i o n , the p a r t i c l e s w i l l be r o l l i n g and s l i d i n g or b o t h , i n
c o n t i n u o u s c o n t a c t w i t h the bed.

For i n c r e a s i n g values o f the bed-shear

v e l o c i t y , the p a r t i c l e s w i l l be moving along the bed by more o r l e s s

regular

Jumps, which are c a l l e d s a l t a t i o n s . When the value o f the bed-shear v e l o c i t y


exceeds the f a l l v e l o c i t y o f the p a r t i c l e s , the sediment p a r t i c l e s can be
l i f t e d t o a l e v e l a t which the upward t u r b u l e n t f o r c e s w i l be comparable w i t h
or o f h i g h e r

order than the submerged weight o f the p a r t i c l e s and as r e s u l t

the p a r t i c l e s may go i n suspension.

V a r i o u s formulae a r e a v a i l a b l e t o p r e d i c t the sediment t r a n s p o r t r a t e s ((i^).


The

formulae can be d i v i d e d i n f i v e main groups d e f i n e d by t h e r e l e v a n t

t r a n s p o r t parameter:

fluid

v e l o c i t y , q, ( -
U

CP

bed shear s t r e s s , q. ( T - x

p r o b a b i l i s t i c p a r t i c l e movement

bed form c e l e r i t y

energetics

The

(stream

power), q^ T

n - c o e f f i c i e n t i s o f the order o f 1.5. The m - c o e f f i c i e n t i s i n t h e range o f

3 t o 5.

8.2

Bed

8.2.1

load

transport

Introduction

Usually,

the t r a n s p o r t o f p a r t i c l e s by r o l l i n g , s l i d i n g and

saltating is

c a l l e d the bed-load t r a n s p o r t . For example, Bagnold (1956) d e f i n e s


load t r a n s p o r t as t h a t i n which the successive c o n t a c t s
the bed

the

bed-

o f the p a r t i c l e s w i t h

are s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d by the e f f e c t o f g r a v i t y , w h i l e the suspended

load t r a n s p o r t i s d e f i n e d as t h a t i n which the excess weight o f the p a r t i c l e s


i s supported w h o l l y by a random succession o f upward impulses imported

by

t u r b u l e n t eddies. E i n s t e i n (1950), however, has a somewhat d i f f e r e n t approach.


Einstein defines

the bed-load t r a n s p o r t as the t r a n s p o r t o f sediment p a r t i c l e s

i n a t h i n l a y e r o f 2 p a r t i c l e diameters t h i c k Just above the bed


r o l l i n g and

sometimes by making Jumps w i t h a l o n g i t u d i n a l d i s t a n c e

p a r t i c l e d i a m e t e r s . The
due

t o the t u r b u l e n c e

c l e s , and

by

bed

sliding,
of a

few

l a y e r i s considered as a l a y e r i n which the m i x i n g

i s so small t h a t i t cannot i n f l u e n c e the sediment p a r t i -

t h e r e f o r e suspension o f p a r t i c l e s i s i m p o s s i b l e i n the bed-load

l a y e r . F u r t h e r , E i n s t e i n assumes t h a t the average d i s t a n c e


bed-load p a r t i c l e i s a c o n s t a n t d i s t a n c e

t r a v e l l e d by

any

o f 100 p a r t i c l e d i a m e t e r s , Indepen-

dent o f the f l o w c o n d i t i o n s , t r a n s p o r t r a t e and

the bed

c o m p o s i t i o n . I n the

view o f E i n s t e i n , the s a l t a t i n g p a r t i c l e s belong t o the suspension mode o f


t r a n p o r t , because the Jump l e n g t h s o f s a l t a t i n g p a r t i c l e s are

considerably

l a r g e r than a few g r a i n diameters.

Many formulae t o p r e d i c t the bed-load t r a n s p o r t r a t e are d e s c r i b e d i n the


L i t e r a t u r e . The

e a r l i e s t f o r m u l a i s t h a t o f Du Boys i n 1879,

who

assumed t h a t

the sediment p a r t i c l e s are moving along the bottom i n l a y e r s o f

progressively

decreasing v e l o c i t i e s i n v e r t i c a l downward d i r e c t i o n .
The

f i r s t e m p i r i c a l f o r m u l a was

presented by Meyer-Peter and

They performed flume experiments w i t h u n i f o r m


mixtures.

Based on data f i t t i n g ,

Mller ( 1 9 4 8 ) .

p a r t i c l e s and w i t h p a r t i c l e

a r e l a t i v e l y simple f o r m u l a has-been

obtained,

which i s s t i l l f r e q u e n t l y used.
K a l i n s k e (1947) and

E i n s t e i n (1950) introduced

s t a t i s t i c a l methods t o

repre-

sent t h e t u r b u l e n t behaviour o f the f l o w . Kalinske assumed a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r the i n s t a n t a n e o u s f l u i d v e l o c i t y a t g r a i n l e v e l . E i n s t e i n gave a


d e t a i l e d but c o m p l i c a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p a r t i c l e motion i n
which the exchange p r o b a b i l i t y o f a p a r t i c l e i s r e l a t e d t o the hydrodynamic

l i f t f o r c e and p a r t i c l e w e i g h t . E i n s t e i n proposed t h e d^^ as t h e e f f e c t i v e


diameter f o r p a r t i c l e m i x t u r e s and t h e d^^ as t h e e f f e c t i v e g r a i n

roughness

diameter.
F r i j l i n k (1952) had a very p r a c t i c a l approach and made a s i m p l e f i t o f t h e
f o r m u l a o f Meyer-Peter-Miiller and t h a t o f E i n s t e i n .
Bagnold (1966) i n t r o d u c e d an energy concept and r e l a t e d t h e sediment t r a n s p o r t
r a t e t o t h e work done by t h e f l u i d .
Van R i j n (1984) solved t h e e q u a t i o n s o f motions o f an i n d i v i d u a l bed l o a d
p a r t i c l e and computed t h e s a l t a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e p a r t i c l e

velocity

as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e f l o w c o n d i t i o n s and p a r t i c l e d i a m e t e r .
H e r e i n , t h e approaches o f Meyer-Peter and Mller ( 1 9 4 8 ) , F r i j l i n k

(1952),

Bagnold (1966) and Van R i j n (1984) a r e presented.

8.2.2

P r e d i c t i o n method o f Meyer-Peter and Mller (1948)

E x t e n s i v e e x p e r i m e n t a l work has been c a r r i e d o u t by Meyer-Peter and Mller a t


the

"Eidgenssische Technische Hochschuie" (ETH) i n S w i t s e r l a n d . The e x p e r i -

ments were performed i n a l a b o r a t o r y flume w i t h a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f 2 x 2 m^


and a l e n g t h o f 50 m. Uniform bed m a t e r i a l as w e l l as p a r t i c l e m i x t u r e s were
used i n t h e experiments.
The bed l o a d t r a n s p o r t r a t e i s expressed as (see F i g . 8.2.1):

q j ^ ^ ^ = 8 [(s-1)g]'^

d^Q^ (yO - 0.047)^'^

(8.2.1)

i n which:
%,o
0 =

^b,c
(P3-P)gd50

y = (C/C)^-^
^b, c
h

= P g h i

( i n m2/s)

bed load t r a n s p o r t by c u r r e n t

e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c l e m o b i l i t y parameter

(-)

bed form f a c t o r

(-)

c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed-shear

water depth

energy g r a d i e n t

(M/m2)

stress

>

i
C

= 18 log(12h/kg ^) - o v e r a l l Chzy-coefficient
g r a i n - r e l a t e d Chzy-coefficient

C' = 18 log(12h/dgQ)

^3,0

- e f f e c t i v e c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed roughness

"^50' ^^90
s =

(m)
(-)
0.5

(m

/s)
0 .5

(m

/s)
(m)

p a r t i c l e diameters

(m)

specific density

(-)

Equation (8.2.1) i s based on p a r t i c l e diameters i n the range o f 3.17


mm.

t o 28.6

The d^Q i s used as the e f f e c t i v e diameter f o r p a r t i c l e m i x t u r e s , w h i l e t h e

dgQ i s used as t h e e f f e c t i v e diameter f o r g r a i n roughness.

8.2.3

P r e d i c t i o n method o f F r i j l i n k

(1952)

The f o r m u l a o f F r i j l i n k e s s e n t i a l l y i s an a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f the f o r m u l a e o f
Meyer-Peter and Mller (1948) and t h a t o f E i n s t e i n (1950), as shown i n F i g .
8.2.1.
The f o r m u l a , which i s given here because o f i t s s i m p l i c i t y , reads as:

= 5 y

0,5

g-O.27/(y0)

u,

(8.2.2)

The parameters a r e i d e n t i c a l t o those g i v e n i n s e c t i o n 8.2.2.

8.2.4

P r e d i c t i o n method o f Bagnold (1966)

Bagnold (1966) i n t r o d u c e d an energy balance concept and r e l a t e d t h e bed l o a d


t r a n s p o r t t o t h e work done by t h e f l u i d ( p r o d u c t o f bed-shear s t r e s s and
depth-averaged v e l o c i t y ) . He e x p l i c i t l y
his

i n c o r p o r a t e d the l o c a l bed s l o p e i n

bed l o a d f o r m u l a , which reads as:

(8.2.3)

in which:
= c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed l o a d t r a n s p o r t r a t e
= e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r (=* 0.1)
= bed-shear
u

stress

= depth-averaged

velocity

(m2/s)
(-)
(N/m2)
(m/s)

= angle o f repose o f bed m a t e r i a l (tancf) ^ 0.6)

(-)

= l o c a l bed s l o p e

(-)

The bed-load t r a n s p o r t r a t e i s r e l a t e d t o the o v e r a l l bed-shear s t r e s s and n o t


to the g r a i n - s h e a r s t r e s s . Thus, the e f f e c t o f t h e bed forms i s n o t t a k e n i n t o
account.

-8.5-

8.2.5

1.

P r e d i c t i o n method o f Van R i j n (1984)

Introduction
Van

R i j n f o l l o w e d t h e approach o f Bagnold (1954) assuming t h a t t h e m o t i o n

o f t h e bed l o a d p a r t i c l e s i s dominated by p a r t i c l e s a l t a t i o n s (jumps)


under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f hydrodynamic f l u i d f o r c e s and g r a v i t y f o r c e s . The
s a l t a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been determined by s o l v i n g t h e e q u a t i o n s o f
motions f o r an i n d i v i d u a l bed load p a r t i c l e . The bed load t r a n s p o r t r a t e
(q|^

i s d e f i n e d as t h e product o f t h e p a r t i c l e v e l o c i t y ( u j ^ ) , t h e s a l t a -

tion height

and bed-load c o n c e n t r a t i o n

(cj^) r e s u l t i n g i n qj^ ^ =

"b ^b %
The method o f Van R i j n i s described

i n d e t a i l because i t r e p r e s e n t s

many

b a s i c phenomena o f bed load motion.


2.

Saltation characteristics
From d e t a i l e d experiments o f F r a n c i s

(1973) and Abbott and F r a n c i s

(1977),

the f o l l o w i n g general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p a r t i c l e s a l t a t i o n s can be i n f e r red. The s a l t a t i o n mode o f t r a n s p o r t i s confined


thickness

t o a l a y e r w i t h a maximum

o f about 10 p a r t i c l e diameters, i n which t h e p a r t i c l e motion i s

dominated by g r a v i a t i o n a l f o r c e s , although

the p a r t i c l e motion may be

i n i t i a t e d by instantaneous t u r b u l e n t impulses d u r i n g upward b u r s t s o f


f l u i d or j u s t by t h e e f f e c t o f shear i n t h e sense t h a t a body i n sheared
f l o w experiences a l i f t f o r c e due t o t h e v e l o c i t y g r a d i e n t near t h e bed.
The

p a r t i c l e s r e c e i v e t h e i r momentum d i r e c t l y from t h e f l o w pressure and

v i s c o u s s k i n f r i c t i o n . On t h e r i s i n g p a r t o f t h e t r a j e c t o r y , both t h e
v e r t i c a l component o f the f l u i d drag f o r c e and t h e g r a v i t a t i o n a l f o r c e a r e
d i r e c t e d downwards. During t h e f a l l i n g

part of the t r a j e c t o r y , the v e r t i c a l

component o f t h e f l u i d drag f o r c e opposes t h e g r a v i t a t i o n a l f o r c e . The l i f t


f o r c e i s always d i r e c t e d upwards as long as t h e p a r t i c l e v e l o c i t y l a g s
behind t h e f l u i d v e l o c i t y .
When a p a r t i c l e s t r i k e s t h e bed, i t may e i t h e r impact i n t o t h e s u r f a c e o r
rebound o f f t h e s u r f a c e p a r t i c l e s . During t h e impact o f a p a r t i c l e w i t h t h e
bed,

most o f i t s momentum i s d i s s i p a t e d by t h e p a r t i c l e s o f t h e bed i n a

sequence o f more o r l e s s h o r i z o n t a l impulses which may i n i t i a t e


mode o f t r a n s p o r t known as s u r f a c e

creep.

the r o l l i n g

Equations o f motion
The f o r c e s a c t i n g on a s a l t a t i n g p a r t i c l e a r e a downward f o r c e due t o i t s
submerged weight ( F q ) and hydrodynamic f l u i d f o r c e s , which can be r e s o l v e d
into a l i f t

f o r c e ( F ^ ) , a drag f o r c e ( F j ) ) , as shown i n F i g , 8.2,2A, The

d i r e c t i o n o f t h e drag f o r c e i s o p p o s i t e t o t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c l e
velocity

(v^,) r e l a t i v e t o t h e f l o w , w h i l e t h e l i f t

component i s i n t h e

normal d i r e c t i o n . I t i s assumed t h a t : (1) t h e p a r t i c l e s a r e s p h e r i c a l and


o f u n i f o r m d e n s i t y , and (2) t h e f o r c e s due t o f l u i d a c c e l e r a t i o n s a r e o f a
second o r d e r . With these assumptions,

t h e equations o f motion can be repe-

sented by:

(8.2.4)
r
in

which:

= p a r t i c l e mass and added f l u i d mass

v^= [ ( u - x ) ^ + ()^]*^'^ = p a r t i c l e v e l o c i t y r e l a t i v e t o t h e f l o w
u

= local flow

velocity

= longitudinal

and v e r t i c a l p a r t i c l e

velocities

= longitudinal

and v e r t i c a l p a r t i c l e

velocities

X and z

= longitudinal

and v e r t i c a l p a r t i c l e

accelerations

The t o t a l mass o f t h e sphere can be represented by

m = ^ (pg+ a^p) 77 d^

(8.2.5)

/
in

which:
= added mass c o e f f i c i e n t

m
d

= p a r t i c l e diameter

Assuming p o t e n t i a l f l o w , t h e added mass o f a p e r f e c t sphere i s e x a c t l y


equal t o h a l f t h e mass o f t h e f l u i d d i s p l a c e d

by t h e sphere. When t h e f l o w

i s separated from t h e s o l i d sphere, t h e added mass may be d i f f e r e n t . I n


the p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s , an added mass c o e f f i c i e n t equal t o 0,5 has been used.
The drag f o r c e , which i s caused by pressure and v i s c o u s s k i n
f o r c e s , can be expressed as:

friction

(8.2.6)

in

which:

Cq

= drag

coefficient

2
A = 1/4

IT d

= c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l area o f the sphere

For the drag c o e f f i c i e n t the ( e m p i r i c a l ) expressions g i v e n by Morsi


Alexander
The l i f t
in

and

(1972) were used.


f o r c e i n a shear f l o w i s caused by the v e l o c i t y g r a d i e n t p r e s e n t

the f l o w (shear e f f e c t ) and by t h e s p i n n i n g motion o f the p a r t i c l e

(Magnus e f f e c t ) . For a sphere moving i n a v i s c o u s f l o w , Saffman

(1965)

d e r i v e d the f o l o w i n g e x p r e s s i o n :

F^(shear) = a^p v-^ d^ v^ i^f'^

in
ct^

(8.2.7)

which:
= lift

c o e f f i c i e n t (= 1.6 f o r v i s c o u s f l o w )

3u/3z = v e l o c i t y g r a d i e n t
Eq. 8.2.7

i s o n l y v a l i d f o r s m a l l Reynolds' numbers. The l i f t

f o r c e due t o

the s p i n n i n g motion i n a viscous f l o w was determined by Rubinow and

Keller

(1961):
Fj^(spin) = Oj^p d^ v^w
in

(8.2.8)

which:
= lift

c o e f f i c i e n t (= 0.4

f o r viscous f l o w )

) = a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y o f the p a r t i c l e

Saffman (1965) showed t h e o r e t i c a l l y t h a t f o r a viscous f l o w the l i f t f o r c e


due t o the p a r t i c l e r o t a t i o n i s l e s s by an order o f magnitude than
due t o the shear e f f e c t and may

that

t h e r e f o r e be n e g l e c t e d . Although t h e p r e -

v i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are o n l y v a l i d f o r v i s c o u s f l o w , i t i s assumed
also i n t u r b u l e n t flow conditions the l i f t

f o r c e i s mainly caused by t h e

shear e f f e c t , which i s d e s c r i b e d by Eq. 8.2.7


as a c a l i b r a t i o n parameter.
in

that

u s i n g the l i f t

coefficient

T h i s l a t t e r approach has been used because

the p r e s e n t s t a t e o f research an exact expression f o r the l i f t

t u r b u l e n t f l o w c o n d i t i o n s i s not a v a i l a b l e .

force i n

-8.8-

The submerged p a r t i e l e weight can be described

by:

(8.2.9)

The

v e r t i c a l f l o w v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i s described

by:

u
u(z) =

in

(8.2.10)

which:
= bed-shear v e l o c i t y
= constant o f Von Karman.(=

Zo = 0.11(v/u^^) + 0.03

1<3^^ == z e r o - v e l o c i t y

0.4)

l e v e l above t h e bed

= e q u i v a l e n t roughness h e i g h t o f

4.

Nikuradse

Boundary c o n d i t i o n s and s o l u t i o n method


The bed l e v e l i s assumed a t a d i s t a n c e o f 0.25d below the t o p o f the part i c l e s , as shown i n F i g . 8.2.2B. I n i t s i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n a p a r t i c l e i s
supposed t o be r e s t i n g on a bed s u r f a c e o f close-packed

identical parti-

c l e s . The most s t a b l e p o s i t i o n w i l l be t h a t o f a p a r t i c l e r e s t i n g above


one o f the i n t e r s t i c e s formed by the top l a y e r o f the p a r t i c l e s o f the bed
s u r f a c e , which y i e l d s an i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n o f about 0.6d

above the bed

l e v e l . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h i s s c h e m a t i z a t i o n can n o t r e p r e s e n t the movements o f a l l the bed-load p a r t i c l e s . The p a r t i c l e s i n the compacted bed


can o n l y be moved by the h i g h e s t f l u i d v e l o c i t i e s o f the spectrum
t i n g i n somewhat l a r g e r

s a l t a t i o n s . However, the m a j o r i t y

i s supposed t o be moving over the s u r f a c e o f close-packed


To s o l v e Eq.

resul-

o f the p a r t i c l e s
particles.

(8.2.4) the i n i t i a l v e r t i c a l and l o n g i t u d i n a l p a r t i c l e v e l o -

c i t i e s must be known. Measurements o f p a r t i c l e s i n a water stream by

Abbott

and F r a n c i s (1977) i n d i c a t e an average i n i t i a l l o n g i t u d i n a l and v e r t i c a l


v e l o c i t y o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2u^

White and S c h u l t z (1977) analyzed h i g h -

speed m o t i o n - p i c t u r e f i l m s o f s a l t a t i n g p a r t i c l e s i n a i r and observed a


l i f t - o f f v e l o c i t y v a r y i n g from u ^ t o 2.5u ^ and a l i f t - o f f angle v a r y i n g
from 30-70.
Equation (8.2,4) has been transformed t o a system o f o r d i n a r y

simultaneous

d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n s o f the f i r s t o r d e r . T h i s system has been solved


n u m e r i c a l l y be means o f an automatic step-change d i f f e r e n t i a l
solver.

equation

Calibration
As experiments on s a l t a t i n g bed-load p a r t i c l e s are very scarce, the mathem a t i c a l model (Eq,

8,2.4) has

not been c a l i b r a t e d

experiments o f Fernandez Luque and


(1976). Fernandez Luque and
load t r a n s p o r t .

Van

Van

extensively; only

Beek were considered f o r

Beek c a r r i e d oud

temporal mean shear s t r e s s .

Fernandez Luque and

m a t e r i a l s : sand, g r a v e l , magnetite and

forms (plane bed).

Van

has

the

Beek used f o u r d i f f e -

walnut g r a i n s . The
transport

ym)

been used. The

and

experi-

stages

a bed-shear v e l o c i t y (u ) o f

r a t i o of the bed-shear v e l o c i t y and

p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y f o r t h i s experimentis about 0.25.


t i o n s the sediment p a r t i c l e s can

For

only be t r a n s p o r t e d as bed

f o r e , the t r a j e c t o r i e s measured by Fernandez Luque and

Van

are somewhat wavy a t c e r t a i n l o c a t i o n s

the

these c o n d i l o a d . There-

Beek are

dered to be t r a j e c t o r i e s o f s a l t a t i n g p a r t i c l e s , a l t h o u g h the

Two

of

I n the present a n a l y s i s , only the experiment

w i t h g r a v e l p a r t i c l e s (d = 1800
m/s

the average number o f

time ( i n w a t e r ) as a f u n c t i o n

mental c o n d i t i o n s were r e s t r i c t e d to r e l a t i v e l y low

about 0.04

bed-

Advanced f i l m techniques were used t o measure the average

p a r t i c l e s d e p o s i t e d per u n i t area and

w i t h o u t bed

calibration

flume experiments on

p a r t i c l e v e l o c i t y , the average s a l t a t i o n l e n g t h and

r e n t bed

the

consi-

trajectories

( F i g . 8.2.2C).

parameters were used t o c a l i b r a t e the model: the l i f t

coefficient

(uj^)

and

the e q u i v a l e n t roughness o f Nikuradse (K ) . As i n p u t data the f o l l o w i n g


s
e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s were used: d = p a r t i c l e diameter = I8OO ym (= 1.8
mm),
p s = d e n s i t y o f sediment = 2650 kg/m3, u ,c = bed-shear
v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
=
0.04
_g
m/s,

V = k i n e m a t i c v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t = 1.10

d i n a l and

0.08

initial

longitu-

v e r t i c a l p a r t i c l e v e l o c i t i e s were assumed to be equal to 2u ^ =

m/s.

F i g . 8.2.2

C shows measured and

l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t s and
As can

m2/s. The

computed p a r t i c l e t r a j e c t o r i e s f o r v a r i o u s

e q u i v a l e n t roughness h e i g h t s .

be observed, both c a l i b r a t i o n parameters have a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e

on

the computed t r a j e c t o r i e s . A reduced l i f t c o e f f i c i e n t r e s u l t s i n a reduct i o n o f the s a l t a t i o n l e n g t h .

I n c r e a s i n g the roughness h e i g h t a l s o reduces

the s a l t a t i o n l e n g t h c o n s i d e r a b l y , due

t o i t s d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on

f l o w v e l o c i t y and

drag f o r c e s . As regards the

thus on

the l i f t and

the

average

p a r t i c l e v e l o c i t y , the " b e s t " agreement between measured and

computed

values i s o b t a i n e d f o r

realistic

value f o r plane bed


wing t a b l e ) .

= 20 and

k^/d = 2 to 3, which i s a

c o n d i t i o n s w i t h a c t i v e sediment t r a n s p o r t

(see

local

follo-

-8.10-

Particle
characteristics

Computed ( a ^ = 20)

Measured

kg/d = 1
Particle

kg/d = 2

Ks/d = 3

velocity
5.4

V",c
Saltation

8.1

4.9

14.8

10.2

2.5

1.9

length
21-24

Saltation

6.1

23

height

6./d
b

2-3.5

3.5

The measured s a l t a t i o n h e i g h t and the measured p a r t i c l e v e l o c i t y a r e " b e s t "


represented f o r

= 20 and k^/d = 2 t o 3. For these v a l u e s , however, a

r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e discrepancy between the measured and computed s a l t a t i o n


l e n g t h s can be observed ( T a b l e ) . I t i s supposed t h a t the measured p a r t i c l e
t r a j e c t o r i e s a r e i n f l u e n c e d somewhat by t u r b u l e n t

motions r e s u l t i n g i n a

l a r g e s a l t a t i o n l e n g t h . P a r t i c u l a r l y , t h e wavy p a t t e r n o f t h e measured
t r a j e c t o r i e s i n d i c a t e s the i n f l u e n c e o f the upward f l u i d f o r c e s by t u r b u lent

action.

F i n a l l y , some remarks must be made w i t h respect t o the l i f t


( a ^ ) . The v a l u e

coefficient

- 20, which i s needed t o r e p r e s e n t t h e p a r t i c l e

trajec-

t o r i e s measured by Fernandeze Luque, i s r a t h e r l a r g e compared w i t h t h e


value

= 1.6 f o r laminar f l o w (Eq, . 8.2.7). As the l i f t

coefficient

i s used as a c a l i b r a t i o n parameter, i t r e f l e c t s a l l i n f l u e n c e s ( f o r example, the f l u c t u a t i n g turbulent

motions, a d d i t i o n a l

p r o x i m i t y o f t h e w a l l and a d d i t i o n a l

pressure forces i n the

f o r c e s due t o l o c a l f l u i d

accelara-

t i o n s which a r e n o t taken i n t o account by the model.

Saltation

height

A p p l y i n g t h e mathematical model, the s a l t a t i o n h e i g h t s have been computed


f o r a range o f c o n d i t i o n s (ujf ^ = 0.04 - 0.14 m/s) and p a r t i c l e d i a m e t e r s
(d = 100 - 2000 ym) assuming a f l a t bottom.

The f o l l o w i n g

parameters have been used (see F i g . 8.2.2):

kg = 2d,
*o =

=^0

= 2 u^^,

ZQ

= 0.6 d,

= 2650 kg/m3, v = I.IO'^mVs, a^^ = 0.5, K = 0.4 ,

-8.11-

= 1 .6 f or
= 20

R,} < 5,

f o r R^ > 70,

a, = 1.6 t o 20 ( l i n e a r ) f o r 5 < Rjf < 70.

The computed s a l t a t i o n h e i g h t s can be r e l a t e d t o a d i m e n s i o n l e s s bed-shear


parameter T (Eq. 3.3) and a dimensionless p a r t i c l e parameter D (Eq. 3 . 1 ) ,
as shown i n F i g . 8.2.3A. These curves can be approximated ( i n a c c u r a c y
10^) by the f o l l o w i n g e x p r e s s i o n s :

- 0.3

(8.2.11)

Experimental r e s u l t s have been presented by W i l l i a m s ( 1 9 7 0 ) .


W i l l i a m s c a r r i e d out flume experiments w i t h bed-load t r a n s p o r t (d^Q =
1350 ym) i n channels o f d i f f e r e n t w i d t h s and depths. According t o v i s u a l
e s t i m a t i o n , the bed-load p a r t i c l e s moved w i t h i n a zone o f no more than
about 8 p a r t i c l e diameters h i g h a t the l a r g e s t t r a n s p o r t stage ( p l a n e bd).
The h e i g h t o f the bed-load l a y e r was independent o f the f l o w d e p t h , b u t
Increased as the t r a n s p o r t stage decreased. Using the data o f W i l l i a m s
(u^g 0.09

m/s,

u j t ^ ^ j , = 0.03 m/s), Eq. (8.2.11) p r e d i c t s a s a l t a t i o n

h e i g h t o f about 10 p a r t i c l e diameters, which i s remarkably c l o s e t o t h e


observed v a l u e .
F i n a l l y , i t i s remarked t h a t Eq. (8.2.11) may p r e d i c t r e l a t i v e l y h i g h
values f o r the s a l t a t i o n h e i g h t , because i t i s based on computations f o r
i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c l e s , n e g l e c t i n g the i n f l u e n c e o f a d j a c e n t p a r t i c l e s . I n
the

case o f c o l l e c t i v e motion o f the p a r t i c l e s , the a c t u a l

saltation

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as w e l l as the p a r t i c l e v e l o c i t y , w i l l be reduced by p a r t i c l e c o l l i s i o n s i n the bed-load l a y e r .

7.

Saltation length
The computed s a l t a t i o n l e n g t h s are shown i n F i g . 8.2.3B. At the same Tparameter a s m a l l p a r t i c l e performs a s h o r t e r s a l t a t i o n than a l a r g e p a r t i c l e , because the bed-shear v e l o c i t y i n the s m a l l p a r t i c l e case i s much
smaller.
The curves can be approximated ( i n a c c u r a c y ^ 50%)

>

= 3 D.- T-'

by:

(8.2.12,

-8.12-

Experimental s u p p o r t f o r t h e computed s a l t a t i o n l e n g t h s can be o b t a i n e d


from experiments concerning the sampling e f f i c i e n c y o f bed-load

samplers

c a r r i e d o u t by Poreh e t a l (1970). They observed s a l t a t i o n l e n g t h s i n t h e


range Sd^Q-^IOd^Q (d^Q = 1900 pm, u,^ ^ = 0.04-0.05 m/s). For these c o n d i t i o n s , t h e mathematical model p r e d i c t s a range from lOd^Q-SOdgQ ( F i g .
8.2.3).

Particle velocity
The p a r t i c l e v e l o c i t y on a (downward) s l o p i n g bottom can be d e r i v e d from a
f o r c e balance c o n s i s t i n g o f the drag f o r c e F^^, t h e g r a v i t y f o r c e Fg and
the

f r i c t i o n f o r c e F^ exerted by t h e bottom on t h e p a r t i c l e d u r i n g c o n t a c t .

Thus,

- Fw

i n which:
FD

Cj^ A ( u ^ - u^^)

F^^ = (pg- p) g V tan(t) COS3


Fg = (pg- p) g V s i n e
1
A

= ij- IT d
1

= g 17 d

= p a r t i c l e area

3
= p a r t i c l e volume

4> = angle o f repose


g

= angle o f l o c a l bottom slope

U|^ = p a r t i c l e

velocity

Up = f l u i d v e l o c i t y
The f o r c e balance y i e l d s :

Assuming u.. = a. u . ^ and ^


I
1 *,c
^
^
Ic

._ _ a J ^ ^
1
2^ 0

^0

sinJi-6l,0.5
sin*
'

= a G
, i t follows that
2 cr,o
,q
'^^

-8.IS-

i n which:
u

= bed-shear

velocity

= c r i t i c a l m o b i l i t y parameter o f S h i e l d s on a h o r i z o n t a l bottom

= mobility

Oj,

= coefficients

parameter

The term sin((t)-B)/sincj) expresses the bottom slope e f f e c t on the p a r t i c l e


v e l o c i t y . F i g u r e 8.2.4A shows computed p a r t i c l e v e l o c i t i e s on a h o r i z o n t a l
bottom a c c o r d i n g t o the s a l t a t i o n model. The curves o f Van R i j n can be
approximated ( i n a c c u r a c y = ]Q%) by:

= 9 + 2.6 l o g
Ujf c
.

Fig.

- 8 l-^f-^
0

(8.2.14)

8.2.4A shows some data o f Fernandez Luque and F r a n c i s . As regards the

experiments o f Fernandez Luque, only the sand (d = 900 ym) and the g r a v e l
(d = 1800 ym) experiments f o r a f l a t bed-surface slope ( 3 = 0 ) were used.
From the experiments o f F r a n c i s only the g r a v e l data were used. As can be
observed, the ( s c a r c e ) data do not c o n f i r m the i n f l u e n c e o f the D^parameter as expressed by the mathematical model. More e x p e r i m e n t a l
research i s necessary t o i n v e s t i g a t e the D-influence. The c o m p u t a t i o n a l
r e s u l t s can a l s o be approximated (20^ i n a c c u r a c y ) by the f o l l o w i n g s i m p l e
expression:

1.5 T-^

(8.2.15)

[ ( s - 1 ) g d]-5
Equations (8.2.14) and (8.2.15) y i e l d values i n the range o f 3 t o 11 u
A reasonable average value i s about 7 u*

Using an e x p r e s s i o n s i m i l a r to Eq.(8.2.13) and data f i t t i n g , Engelund

and

Fredseie (1976) d e r i v e d :

^ = 1 0 - 7 [ V l - '

(8.2.16)

,c
Equation (8.2.16) i s shown i n F i g . 8.2.4A.
The i n f l u e n c e o f p a r t i c l e shape was i n v e s t i g a t e d by F r a n c i s ( 1 9 7 3 ) . His
experiments show t h a t angular p a r t i c l e s t r a v e l slower than s p h e r i c a l

-8.14-

p a r t i c l e s . The s p h e r i c a l p a r t i c l e s made v i o l e n t rebounds from t h e bed and


were l i f t e d t o h i g h e r l e v e l s where they experienced h i g h e r f l o w v e l o c i t i e s
than t h e angular p a r t i c l e s , r e s u l t i n g i n a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e average
particle velocity.

Bed-load c o n c e n t r a t i o n
The bed-load t r a n s p o r t r a t e i s d e f i n e d as:

^ = u^^ &^

p a r t i c l e v e l o c i t y a c c o r d i n g t o Eq.(8.2.15),
d i n g t o Eq.(8.2.11) and

i n which Uj^ =

= s a l t a t i o n h e i g h t accor-

= bed-load c o n c e n t r a t i o n . T h i s l a t t e r paramter

(Cj^) can be determined a p p l y i n g measured bed-load t r a n s p o r t r a t e s (qj^ ^ ) .


When bed forms a r e p r e s e n t , the i n f l u e n c e o f t h e form drag (see s e c t i o n
7.2) which does n o t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e bed-load t r a n s p o r t , must be e l i m i nated. Van R i j n ( 1 9 8 4 )

expressed t h e g r a i n - s t r e s s as:

^b,c = ' \o

(8.2.17)

i n which:
2
y

= (C/C)

= bed form or e f f i c i e n c y

factor

= o v e r a l l Chzy c o e f f i c i e n t

C' = 18 log(12h/3 dgp) = Chzy-coefficient r e l a t e d t o g r a i n s


In a l l ,

ISO flume experiments w i t h p a r t i c l e diameters (d^g) r a n g i n g from

200 t o 2000 ym, water depths l a r g e r than 0.1 m and a Froude number s m a l l e r
than 0 . 9 have been s e l e c t e d from t h e L i t e r a t u r e . The i n f l u e n c e o f s i d e w a l l roughness was e l i m i n a t e d by u s i n g t h e method o f Vanoni and Brooks
(1957).
A n a l y s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s showed t h a t the bed-load c o n c e n t r a t i o n can be
represented by:

7^ = 0.18 |o

(8.2.18)

i n which: c^ = maximum volume c o n c e n t r a t i o n = 0.65

Equation ( 8 . 2 . 1 8 ) ,

as w e l l as t h e computed v a l u e s , a r e presented i n F i g .

8 . 2 . 4 B . About 8 0 ^ o f t h e computed values a r e w i t h i n t h e range o f h a l f and


double the average v a l u e a c c o r d i n g t o Eq. ( 8 . 2 . 1 8 ) ,

which i s r a t h e r good

f o r a sediment t r a n s p o r t t h e o r y . As o n l y a m i n o r i t y (25%) o f t h e d a t a cover

-8.15-

t h e experiments w i t h p a r t i c l e s s m a l l e r than about 300 pm, t h e r e i s a need


f o r f u r t h e r e x p e r i m e n t a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e bed-load t r a n s p o r t i n t h e
s m a l l p a r t i c l e range t o i n c r e a s e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e proposed

Eq.(8.2.l8).

F i n a l l y , i t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t Eq.(8.2.l8) o n l y g i v e s an e s t i m a t e o f
t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e bed-load p a r t i c l e s i n t h e s a l t a t i o n l a y e r a t t h e
u p s l o p i n g p a r t o f t h e bed form.

10. Bed-load t r a n s p o r t f o r m u l a
A p p l y i n g Eqs.(8.2.11), (8.2,15) and (8.2.18) t h e bed l o a d t r a n s p o r t r a t e
( i n m2/s) f o r p a r t i c l e s i n t h e range o f 200-2000 ym can be computed as
(Van R i j n ,

%,c =

1984):

[(s-1)g]'5dg^-^ D ; - 3 T ^ - " "

(8.2,19)

i n which:
%

Q
2 1/3
[(s-1)g/v ]

0 =

= bed l o a d t r a n s p o r t

(m2/s)

= p a r t i c l e parameter

(-)

T = ( T ' - T.
)/T,
= bed-shear s t r e s s parameter
b,c
b,cr
b,cr
_
2
T'
= y T,
= pg[u/C'] = e f f e c t i v e bed-shear s t r e s s
Q,C

(-)
(N/m^)

D,O
0 , 5

C' = 18 l o g ( 1 2 h / 3 dg^)

= g r a i n - r e l a t e d Chzy-coefficient

= water depth

(m)

s = p /p

= s p e c i f i c density

(-)

= depth-averaged v e l o c i t y

% 0 ' ^^90

" P ^ f ' t i c l e diameters o f bed m a t e r i a l

= kinematic v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t

T,

= ( p - p ) g d(- 0

= c r i t i c a l bed-shear

(ra

/s)

(m/s)
(m)
(m^/s)

stress according

t o S h i e l d s (Eq. 5.1.2)
A p p l y i n g Eqs,(8,2. 11), (8,2.18) and u.

(-)

which i s an average v a l u e

r e p r e s e n t i n g Eq.(8.2.15), i t f o l l o w s t h a t :

% , c = 0-25 "4,0 ^^50

(8.2.20)

i n which:
0 5u^ ^ = g ' u/C = g r a i n - r e l a t e d bed-shear v e l o c i t y (m/s)
C'
= l 8 l o g ( 1 2 h / 3 d ^ J = g r a i n - r e l a t e d Chzy-coefficient (m"^/s).

-8.16-

Equation (8.2.19) can be approximated ( i n a c c u r a c y = 25%) by t h e f o l l o w i n g


simple f o r m u l a (Van R i j n , 1984):
- ^^
.

2.4

q, ^ = 0.005 a h (

dp^ 1.2
(_|0^

(8.2.21)

i n which:

= depth-averaged f l o w v e l o c i t y

(m/s)

= c r i t i c a l depth-averaged f l o w v e l o c i t y based on S h i e l d s

(m/s)

= water depth

(m)

^^ = 0.19 (d^Q)-''log(12h/3 dgp)

for

0.0001 < d^^ < 0.0005 (8.2.22)

^^ = 8.5 ( d g o ) ^ " ^ log(12h/3 dgg)

for

0.0005 < d^^ < 0.002

d^Q, dgQ = p a r t i c l e diameters o f bed m a t e r i a l ( i n m e t e r s ) .

8.2.6

T r a n s p o r t a t low shear s t r e s s

E x t e n s i v e measurements o f low bed load t r a n s p o r t r a t e s were performed and


analyzed by P a i n t a l (1971). Based on t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s ,

Paintal

proposed:

q,=a(s-1)-5 gO-5,1^5 ,3

(8,2,23)

a = 6.56 10^8
(

6 = 16
2
0 = U j j / ( s - 1 ) g ^Q] = bed-shear s t r e s s parameter

Equation (8.2.23) i s v a l i d f o r 0 < 0.06 and d^Q < 5000 ym,

8.2.7

T r a n s p o r t o f non-uniform bed m a t e r i a l

Approach
B a s i c a l l y , t h e bed m a t e r i a l i n n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s c o n s i s t s o f n o n - u n i f o r m
sediment p a r t i c l e s , R i b b e r i n k (1987) has shown t h a t t h e n o n - u n i f o r m i t y

effects

may become i m p o r t a n t when t h e g e o m e t r i c a l s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n ( a ^ =^ Q^/^Q) o f


the bed m a t e r i a l i s l a r g e r than about 3,
(

-8.17-

G e n e r a l l y , t h e approach

i s t o d i v i d e t h e bed m a t e r i a l i n a number o f s i z e

f r a c t i o n s and t o apply an e x i s t i n g t r a n s p o r t f o r m u l a f o r each s i z e

fraction

w i t h a c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r ( 5 ^ ) t o account f o r t h e n o n - u n i f o r m i t y e f f e c t s .
The c o r r e c t i o n i s necessary because t h e coarser p a r t i c l e s a r e more exposed t o
the f l o w than t h e f i n e r p a r t i c l e s which a r e somewhat s h e l t e r e d by t h e coarse
p a r t i c l e s . T h i s c o r r e c t i o n can be e f f e c t u a t e d by i n c r e a s i n g t h e c r i t i c a l
s h e a r s - s t r e s s o f the f i n e r p a r t i c l e s and decreasing t h e v a l u e o f t h e c o a r s e r
particles.
Taking t h e f o r m u l a o f Meyer-Peter and Mller ( 1 9 4 8 ) , t h e bed l o a d

transport

r a t e i n t e g r a t e d over the f r a c t i o n s reads as:

%,c =J^
in

'i^

^b - h

(8-2.24)

\,or^''^

which:
= bed l o a d t r a n s p o r t r a t e i n t e g r a t e d over N f r a c t i o n s
= percentage o f s i z e f r a c t i o n i o f t h e bed m a t e r i a l

= constant

= s p e c i f i c d e n s i t y (= 2 . 6 5 )

= acceleration of gravity

li

= bed form f a c t o r
= bed-shear s t r e s s
= correction factor

Tjj^j,^
"^m " ^ ^ i
N

= c r i t i c a l bed-shear s t r e s s based on t h e average diameter dj^


' ^ i " average diameter o f bed m a t e r i a l
= number o f s i z e f r a c t i o n s

G e n e r a l l y , t h e c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r 5^ i s assumed t o be equal t o u n i t y f o r d^ =
d^. Thus 5 i = 1 f o r d i = d.

Egiazaroff (1965)

^i

'

proposed:

- l l o g ( 1 9 d./djjj)J

Equation ( 8 . 2 . 2 5 ) y i e l d s

(8.2.25)
5 f o r d^/d^ = 0 . 2 and

" 0 . 4 f o r dj^/d^ = 5 .

The p a r t i c l e diameter o f t h e t r a n s p o r t e d bed l o a d p a r t i c l e s can be expressed


as:

-8.18-

-I,

(8.2.26)

Ribberink

(1987) has

c a r r i e d out some s e n s i t i v i t y computations a p p l y i n g

f o r m u l a of Meyer-Peter and Mller f o r a bed m a t e r i a l w i t h 0


s

the

=2.5.

V a r a t i o n o f the number o f s i z e f r a c t i o n s showed t h a t a t l e a s t 5 f r a c t i o n s a r e


necessary t o o b t a i n constant r e s u l t s . The
average diameter (d^^^) was

bed load t r a n s p o r t r a t e based on

the

not more than ]0% l a r g e r than the t r a n s p o r t r a t e

base on the s i z e f r a c t i o n method. The


the t r a n s p o r t e d m a t e r i a l was

r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p a r t i c l e diameter (d^^) o f

about 30% s m a l l e r

than the average bed

material

diameter (dj^) a t the s m a l l e s t shear s t r e s s ( c l o s e t o the t h r e s h o l d shear


stress).
Vertical sorting
V e r t i c a l s o r t i n g takes place i n the upper l a y e r o f the bed which g e n e r a l l y
covered w i t h bed

forms. The

is

p a r t i c l e s t h a t are ( o c c a s i o n a l l y ) t a k i n g p a r t i n

the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n process are present i n a l a y e r w i t h a t h i c k n e s s equal t o


the l a r g e s t bed
Flume and

form h e i g h t .

f i e l d observations

show a v e r t i c a l s o r t i n g e f f e c t w i t h f i n e r

c l e s d o m i n a t i n g i n the upper l a y e r s and

coarser p a r t i c l e s dominating i n the

lower l a y e r s a t the trough l e v e l o f the bed


explained
the bed

parti-

forms. T h i s s o r t i n g e f f e c t can

be

by the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n process. A f t e r the moving p a r t i c l e s have passed

form c r e s t , they r o l l and

s l i d e down the l e e s i d e slope o f the bed

form.

As a r e s u l t o f g r a v i t y the coarser p a r t i c l e s have the l a r g e s t p r o b a b i l i t y t o


reach the deepest p a r t o f the bed form t r o u g h . Armoring o f the bed
an immobile f r a c t i o n i s present i n the top l a y e r o f the bed.
c l e s w i l l be c a r r i e d away by the f l o w and

The

occurs when

finer

the immobile p a r t i c l e s w i l l

partieventu-

a l l y form an armor l a y e r .

8.2.8

Comparison o f bed l o a d t r a n s p o r t forumulae

A l a r g e amount
1500 ym)

500)

o f bed load t r a n s p o r t r a t e s (d^Q i n the range 110

measured i n flume and

field

c o n d i t i o n s have been s e l e c t e d from

L i t e r a t u r e t o v e r i f y the formulae o f Van


Frijlink

(see Van

R i j n , 1986). The

the

R i j n , Meyer-Peter and Mller, and

r e s u l t s are presented i n terms o f a d i s c r e -

pancy r a t i o ( r ) d e f i n e d as the r a t i o o f the computed and measured bed

load

t r a n s p o r t r a t e . The

percentage o f r - v a l u e s o f a l l data f a l l i n g i n the ranges

0.75

< r < 2 and

< r < 1.5;

0.5

0.33

< r < 3 are given

i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e :
(

-8.19-

Formula

Percentage o f r-values i n a c e r t a i n range


0 . 7 5 < r < 1.5

Van

Rijn

0.5

< r < 2

0.33

< r < 3

3455

63%

85^

Meyer-Peter-Miiller

3155

60%

8155

Frijlink

3155

62%

8955

The

r e s u l t s o f t h e t h r e e methods a r e about t h e same. The t o t a l l o a d

formulas

o f Engelund-Hansen and Ackers-White ( s e c t i o n 7 . 3 ) produce s i m i l a r values f o r


l a r g e p a r t i c l e s i z e s (d^Q > 500 ym), assuming t h a t t h e bed l o a d t r a n s p o r t i s
about equal t o t h e t o t a l l o a d t r a n s p o r t (Van R i j n , 1 9 8 4 ) . F i n a l l y , t h e accuracy o f t h e measured t r a n s p o r t r a t e s i s reviewed. I t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t an
i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f flume experiments performed under s i m i l a r f l o w c o n d i t i o n s
( e q u a l depth, v e l o c i t y , p a r t i c l e s i z e , temperature) by v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h

workers

showed d e v i a t i o n s upto a f a c e r 2 , Thus, even under c o n t r o l l e d flume c o n d i t i o n s ,


the accuracy o f t h e measured values may be r a t h e r low, which may be caused by
the i n f l u e n c e o f t h e a p p l i e d width-depth

r a t i o , t h e a p p l i e d adjustment p e r i o d

t o e s t a b l i s h u n i f o r m f l o w c o n d i t i o n s and t h e a p p l i e d e x p e r i m e n t a l

method

(sand

feed o r r e c i r c u l a t i n g f l u m e ) .
C o n c l u d i n g , i t may be s t a t e d t h a t i t i s h a r d l y p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t t h e t r a n s p o r t r a t e w i t h an inaccuracy

8.3

8.3.1

The

l e s s than f a c t o r 2 .

Suspended l o a d t r a n s p o r t

Introduction

d e p t h - i n t e g r a t e d suspended l o a d t r a n s p o r t i s d e f i n e d as t h e d e p t h - i n t e g r a -

t i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t o f v e l o c i t y ( u ) and c o n c e n t r a t i o n ( c ) , as f o l l o w s (see
Fig.

8.3.1):

h
=

'

u c dz

(8.3.1)

A p p l i c a t i o n o f Eq. ( 8 . 3 . 1 ) r e q u i r e s i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e , t h e
c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e and a r e f e r e n c e c o n c e n t r a t i o n (c.,). This l a t t e r v a r i a b l e
a
g e n e r a l l y i s s p e c i f i e d a t a r e f e r e n c e l e v e l (z=a) c l o s e t o t h e bed. Three p r e d i c t i o n method based on t h i s approach a r e d e s c r i b e d : E i n s t e i n ( 1 9 5 0 ) , B i j k e r
( 1 9 7 1 ) and Van R i j n ( 1 9 8 4 ) , w h i l e a l s o t h e formula o f Bagnold ( 1 9 6 6 ) i s g i v e n .

-8.20-

8.3.2

Mass-balance e q u a t i o n f o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n

I n a steady u n i f o r m f l o w the v e r t i c a l e q u i l i b r i u m
related

and t h e downward g r a v i t y - r e l a t e d

c w
+ e
s,m
s,c

o f the upward

turbulence-

t r a n s p o r t can be expressed as:

(8.3.2)

P- = 0
dz

in which:
c

- sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n a t h e i g h t z above bed

Wg

= p a r t i c l e f a l l velocity i n a fluid-sediment

= sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t r e l a t e d

mixture

to current

S y0

8.3.3

Sediment m i x i n g

coefficient

Various d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the f l u i d m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t ( e ^ ) can be found i n t h e


L i t e r a t u r e . Herein, the f o l l o w i n g

d i s t r i b u t i o n s are given

(see F i g . 8 . 3 . 2 A ) :

: e
= K u h
f,c
,c

constant

1
: e^^^ = -

linear

(8.3.3)
z

(8.3.4)

k: u.^^h ^
(8.3.5)

parabolic
: e^^^ = K u^^h f ( 1 - | )
p a r a b o l i c - c o n s t a n t : e
=
h ^ ( 1 - ^)

for

^ < 0.5
(8.3.6)

^ f , c = 0-25 K u

for

^ > 0.5

i n which
"*,c
h

= current-related
waterdepth

bed-shear v e l o c i t y

= vertical

= Van Karman c o n s t a n t (0.4)

coordinate

constant

The p a r a b o l i c d i s t r i b u t i o n i s most s a t i s f a c t o r y

i n a p h y s i c a l sense because i t

i s based on a l i n e a r shear s t r e s s d i s t r i b u t i o n and a l o g a r i t h m i c v e l o c i t y


p r o f i l e . A disadvantage o f t h e p a r a b o l i c d i s t r i b u t i o n i s t h a t i t y i e l d s

-8.21-

z e r o - c o n c e n t r a t i o n a t t h e water s u r f a c e . Sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t s based on


the

a n a l y s i s o f measured c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s (Coleman, 1970) i n d i c a t e a

p a r a b o l i c - c o n s t a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n r a t h e r than a p a r a b o l i c one, as shown i n


F i g u r e 8.3.2B.

U s u a l l y , the m i x i n g o r d i f f u s i o n o f the sediment p a r t i c l e s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e


f l u i d mixing c o e f f i c i e n t f o r a c l e a r f l u i d ( e ^ ) , as f o l l o w s :

^s,c = ' * ^ f , c

(8.3.7)

6-factor
The 3 - f a c t o r d e s c r i b e s t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i f f u s i o n o f a f l u i d

"particle"

(or

s m a l l coherent f l u i d s t r u c t u r e ) and a d i s c r e t e sediment p a r t i c l e .

Herein,

the

3 - f a c t o r i s assumed t o be constant over t h e f l o w depth. I n f o r m a t i o n o f

the

8 - f a c t o r can be o b t a i n e d from a study c a r r i e d o u t by Coleman (1970). Based

on Equation (8.3.2), Coleman computed t h e sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t s (see


F i g u r e 8.3.2B). The p r e s e n t w r i t e r used t h e r e s u l t s o f Coleman t o determine
the

3 - f a c t o r , d e f i n e d as 3 = e
/e
. The e
-value was computed from
s,max f,max
f,max
^

Equation(8.3.6) f o r z/h = 0.5. The e

-value was determined as t h e average

v a l u e o f t h e e -values i n the upper h a l f o f t h e f l o w ( a s g i v e n by Coleman,


Fig.

8.3.2B) where t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s are r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . The 6 - f a c t o r s can

be represented by t h e f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n :
w
2
w

3 = 1 + 2

(-^)
"*,c

f o r 0.1 <

< 1

(8.3.8)

",c

Equation (8.3.8) s p e c i f i e s a value l a r g e r than u n i t y i n d i c a t i n g a dominant


i n f l u e n c e o f t h e c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e s which cause t h e p r a t i c l e s t o be thrown t o
the

o u t s i d e o f t h e eddies w i t h a consequent increase o f the e f f e c t i v e m i x i n g

l e n g t h . Given t h e l i m i t e d knowledge o f the p h y s i c a l procesess i n v o l v e d , i t i s


n o t a d v i s a b l e t o use a 3 - f a c t o r l a r g e r than 2.

(t)-factor
The 4i-factor expresses t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e sediment p a r t i c l e s on t h e t u r b u l e n c e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e f l u i d (damping e f f e c t s ) . U s u a l l y t h e damping e f f e c t i s
taken i n t o account by reducing t h e constant o f Von Karman ( K ) .
S e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s have observed

t h a t t h e c o n s t a n t o f Von Karman becomes

l e s s than t h e value o f 0.4 ( c l e a r f l o w ) i n t h e case o f a heavy

sediment-laden

-8.22-

f l o w over a r i g i d , f l a t bed. I t has a l s o been observed t h a t the f l o w

veloci-

t i e s i n a l a y e r c l o s e t o the bed a r e reduced, w h i l e i n the r e m a i n i n g p a r t o f


t h e f l o w t h e r e a r e l a r g e r f l o w v e l o c i t i e s . A p p a r e n t l y , the m i x i n g i s reduced
by the presence o f a l a r g e amount o f sediment

particles.

According t o E i n s t e i n and Chien [ 1 9 5 5 ] , who determined the amount o f energy


needed t o keep the p a r t i c l e s i n suspension, the constant o f Von Karman i s a
f u n c t i o n o f t h e depth-averaged

c o n c e n t r a t i o n , the p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y

and

t h e bed-shear v e l o c i t y .
A l t h o u g h Ippen [1971] supposed t h a t the c o n s t a n t o f Von Karman i s p r i m a r i l y a
f u n c t i o n o f some c o n c e n t r a t i o n near the bed, an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f E i n s t e i n
Abdel-Aal [1972] showed o n l y a weak c o r r e l a t i o n between the near-bed

and

concen-

t r a t i o n and t h e c o n s t a n t o f Von Karman.


Coleman [1980] questioned the i n f l u e n c e o f the sediment p a r t i c l e s on the cons t a n t o f Von Karman. He re-analyzed the o r i g i n a l d a t a o f E i n s t e i n - C h i e n and
Vanoni-Brooks

and concluded t h a t they used an erroneous method t o d e t e r m i n e

t h e c o n s t a n t o f Von Karman.
I n view o f these c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i t may

be questioned whether the concept o f an

o v e r a l l c o n s t a n t o f Von Karman f o r the e n t i r e v e l o c i t y i s c o r r e c t f o r a heavy


sediment-laden

flow.

The p r e s e n t w r i t e r (Van R i j n , 1984) assumed a concentration-dependent


i})-factor and found by c a l i b r a t i o n u s i n g measured c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s , the
f o l l o w i n g expression ( F i g . 8.3.3A):

= W

[2-J-3 -2[-,'t
O

(8.3.9)

in which:
c

= l o c a l concentration

(volume)

c^ = maximum c o n c e n t r a t i o n

0.65

F i g u r e 8.3.3B shows one o f the c a l i b r a t i o n r e s u l t s (experiment o f E i n s t e i n


Ning-Chien,

1955). As can be observed, the (^-factor a c c o r d i n g t o Eq.

and

(8.3.9)

y i e l d s good agreement i n the near-bed r e g i o n , b u t l e s s good agreement i n t h e


upper l a y e r . A p p l y i n g ij> = 1, y i e l d s computed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s which are an o r d e r
o f magnitude

t o o l a r g e compared w i t h measured values (see F i g . 8 . 3 . 3 B ) .

F i n a l l y , i t i s noted t h a t the <j)-factor i s o n l y i m p o r t a n t f o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s


l a r g e r than about 0.001

( 2.5 kg/m3), (Van R i j n ,

1984).

-8.23-

8.3.4

Concentration

Expressions

profiles

f o r t h e sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s can be o b t a i n e d by

i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e c o n v e c t i o n - d i f f u s i o n equation (Eq. 8 . 3 . 2 ) u s i n g r e l e v a n t
expressions

f o r the mixing c o e f f i c i e n t . As bed-boundary c o n d i t i o n a r e f e r e n c e

c o n c e n t r a t i o n ( c ) a t a s m a l l d i s t a n c e ( a ) above t h e mean bed i s a p p l i e d


3.
(integration constant).
low c o n c e n t r a t i o n s ( c < 0 . 0 0 1 )
Hindered

s e t t l i n g e f f e c t s and t u r b u l e n c e damping e f f e c t s can be n e g l e c t e d .

I n t e g r a t i o n o f Eq, ( 8 . 3 . 2 )

yields:
-a,(Z/h)(z-a)

c o n s t a n t e
I

: = e
c
a

(8,3.10)

linear

: ^ = ()
a

(8.3.11)

parabolic

parabolic-constant

(8.3.12)

--

^ =
a
c

Yi~a}

h ^
(8.3.13)

(a ^Zr^^-4Z(z/h-0.5)
^_^^.^^^-HM./n-u..,

f , , z , 0 . 5

0.
in

which:

= c o n c e n t r a t i o n a t h e i g h t z above the mean bed

c^ = r e f e r e n c e c o n c e n t r a t i o n a t h e i g h t z = a above bed
h

= water

depth

/(BKU^
) = suspension number
s
,c
Wg = f a l l v e l o c i t y i n c l e a r water
Z

= w

F i g u r e 8 . 3 . 3 C shows t h e above-given c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s f o r w /u^

= 0,2,

3 = 1, K = 0,4 giving Z = 0,5.

Equation

( 8 , 3 . 1 2 ) and ( 8 , 3 . 1 3 ) y i e l d t h e best agreement w i t h measured concen-

t r a t i o n s . F i g u r e 8 . 3 . 4 shows Eq, ( 8 , 3 . 1 2 ) f o r d i f f e r e n t values o f Z i n compar i s o n w i t h measured c o n c e n t r a t i o n s (Vanoni,

1 9 4 6 ) . Equation

(8.3.13) yields a

f i n i t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n a t the water s u r f a c e , w h i l e Eq. ( 8 . 3 . 1 2 ) g i v e s a zero


c o n c e n t r a t i o n a t the water s u r f a c e which i s l e s s r e a l i s t i c .

-8.24-

Chien

a p p l i e d Eq.

(1954)

(8.3.12)

t o determine

t h e Z-parameter from measured

c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s . The measured Z-values (Z = w / B K U ^


a g a i n s t computed Z-values (Z = w

/K\X^

),

as shown i n F i g .

) were p l o t t e d
8.3.5A.

The r e s u l t s

show s m a l l e r measured Z-values. This can be i n t e r p r e t e d as a ^ - f a c t o r

larger

than 1 ( 6 > 1 ) .

High c o n c e n t r a t i o n s ( c >

0.001)

I n case o f f l o w i n t h e upper regime t h e sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e

should

be d e s c r i b e d by t a k i n g i n t o account t h e hindered s e t t l i n g e f f e c t and t h e t u r bulence damping e f f e c t ( ( t ) - f a c t o r ) . M o d e l l i n g o f both e f f e c t s r e q u i r e s t h e


application

o f n u m e r i c a l s o l u t i o n methods t o s o l v e Eq. ( 8 . 3 . 2 ) .

The h i n d e r e d

s e t t l i n g e f f e c t s tends t o increase t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n because t h e f a l l

velocity

i s reduced, w h i l e t h e t u r b u l e n c e damping e f f e c t tends t o decrease t h e concent r a t i o n because t h e sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t i s reduced.


According

t o Winterwerp e t a l

(1989),

t u r b u l e n c e damping due t o the presence

o f l a r g e v e r t i c a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n ( d e n s i t y ) g r a d i e n t s occurs f o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s
upto c = 0 . 2 . For i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n s (c > 0 . 2 ) t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o file

tends t o become .uniform due t o dominating h i n d e r e d s e t t l i n g e f f e c t s and

t u r b u l e n c e damping disappears
(Fig,

8.3.5B),

Equation

because t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n g r a d i e n t s
i n combination w i t h

(8.3.12)

hindered s e t t l i n g e f f e c t s shows reasonable


(c^ dl

Eq.(4.2.24)

disappear

representing

agreement w i t h measured

values

0.35).

The p r e s e n t w r i t e r (Van R i j n , 1 9 8 4 ) has presented a s i m p l i f i e d method based on


t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f Eq.

t o d e s c r i b e the c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e i n com-

(8.3.13)

b i n a t i o n w i t h a m o d i f i e d suspension number Z' d e f i n e d a s :


Z'

= Z +

in

which:

.
(8.3.14)

Z = suspension number and


i|j = c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r r e p r e s e n t i n g hindered s e t t l i n g e f f e c t s and t u r b u l e n c e
damping e f f e c t s .

The ip-factor can be determined

as f o l l o w s . F i r s t , t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e i s

computed n u m e r i c a l l y s o l v i n g Eq.
the f a l l v e l o c i t y

and Eqs.

(8.3.2)

(8.3.6),

and a p p l y i n g Eq.

(4.2.24)

(8.3.7),

t o represent the

(8.3.9)

t o represent

sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t . Second, t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e i s computed f r o m


(

-8.25-

Eqs.

( 8 . 3 . 1 3 ) and (8.3.14), a p p l y i n g a i l j - f a c t o r t h a t y i e l d s a c o n c e n t r a t i o n

p r o f i l e s i m i l a r as t h a t obtained i n the f i r s t

( n u m e r i c a l ) method. This p r o c e -

dure has been repeated f o r a range o f c o n d i t i o n s . A n a l y s i s o f a l l r e s u l t s gave


the f o l l o w i n g

^ = 2.5

relationship:

hf-f-^

ih''-'^
O

*,C

f o r 0.01 <y-<
* ,c

(8.3.15)

i n which:
c^ = maximum volume c o n c e n t r a t i o n = 0.65

F i g u r e 8.3.3B shows computed (based on Eq. ( 8 . 3 . 1 3 ) and ( 8 . 3 . 1 4 ) ) and measured


c o n c e n t r a t i o n s f o r t h e h i g h - c o n c e n t r a t i o n experiment o f Ning Chien. Good
agreement can be observed.

8.3.5

Velocity profile

I n case o f low sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s (c < 0.001) and h y d r a u l i c rough c o n d i t i o n s , t h e l o g a r i t h m i c v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e can be a p p l i e d , as f o l l o w s :

(8.3.16)

u = ^ l n ( 2 - )

i n which:
Ujj

= c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed-shear v e l o c i t y

z^

= 0.033 kg = z e r o - v e l o c i t y l e v e l

= Constant o f Von Karman (K = 0 . 4 ) .

V e l o c i t y p r o f i l e s i n h i g h (hyper) c o n c e n t r a t i o n f l o w have been s t u d i e d by many


researchers

( E i n s t e i n - N i n g Chien (1955), Coleman (1980) and Winterwerp e t a l

(1989).

Einstein-Wing

Chien found reduced v e l o c i t i e s i n the near-bed r e g i o n , which

was

r e p r e s e n t e d as a reduced K - v a l u e .
Coleman a l s o observed reduced v e l o c i t i e s near t h e bed. He i n t r o d u c e d an a d d i t i o n a l t u r b u l e n c e - r e l a t e d parameter t o r e p r e s e n t the e f f e c t o f t h e sediment
c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h e v e l o c i t i e s , the K-parameter was kept

constant.

Winterwerp e t a l d i d experiments w i t h depth-averaged volume c o n c e n t r a t i o n s


r a n g i n g from c = 0 t o c = ' 0 . 4 .

They found a r e d u c t i o n o f t h e K-parameter f r o m

-8.26-

K = 0.4

to K

0.25

f o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n c r e a s i n g from c = 0 t o c = 0.1,

n e a r l y c o n s t a n t K-value o f about 0.25

f o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n the range o f

c = 0 . 1 t o c = = 0 . 2 and an increase o f the K value t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y


concentrations increasing to c 0.4.

for

0.4

(see F i g . 8.3.50). According

to

Winterwerp e t a l , t u r b u l e n c e damping due t o the presence o f l a r g e v e r t i c a l


c o n c e n t r a t i o n g r a d i e n t s occurs f o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s upto c = 0.2.
c o n c e n t r a t i o n s ( c > 0.2)

For i n c r e a s i n g

the c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e tends t o become u n i f o r m

to d o m i n a t i n g hindered s e t t l i n g e f f e c t s and

t u r b u l e n c e damping

because the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s g r a d i e n t s disappear

due

disappears

( K approaches t o 0 . 4 ,

Fig.

8.3.5B,C).

8.3.6

Reference c o n c e n t r a t i o n and r e f e r e n c e l e v e l

Reference l e v e l i n case o f a f l a t

bed

The most l o g i c assumption f o r the l o c a t i o n o f the boundary ( o r r e f e r e n c e


l e v e l ) f o r sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i s the upper edge o f the bed-load l a y e r .
For a p e r f e c t l y f l a t bed a good e s t i m a t e o f the t h i c k n e s s o f the bed-load
l a y e r can be o b t a i n e d by t a k i n g the maximum s a l t a t i o n h e i g h t o f t h e bed-load
p a r t i c l e s (Van R i j n , 1984). This leads t o a value o f the o r d e r o f lOd^g ^or
f l a t bed f l o w i n the upper regime. The

concentrations t h a t close t o the

w i l l be r a t h e r l a r g e and hence the h i n d e r e d s e t t l i n g e f f e c t and

bed

the turbulence

damping e f f e c t must be taken i n t o account. However, a t p r e s e n t stage


r e s e a r c h t h e knowledge o f these processes i s r a t h e r l i m i t e d which may

of
easily

r e s u l t i n l a r g e e r r o r s o f the p r e d i c t e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n s as w i l l be shown by a
computation

example f o r a f l a t mobile bed

( F i g . 8.3.6A). The

p r o f i l e has been computed n u m e r i c a l l y by a p p l y i n g Eqs.


combination

concentration

( 8 . 3 . 2 ) and

w i t h a p a r a b o l i c - c o n s t a n t m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t . The

(4.2.24) i n

suspension

number Z = w / ( 6 K u^ ) i s taken 0.625. Because o f e r r o r s i n w , g, K and


s
,c
s
u^

) t h e inaccuracy o f the suspension number w i l l be r a t h e r l a r g e ( s a y , a t

l e a s t 2555). F i g u r e 8.3.6A shows c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s f o r Z = 0.625

0.175

( 2555). As can be observed, an e r r o r o f about 2555 i n the Z-parameter l e a d s t o


a c o n c e n t r a t i o n e r r o r o f a f a c t o r 3 a t a l e v e l o f z = 0.5

h (mid d e p t h ) and

an

e r r o r o f a f a c t o r 2 a t a l e v e l o f z = 0.1 h.
Based on these r e s u l t s , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a r e f e r e n c e
at

level

t h e upper edge o f the bed-load l a y e r i s n o t very a t t r a c t i v e f o r reasons o f

accuracy.

-8.27-

Reference l e v e l i n case o f bed

forms

B a s i c a l l y , the f l o w over a boundary covered w i t h bed


u n i f o r m showing a c c e l e r a t i o n e f f e c t s a t the u p s l o p i n g
t i o n e f f e c t s a t the downsloping s e c t i o n s (see Figure

forms (dunes) i s nons e c t i o n s and

decelera-

8.3.6B).

The

bed-load p a r t i c l e s are t r a n s p o r t e d c l o s e t o the bed

and

s a l t a t i n g a t the u p s l o p i n g

by r o l l i n g ,

sliding

s e c t i o n s o f the dunes. A r r i v i n g a t the t o p o f

the dune, the m a j o r i t y o f the bed-load p a r t i c l e s Jumps over the edge and r o l l s
down the l e e s i d e slope o f the dune towards the dune t r o u g h where they
b u r i e d w a i t i n g f o r a new
The

(transport) cycle.

suspended load p a r t i c l e s are e n t r a i n e d from the bed-load l a y e r

a t the u p s l o p i n g

are

s e c t i o n . The

entrainment

developing

r a t e i s maximum a t the dune t o p

( l a r g e v e l o c i t i e s ) . Above the dune t r o u g h the suspended p a r t i c l e s are t r a n s p o r t e d f u r t h e r upwards by t u r b u l e n c e m i x i n g produced i n the shear l a y e r s o f
the v o r t e x generated i n the dune t r o u g h .
A d e t a i l e d mathematical r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the afore-mentioned processes r e q u i r e s the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a s o p h i s t i c a t e d model such as the K-E

model

(Rodi,

1980) i n combination w i t h a c o n v e c t i o n - d i f f u s i o n model f o r the suspended


sediment p a r t i c l e s . The

h o r i z o n t a l g r i d s i z e should be much s m a l l e r than

dune l e n g t h (Ax<<x), w h i l e the r e f e r e n c e

l e v e l should

the

be a p p l i e d a t t h e upper

edge o f the bed-load l a y e r (a<<A). To get a f i r s t u n d e r s t a n d i n g

o f t h e pheno-

mena i n v o l v e d , a r e l a t i v e l y simple two-dimensional v e r t i c a l model o f t h e D e l f t


H y d r a u l i c s Laboratory

(Van

R i j n , 1985)

was

used t o compute the

p r o f i l e s f o r the f l o w over dunes (see Figure

The

h o r i z o n t a l g r i d s i z e was

Ax = 0 . 2

m; The

concentration

8.3.6B).

r e f e r e n c e l e v e l was

= 0 . 0 0 2 m (== lOd^g) s p e c i f y i n g an upward sediment f l u x (Van

applied at a
1985).

Rijn,

F i g u r e 8 . 3 . 6 B shows computed c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s a t the dune t o p and

a t the

dune t r o u g h r e p r e s e n t i n g two extreme p r o f i l e s ; a l l o t h e r p r o f i l e s are w i t h i n


the i n d i c a t e d v a r i a t i o n range. As can be observed, the near-bed
can

vary over a range o f n e a r l y a f a c t o r 10.

t r a t i o n v a r i a t i o n i s confined

concentrations

I n v e r t i c a l d i r e c t i o n t h e concen-

t o a near-bed r e g i o n o f about 0 . 3 h .

The

concen-

t r a t i o n s i n the upper l a y e r s are n o t n o t i c e a b l y a f f e c t e d .


Generally,

the a p p l i c a t i o n o f mathematical models f o r e s t u a r i n e and

problems r e q u i r e s a s c h e m a t i z a t i o n

coastal

on a macro-scale ( l i m i t e d computer

facili-

t i e s ) a p p l y i n g a h o r i z o n t a l g r i d s i z e much l a r g e r than the bed-form l e n g t h .


Consequently, a d e t a i l e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s and
t h e v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e s i s n o t f e a s i b l e . The

e f f e c t o f the dunes on the f l o w

also

-8.28(
f i e l d , u s u a l l y , i s represented by i n t r o d u c i n g an e f f e c t i v e roughness parameters
(k ) as shown i n F i g . 8.3.6B.
s
,
To r e p r e s e n t the e f f e c t o f the dunes on the c o n c e n t r a t i o n f i e l d , i t i s proposed:
. t o r e p r e s e n t the c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s by a schematized c o n c e n t r a t i o n
p r o f i l e being an e s t i m a t e o f the s p a t i a l l y - a v e r a g e d (over the dune l e n g t h )
concentration p r o f i l e s ,

t o s p e c i f y an e f f e c t i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n ( c ) a t a l e v e l through the t o p o f t h e
Si
dunes (a = |A o r a = k^ when the dune dimensions are unknown, a^inimum "
0.01

h f o r reasons o f a c c u r a c y ) .

t o r e p r e s e n t the t r a n s p o r t o f p a r t i c l e s below the r e f e r e n c e l e v e l as bed-load

t r a n s p o r t u s i n g a simple
Reference c o n c e n t r a t i o n

formula.

Based on the bed-load t r a n s p o r t g i v e n i n Section 8 . 2 . 5 ,

the present

writer

(Van R i j n , 1984) has proposed a f u n c t i o n f o r the r e f e r e n c e c o n c e n t r a t i o n (see


F i g . 8 . 3 . 1 ) which reads as:
1.5

d
\

(8.3.17)

V s

i n which:
c = r e f e r e n c e c o n c e n t r a t i o n (volume)
d
a

= r e f e r e n c e l e v e l above the mean bed

Djf = dimensionless

p a r t i c l e parameter (Eq.

bed-shear s t r e s s parameter (Eq.

The

= dimensionless
c o n s t a n t i n Eq.

3.3)

( 8 . 3 . 1 7 ) i s based on c a l i b r a t i o n u s i n g flume and

data w i t h v e l o c i t i e s i n the range o f 0.4


0.1

3.1)

t o 1.6 m/s,

depths i n the range o f

t o 25 m and mean p a r t i c l e s i z e i n the range o f 180 t o 700 ym (Van

1 9 8 4 ) . Voogt e t a l ( 1 9 8 9 ) showed t h a t Eq.


upto 3 m/s.

The

field

Rijn,

(8.3.17) is valid for velocities

r e f e r e n c e l e v e l i s assumed t o be equal t o h a l f the bed

form

h e i g h t ( a = J A) o r equal t o the e f f e c t i v e bed roughness (a = kg) when t h e


form h e i g h t i s unknown. The
a = 0.01

h f o r reasons o f

r e f e r e n c e l e v e l should n o t be chosen s m a l l e r

bed

than

accuracy.

-8.29-

8.3.7

I n f l u e n c e o f non-uniform bed m a t e r i a l

I n n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s t h e bed m a t e r i a l i s non-uniform. Observations i n flume


and

f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s have shown t h a t t h e bed m a t e r i a l and t h e suspended

sediment m a t e r i a l have d i f f e r e n t p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s . U s u a l l y , t h e
suspended sediment p a r t i c l e s a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y
p a r t i c l e s . B a s i c a l l y , i t i s possible

smaller

than t h e bed m a t e r i a l

t o compute t h e suspended l o a d f o r any

known type o f bed m a t e r i a l and f l o w c o n d i t i o n by d i v i d i n g t h e bed m a t e r i a l


i n t o a number o f s i z e f r a c t i o n s and assuming t h a t t h e s i z e f r a c t i o n s do n o t
i n f l u e n c e each o t h e r
The

(see s e c t i o n 8 . 2 . 6 ) .

p r e s e n t w r i t e r (Van R i j n , 1984) has a p p l i e d t h e s i z e f r a c t i o n method t o

determine a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e suspended sediment diameter (d) which accounts f o r


the n o n - u n i f o r m i t y

e f f e c t s . Using t h e s i z e f r a c t i o n method (as proposed by

E i n s t e i n ) , t h e t o t a l suspended l o a d has been computed f o r v a r i o u s


a f t e r which by t r i a l and e r r o r t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e

conditions,

(suspended) p a r t i c l e d i a m e t e r

(dg) was determined t h a t gave t h e same value f o r t h e suspended l o a d as a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s i z e - f r a c t i o n mehtod.


I n a l l , s i x computations have been done using two types o f bed m a t e r i a l w i t h a
geometric standard d e v i a t i o n :
The

= (dg^j/d^^ + d^jg/d^^) = 1.5 and 2.5.

d^O f the bed m a t e r i a l was equal t o 250 ym. The mean f l o w v e l o c i t i e s were

0.5 and 1.5 m/s. The f l o w depth was assumed t o be 10 m. The


p r o f i l e was computed by a p p l y i n g Eq. (8.3.13) w i t h 6=1,
reference

concentration

concentration

41=1 and K = 0 . 4 . The

a c c o r d i n g Eq. (8.3.17) was a p p l i e d a t a l e v e l o f z =

0.05 h. The f l o w v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e was assumed t o be l o g a r i t h m i c , Eq. ( 8 . 3 . 1 6 ) .


The

computed d^-values-have been r e l a t e d t o o^-parameter and t o t h e dimension-

less shear-stress

parameter T (Eq. 3 . 3 ) , as f o l l o w s :

d
So

= 1 + 0.011 (o - 1) (T - 25)
^

(8.3.18)

Equation (8.3.18) and experimental d a t a o f Guy e t a l (1966) a r e shown i n F i g .


8.3.7A. The s c a t t e r o f t h e data i s t o o l a r g e t o d e t e c t a c l e a r i n f u e n c e o f t h e
a -parameter. I n an average sense t h e agreement between measured and computed
s
values ( a = 2.5) i s q u i t e good.

-8.30-

8.3.8

The

P r e d i c t i o n method o f E i n s t e i n

(1950)

method o f E i n s t e i n i s based on a p a r a b o l i c

d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the f l u i d

mixing

c o e f f i c i e n t and a l o g a r i t h m i c d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r t h e v e l o c i t y .
The

suspended sediment t r a n s p o r t r a t e can be expresed as:

11.6

a [ I ^ + I,ln(30.2 e h/d^^)]

U'

*s,c
,Z-1
0.216

1
J

(8.3.19)

( ; )

dz'

(8.3.20)

(^ ) ^

I n ( z ' ) dz'

(8.3.21)

(1-A)^
1
J
A

I2 = 0.216
(1-A)^
in which:
%,0

c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d suspended load

transport

(m2/s)

= c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed-shear v e l o c i t y due t o the g r a i n s


reference concentration

(volume) = qjj/(11.6 u^

a)

(m/s)
(-)

a
a

= r e f e r e n c e l e v e l (= 2 d)

(m)

= water depth

(m)

= p a r t i c l e diameter

(m)

= a/h

= dimensionless r e f e r e n c e l e v e l

(-)

z'

= z/h

= dimensionless v e r t i c a l c o o r d i n a t e

(-)

= Wg/(K:

= correction factor

) = suspension number

(-)
(-)

According t o E i n s t e i n , t h e suspended load t r a n s p o r t i s r e l a t e d t o t h e g r a i n shear v e l o c i t y ( u ^ ) and n o t t o t h e o v e r a l l shear v e l o c i t y ( u * ) .

The

reference concentration

i s determined from t h e bed l o a d t r a n s p o r t , assuming

a bed load l a y e r t h i c k n e s s equal t o 2 p a r t i c l e d i a m e t e r s .


The

and l 2 - i n t e g r a l s can be determined g r a p h i c a l l y (see E i n s t e i n , 1950) o r

numerically.

The

method o f E i n s t e i n i s n o t g i v e n i n f u l l d e t a i l here, because o f i t s com-

p l e x i t y . Furthermore, an e x t e n s i v e v e r i f i c a t i o n study o f White e t a l (1973)


has

shown t h a t t h e p r e d i c t i n g a b i l i t y o f the E i n s t e i n method i s much l e s s

o t h e r (more s i m p l e ) methods.

than

-8.31-

8.3-9

P r e d i c t i o n method o f Bagnold

(1966)

Bagnold (1966)

i n t r o d u c e d an e n e r g y b a l a n c e c o n c e p t and r e l a t e d t h e

load transport

t o t h e w o r k done by t h e

The s u s p e n d e d l o a d t r a n s p o r t

e
q

fluid.

i s expressed a s :

(1-e.)
2

(P - P) g ( w v a - t a n g )

suspended

(8.3.22)

i n which:
= c u r r e n t r e l a t e d suspended

= e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r ( 0.02)

(-)

= e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r (= 0.1)

(-)

= bed-shear

load

transport

(m2/s)

^s

(N/m2)

stress

= depth averaged v e l o c i t y

(ra/s)

"s
e

= particle f a i l velocity

(m/s)

= angle o f l o c a l bottom slope

(-)

Kachel and S t e r n b e r g (1971) have shown t h a t t h e e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r s ( C g and e^^)


are n o t c o n s t a n t , b u t a r e s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o t h e bed-shear

s t r e s s and t h e

p a r t i c l e d i a m e t e r . B a s i c a l l y , these r e s u l t s show t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e
Bagnold concept i s q u e s t i o n a b l e .

8.3.10

P r e d i c t i o n method o f B i j k e r (1971)

Based on t h e concept o f E i n s t e i n (1950), B i j k e r (1971) proposed:

%,c-

^83qb,c ^ ^ 2 - ^ 1

(8.3.23)

l"(33h/kg)]

i n which:
qg g = suspended
q|2 g = bed l o a d

sediment t r a n s p o r t r a t e
transport rate

(m2/s)
(m2/s)

= i n t e g r a l a c c o r d i n g t o Eq. ( 8 . 3 . 2 0 )

(-)

- i n t e g r a l a c c o r d i n g t o Eq. ( 8 , 3 . 2 1 )

(-)

(m)

" i^sference l e v e l

The bed load t r a n s p o r t r a t e (m2/s) i s expressed as:

(8,3.24)

-8.32-

in which:
Ujf^Q

= o v e r a l l bed shear v e l o c i t y

= mobility

parameter

v = ( C / C ) ^ ' ^ = bed form f a c t o r (see Eq.


C

= o v e r a l l Chzy c o e f f c i e n t

C'

= grain-related

= coefficient

(8.2,1))

Chzy c o e f f i c i e n t (see Eq.

(8,2,1))

5)

Because the r e f e r e n c e l e v e l i s assumed t o be equal t o the bed roughness


the r a t i o Qg^c/qb^c

(a=kg),

expressed as a f u n c t i o n o f the parameter Z and k^/h,

as shown i n F i g , 8 , 3 . 8 B .

8.3.11

P r e d i c t i o n method o f Van R i j n

A p p l y i n g Eq. ( 8 . 3 . 1 3 ) ,
sediment t r a n s p o r t

Z' 0.5h

fc^

and ( 8 . 3 . 1 6 ) ,

the depth-integrated

suspended

r a t e can be computed from Eq. ( 8 . 3 . 2 ) , y i e l d i n g :

u ^ c^
^S,C

(8.3.14)

(1984)

t ^
a

Z'

^
0
(8.3.25)

j'e-^^'(^/^-<^-5)in(Hdz]
0,5h
^0

Equation ( 8 . 3 . 2 5 ) cannot be solved a n a l y t i c a l l y . An approximate s o l u t i o n


a c c u r a t e t o about 25% f o r 0 . 3 < Z' < 3 and 0 . 0 1

%,o

< a/h < 0 . 1 i s g i v e n by:

(8.3.26)

= F h c^

F = (a/h)^'-

(a/h)^-^

(8.3.27)

(l-(a/h))^'(1.2-Z')
i n which:
= current-related

suspended

sediment

velocity

transport

(mVs)

= depth-averaged f l o w

= water depth

(m)

= d i m e n s i o n l e s s shape f a c t o r

(-)

c^

= reference concentration

(m/s)

(volume)

The F - f a c t o r f o r a/h = 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 i s shown i n F i g u r e 8.3.7.


(

-8.33-

Sununarizing, the complete method t o compute the suspended load t r a n s p o r t per


u n i t w i d t h , i s as f o l l o w s :

%,c

= F " h c^

(8.3.28)

i n which:
1/3
Djj = d^Q [^^~2^ ^]

= p a r t i c l e parameter

(-)

= bed-shear s t r e s s parameter

(-)

= reference

(-)

DC
= '

D cr*
'
^b,cr

= 0.015

d o ^1.5
pjj
a j.u.:5

concentration

shape f a c t o r

(-)

(1 - a j Z ' (,.2 . Z')


Z' = Z + Y

= suspension number

(-)

suspension number

(-)

w
B

su^
W

= 2.5

(j-)
*,c

lOv
[fl
w^ - ,
s o
S

'

( O g - I ) (T-25)]dcQ

w
p
(]
"*,c

don

T,

(-)

(m/s)

6 = 1+2

= i

= correction factor related


t o t u r b u l e n c e damping and
hindered s e t t i n g

0.01(s-1)gd^ 0.5
^5
-]
- l] = particle f a l l velocity

dg = [ l + 0.011

[-^f
o

= representative p a r t i c l e
s i z e o f suspended sediment,
dg = dgo f o r T > 25

(m)

= r a t i o o f sediment and f l u i d
m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t (6
=2)

(-)

= gradation c o e f f c i e n t o f
bed m a t e r i a l

(-)

den

{-^ + -f^]
50
^16

= (p - p)g dj-^ 0
^

= c r i t i c a l bed-shear s t r e s s
according to Shields

(N/m2)

-8.34-

e^^ = 0.24
cr

D;

*
-0.64

er = 0-1^

if

1 < D,j < 4

if

4 < D,f < 10

0.04 D~^''^

i f 10 < D < 20

0.013 D 2 ' ^ ^

i f 20 <

0.055

if

S h i e l d s curve

(-)

cr

cr

cr

b,c

pg

IctJ

< 150

D^, > 150

= c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d e f f e c t i v e bed-shear s t r e s s

(M/m^)

c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d o v e r a l l bed-shear v e l o c i t y

(m/s)

-0.5

0. 5

18 l o g ( f ^ )

18

g r a i n - r e l a t e d Chzy c o e f f i c i e n t

l o g [ ^ ) = o v e r a l l Chzy c o e f f i c i e n t

current-related

suspended l o a d t r a n s p o r t
velocity

(m

/s)

(m'Vs)

(m2/s)

depth-averaged

^50

median p a r t i c l e diameter o f bed m a t e r i a l

(m)

diameters o f bed m a t e r i a l

(m)

^^50' ^84' S o
h

water depth

^s

o v e r a l l bed roughness h e i g h t

acceleration

reference l e v e l

(m)

(m)

of gravity

(m)
(m/s2)

(m)

(a=iA, or a=k , a . .
=0.01h)
'
s' minimum
A

bed form h e i g h t

(m)

maximum c o n c e n t r a t i o n

= 0.65

s p e c i f i c density

kinematic v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t

<

c o n s t a n t o f Von Karman = 0 . 4

= 2.65

(-)
(-)
(m2/s)
(-)

When t h e bed l o a d t r a n s p o r t and t h e suspended load t r a n s o r t a r e known, t h e


t o t a l load t r a n s p o r t o f bed m a t e r i a l can be determined by a d d i t i o n ( q ^ =

-8.35-

The

r a t i o o f the suspended and

t o t a l l o a d t r a n s p o r t can be expressed

For reasons o f s i m p l i c i t y the bed load t r a n s p o r t i s here d e f i n e d

%--

^^a

as:

as:

(8.3.30)

"a

i n which:
Cg = r e f e r e n c e

concentration

= e f f e c t i v e t r a n s p o r t v e l o c i t y o f bed-load p a r t i c l e s

= reference

Substitution

l e v e l (= bed-load l a y e r

( 8 . 3 . 2 8 ) and

o f Eq.

thickness)

(8.3.30)

i n Eq.

(8.3.29)

yields:

(8.3.31)

[(F''')(0 / a ) ( a / h ) ] + 1

3.
The

r a t i o / may

c i t y o f the bed

be i d e n t i f i e d as the r a t i o o f the average t r a n s p o r t v e l o

l o a d and

f o r l a r g e , steep bed

suspended l o a d p a r t i c l e s , which v a r i e s from about

forms i n the lower f l o w regime t o about 0 . 8

for f l a t

c o n d i t i o n s i n the upper f l o w regime. F i g u r e 8.3.8A shows the r a t i o o f


suspended load and
v e l o c i t y and

0.4
bed

the

the t o t a l l o a d as a f u n c t i o n o f the r a t i o o f the bed-shear

p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y f o r d i f f e r e n t values o f / w i t h K =
3

6 = 1 and a / h = 0 . 0 5 . Also an e m p i r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p g i v e n by Laursen ( 1 9 5 8 )

0.4,
and

some d a t a o f Guy e t a l ( 1 9 6 6 ) are shown.


8.4
T o t a l load transport

8.4.1

The

P r e d i c t i o n methods o f E i n s t e i n , Bagnold, B i j k e r and Van

t o t a l t r a n s p o r t o f bed m a t e r i a l p a r t i c l e s a c c o r d i n g

E i n s t e i n ( 1 9 5 0 ) , Bagnold ( 1 9 6 6 ) , B i j k e r ( 1 9 7 1 ) and
obtained

^t

= '^b +

by a d d i t i o n o f the bed

load and

Van

Rijn

t o the methods o f
R i j n ( 1 9 8 4 ) can

be

suspended l o a d t r a n s p o r t , as f o l l o w s :

(8.4.1)

-8.36-

Two t y p i c a l t o t a l load formulae a r e those o f Engelund-Hansen (196?) and AckersWhite (1973). Both methods have a good p r e d i c t i n g a b i l i t y compared w i t h measured
d a t a , as shown by a v e r i f i c a t i o n study o f White e t a l (1973).

8.4.2

Prediction

method o f Engelund-Hansen (1967)

Based on energy c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and c a l i b r a t i o n u s i n g about 100 flume d a t a , t h e


f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a was proposed:
0.05 ()^
TTTc

- =

.
(.4.2)

in which:
%

= t o t a l bed m a t e r i a l

(m2/s)

transport

= depth-averaged v e l o c i t y

(m/s)
0 .5

= o v e r a l l Chzy-coefficient

dgO

= median p a r t i c l e d i a m e t e r o f bed m a t e r i a l

s = Pg/^^= s p e c i f i c d e n s i t y (=2.65)
g

Prediction

/s)
(m)
(-)
(m/s2)

= acceleration of gravity

8.4.3

(m

method o f Ackers-White (1973)

Based on a n a l y s i s o f 925 s e t s o f flume and f i e l d d a t a , t h e f o l l o w i n g


f o r m u l a was proposed:

in which:
'^t,c
0

transport
= t o t a l bed m a t e r i a l
= depth-averaged v e l o c i t y

",c
Y

= current-related

bed-shear

particle mobility

parameter

^cr
= c r i t i c a l particle mobility
n,m,K = c o e f f i c i e n t s
kinematic v i s c o s i t y

= specific density

velocity

(m/s)
(m/s)
(-)

parameter

coefficient

(=2.65)

(m2/s)

(-)
(-)
(m2/s)

(-)

empirical

-8.37-

= exp[2.86 I n ( D ^ ) - 0.434 ( l n D,j)^ - 8.13]

for

< 60

= 1 - 0.56 l o g ( D j j )

for

< 60

ra

for

= % 3 ^ 0 - 1 ^

+1.34

D < 60

K = 0.025, n = O, m = 1.5, Y^^= 0.17

^ =

05)
( ( s - 1 ) g d^g)

- ^35 l
8.4.4

^2

D,. < 60 '

for

i
5.66

D^^ > 60

)^-"
logdOh/d^^)

Comparison o f p r e d i c t i o n methods

Van R i j n (1984) used 486 s e t s o f r i v e r data t o v e r i f y t h e methods o f EngelundHansen ( I 9 6 7 ) , Ackers-White (1973) and Van r i j n (1984).

Bed m a t e r i a l

sizes

were i n t h e range o f 100 t o 400 ym. Flow v e l o c i t i e s were i n the range o f 0.4
t o 2.4 m/s. The r e s u l t s have been expressed i n terms o f a discrepancy r a t i o
( r ) d e f i n e d as t h e r a t i o o f p r e d i c t e d and measured t r a n s p o r t r a t e . The t a b l e
below shows the percentage o f r-values o f a l l data f a l l i n g i n t h e range o f
0.5 < r < 2. The method o f Van R i j n y i e l d s the best r e s u l t s w i t h 76% o f t h e
p r e d i c t e d t r a n s p o r t r a t e s w i t h i n a f a c t o r 2 o f the measured

values.

Voogt e t a l (1989) c a r r i e d o u t l a r g e - s c a l e flume experiments w i t h bed m a t e r i a l


o f 200 ym and v e l o c i t i e s i n t h e range o f 1 t o 3m/s. Comparison o f p r e d i c t e d
and measured t r a n s p o r t r a t e s showed good r e s u l t s f o r a l l t h r e e methods. Voogt
e t a l a l s o compared p r e d i c t e d r a t e s w i t h 120 s e t s o f e s t u a r y

data. Bed m a t e r i a l

s i z e s were i n the range o f 200 t o 300 ym. Flow v e l o c i t i e s were i n t h e range o f


1 t o 2 m/s. The r e s u l t s a r e given i n the t a b l e below. The method o f Van R i j n
y i e l d s t h e best r e s u l t s w i t h about 90% o f the p r e d i c t e d t r a n s p o r t r a t e s w i t h i n
a f a c t o r 2 o f measured values. The r e s u l t s o f the o t h e r two methods a r e l e s s
good. Both methods gave a considerable
o f Ackers-White.

o v e r p r e d i c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e method

-8.38-

River data ( 4 8 6 )

Method

Estuary data ( 1 2 0 )

Engelund-Hansen

(1967)

64^

33%

Ackers-White

(1973)

63^

26%

Van R i j n

(1984)

76%

89%

White e t a l ( 1 9 7 3 ) examined v a r i o u s t r a n s p o r t formulae u s i n g about 1000 flume


data and 260 f i e l d

data.

Froude numbers g r e a t e r than 0 . 8 were excluded. The r e s u l t s o f t h e formulae o f


Ackers-White ( 1 9 7 3 ) , Engelund-Hansen

(1967), Einstein

( 1 9 5 0 ) and Bagnold

(1966) are given i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e .

Flume and f i e l d data ( 1 2 6 0 )

Formula
Ackers-White

(.1973)

6855

Engelund-Hansen

(1967)

6355

Einstein

(1950)

46^

Bagnold

(1966)

2255

The method o f Ackers-White y i e l d s t h e best r e s u l t s w i t h 6855 o f t h e p r e d i c t e d


t r a n s p o r t rages w i t h i n a f a c t o r 2 o f measured values. The method o f Bagnold
y i e l d s poor r e s u l t s w i t h a score o f 2255.

-8.39-

8.5

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Sediment T r a n s p o r t : New Approach on A n a l y s i s
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-8.40-

(
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1971

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-8.41-

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1947

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-8.i}2-

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J o u r n a l o f F l u i d Mechanics, V o l . 81

WHITE, W.R., M I L L I , H. and CRABBE, A.D., 1973


Sediment T r a n s p o r t , An A p p r a i s a l o f A v a i l a b l e Methods
I n t . Report 119, W a l l i n g f o r d , England

-8.43-

WILLIAMS, P.G., 1970


Flume Width and Water Depth E f f e c t s i n Sediment T r a n s p o r t Experiments
Geol. Survey P r o f . Paper 562-H, Washington, D.C.

WINTERWERP, H., DE GROOT, M.B., MASTBERGEN, D. and VERWOERT, H., 1989


Hyperconcentrated
Submitted

Sand-Water M i x t u r e Flows, Part I : Flow over a F l a t Bed

t o Journal o f Hydraulic

Engineering

FORMULAE O F M E Y E R - P E T E R
EINSTEIN

AND
DELFT

MULLER.

FRIJLINK
HYDRAULICS

461

FIG.

8.2.1

F|_= l i f t f o r c e
Vr
relative velocity

Fp,= d r a g f o r c e
^o

initial
velocities

A.

B.

Fq= w e i g h t

I ^/

DEFINITION

INITIAL

6b

SKETCH

POSITION

O F

O F

PARTICLE

SALTATION

PARTICLE

4
e-'

0" -

/
J
^.^^

15

10
10

20

30

>

C.

M E A S U R E D
FOR

A N D

E X P E R I M E N T

CHARACTERISTICS

DELFT

d i s t a n c e , x K 10

C O M P U T E D
O F

20
1

HYDRAULICS

30

50

(m)

PARTICLE

F E R N A N D E Z

O F PARTICLE

V_25
40

TRAJECTORIES

L U Q U E

SALTATION

461

FIG. 8.2.2

> transport stage pananneter.T


B.

SALTATION

COMPUTED
FOR

LENGTH

SALTATION

VARIOUS

HEIGHT

AND

LENGTH

CONDITIONS

DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG.

8.2.3

m e a s u r e d (sand)
a Fernandez Luque 0^= 19,5
e Fernandez Luque Dk=39
a Francis
D=49

computed

\,nn Rijn
EngelundFreds0e

Dx =

5C
37 .6
-25 3
2.6.
2.5

S
q u a t on

(15))><
s

\ \\l

^ \\\
\ \\i

Ql

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
*

A.

B.

PARTICLE

B E D

PARTICLE

L O A D

mobility

parameter,

VELOCITY

C O N C E N T R A T I O N

V E L O C I T Y AND B E D L O A D

CONCENTRATION
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 8.2.4

reference
concentration

SCHEMATIZATION

VELOCITY

CONCENTRATION

PROFILE

DELFT

HYDRAULICS

AND

H 461

1
1

FIG. 8.3.1

1.0

1
1
D

0.8

K=0.4

w
1

0.6

A
0.4

1
O

J
yy

02
1

1
O

A.

0.02

0.04

constant

linear

FLUID

MIXING

0.06

0.08

0.12

0.14

e, (a^r)

0.16

parabolic

(2=3)

0.18

020

Ef

parabolic-constant e

COEFFICIENTS

>
B.

0.10

SEDIMENT

MIXING

C O L E M A N

(1970)

FLUID AND SEDIMENT

DELFT

height,

COEFFICIENT

DISTRIBUTION

ACCORDING

TO

MIXING C O E F F I C I E N T S

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 8.3.2

1.0
Co=

0.8

0.65

O Yalin - F i n l o y s o n
O
n

C0

0.6

r 0

S
>

0.4

0.2

|)-fac tor

k
1

\
>

10^

10--

10-

10-'
dimensionless

10

concentration,
Co

A.

0 -

FACTOR

6.10'^

nneasurcd
computed

\
@

N\JZ

>

nunnerically

c o m p u t e d using Eq.
(8.3.13) a n d ( 8 . 3 . 1 4 )
c o m p u t e d using Eq.
( 8 3 . 1 3 ) w i t h 4) =1

\
\

-V

I io^
x:

Ca= 6 2 5 0 0 0 p p m

id^i
104

io5
>

B.

io6

c o n c e n t r a t i o n , c (ppm)

C O N C E N T R A T I O N
E I N S T E I N - N I N G

C.

PROFILE
CHIEN,

RUN

FOR

EXPERIMENT

S-15,

O F

1955

using

constante,

(a, = 6)

using

parabolic

using

linear

(0.2 - 3 )

using

parabolic - c o n s t a n t

CONCENTRATION

PROFILES

FOR

UNIFORM

0 - F A C T O R AND CONCENTRATION

DELFT

HYDRAULICS

Ef

F L O W

PROFILES

461

FIG.

8.3.3

CONCENTRATION

PROFILES

(VANONI, 1 9 4 6 )

D E L F T HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 8.3.4

A. MEASURED

AND COMPUTED Z - V A L U E S

1,0-, d5o=120 |lm, q=0.l m^/s

1 k/ko

ACCORDING TO CHIEN

0 (MU)
120

0,3-^
22S

(1954)

(ra2/s)
0,05
0,10
0,15
0,05
0,10
0,15

A
G

Q
tp

<?

5
5B

10

20

40

30

CONCENTRATION

so

()

experiments
computed, including hindered setting

B. MEASURED
PROFILES,

CONCENTRATION

C. VON KARMAN COEFFICIENT AS A FUNCTION OF


CONCENTRATION, WINTERWERP ET AL, 1 9 8 9

WINTERWERP

ET A L , 1 9 8 9

INFLUENCE

OF SEDIMENT

DELFT

ON

CONCENTRATION

HYDRAULICS

PROFILE

461

FIG.

8.3.5

10^

5 6 76910^

5 5 7 8910"'

5 6

78910^

> conc(2ntration ( m g / 1 )

B.

CONCENTRATION

SCHEMATIZATION

DELFT

PROFILES

FOR

OF REFERENCE

HYDRAULICS

THE

F L O W

OVER

DUNES

LEVEL

461

FIG. 8.3.6

1.0,

0.8

-zr

0.6k

0.2

*n

(3 3
O

10
transport

12
14
parameter, T

computed

16

18

20

22

24

26

data
,= 1 9 0 ^ r

1.4

od5o = 2 7 0 | j m

o's= 1.8

Ad5o:2BOJm

i = 2 . 0

a dso^ 3 2 0 ^ m

cTs = 1-8

:2.5

A.

REPRESENTATIVE

D I A M E T E R

SUSPENDED SEDIMENT

DELFT

O F

SUSPENDED

SEDIMENT

TRANSPORT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 8.3.7

A.

RATIO

O F SUSPENDED

AND TOTAL

>

B. R A T I O

ratio

of

LOAD

rougfiness

O F SUSPENDED A N D

(Van Rijn, 1984)

tiejgfit and d e p t h , k ^ / h

BED

RATIOS O F B E D LOAD. S U S P E N D E D
AND

TRANSPORT

LOAD TRANSPORT

(Bijker, 1 9 7 8 )

LOAD

TOTAL L O A D T R A N S P O R T
D E L F T HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG.

8.3.8

-9.1-

9.

BED MATERIAL SUSPENSION AND TRANSPORT IN UNIFORM WAVES

9.1

Introduction

Wave motion over a movable f i n e sand bed (50 t o 500 ym) can generate a sediment
suspension w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n the near-bed

region

as shown by Nakato e t a l (1977) and by Bosman (1982) f o r t h e r i p p l e regime and


by Horikawa e t a l (1982) and by Staub e t a l (198^1) f o r the plane bed ( s h e e t
f l o w ) regime.

The v a r i a t i o n o f the instantaneous sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n space and time


which i s r e l e v a n t f o r the cross-shore t r a n s p o r t processes i n non-breaking
waves, appears t o be a complicated p h y s i c a l process p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e r i p p l e
regime. T h i s process seems h a r d l y p r e d i c t a b l e due t o the random c h a r a c t e r o f
the phenomena i n v o l v e d (Bosman, 1982).
Cross-shore t r a n s p o r t processes i n non-breaking waves are caused by v a r i o u s
mechanisms:

t h e asymmetry o f the wave motion y i e l d i n g l a r g e r onshore peak v e l o c i t i e s


under the wave c r e s t s than o f f s h o r e peak v e l o c i t i e s under the wave t r o u g h s
which may r e s u l t i n a n e t o f f s h o r e - d i r e c t e d t r a n s p o r t i n case o f a r i p p l e covered bed o r i n a net onshore d i r e c t e d t r a n s p o r t i n case o f a plane bed
(sheet f l o w ) ,

the g e n e r a t i o n o f n e t mean ( E u l e r i a n ) o n s h o r e - d i r e c t e d v e l o c i t i e s i n t h e
near-bed r e g i o n ( F i g . 9 . L I B ) which may r e s u l t i n a n e t o n s h o r e - d i r e c t e d
transport,

the g e n e r a t i o n o f f o r c e d long waves due t o a mean water s u r f a c e decrease


("trough") under l a r g e - a m p l i t u d e wave groups ( S h i , 1983) r e s u l t i n g i n
secondary o f f s h o r e - d i r e c t e d o r b i t a l v e l o c i t i e s under the " t r o u g h " ( F i g .
9.1.1C) and a n e t o f f s h o r e - d i r e c t e d t r a n s p o r t because t h e sediment concent r a t i o n s are l a r g e s t under l a r g e - a m p l i t u d e waves.

Time-averaged

sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s which are r e l e v a n t f o r cross-shore and

longshore t r a n s p o r t processes due t o b r e a k i n g waves are l e s s c o m p l i c a t e d t o


d e s c r i b e and have been s t u d i e d by many r e s e a r c h e r s .
T r a n s p o r t processes i n breaking waves are caused by the f o l l o w i n g

mechanisms:

the g e n e r a t i o n o f n e t mean o f f s h o r e - d i r e c t e d v e l o c i t i e s i n t h e lower l a y e r s


(undertow. F i g . 9.1.1 A),

-9.2-

the generation

o f l a r g e - s c a l e h o r i z o n t a l c i r c u l a t i o n c e l l s w i t h longshore

c u r r e n t s and w i t h o f f s h o r e - d i r e c t e d r i p c u r r e n t s ( F i g . 9.1.1D).

The t o t a l sediment t r a n s p o r t r a t e (q^.) can be computed from t h e v e r t i c a l


d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f l u i d v e l o c i t i e s and sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s ,

as f o l l o w s :

h+n
= UC dz
o

(9.1.1)

i n which:
U = l o c a l instantaneous f l u i d v e l o c i t y a t h e i g h t z above bed
C = l o c a l instantaneous sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n a t h e i g h t z above bed
h = water depth t o mean s u r f a c e
Tl = water surface

level

elevation

(9.1.2)

D e f i n i n g : U = u + u' and C = c + c

i n which:
u = time and space-averaged f l u i d v e l o c i t y a t h e i g h t z
c = time and space-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n

a t height z

u = o s c i l l a t i n g f l u i d component ( i n c l u d i n g t u r b u l e n t component)
0 = o s c i l l a t i n g concentration

component ( i n c l u d i n g t u r b u l e n t component)

S u b s t i t u t i n g Eq. (9.1.2) i n Eq. (9.1.1) and averaging over t i m e and space,


yields:
h
q^ =
0

h
uc dz +
o

uc dz

(9.1.3)

i n which:

h
=
o
h
- ^
0

uc dz

= c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d sediment t r a n s p o r t r a t e

uc dz = wave-related sediment t r a n s p o r t r a t e

C u r r e n t - r e l a t e d sediment t r a n s p o r t i s d e f i n e d as t h e t r a n s p o r t o f sediment
p a r t i c l e s by t h e time-averaged (mean) c u r r e n t v e l o c i t i e s ( l o n g s h o r e

currents,

r i p c u r r e n t s , undertow c u r r e n t s ) . Both the c u r r e n t v e l o c i t i e s and t h e sediment


concentrations

are a f f e c t e d by t h e wave motion. I t i s known t h a t t h e wave

motion reduces the c u r r e n t v e l o c i t i e s near the bed

(see S e c t i o n 2.4.3), but

s t r o n g l y i n c r e a s e the near-bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s due t o i t s s t i r r i n g

action.

Wave-related sediment t r a n s p o r t i s d e f i n e d as the t r a n s p o r t o f sediment


p a r t i c l e s by the o s c i l l a t i n g f l u i d components (cross-shore o r b i t a l m o t i o n ) .
The o s c i l l a t i n g components ( u and c) may

a l s o be a f f e c t e d by t h e c u r r e n t

velocities,

I n t h i s Chapter the a t t e n t i o n i s focussed

on the wave-related

sediment

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and t r a n s p o r t processes, p r e s e n t i n g the f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s :


e

a n a l y s i s o f measured c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and t r a n s p o r t processes,

computation

o f time-averaged

computation

of transport rates.

9.2

9.2.1

concentration p r o f i l e s ,

A n a l y s i s o f measured c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s and t r a n s p o r t r a t e s

Instantaneous

I n S e c t i o n 9.1

concentrations

i t has been shown t h a t instantaneous c o n c e n t r a t i o n s are

e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t w i t h respect t o the wave-related


Instantaneous

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s generated

by non-breaking

t r a n s p o r t processes.
waves i n the r i p p l e

regime have been measured by Nakato e t a l (1977) and by Bosman (1982).


Instantaneous

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n the plane bed

(sheet f l o w ) regime have been

measured by Horikawa e t a l (1982) and by Staub e t a l (1984).

r i p p l e regime
F i g u r e 9.2.1

shows ensemble mean c o n c e n t r a t i o n s w i t h i n a wave p e r i o d i n a wave

t u n n e l measured by Bosman (1982). A s i n u s o i d a l o s c i l l a t o r y motion w i t h a


p e r i o d o f T = 1 sec and a v e l o c i t y amplitude o f
over sand bed

= 0.3

( d ^ ^ = 200 ym, d^^ = 240 ym). The bed was

m/s

was

covered

generated
w i t h almost

p e r f e c t l y two-dimensional r i p p l e s ( l e n g t h = 0.055 m, h e i g h t = 0.01


o p t i c a l i n s t r u m e n t was

m).

An

used t o measure the c o n c e n t r a t i o n values above the

r i p p l e c r e s t and t r o u g h . The exact measuring l o c a t i o n s are shown i n F i g .


9.2.1. The r i p p l e c r e s t measurements show ensemble mean c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and
standard d e v i a t i o n s based on 100 p e r i o d s . About 10% o f a l l measurements are
w i t h i n the standard d e v i a t i o n l i n e s . As regards the t r o u g h measurements, o n l y
ensemble mean values are shown. The f o l l o w i n g phenomena can be observed above
the c r e s t :

t h e (random) s c a t t e r i s q u i t e l a r g e ( r o u g h l y 50%),

two l a r g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n peaks Just a f t e r f l o w r e v e r s a l and

probably

generated by l e e s i d e e d d y - v e l o c i t i e s ,

two s m a l l e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n peaks a t the moment o f maximum f l o w ,


generated by s t o s s - s i d e

probably

velocities,

a s y m m e t r i c a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n (water motion i s s y m m e t r i c a l ) .

The phenomena above the trough a r e :

the (random) s c a t t e r i s a l s o q u i t e l a r g e ( n o t shown),

two l a r g e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n peaks a f t e r f l o w r e v e r s a l and probably

generated

by l e e s i d e e d d y - v e l o c i t i e s ( t i m e l a g i s l a r g e r compared w i t h c o n c e n t r a t i o n
measurements a t the c r e s t ) ,

two s m a l l e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n peaks a f t e r maximum f l o w and probably


by s t o s s - s i d e

generated

velocities,

asymmetrical concentration d i s t r i b u t i o n ,

the peaks above the trough a r e smaller than those above the c r e s t due t o
d i s p e r s i o n and s e t t l i n g o f sediment p a r t i c l e s .

According t o Bosman, the s c a t t e r i s mainly caused by ( s l i g h t ) l o c a l

ripple

changes r e s u l t i n g i n small d i f f e r e n c e s i n the l o c a l v e l o c i t i e s and hence


c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . Based on t h i s , i t seems very d i f f i c u l t t o r e l a t e the l o c a l
instantaneous

sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n t o a l o c a l instantaneous

fluid

velocity.

The measurements o f Makato e t a l (1977), w i t h p e r i o d s i n the range o f 1 t o 3 s


show s i m i l a r r e s u l t s as those o f Bosman.
Mathematical models t o compute the instantaneous

sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n

the r i p p l e regime a r e not y e t a v a i l a b l e .

Sheet f l o w regime
Instantaneous

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s generated by non-breaking waves i n the sheet f l o w

regime have been measured by Horikawa e t a l (1982) i n o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w over a


sand bed ( d ^ ^ = 200 ym) i n a wave t u n n e l u s i n g an e l e c t r o - r e s i s t a n c e concent r a t i o n meter.
Results are shown i n Figure 9.2.2. Large c o n c e n t r a t i o n g r a d i e n t s can be observed i n a l a y e r o f 0.003 t o 0.005 m above and below the i n i t i a l bed s u r f a c e
l e v e l . The l a t t e r r e f e r s t o the bed l e v e l before the experiment. The maximum
c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a r e generated a t the moment o f maximum v e l o c i t i e s (e = 90).
The c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s minimum a t the moment o f minimum v e l o c i t i e s (o = 0).

-9.5-

The

t h i c k n e s s o f the c o n c e n t r a t i o n l a y e r i s about 0.02

the time-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n was about 0.5


determined

m. At t h i s l a t t e r

kg/m3. The v e l o c i t i e s have been

by a p p l y i n g a camera technique focussing on the i n t e r i o r

t o e l i m i n a t e the w a l l e f f e c t . A n a l y s i s o f the instantaneous

9.2.2

60,

particles

sand t r a n s p o r t

r a t e s show t h a t most o f the t r a n s p o r t occurs below the i n i t i a l bed


(0 = 30,

level

level

90).

Time-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n s

Time-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n s (averaged

over many waves) are r e l e v a n t f o r the

c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d sediment t r a n s p o r t . Time-averaging i s necessary t o e l i m i n a t e


the l a r g e random s c a t t e r o f the instantaneous

concentrations.

Time-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n s have been measured by v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s . Some


o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l

r e s u l t s are analyzed

here f o c u s s i n g on the f o l l o w i n g cases:

1.

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s by non-breaking waves over a r i p p l e d

2.

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s by breaking waves,

3.

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n the sheet f l o w l a y e r .

1.

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s by non-breaking waves over a r i p p l e d

bed,

bed

I n case o f o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w over a r i p p l e d bed the instantaneous

sediment

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s are v a r y i n g i n time and space, as shown i n F i g . 9.2.1. To


e l i m i n a t e these v a r i a t i o n s , i t i s necessary t o average the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s
over time (many waves) and over space (many bed f o r m s ) . I n l a b o r a t o r y cond i t i o n s t h i s can be done q u i t e simply by moving the measuring

instruments

forwards and backwards over a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e d u r i n g the sampling p e r i o d .


This method has been used by Bosman (1982), NieuwJaar-Van der K a a i j (1987)
and Nap-Van Kampen (1988) f o r experiments i n a wave flume.
F i g u r e 9.2.3A shows time-averaged and bed-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n s measured
by Nieuwjaar-Van der K a a i j (1987) using a pump sampler i n a wave flume w i t h
a water depth of 0.5
generated

m and a sand bed of d^^

200 pm.

I r r e g u l a r waves were

= s i g n i f i c a n t wave h e i g h t ) . The sand bed was


s
r i p p l e s i n a l l experiments (A^ = r i p p l e h e i g h t ) .

The

(H

f o l l o w i n g phenomena can be observed:

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s increase f o r i n c r e a s i n g wave h e i g h t Hg

n e g l i g i b l e small c o n c e n t r a t i o n s f o r z/h

>

0.3

covered w i t h

c o n s t a n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n g r a d i e n t a t each wave h e i g h t H
s

steeper c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s f o r i n c r e a s i n g wave h e i g h t s

r i p p l e h e i g h t increases s l i g h t l y f o r i n c r e a s i n g wave h e i g h t

F i g u r e 9.2.3B shows time-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n s measured by Van R i j n


(1987) using a pump sampler i n a l a r g e - s c a l e wave flume w i t h a water
o f 2 m and a sand bed w i t h d^^ = 210 ym. I r r e g u l a r waves were

depth

generated.

The bed was covered w i t h pronounced r i p p l e s w i t h a h e i g h t o f about 0.02 m


for H

< 0.69 m; smooth r i p p l e s w i t h a h e i g h t o f 0.001 m were observed

a f t e r the t e s t w i t h H

> 1.1 m. Bed averaging o f t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s was

not applied.

The f o l l o w i n g phenomena can be observed:

i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n s f o r i n c r e a s i n g wave h e i g h t upto H = 0.69 m


s
and decreasing

concentrations f o r

= 1.1 m i n t h e near-bed l a y e r ,

two l a y e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s w i t h l a r g e g r a d i e n t s i n the near-bed


l a y e r o f z/h < 0.05 (3 r i p p l e h e i g h t s ) and s m a l l g r a d i e n t s f o r z/h >
0.05,

decrease o f r i p p l e h e i g h t from
i n c r e a s i n g from H

= 0.02 m t o 0.001 m f o r wave h e i g h t

= 0.69 m t o H
s

= 1.1 m.
s

The e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e a simultaneous

decrease o f t h e near-bed

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and t h e r i p p l e h e i g h t when the wave h e i g h t increases


= 0.69 m t o

from

= 1.1 m. T h i s can be observed more c l e a r l y i n F i g , 9 . 2 . 4 ,

showing t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a t t h r e e e l e v a t i o n s (z = 0.025 h, 0.05 h and


A

0.1

h) as a f u n c t i o n o f the m o b i l i t y parameter i|) = Ug/[(s-1)gd^Q) i n which


= amplitude o f near-bed o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y . The r i p p l e h e i g h t i s a l s o

p l o t t e d as a f u n c t i o n o f 41. Figure 9.2.4 c l e a r l y shows t h a t the concentrat i o n s a r e l a r g e s t f o r 4) 150 i n the presence o f r i p p l e s w i t h a h e i g h t o f


0.02 m. For i|j > 150 t h e r e i s a gradual t r a n s i t i o n from the r i p p l e regime
( h e i g h t ^ 0.02 m) w i t h r e l a t i v e l a r g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s t o the smooth bed
regime (smooth f l a t r i p p l e s o f 0.001 m) w i t h r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l

concentra-

t i o n s . I t i s most l i k e l y t h a t the r i p p l e - g e n e r a t e d eddies, which a r e most


e f f e c t i v e i n the entrainment

o f p a r t i c l e s from t h e bed, a r e g r a d u a l l y

d i s a p p e a r i n g f o r i|) = 150 r e s u l t i n g i n a gradual decrease o f the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , as shown i n F i g . 9.2.4.

-9.7-

F i g u r e 9.2.5A shows time and bed-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n s measured by Bosman


(1982) and by Nap-Van Kampen (1988) using a pump sampler i n a wave flume
w i t h a water depth o f 0.5 m and a sand bed o f d^^ ^ 100 ym. I r r e g u l a r waves
were generated.

Occasional ( s p i l l i n g ) breaking waves were observed d u r i n g

the t e s t s o f Bosman. The bed was covered w i t h r i p p l e s f o r wave h e i g h t s


H < 0.18 m.
s
Bosman d i d n o t r e p o r t the r i p p l e h e i g h t s .

The f o l l o w i n g phenomena can be observed:


e

i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n s f o r i n c r e a s i n g wave h e i g h t s ,

s l i g h t l y f l a t t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s f o r i n c r e a s i n g wave h e i g h t s ,

c o n s t a n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n g r a d i e n t s a t each wave h e i g h t ( f o r H < 0.18 m),


s
two l a y e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s f o r H = 0.2 m and 0.23 m w i t h c o n s t a n t
s

c o n c e n t r a t i o n g r a d i e n t i n near-bed r e g i o n z/h < 0.15 and i n c r e a s i n g conc e n t r a t i o n g r a d i e n t s f o r z/h > 0.15,

decreasing

r i p p l e h e i g h t f o r i n c r e a s i n g wave h e i g h t (upto H = 0.18 m).


s

These r e s u l t s show s l i g h t l y f l a t t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s f o r a d e c r e a s i n g
r i p p l e h e i g h t s , which i s r e l a t e d t o a somewhat l e s s i n t e n s i v e m i x i n g i n t h e
near-bed l a y e r . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n the r e g i o n z/h > 0.15 a r e r e l a t i v e l y
l a r g e f o r wave h e i g h t s o f H = 0.2 and 0.23 m i n t h e experiments o f Bosman.
s
This may be caused by t h e e f f e c t o f o c c a s i o n a l b r e a k i n g o f t h e waves.
2.

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s by breaking waves over a f l a t bed


The e f f e c t o f breaking waves can be c l e a r l y observed i n F i g . 9.2.5B, p r e s e n t i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s o f Bosman (1982), (1986) measured (pump
samplers) i n a wave flume a t a water depth o f 0.3 m and a sand bed o f
dgQ = 100 ym. I r r e g u l a r waves were generated.

According

t o Bosman

(1982),

the bed was f l a t a t l o c a t i o n s near b r e a k i n g waves.

Two phenomena can be observed:

t h e near-bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a r e approximately

c o n s t a n t (== 10

kg/m3) f

or

i n c r e a s i n g wave h e i g h t s ,

t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a t h i g h e r l e v e l s show a l a r g e increase f o r wave


h e i g h t s i n c r e a s i n g from H
s
( p l u n g i n g b r e a k i n g waves).

= 0.12 m (non-breaking

waves) t o H

= 0.19 m
s

F i g u r e 9.2,6A shows time-averaged

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s measured by Kana (1979)

i n surfzones near USA-coasts. S p i l l i n g and p l u n g i n g b r e a k i n g waves were


p r e s e n t . The bed m a t e r i a l was d^^

200 ym. The types o f bed forms a r e n o t

reported.

The f o l l o w i n g phenomena can be observed:


e

c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s have a s i m i l a r shape i n s p i l l i n g and p l u n g i n g


b r e a k i n g waves,

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s are a f a c t o r 5 l a r g e r i n case o f p l u n g i n g b r e a k i n g waves.

F i g u r e 9.2.6B shows c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s i n s p i l l i n g and p l u n g i n g

brea-

k i n g waves measured by S t e e t z e l (1987) using a pump sampler i n a l a r g e


flume w i t h a water depth o f 0.9 m and a sand bed o f 210 ym. I r r e g u l a r
waves were generated.

The bed was f l a t . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s a r e

s i m i l a r t o those o f Kana (1979), both i n shape and magnitude.

F i g u r e 9.2.6c shows c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s measured by Kroon and Van R i j n


(1988) u s i n g a pump sampler i n the s u r f zone near the Dutch Coast (Groote
Keeten). The bed (d^,,

260 ym) was covered w i t h smooth s m a l l - s c a l e

0.03 m) u n d u l a t i o n s . S p i l l i n g b r e a k i n g waves were p r e s e n t .

The f o l l o w i n g phenomena can be observed:

t h e near-bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a r e o f the same order o f magnitude ( f a c t o r


2 ) as those o f Kana (1979), S t e e t z e l (1987) and van R i j n (1987) f o r
s p i l l i n g breaking waves,

t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a t mid depth and near the s u r f a c e a r e s m a l l e r than


those o f Kana (1979) b u t comparable ( f a c t o r 2) t o those measured by Van
R i j n (1987) i n the l a r g e wave flume a t s i m i l a r wave h e i g h t s (see F i g .
9.2.3B).

The l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s ever measured i n the surfzone near Groote Keeten


d u r i n g storm p e r i o d s a r e about 2 t o 3 kg/m3 a t a h e i g h t o f 0.03 t o 0.05 m
above t h e bed and about 0.5 t o 1.5 kg/m3 a t a h e i g h t o f 0.05 t o 0. 1 m i n
s p i l l i n g b r e a k i n g waves.
Based on t h e a v a i l a b l e measurements, the f o l l o w i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n ranges
can be g i v e n f o r the surfzone w i t h bed m a t e r i a l i n t h e range o f 200 t o
300 ym and water depths o f 1 t o 2 m:

-9.9-

breakers

spilling

near-bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s

0.5

- 1.5 kg/m3

1 - 5 kg/m3

near s u r f a c e

0.05

- 0.2 kg/m3

0 . 5 - 1 . 5 kg/m3

concentrations

The data i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e breaker

breakers

plunging

sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s

type i s a dominating

f a c t o r i n wave-

r e l a t e d sediment suspensions. S p i l l i n g breakers a r e l e s s e f f e c t i v e

than

p l u n g i n g breakers, which i s probably caused by t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s c a l e


of t h e eddies generated

by s p i l l i n g breakers. Furthermore, these

eddies are c o n f i n e d t o t h e near-water surface r e g i o n and donot

small
extend

below t h e trough l e v e l ( M i l l e r , 1976). Plunging breakers show s t r o n g J e t s


p e n e t r a t i n g t o t h e seabed r e s u l t i n g i n the g e n e r a t i o n o f l a r g e sediment
c o n c e n t r a t i o n s (see a l s o s e c t i o n 2 ) .

3.

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n sheet f l o w l a y e r
Observations

have shown t h a t bed forms a r e washed o u t when t h e m o b i l i t y

parameter i|) i s l a r g e r than about 200 t o 250. I n t h a t case a t h i n (<= 0.03 m)


l a y e r o f moving sediment p a r t i c l e s w i t h h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s c l o s e t o t h e
bed i s generated.

This i s c a l l e d t h e sheet f l o w l a y e r . Time-averaged

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n t h e sheet f l o w l a y e r have o n l y been measured i n wave


t u n n e l experiments (Horikawa e t a l , 1982; Staub e t a l , 1984 and R i b b e r i n k ,
1989). F i e l d data a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e . Horikawa e t a l (1982) used an e l e c t r o r e s i s t a n c e probe t o measure t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s over a sand bed o f 200 ym
(see F i g . 9.2.7A). Staub e t a l (1984) and R i b b e r i n k (1989) used a pump
sampling i n s t r u m e n t . A r e g u l a r s i n u s o i d a l o s c i l l a t o r y motion was generated
by Horikawa e t a l and by Staub e t a l , w h i l e i r r e g u l a r o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w
(Jonswap spectrum) was generated

by Ribberink. C o n c e n t r a t i o n

p r o f i l e s and

h y d r a u l i c c o n d i t i o n s a r e shown i n F i g s . 9.2.7A,B and C.


Based on these f i g u r e s , t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o n c e n t r a t i o n ranges
a t 0.01 m and a t 0.02 m above t h e i n i t i a l bed l e v e l (measured before t h e
t e s t ) are given:

-9.10-

Height
above
the
bed

Sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s
Horikawa
e t a l , 1982
200 ym

Ribberink,
1989

Staub e t a l , 1984
190 ym

190 ym

380 ym-

u=1.08 m/s

u=1.3 m/s

u=1.68 m/s

u=1.9 m/s

(m)

T = 4 s

T = 9.1 s

T = 6.8 s

T = 6.8 s

0.01

3 kg/m3

10-25 kg/m3

50 kg/m3

10-30

kg/m3

0.02

1 kg/m3

20 kg/m3

3-15

kg/m3

3-10

kg/m3

220 ym
u,3=1.13m/s
Tp = 8 s
15-20
4-

kg/m3

8 kg/m3

The r e s u l t s o f Staub e t a l and R i b b e r i n k a r e i n good agreement f o r peak


v e l o c i t i e s i n t h e range o f 1.1 t o 1.3 m/s and sediment m a t e r i a l o f about
200 ym. The c o n c e n t r a t i o n s measured by Horikawa e t a l are a f a c t o r 5 s m a l l e r
a t a peak v e l o c i t y o f 1.08 m/s.

Summary
Summarizing a l l a v a i l a b l e c o n c e n t r a t i o n data f o r non-breaking

and b r e a k i n g

waves i n water depths o f 0.5 t o 2 m and bed m a t e r i a l s i z e s from 100 t o 300 ym,
t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be observed:

two-layer concentration p r o f i l e w i t h rather large concentration gradients


i n t h e near-bed l a y e r

3 r i p p l e h e i g h t s ) and s m a l l e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n g r a -

d i e n t s i n t h e upper l a y e r , i n case o f non-breaking

waves over a r i p p l e d

bed,
e

strong i n f l u e n c e o f the r i p p l e s g i v i n g r e l a t i v e l y large concentrations i n


the near-bed l a y e r due t o eddy-generated

motions,

i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n the upper l a y e r s by s p i l l i n g b r e a k i n g waves,

s t r o n g l y i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n t h e near-bed l a y e r and i n t h e upper


l a y e r by p l u n g i n g breaking waves ( f a c t o r 5 l a r g e r than i n s p i l l i n g

breaking

waves).

9.2.3

Sediment t r a n s p o r t r a t e s

Sediment t r a n s p o r t r a t e s under wave a c t i o n have been i n v e s t i g a t e d by AbouSeida (1965), K a l k a n i s (1964), Vincent (1957), Manohar (1955), S l e a t h (1978)
Sato-Horikawa (1986) and Sawamoto-Yamashita (1987). Most o f t h e experiments o f
Abou-Seida, K a l k a n i s , Vincent and S l e a t h were c a r r i e d o u t w i t h f l a t
t i n g ) beds. T r a n s p o r t r a t e s were g e n e r a l l y s m a l l .

(oscilla-

-9.11-

Manohar and

Sato c l e a r l y d e s c r i b e the t r a n s p o r t regimes. Manohar performed h i s

experiments i n a s t i l l water tank by o s c i l l a t i n g the bed.


were trapped by t r a y s i n s t a l l e d i n the bed.
over f l a t and

sand p a r t i c l e s

Manohar measured t r a n s p o r t

r i p p l e d beds using sand m a t e r i a l o f 280

m e t r i c a l type o f motion was

The

ym and

1000

rates

ym.

An asym-

generated. Although r i p p l e s were p r e s e n t i n some

experiments, the t r a n s p o r t mode was

dominantly bed load w i t h r o l l i n g

as d e s c r i b e d by Manohar: " p a r t i c l e s r o l l e d t o the c r e s t and

over the

grains,
crest

from the a d j a c e n t trough". Suspension i s o n l y reported a f t e r the disappearance


o f t h e r i p p l e s . I n a l l cases Manohar observed a net t r a n s p o r t r a t e i n the
d i r e c t i o n o f the l a r g e s t peak v e l o c i t y ,

Sato and

Horikawa performed experiments i n a wave t u n n e l w i t h sand m a t e r i a l

180 ym i n the r i p p l e regime. Asymmetrical r e g u l a r and

of

irregular oscillatory

f l o w s were generated. Sand t r a p s were i n s t a l l e d a t b o t h ends o f the t e s t


s e c t i o n . The
recordings

net sand t r a n s p o r t r a t e s were mainly determined from bed

i n (many) l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n s . Measurements were c a r r i e d

a f t e r steady s t a t e asymmetrical r i p p l e s had


Sato and

profile
out

been developed along the sand

bed.

Horikawa r e p o r t t h a t suspended sand clouds are formed above the

s t e e p e r f l a n k o f a r i p p l e when the f l o w d i r e c t i o n i s onshore. The

cloud

is

then thrown up over the r i p p l e c r e s t when the f l o w d i r e c t i o n i s changed

and

the sand i s t r a n s p o r t e d

rate

was

o f f s h o r e . I n n e a r l y a l l t e s t s the net t r a n s p o r t

i n the o f f s h o r e d i r e c t i o n , w h i l e the l a r g e s t peak v e l o c i t y was

onshore d i r e c t i o n . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were obtained by Nap

and

Van

i n the

Kampen (1988)

w i t h sediment o f 100 ym i n a wave flume i n which i r r e g u l a r waves were gener a t e d . I n a l l cases the wave-related net t r a n s p o r t was
t i o n . Suspended load t r a n s p o r t was

against

the wave d i r e c -

the dominant t r a n s p o r t mode.

Sheet f l o w experiments i n s i n u s o i d a l o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w have been c a r r i e d o u t


Horikawa e t a l (1982) i n a wave t u n n e l w i t h sand o f 200

ym. The

time-averaged ( h a l f wave p e r i o d v a l u e s ) t r a n s p o r t r a t e s are

U. = 1.27 m/s

3.6

U. = 1.08 m/s

2.6

- = 1.08 m/s

3.4

Ug = 0,87

m/s

5.4 s

U. = 0.76 m/s
o

6.0

%,half
%, h a l f
% ,half
% ,half
%,half

0.000416

mVs

0.000261

mVs

0.000208

mVs

0.000182

mVs

0.000104

mVs

following

reported:

by

-9.12-

Based on these r e s u l t s , t h e t r a n s p o r t r a t e i n the sheet f l o w regime seems t o


^ 3

be dependent on a p p r o x i m a t e l y the t h i r d power o f t h e v e l o c i t y :

(U) .

Sawamoto and Yamashita ( 1 9 8 7 ) d i d s i m i l a r experiments i n a wave t u n n e l i n t h e


sheet f l o w regime. Sand m a t e r i a l w i t h p a r t i c l e s i z e s o f 200 ym, 700 ym and
1800

ym was used. Coal and p l a s t i c m a t e r i a l was a l s o used. Based on t h e i r

r e s u l t s , these i n v e s t i g a t o r s have found t h a t the t r a n s p o r t r a t e i n t h e sheet


'^15
^ 3
f l o w regime i s r e l a t e d t o ( T ) ' o r (U.) .
0
Summarizing, i t can be concluded t h a t the n e t t r a n s p o r t r a t e under wave a c t i o n
s t r o n g l y depends on t h e t r a n s p o r t mode and on the type o f bed forms:

1.

bed load o r suspended load over f l a t bed

: n e t t r a n s p o r t r a t e i s always
i n the d i r e c t i o n o f t h e l a r g e s t
peak v e l o c i t y

2.

dominantly bed l o a d over r i p p l e d bed

: net transport rate i s i n the


d i r e c t i o n o f t h e l a r g e s t peak
velocity

3.

dominantly suspended l o a d over r i p p l e d bed: n e t t r a n s p o r t r a t e i s a g a i n s t


the d i r e c t i o n o f the l a r g e s t
peak v e l o c i t y .

9.3

9.3.1

Computation o f time-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n

profiles

Introduction

I n t h e L i t e r a t u r e v a r i o u s models are proposed t o compute t h e sediment conc e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s . Most models are based on the time-averaged

convection-

d i f f u s i o n equation ( N i e l s e n , 1979, Bosman-Steetzel, 1986, D a l l y , 1980, S k a f e l Krishnappan, 1 9 8 4 ) , as f o l l o w s :


^
= 0
c + e
w
s.w dz
s,m

(9.3.1)

i n which:
c

= sediment

concentration

= p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y i n fluid-sediment mixture
w.
s ,m
= sediment d i f f u s i o n or mixing c o e f f i c i e n t r e l a t d t o t h e wave motion
e
s,w
= v e r t i c a l coordinate
z

-9.13-

Some models are based on the time-dependent c o n v e c t i o n - d i f f u s i o n e q u a t i o n ,

as

follows:
Ig _

3t

s,m

IC

3z

9z

|Cj

s,w

^ Q

(9.3.2)

3z'

These l a t t e r models are o n l y v a l i d f o r plane ( s h e e t f l o w ) bed c o n d i t i o n s and


are developed t o compute the v a r i a t i o n o f the instantaneous c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n
the t h i n (= 0,01

m) wave boundary l a y e r above the bed.

Numerical s o l u t i o n r e q u i r e s s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the f a l l v e l o c i t y
sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t (e

the

(Wg^^),

) and boundary c o n d i t i o n s a t the bed and a t


s^w

t h e upper boundary. U s u a l l y , a separate o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w model i s a p p l i e d t o


compute the m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t s and the bed-shear s t r e s s e s . This l a t t e r
meter i s then a p p l i e d t o generate
condition).
function

para-

the instantaneous bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n (boundary

Based on t h i s , the c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s can be computed as a

o f time and a l s o time-averaged

values by averaging over t h e wave

p e r i o d . Bakker ( 1 9 7 4 ) a p p l i e d a mixing l e n g t h concept t o determine

the s e d i -

ment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t . The expressions o f E i n s t e i n have been a p p l i e d t o


s p e c i f y the bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n . Recently, the t h e o r i e s o f Bagnold ( 1 9 5 4 )

related

t o p a r t i c l e i n t e r a c t i o n i n case o f h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s have been i n c o r p o r a t e d


in

t h e model o f Bakker. The

i n f l u e n c e o f the sediment p a r t i c l e s on t h e

fall

v e l o c i t y and t u r b u l e n c e i s taken i n t o account (Bakker and Van Kesteren,

1986).

Fredseie e t a l ( 1 9 8 5 ) a p p l y a numerical model based on the eddy v i s c o s i t y


concept.

The eddy v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s are r e l a t e d

t o the i n s t a n t a n e o u s

bed

shear s t r e s s e s and the boundary l a y e r t h i c k n e s s . The bed boundary c o n d i t i o n


for

t h e sediment i s a c o n c e n t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n , which s p e c i f i e s the bed

concen-

t r a t i o n a t a h e i g h t o f two p a r t i c l e diameters above the bed as a f u n c t i o n

of

t h e instantaneous bed shear s t r e s s . At the water s u r f a c e the v e r t i c a l sediment


f l u x i s s e t t o z e r o . The

i n f l u e n c e o f t h e sediment p a r t i c l e s on the f a l l v e l o -

c i t y and eddy v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t i s not taken i n t o

account,

Hagatum and E i d s v i k ( 1 9 8 6 ) presented a numerical model based on a

two-equation

t u r b u l e n c e model t o r e p r e s e n t the eddy v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s . I t i s q u e s t i o nable whether such a s o p h i s t i c a t e d improvement i s necessary c o n s i d e r i n g the


e x p e r i m e n t a l problems r e l a t e d

t o v e r i f i c a t i o n o f the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n the

sheet f l o w l a y e r . A n a l y t i c a l s o l u t i o n s o f the c o n v e c t i o n - d i f f u s i o n

equation

a r e g i v e n by N i e l s e n ( 1 9 7 9 ) assuming t h a t the eddy v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t i s


c o n s t a n t i n space and

time.

-9.14-

Glven the complexity o f a l l phenomena (eddy v i s c o s i t y , hindered


bulence damping) w i t h i n t h i s t h i n (= 0.01

settling,

tur-

m) h i g h - c o n c e n t r a t i o n sheet f l o w

l a y e r , the p r e d i c t i n g a b i l i t y o f these time-dependent models i s r a t h e r quest i o n a b l e . V e r i f i c a t i o n i s h a r d l y p o s s i b l e due


near-bed r e g i o n w i t h extremely
t h i n l a y e r (=< 0.01

to measuring problems i n the

large v e r t i c a l concentration gradients i n a

m).

Since r e l i a b l e models t o p r e d i c t time-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n waves a l o n e


are s t i l l l a c k i n g , the present w r i t e r proposes a new

model f o r time-averaged

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , which i s based on the time-averaged c o n v e c t i o n - d i f f u s i o n


e q u a t i o n and which describes

the v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the sediment

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s above the top o f the bed form ( r i p p l e s ) or above the edge o f


the wave boundary l a y e r i n case o f a plane bed w i t h sheet f l o w .

The

f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s are

described:

c o n v e c t i o n - d i f f u s i o n equation

p a r t i c l e s i z e and

sediment mixing

reference

computation o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n

comparison o f measured and computed c o n c e n t r a t i o n

9.3.2

fall

velocity

coefficient

concentration
profile
profiles

Time-averaged c o n v e c t i o n - d i f f u s i o n equation

U s u a l l y , the t r a d i t i o n a l c o n v e c t i o n - d i f f u s i o n equation

i s a p p l i e d t o compute

the e q u i l i b r i u m c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e i n steady f l o w . This e q u a t i o n


dc

(9.3.3)
Ky.j.Dj

w s,m c + es -7dz = 0

in

reads as:

which:

Wg^uj = p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y o f suspended sediment i n a f l u i d - s e d i m e n t m i x t u r e


e

= sediment mixing

coefficient

= time-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n a t h e i g h t z above the

Here, i t i s assumed t h a t Eq.


To v e r i f y t h i s , Eq.

(in c)

= - ^

bed

( 9 . 3 . 3 ) i s a l s o v a l i d f o r wave-related

mixing.

( 9 . 3 . 3 ) i s expressed as:

(9.3.4)

-9.15-

The

d i f f u s i o n concept i s v a l i d when the slope o f measured c o n c e n t r a t i o n

files

pro-

represented i n a p l o t o f l o g c versus z are i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o

the f a l l v e l o c i t y i n case o f c o n s t a n t wave c o n d i t i o n s . To

investigate this,

some e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t presented by Roelvink ( 1 9 8 5 ) are a n a l y z e d . R o e l v i n k


measured c o n c e n t r a t i o n

p r o f i l e s o f d i f f e r e n t s i z e f r a c t i o n s above a r i g i d

bot-

tom

c o n s i s t i n g o f a r t i f i c i a l r i p p l e s , A l i m i t e d amount o f sediment p a r t i c l e s

was

f e d t o the ( o s c i l l a t o r y ) f l o w . Figure 9 . 3 . 1

shows measured

concentration

p r o f i l e s f o r v a r i o u s s i z e f r a c t i o n s i n case o f a c o n s t a n t wave h e i g h t . Since


the wave h e i g h t i s c o n s t a n t ,

the l o c a l mixing

c o e f f i c i e n t w i l l be

approximately

c o n s t a n t asssuming t h a t t h i s parameter i s not or o n l y weakly c o r r e l a t e d t o the


sediment p a r t i c l e s i z e . As can be observed, t h e r e i s a tendency f o r t h e slopes
of the concentration

p r o f i l e s t o be i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the p a r t i c l e

fall

v e l o c i t y , which supports the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the d i f f u s i o n concept f o r waveinduced m i x i n g .


Nielsen

A s i m i l a r conclusion

i s given by Van

der G r a a f f ( 1 9 8 8 ) .

( 1 9 8 4 ) questiones the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the d i f f u s i o n e q u a t i o n f o r

wave-induced m i x i n g .

He presents some data showing t h a t the eddy t r a p p i n g

mechanism i s the dominant suspension mechanism r a t h e r than the

diffusion

process. A l l sand p a r t i c l e s i z e s , t h a t are small enough t o be trapped


eddy w i l l t r a v e l w i t h the eddy u n t i l
concentrations

i t d i s s o l v e s and

i n an

t h e i r time-averaged

w i l l become d i s t r i b u t e d i n very much the same way,

irrespective

of s e t t l i n g velocity.

9.3.3

P a r t i c l e s i z e and f a l l v e l o c i t y o f suspended sediment

p a r t i c l e s i z e o f suspended sediment
O b s e r v a t i o n s i n flume and

field

c o n d i t i o n s have shown t h a t the suspended s e d i -

ment p a r t i c l e s are not u n i f o r m l y d i s t r i b u t e d over the depth i n case o f a nonuniform

bed m a t e r i a l c o m p o s i t i o n . The

coarser p a r t i c l e s are suspended i n the

near-bed r e g i o n , w h i l e the f i n e r p a r t i c l e s are suspended i n the upper l a y e r s .


Some i n f o r m a t i o n can be obtained

from the measurements o f Van

l a r g e - s c a l e wave flume. Sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n

p r o f i l e s were d e t e r m i n e d by

u s i n g a pump sampler t o o b t a i n water-sediment samples. The


samples o f each p r o f i l e were put t o g e t h e r
for

Rijn (1987) in a

suspended sediment

to get a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e sample

a n a l y s i s . F a l l v e l o c i t i e s o f these samples were measured i n a s e t t l i n g

tube w i t h a l e n g t h o f 2 m. The
a p p l y i n g F i g . 4 . 2 . 3 . The

f a l l v e l o c i t i e s were converted t o p a r t i c l e

size

r a t i o o f the median suspended sediment s i z e (dg) and

t h e median bed m a t e r i a l s i z e (d^g) i s shown i n F i g . 9 . 3 . 2

as a f u n c t i o n o f a

-9.16-

dimensionless

bed-shear s t r e s s parameter T (see s e c t i o n 3 . 2 ) .

Figure

shows s i m i l a r data o b t a i n e d i n the s u r f zone near the coast o f the


( s t a t i o n Groote Keetn, Kroon and Van R i j n ,

9.3.2

Netherlands

1988).

Since the bed m a t e r i a l i s q u i t e u n i f o r m ( o ^ = 0.did^^/d.^^ + dg^^/d^^) < 2 )

in

b o t h cases, t h e median suspended sediment s i z e ( d g ) i s f a i r l y c l o s e t o t h e


median bed m a t e r i a l s i z e (d^Q j j g ^ j ) . The data can be reasonably
the f o l l o w i n g

represented

by

equation:

d
= 1 + 0.011

(a - 1)

50,bed
in

(T - 25)

(9.3.5)

which:

dg

= r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p a r t i c l e s i z e o f suspended sediment

d^Q i^gj = median p a r t i c l e s i z e o f bed m a t e r i a l


= 0.5(dgQ/d.]g + dg||/d^Q) = g e o m e t r i c a l standard d e v i a t i o n o f bed
material
T

= bed-shear s t r e s s parameter, see S e c t i o n

9.3.7

( 9 . 3 . 5 ) has been proposed by the p r e s e n t w r i t e r (Van R i j n , 1984)

Equation

to

r e p r e s e n t the suspended sediment s i z e i n steady u n i f o r m f l o w (see a l s o s e c t i o n


9.3.3).

Based on the present r e s u l t s

(Fig. 9 . 3 . 2 ) ,

t h i s equation i s a l s o

a p p l i c a b l e f o r o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w over a movable f i n e sediment

Particle f a l l

bed.

velocity

Experiments o f h i g h sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s have shown a c o n s i d e r a b l e r e d u c t i o n


o f the p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y due t o the presence o f the s u r r o u n d i n g

particles.

T h i s e f f e c t i s known as the hindered s e t t l i n g e f f e c t . For f l o w c o n d i t i o n s w i t h


p a r t i c l e s i n t h e range o f 50 t o 500 ym the reduced p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y
be d e s c r i b e d by a Richardson-Zaki
"s,m - ( 1 -

in

( 1 9 5 4 ) type o f e q u a t i o n :
(9.3.6)

"s

which:

"s,m ' e f f e c t i v e f a l l
Wg

can

= fall

velocity

velocity i n a fluid-sediment mixture


i n a clear f l u i d

Since wave-generated sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s may

be r a t h e r l a r g e i n the n e a r -

bed r e g i o n , the i n f l u e n c e o f the hindered s e t t l i n g e f f e c t has been i n v e s t i g a t e d


by e x e c u t i n g a few s e n s i t i v i t y computations.

A p p l y i n g Eqs.

(9.3.3),

(9.3.6)

and

-9.17-

( 9 . 3 . 3 3 ) , the sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e has been computed ( n u m e r i c a l l y )


f o r a r e f e r e n c e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f 2500, 5000 and

10000 mg/1. The r e s u l t s are

shown i n F i g . 9.3.3, showing an increase o f the sediment

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s due

to

t h e h i n d e r e d s e t t l i n g e f f e c t . Considering a l l u n c e r t a i n t i e s i n v o l v e d , the
h i n d e r e d s e t t l i n g e f f e c t seems t o be o f minor importance f o r concntrations
s m a l l e r than 10000 mg/1.

Measurements show t h a t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f t h i s o r d e r

o f magnitude do n o t occur o u t s i d e the wave boundary l a y e r .

9.3.4

Sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t f o r non-breaking waves

9.3.4.1

Existing relationships

Measurements i n wave flumes show the presence o f suspended sediment

particles

from the bed u p t o the water depth (Bosman, 1984, Van R i j n , 1987). The
c o n c e n t r a t i o n s are found c l o s e t o the bed where the d i f f u s i v i t y

largest

is rather

l a r g e due t o r i p p l e - g e n e r a t e d eddies. F u r t h e r away from the bed the

sediment

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s decrease r a p i d l y because the eddies d i s s o l v e r a t h e r r a p i d l y


t r a v e l l i n g upwards.
V a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s have t r i e d t o model the suspension process by

introducing

an e f f e c t i v e wave-related sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t . Most e x p r e s s i o n s are


e m p i r i c a l or s e m i - e m p i r i c a l . Only, the method g i v e n by B i j k e r does n o t depend
on c a l i b r a t i o n

coefficients.

Homma and Horikawa

^ ^ A s ^ i k z )
T

in

(1962)

sinh-^(kh)

which:

H = wave h e i g h t
T = wave p e r i o d
L = wave l e n g t h
h = water

depth

z = v e r t i c a l c o o r d i n a t e r e l a t i v e t o the bed
2
01 = c o n s t a n t (^^ 10 )
k = wave number (2IT/L)

(g_3_^)

-9.18-

2iJ^_il967,_1971)

^s,w = ^

w^

(9.3.8)

-V

i n which:
K

= Von Karman c o n s t a n t

^* w " (^b w*^*^^^'^ "

averaged bed-shear v e l o c i t y r e l a t e d t o waves


(Eq. 2.3.13).

O r i g i n a l l y , t h e B i j k e r method was proposed f o r combined c u r r e n t and wave


condions. Herein, t h i s method has a l s o been a p p l i e d f o r waves alone.

Lundgren (1972)
0.4 u^
^s,w =

1 + 1.34
in

~25

z
'

(9.3.9)

(0.5f^^)"-^''(z/6^^) exp(z/6^)

which:

"*,w " (^b w^*^^*^'^ " ^^^^ value o f wave-related bed-shear v e l o c i t y


f
= f r i c t i o n factor
<S

= maximum t h i c k n e s s o f wave boundary l a y e r

The 6^- parameter f o l l o w s from:


2.74 6
2.74 6
A
["k
J log[-k
- ] = 0-0282 [ j - ^ ]
s,w
s,w
s,w
in

(9.3.10)

which:

^s,vi ~ wave-related bed roughness


Ag

= peak-value

o f o r b i t a l e x c u r s i o n a t bed

A minimum value equal t o t h e bed form h e i g h t (A^) has been used i n t h e p r e s e n t


study (6
. =A)
w,min
Bhattacharya

(1971)

^s,w = ^a

^8 ^

(9.3.11)

' h^

-9.19-

i n which:
e

= sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t a t s m a l l h e i g h t ( a ) above bed

Swart ( 1 9 7 6 )
(9.3.12)
s,w

b.j
0.96

bi-1.05Z

0.013Z
[g]

w
Z =

i n which:
Wg = p a r t i c l e f a l l
K

velocity

= Von Karman c o n s t a n t (=0.384)

Nielsen

(1979)

e
s,w

A. (Jl) -0.32
= 0.00146 (A + 0.4 6)g T f -(5 ^ l 1
r
"s

e
s,w

A (D 0.68
= 0.00035 (A + 0.4 6)g T [ - ^ ]
r
"s

A. )
o...
for o
> 25
s

(9.3.13a)

A (
for

< 25

(9.3.13b)

i n which:
A^ = r i p p l e h e i g h t
6

= maximum boundary l a y e r t h i c k n e s s

= wave p e r i o d

(ij

= 2TI/T

Equation ( 9 . 3 . 1 3 )

Dally

s,w

i s v a l i d f o r non-breaking waves.

(1980)

= TTT h Uo
15
*,w

(9.3.14)

-9.20-

Skafel-Krishnappan

(1984)

^s,w = ^ ^6 ",w

(9.3.15)

g = 8-7 [

(9.3.16)

Kos'yan (1985)

^s,w = ^s,o ^ %,t

(9.3.17)

IT
^s,o-- 272-T

(9.3.18)

slnh^(k2)
7277:
sinh (kh)

b (Gg- W3) ( Z / 6 J

1+0.06 (z/6 ) exp(z/6 )


w
w

b = 116 [ ^ ]

in

(9.3.19)

2 1/3
[^]

which:

^s o " '"t)ital-related m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t
Eg ^ = turbulence-related mixing c o e f f i c i e n t
6^

= maximum t h i c k n e s s o f wave-boundary l a y e r (Eq. ( 2 . 3 . 7 ) )

Ug

= peak value o f o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y near bed

The above g i v e n expressions have been used t o compute t h e w a v e - r e l a t e d


sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r an experiment o f Bosman (1984).

The b a s i c data a r e :
Hg

= s i g n i f i c a n t wave h e i g h t

= 0.12 m

Tp

= peak p e r i o d o f wave spectrum

= 1.9 s

= water depth

= 0.3 m

= wave l e n g t h

= 3.08 m

d^Q

= median p a r t i c l e s i z e o f bed m a t e r i a l

= 0.000105 m

dgo

= p a r t i c l e s i z e l a r g e r than 90%

= 0.000130 m

dg

= r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p a r t i c l e s i z e o f suspended sediment

= 0.00008 m

Wg

= p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y o f suspended sediment

= 0.005 m/s

-9.21-

= r i p p l e height
^ = wave-related
Te

bed roughness h e i g h t

= water temperature

= 0.02

= 0.06

= 20 C

L i n e a r wave theory has been used t o compute the wave parameters rsulting i n :
= peak value o f o r b i t a l e x c u r s i o n Just o u t s i d e boundary l a y e r = 0.092 m
Ug

= peak value o f o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y Just o u t s i d e boundary l a y e r

= 0.305

f
w

= f r i c t i o n factor

j,

= time-averaged

= 0.078

ua=
The

bed-shear v e l o c i t y ( h a l f c y c l e )

peak value o f bed-shear v e l o c i t y

m/s

0.3

= 0.11

m/s
m/s

r e s u l t s are shown i n F i g u r e 9.3.4A. The "measured" values r e p r e s e n t the

sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t s d e r i v e d from the measured sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n


p r o f i l e , which i s shown i n F i g u r e 9.3.4B (see a l s o s e c t i o n 9.3.4.2).

The

measured values i n d i c a t e a c o n s t a n t sediment mixing c o e f f i c i e n t i n t h e nearbed r e g i o n . Above t h i s r e g i o n . t h e sediment mixing c o e f f i c i e n t i n c r e a s e s r a t h e r


s t r o n g l y upto the mid-depth l e v e l . I n the upper h a l f o f the water depth

the

measured sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t shows a ( r e l a t i v e l y ) weak i n c r e a s e . None


o f t h e proposed r e l a t i o n s h i p s has a d i s t r i b u t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e
measured v a l u e s . Most expressions y i e l d values which are much too l a r g e . The
e x p r e s s i o n proposed by N i e l s e n produces a m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t o f the r i g h t
o r d e r o f magnitude i n the near-bed r e g i o n . The expression o f Lundgren, which
o n l y r e p r e s e n t s the t u r b u l e n c e - r e l a t e d mixing process i n the boundary l a y e r ,
y i e l d s values o f the r i g h t order o f magnitude i n the near-bed r e g i o n .
t h e boundary l a y e r ( 6 ^ ^ 0.015

Outside

m) the sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t o f Lundgren

decreases r a p i d l y .
F i g u r e 9.3.4B shows measured and computed c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s f o r t h e same
experiment.

The computed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s are based on a n u m e r i c a l s o l u t i o n o f

t h e d i f f u s i o n equation (Eqs. 9.3.3


expressions

f o r the sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n measured i n

t h e lowest sampling
9500 mg/1

and 9.3.6) a p p l y i n g the proposed

p o i n t has been used as bed boundary c o n c e n t r a t i o n ( c ^ =

a t z = 0.02

m) f o r the numerical computation

o f the c o n c e n t r a t i o n

p r o f i l e . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e based on the sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t o f


Lundgren shows reasonable

r e s u l t s i n the near-bed r e g i o n (z < 0.2

h ) . Outside

t h e boundary l a y e r the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s decrease much too r a p i d l y . Comparing the


o t h e r methods, the N i e l s e n method y i e l d s the most reasonable

results.

methods o f Homma-Horikawa, B i j k e r , Swart, D a l l y , Skafel-Krishnappan


Kos'yan produce i n c o r r e c t r e s u l t s .

The

and

-9.22-

9.3.4.2

New r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r wave-related m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t

Since t h e e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r the wave-related sediment m i x i n g


c o e f f i c i e n t do n o t y i e l d acceptable r e s u l t s ( F i g u r e 9 . 3 . 4 ) , a new approach i s
i n t r o d u c e d by Van R i j n :

T h i s approach i s as f o l l o w s :
o

compute sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t (e

) from measured c o n c e n t r a t i o n

S yw

profiles,

r e p r e s e n t t h e v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e computed sediment m i x i n g
c o e f f i c i e n t by a simple r e l a t i o n s h i p ,

r e l a t e t h e e m p i r i c a l c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h i s l a t t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o b a s i c wave
parameters

by c a l i b r a t i o n w i t h experimental data.

A p p l y i n g Eqs. ( 9 . 3 3 ) and ( 9 . 3 . 6 ) , t h e sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t can be


determined as:
(1-c)^ c w
^s,w =

dc/dz

(9.3.20)

'

which i s r e p r e s e n t e d n u m e r i c a l l y a s :
( 1 - c . ) ^ c. w

i
2

in

(9.3.21)

i_sj^
^ V

^1-1

which:

Cj^

= sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n p o i n t i

z^

= h e i g h t o f p o i n t i above bed

Wg

= f a l l velocity i n point i

The e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a o f Bosman (1982, 1986) have been a p p l i e d i n t h e p r e s e n t


a n a l y s i s . Bosman measured c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s above a sand bed ( d ^ ^
i n a wave flume. A s p e c i a l measuring technique was used t o o b t a i n

100 ym)

time-averaged

and space-averaged sand c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . The i n t a k e tubes o f the pump samples


were moved f o r w a r d s and backwards ( h o r i z o n t a l l y ) over a few r i p p l e l e n g t h s t o
e l i m i n a t e t h e l o c a l i n f l u e n c e o f t h e r i p p l e s . The lowest sampling p o i n t was
l o c a t e d j u s t above t h e t o p o f the r i p p l e s . The t o t a l sampling p e r i o d was about
10 minutes.

-9.23-

( 9 . 3 . 2 1 ) , the measured c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s have been

Before a p p l y i n g Eq.
"smoothed". The

v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the f a l l v e l o c i t y (Wg ^) o f t h e

sus-

pended m a t e r i a l ( g r a d a t i o n e f f e c t s ) has been taken i n t o account by a p p l y i n g


the a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s o f the suspended sediment samples. For z > 0.1 m t h e suspended sediment s i z e i s about 80 ym y i e l d i n g a f a l l v e l o c i t y o f 0.0055 m/s.
For z < 0,1 m t h e r e i s a gradual t r a n s i t i o n from a s i z e o f 80 ym t o t h e median
bed m a t e r i a l s i z e o f 105 ym ( f a l l v e l o c i t y = 0,0085 m/s).

F i g u r e 9.3.5

shows the v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the computed m i x i n g

c i e n t s f o r non-breaking

The
o

following

characteristics

can be

= 0,4

and

0,5.

observed:

a p p r o x i m a t e l y c o n s t a n t m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t ( e ^ ^ ^^^) i n a l a y e r ( 6 ^ ) near
the

waves w i t h Hg/h

coeffi-

bed,

a p p r o x i m a t e l y c o n s t a n t m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t (e

) i n the upper h a l f
S y W y luaX

(z > 0.5

h) o f the water

depth.

a p p r o x i m a t e l y l i n e a r v a r i a t i o n f o r 6 < z < 0.5


s

h.

S i m i l a r v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s have been observed by Van der G r a a f f ( 1 9 8 8 ) .


Based on the p r e s e n t r e s u l t s , the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p

z < 6
s

^s <

I, ,
s,w,bed

(9.3.22a)

e
= e_.
s, w
s,w,max

(9.3.22b)

z > 0.5

<

Equation

i s proposed:

s,w

= e

z-6
^s,w = ^s,w,bed ^ ^s,w,maK-^s,w,bedHT5h?^l

( 9 . 3 . 2 2 ) i s a l s o shown i n F i g u r e 9.3.5. Equation

d e f i n e d when t h e f o l l o w i n g

(9.3.22c)

(9.3.22) i s f u l l y

t h r e e parameters are known:

1.

t h i c k n e s s o f near-bed sediment m i x i n g l a y e r

2.
3.

m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t near the bed ( e ^ ^ bed^'


m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t i n the upper h a l f o f the depth (e

The

f o l l o w i n g s t e p i n the a n a l y s i s i s t o r e l a t e these t h r e e parameters t o b a s i c

wave

parameters.

(6),
s
.

-9.24-

Thickness o f near-bed sediment mixing l a y e r (6 )



3
A n a l y s i s o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s measured by Bosman shows t h e presence o f
a near-bed l a y e r w i t h an almost constant mixing c o e f f i c i e n t ( F i g . 9 . 3 . 5 ) .
The t h i c k n e s s o f t h i s l a y e r i s about 0 . 0 3 t o 0 . 0 5 m, which i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y
3 t o 6 times t h e r i p p l e h e i g h t .
In case o f a f l a t bed (sheet f l o w ) t h e e f f e c t i v e sediment m i x i n g l a y e r 6
s

w i l l be p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e wave boundary l a y e r 6^. Here, i t i s assumed


that:
6

= 3 A

6g = 3 6^

(9.3.23)

( r i p p l e regime)
(sheet f l o w regime)

i n which:
= r i p p l e height
6^ = wave boundary l a y e r t h i c k n e s s (Equation

(2.3.8))

6 = t h i c k n e s s o f near-bed sediment mixing l a y e r


s
M i x i n g _ c o e f f i c i e n t i n near-bed l a y e r (e

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

, ,)

SJWJDGQ

B a s i c a l l y , the m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t i s d e f i n e d as the p r o d u c t o f a l e n g t h
s c a l e and a v e l o c i t y s c a l e , as f o l l o w s :
eg^ L U

(9.3.24)

In case o f o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w near t h e bed i t seems l o g i c t o assume:


es,w,bed = %

(9.3.25)

5 6s

i n which:
= empirical coefficient
Ug = peak value o f near-bed o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y (Eq. ( 2 . 3 . 2 ) )
6 = t h i c k n e s s o f near-bed sediment mixing l a y e r (Eq. ( 9 . 3 . 2 3 ) )
s
Sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n measurements i n waves alone o f Nieuwjaar
Van R i j n ( 1 9 8 7 ) ,

Bosman ( 1 9 8 2 ) and Van der Velden ( 1 9 8 6 )

(1987),

have been used t o

determine t h e a , - c o e f f i c i e n t .
b
The data s e t s o f Nieuwjaar ( 1 9 8 7 ) ,
been d e s c r i b e d i n S e c t i o n 9 . 2 . 2 .

Bosman (1984) and Van R i j n ( I 9 8 8 ) have

The measurements o f Van der Velden

(I986)

were performed i n a wave-tunnel w i t h a sand bed o f d^^ ^ 36O ym. A l l mea-

-9.25-

sured e
, .-values have been d e r i v e d from t h e measured c o n c e n t r a t i o n s
s,w,bed
i n t h e near-bed r e g i o n a p p l y i n g an e x p o n e n t i a l f i t ,

which i m p l i e s a con-

stant mixing c o e f f i c i e n t .
The
t o be dependent on t h e D p a r t i c l e parameter
The OO jj ^^ -- cc oo ee ff ff ii cc ii ee nn tt was
was ffound
(
(Eq. ( 3 . 1 ) ) , as f o l l o w s :
= 0.004 Djj

(9.3.26)

F i g u r e 9.3.6 shows measured and computed m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e c a l i bration

data. A l l 29 computed values a r e w i t h i n a f a c t o r 2 o f the measured

v a l u e s . The Oj^-coeff i c i e n t depends on the Dj*-parameter. e x p r e s s i n g an


increased m i x i n g e f f e c t i n t h e near-bed r e g i o n f o r l a r g e r
This can be e x p l a i n e d by t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e eddy-induced
forces acting

centrifugal

on t h e p a r t i c l e s . The m i x i n g process i n t h e near-bed l a y e r

i s dominated by r i p p l e - r e l a t e d
out"

particle sizes.

eddy motions r e s u l t i n g i n a " s p i r a l l i n g

process and hence i n an increased m i x i n g e f f e c t . T h i s l a t t e r

effect

has been s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l by N i e l s e n (1979). N i e l s e n shows t h a t t h e


r a d i u s o f a sand p a r t i c l e o r b i t can be increased by a f a c t o r 2 a f t e r one
eddy

revolution.

M i x i n g2 c o e f f i c i e n t i n upper l ai _y _e r (e
s,w,max )
For t h e upper l a y e r i t i s assumed t h a t :

es,w,max " Wo.5h ^

(9.3.27)

i n which:
Wo.5h = peak v a l u e o f v e r t i c a l o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y a t mid-depth l e v e l
h

= water depth

From l i n e a r wave t h e o r y i t f o l l o w s

that:

W
"0.5h T

(9.3.28)
vf.o.i"/

Combining Equations (9.3.27) and (9.3.28) i t f o l l o w s

u ,v = m
s,w,max

> 0.5

that:

(9.3.29)

-9.26-

i n which:
= empirical coefficient

The

c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s measured by Bosman ( 1 9 8 4 ) and Van

have been used t o determine


( 9 . 3 . 2 2 ) and

the a ^ - c o e f f i c i e n t . Equations

(198?)

Rijn

(9.3.3),

(9.3.6),

( 9 . 3 . 2 5 ) have been a p p l i e d t o compute n u m e r i c a l l y t h e concen-

t r a t i o n p r o f i l e w i t h the c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the lowest measuring p o i n t as


boundary c o n d i t i o n . The a ^ - c o e f f i c i e n t was

bed

v a r i e d u n t i l good agreement

between measured and computed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s was o b t a i n e d . Some r e s u l t s


shown i n F i g . 9 . 3 . 7 . Based on t h i s c a l i b r a t i o n method, i t was

found

= 0.035

are

that:

(9.3.30)

S e n s i t i v i t y analysis
The b a s i c parameters o f the v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the sediment m i x i n g
c o e f f i c i e n t are the a , - c o e f f i c i e n t , the a - c o e f f i c i e n t and
b
m

the near-bed

sediment m i x i n g l a y e r t h i c k n e s s , 6 . To get a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g

o f the

i n f l u e n c e o f these t h r e e parameters on t h e computed sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n


p r o f i l e , a s e n s i t i v i t y a n a l y s i s have been c a r r i e d o u t . Each parameter
been v a r i e d over an u n c e r t a i n t y range o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50%,

keeping

o t h e r parameters constant. The r e s u l t s are shown i n F i g u r e 9 . 3 . 8 .

has

the

As

can

be observed i n F i g u r e 9 . 3 . 8 A , the i n f l u e n c e o f the c t ^ - c o e f f i c i e n t i s r a t h e r


l a r g e , because i t d i r e c t l y a f f e c t s the m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t i n the near-bed
r e g i o n . E s p e c i a l l y , a r e d u c t i o n o f the a j _ ^ - c o e f f i c i e n t

w i t h 5 0 ^ has a l a r g e

e f f e c t y i e l d i n g a decrease o f the mid-depth c o n c e n t r a t i o n by a f a c t o r


The

i n f l u e n c e o f the a ^ ^ - c o e f f i c i e n t , which a f f e c t s the m i x i n g

i n the upper l a y e r s , i s l e s s pronounced ( F i g , 9 . 3 . 8 C ) . The

5!

coefficient

6 - v a l u e has
s

r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l e f f e c t on the c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e ( F i g , 9 , 3 , 8 B ) ,
Based on these r e s u l t s , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h should

be

focussed on the m i x i n g process i n near-bed l a y e r .


9.3.5

Sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t i n b r e a k i n g waves

Figure 9 . 3 . 9

shows t h e v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the sediment m i x i n g

c i e n t s d e r i v e d from c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s measured i n s p i l l i n g and

coeffiplunging

b r e a k i n g waves (Bosman, 1 9 8 2 ) . As can be observed, the m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r


b r e a k i n g waves are c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r than those f o r non-breaking

waves.

-9.27-

which i s not s u r p r i s i n g

(see S e c t i o n 9 . 2 . 2 ) . However, the v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u -

t i o n o f the m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r b r e a k i n g waves i s q u i t e s i m i l a r t o t h a t
f o r non-breaking

waves, which i s a remarkable

feature.

Based on t h i s s i m i l a r i t y o f the v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the m i x i n g c o e f f i cients,

a simple approach i s proposed by i n t r o d u c i n g

a breaking

(a^^^) which a c t s as a m u l t i p l i e r on the m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t f o r


waves, as

non-breaking

follows:

^s,w,br = V
in

coefficient

S,w

(9.3.31;

which:

^c. .. wv, = sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t i n case o f b r e a k i n g waves


S J W J D"

= sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t i n case o f non-breaking


= breaking

The

waves

coefficient

a j ^ ^ - c o e f f i c i e n t i s assumed t o be c o n s t a n t over the depth and

dependent on t h e breaker t y p e . I n S e c t i o n 2 . 3 . 6
breaker

i t has been shown t h a t

the

type ( s p i l l i n g o r p l u n g i n g ) depends on the r a t i o o f the wave h e i g h t

and water depth

(H^/h), as

s p i l l i n g b r e a k e r s : H /h <
s
p l u n g i n g b r e a k e r s : H /h >
s

follows:

0.6
0.6

Since s p i l l i n g b r e a k i n g waves are l e s s e f f e c t i v e i n e n t r a i n i n g

and

t h e sediment p a r t i c l e s than p l u n g i n g waves (see S e c t i o n 9 . 2 . 2 ) ,


t h a t oi|^^ = 1 f o r s p i l l i n g b r e a k i n g waves (H^/h < 0 . 6 )
waves (H /h >
s

i t i s assumed

0.6).

(9.3.3),

centration

suspending

and a^^ > 1 f o r p l u n g i n g

F i g u r e 9 . 3 . 1 0 shows measured and computed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . The


on Eqs.

t o be

(9.3.6),

(9.3.22),

(9.3.25),

( 9 . 3 . 2 9 ) and

l a t t e r a r e based

( 9 . 3 . 3 1 ) . The

con-

measured i n the l o w e s t measuring p o i n t has been used as r e f e r e n c e

concentration. Application
and a|^^ = 2 f o r Hg/h = 0 . 9 5

o f a,
=1
br

f o r H/h = 0 . 6 ,
s
'

= 1.2
br

f o r H/h
s

=0.7

y i e l d s s a t i s f a c t o r y agreement between measured and

computed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s .
As a f i r s t approach, the f o l l o w i n g
r"s,

"s

relationship

i s proposed:

(9.3.32)

-9.28-

( 9 . 3 . 3 2 ) y i e l d s values i n the range o f

Equation

= 1 t o 2 . 2 f o r Hg/h = 0 . 6

to 1.
D e t a i l e d e x p e r i m e n t a l research i n a wave flume i s necessary t o study t h e e f f e c t
o f b r e a k i n g waves on t h e sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s and t o v e r i f y t h e
v a l i d i t y o f t h e proposed approach (oj^^-coeff i c i e n t ) .

9.3.6

Sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t f o r non-breaking

and b r e a k i n g waves

Summarizing, i t i s proposed by Van R i j n t o apply t h e f o l l o w i n g

expressions f o r

the wave-related sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t (e


).
^
s,w'
(9.3.33a)

z < 6

->-0.5h

e^^^^^^^

(9.3.33b)

6^ < z < 0 . 5 h

e^^^ = e^^^^^^^ . [^s,w,max-s,w,bedHyrrl


s

(9.3.33c)

s,w

= e ^ ^

s,w,bed

es,w,bed = O.OOH Djj ab^, fig Ug

(9-3.34)

^s,w,max = 0 . 0 3 5 a^^^

(9.3.35)

P
H
% r

in
6g
h
H
s
Tp

= 3 [{^]

H
- 0.8

for

> 0.6

(9.3.36)

which:
= t h i c k n e s s o f near-bed sediment m i x i n g l a y e r (= 3
= water depth
= s i g n i f i c a n t wave h e i g h t

or = 3 6^)

= peak p e r i o d

Ug

= peak value o f o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y near bed (based on H and T)


.
p

D^

= p a r t i c l e parameter

a^^ = b r e a k i n g c o e f f i c i e n t
The

6 - v a l u e i s p r 9 p o s e d t o be:

5g = 3 A^

f o r a r i p p l e d bed (A^ = r i p p l e h e i g h t )

(9.3.37a)

g = 3 6^

f o r a f l a t bed (sheet f l o w , 6^ = wave boundary l a y e r )

(9.3.37b)

-9.29-

9.3.7

Reference c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n near-bed r e g i o n

Approach
For u n i d i r e c t i o n a l steady f l o w the w r i t e r has proposed a simple d e t e r m i n i s t i c
e x p r e s s i o n (Eq. 8 . 3 . 1 7 ) t o compute the r e f e r e n c e c o n c e n t r a t i o n , which reads

as:

d^ 1 . 5
"a
in

which:

Djj

= [(s-1)g/v J

= fx'
^ b,c
b,c
b,cr

d^Q

= dimensionless p a r t i c l e diameter

(-)

l/x,
= dimensionless bed-shear parameter
h,cv' b,cr

= u
= c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d e f f e c t i v e bed-shear s t e s s
^c
b,c
= c r i t i c a l bed-shear s t r e s s according t o S h i e l d s
= reference concentration

(-)
(N/m2)
(N/m2)
(kg/m3)

a
Equation ( 9 . 3 . 3 8 )

i s assumed t o be v a l i d f o r o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w as w e l l , a p p l y i n g

an e f f e c t i v e w a v e - r e l a t e d bed shear s t r e s s , as f o l l o w s :

T'

= U

in

which:

b,w

(9.3.39)

b,w

T'
= w a v e - r e l a t e d e f f e c t i v e bed-shear s t r e s s (N/m^)
b ,w
y
= w a v e - r e l a t e d e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r (-)
w
= w a v e - r e l a t e d bed-shear s t r e s s (N/m^) a c c o r d i n g t o Eq.
b ,w

(2.3.14)

The e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r y i s unknown but can be determined by c a l i b r a t i o n u s i n g


w
e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s (see next s e c t i o n ) .
F i r s t , the r e f e r e n c e l e v e l i s discussed. I n case o f a bed form regime i t i s
proposed t o a p p l y t h e r e f e r e n c e l e v e l a t the c r e s t l e v e l o f the bed forms

(see

F i g . 8 . 3 . 1 ) , which means t h a t the r e f e r e n c e l e v e l a i s equal t o h a l f t h e bed


form h e i g h t . Thus a = 0.5

A .

I n case o f sheet f l o w c o n d i t i o n s w i t h a f l a t bed i t i s proposed t o a p p l y the


r e f e r e n c e l e v e l a t t h e o u t e r edge o f the sheet f l o w l a y e r , which means t h a t
t h e r e f e r e n c e l e v e l i s equal t o the t h i c k n e s s o f the wave boundary l a y e r .

-9.30-

Thus, a = 6^. Summarizing:

bed forms : a = 0.5

(9.3.40a)

sheet f l o w :

(9.3.40b)

in

a = 6^

which:

= r i p p l e height
" ("
1-0 25
6^ = 0.072 AU/SdgoJ
"
= t h i c k n e s s o f wave boundary l a y e r , see Eq. ( 2 . 3 . 8 )
The sediment p a r t i c l e s below t h e r e f e r e n c e l e v e l a r e assumed t o be t r a n s p o r t e d
as bed l o a d both i n t h e bed form and t h e sheet f l o w regime. Bed l o a d
a r e presented

formulae

i n Section 9.6.

C a l i b r a t i o n o f wave-related

e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r y

The e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r (y ) r e p r e s e n t s t h a t p a r t o f the bed-shear s t r e s s t h a t


w

i s a p p l i e d t o e n t r a i n the sediment p a r t i c l e s from t h e bed i n t o t h e f l o w . When


bed forms a r e p r e s e n t , t h e e f f i c i e n c y - f a c t o r should be s m a l l e r then u n i t y
( y ^ < 1) because a p a r t o f t h e bed-shear s t r e s s i s e x e r t e d by pressure

forces

( f o r m d r a g ) g e n e r a t i n g eddies i n t h e l e e s i d e r e g i o n o f t h e bed forms. These


l a t t e r f o r c e s a r e l e s s i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e sediment entrainment process i n t h e
case o f u n i d i r e c t i o n a l f l o w (over dunes).

I n t h a t case t h e e n t r a i n m e n t

process

i s governed by s k i n - f r i c t i o n f o r c e s a t the u p s l o p i n g p a r t o f t h e bed forms. I n


t h e case o f o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w over bed forms ( r i p p l e s ) i t i s n o t r e a l i s t i c t o
r e l a t e t h e sediment entrainment process t o s k i n - f r i c t i o n f o r c e s a l o n e , as
proposed by N i e l s e n (1979) and Grant and Madsen ( 1 9 8 2 ) . V i s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n
c l e a r l y shows the a c t i v e r o l e o f t h e r i p p l e - r e l a t e d eddies ( f r o m d r a g ) t h a t
a r e moving forwards and backwards over t h e r i p p l e s . Kennedy and Locher (1972)
a l s o emphasize the s t r o n g e f f e c t o f t h e r i p p l e s on the flow-bed
According

interaction.

t o t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s , t h e entrainment process i s l a r g e l y governed

by t h e r i p p l e spacing and the s t r e n g t h o f t h e l e e eddies near t h e r i p p l e


crests.
Time-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n t h e near-bed r e g i o n as measured by N i e u w j a a r
Van der K a a i j ( 1 9 8 7 ) , Nap-Van Kampen ( 1 9 8 8 ) , S t e e t z e l ( 1 9 8 7 ) , R o e l v i n k

(1988),

Bosman (1982, 1986), Van der Velden ( 1 9 8 6 ) , Van R i j n ( 1 9 8 7 ) , Kroon-Van R i j n


( 1 9 8 8 ) . The measurements o f Van der Velden were c a r r i e d o u t i n a wave t u n n e l
w i t h s i n u s o i d a l o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w . The o t h e r measurements were c a r r i e d o u t i n

-9.si-

s m a l l - s c a l e and l a r g e - s c a l e wave flumes w i t h i r r e g u l a r o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w . The


data s e t o f Kroon-Van R i j n (1988) r e f e r s t o f i e l d measurements i n t h e s u r f
zone o f t h e Dutch coast near Groote Keeten. The b a s i c data a r e g i v e n i n Table
9 . 1 . 1 . The r e f e r e n c e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s s p e c i f i e d i n t h i s Table a r e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s
at

t h e t o p o f t h e bed forms or a t the t o p o f t h e wave boundary l a y e r . These

"measured" r e f e r e n c e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s were o b t a i n e d by p l o t t i n g t h e measured


near-bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s on s e m i l o g a r i t h m i c s c a l e and a p p l y i n g a s t r a i g h t
f i t which was e x t r a p o l a t e d t o t h e r e q u i r e d r e f e r e n c e l e v e l ( a = 0.5

line

or

a = 6 a c c o r d i n g t o Eq. ( 9 . 3 . 4 0 ) . I n a l l , 61 data have been used,


w
The c a l i b r a t i o n procedure was, as f o l l o w s :
1.

compute p a r t i c l e parameter D by Eq. ( 3 . 1 )

2.

compute e f f e c t i v e bed roughness,

^ by Eq. ( 7 . 3 . 7 ) f o r r i p p l e regime and

by Eq. ( 7 . 3 . 5 ) f o r sheet f l o w regime


3.

compute wave-related

f r i c t i o n f a c t o r , f^^ by Eq. ( 2 . 3 . 2 0 )

4.

compute wave-related

bed-shear s t r e s s , x.

5.

compute c r i t i c a l bed-shear s t r e s s , x.

6.

compute t h e wave-related

by Eq. ( 2 . 3 . 1 4 )
by Eq. ( 5 . 1 . 2 )
by Eq. ( 9 . 3 . 3 8 ) u s i n g t h e

efficiency factor y
W

measured r e f e r e n c e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s from Table 9 . 1 . 1 .


Based on t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e c a l i b r a t i o n r e s u l t s , t h e y ^ - f a c t o r was found t o
be dependent on t h e D j f - p a r t i c l e parameter, as f o l l o w s :

F i g u r e 9 . 3 . 1 1 shows t h e r a t i o o f t h e measured and computed r e f e r e n c e concent r a t i o n s as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e o v e r a l l wave-related

bed-shear s t r e s s x, .
b ,w

About 75^ o f a l l computed values a r e w i t h i n a f a c t o r 2 o f t h e measured concent r a t i o n s . A l l computed v a l u e s a r e w i t h i n a f a c t o r 3 o f t h e measured v a l u e s .


Systematic

e f f e c t s r e l a t e d t o t h e bed-shear s t r e s s cannot be observed.

-9.32-

9.3.8

Computation methods

The f o l l o w i n g methods a r e d e s c r i b e d :
1.

Van R i j n

(1988)

2.

Bijker

3.

S k a f e l - K r i s h n a p p a n (1984)

4.

Nielsen

5.

Fredseie e t a l (1985)

(1967, 1971)

(1984)

!;?!t}2_2Ly2_5iJ" (1988)
A p p l y i n g Eqs. (9.3.33) and n e g l e c t i n g t h e h i n d e r e d s e t t l i n g e f f e c t , t h e
c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e can be o b t a i n e d by i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e time-averaged
c o n v e c t i o n - d i f f u s i o n (Eq. (9.3.3) y i e l d i n g :
a < z < 6g

^
a

w (a-z)/e
, ,
= [e] ^
^'"''^^^

(9.3.42a)

6s ^ z < 0.5 h

o_ _ r , i " s ( ^ - ^ s ) / ^ s , w , b e d r _ _ J ^ _ ^ ^ / ^ ^ ^s,w,bed)
c. "
Ih- + YY(z
(Z )^
- 663)

,
^
(9.3.4^bJ

0^5h < z < h

c_ _ r ^ i
c^
a

s^"

,, y,^^^
V,
,w^h/(Y
s^' s.w.bedr
h
"s"'^'
ih+Y(0.5h-6 )
s

., J .
s,w,bed'r

,wj0.5h-z)/
"s^"*-^"
s,w,ma
(9.3.42c)

in which:
r
h
1 f s,w,max" ^s.w.bedi
. . ,
Y = irTE
T'

= coefficient
u. on - 0
e
, ,
'
s
s,w,bed
c

= r e f e r e n c e c o n c e n t r a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o Eq. (9.3.38)

= r e f e r e n c e l e v e l a c c o r d i n g t o Eq. (9.3.40)

r water depth t o s t i l l water l e v e l

6^
= t h i c k n e s s o f near-bed m i x i n g l a y e r a c c o r d i n g t o Eq, (9.3.37)
s
E g w bed ' '^^^i^"^ m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t i n near-bed r e g i o n , Eq. (9.3.34)
> mov = sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t i n upper l a y e r , Eq. (9.3.35)
w
= p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y i n c l e a r water
s
z
= v e r t i c a l c o o r d i n a t e above bed

-9.33-

The computation procedure i s , as f o l l o w s :


1

1.

compute wave parameters L, Ag and Ug

2.

compute p a r t i c l e parameter

3.

compute r i p p l e h e i g h t and l e n g t h ,

Eq.

(3.1)

qs. ( 6 . 3 . 7 )

and

and

(6.3.8)

4.

compute wave-related bed roughness, kg ^,

Eq,

(7.3.1)

5.

compute w a v e - f r i c t i o n f a c t o r , f ^ .

Eq.

(2.3.20)

6.

compute e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r , y^.

Eq.

(9.3.41)

7.

compute wave-related bed-shear s t r e s s ,

Eq.

(2.3.14)

8.

compute wave-related e f f e c t i v e bed-shear s t r e s s ,

Eq.

(9.3.39)

9.

compute c r i t i c a l bed-shear s t r e s s ,

Eq.

(5.1.2)

10.

compute bed-shear s t r e s s parameter, T,

Eq.

(9.3.38)

11.

compute r e f e r e n c e l e v e l , a

Eq.

(9.3.40)

12.

compute r e f e r e n c e c o n c e n t r a t i o n , c^

Eq.

(9.3.38)

13.

compute sediment m i x i n g

Eqs. ( 9 . 3 . 3 4 )

14.
15.

e
, , and e
,
s,w,bed
s,w,max'
compute near-bed m i x i n g l a y e r , 6 ,
s
compute p a r t i c l e .size suspended sediment, dg

16.
17.

^,

coefficients.

^,

and

(9.3.35)

Eq.

(9.3.37)

Eq.

(9.3.5)

compute p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y , Wg

Eq.

(4.2.22)

compute c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e , c.

Eqs. ( 9 . 3 . 4 2 )

The f o l l o w i n g i n p u t data a r e r e q u i r e d :

= s i g n i f i c a n t wave h e i g h t (m)

Tp

= peak wave p e r i o d ( s )

= water depth (m)

d^Q = median p a r t i c l e s i z e o f bed m a t e r i a l (m)


dgQ = 90% p a r t i c l e s i z e o f bed m a t e r i a l (m)
p

= f l u i d d e n s i t y (kg/m^)

= sediment d e n s i t y

(kg/m3)

= k i n e m a t i c v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t (m^/s)

B i j k e r (1967,

1971)

O r i g i n a l l y , t h i s method has been developed by B i j k e r t o compute t h e conc e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e i n case o f combined c u r r e n t s and waves. I n case o f
waves alone t h e method can be s i m p l i f i e d t o :

-9.347

c_
r a
c = Ih-a
a

h-zi

(9.3

~ J

c =
"a " 6 . 3 4 a

...

"-S

exp[-

-^50

(9.3

^ ]

i n which:
c^

= reference concentration

(kg/m3)

= '^^s = t h i c k n e s s o f bed load l a y e r

(m)

k^

= e f f e c t i v e roughness o f bed

(m)

= water depth

(,)

'^b w " time-averaged o v e r a l l bed-shear s t r e s s (based on


'
rms-wave h e i g h t i n case o f i r r e g u l a r waves)
d^Q

= median p a r t i c l e diameter o f bed m a t e r i a l

= empirical coefficient
w
s
=
= suspension parameter

^
w
s
K

(m/s)

= c o n s t a n t o f Von Karman ( 0 . 4 )
velocity

= (C/C)^'^

= 1 8 log(12h/kg)

C'

= 18 log(12h/dgQ) = Chzy-coefficient r e l a t e d t o
grains

= efficiency factor
= O v e r a l l Chzy-coefficient

t55?5i_:_!^i5h!2PPan ( 1984)
T h i s method reads, as f o l l o w s :
r

'^a

(m)
(~ 5)

= p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y o f suspended sediment

"*,w " ('^b,w^'^^'^ ' time-averaged bed-shear

ei

(N/m2)

Wo

z-ai

.u,w d50 -2.2


= 8.7 [ - ^ ]

a Ug

% = ^^-5 Ps "s ^50 t i ^ r

(m/s)

(_)
(mo.Vs)
(m0.5/s)

-9.35-

0.5

= a . p [ - 6 . 5 . M ^ r - " l

i n which:
q,

= time-averaged bed-load t r a n s p o r t r a t e d u r i n g
h a l f period
maximum value o f bed-shear s t r e s s r e l a t e d t o
skin-friction

b,w
f'
w
8^

= f r i c t i o n factor related t o grains


= coefficient

a = 3d^Q = t h i c k n e s s o f moving bed l a y e r


= r i p p l e height
dgQ, dgQ = p a r t i c l e s i z e s o f bed m a t e r i a l
Nielsen

(1984)

c - = exp r-z/L
/T 1

c = 0.005 p 0^
a
^s r
0.075 Av.u L
L

=
S

Wg

< 15
Wg

= 1.4 A
s

0) L
for

for
r

> 15
Wg

0'
(l-TT A /X

)^

0.15 f ^ () Ag)2
( s - 1 ) g d5o
f ^ = exp [ 5 . 2 (2.5 d5Q/Aj0.19 _ 6 ]

-9.36-

i n which:
c = reference concentration a t z = 0
a
= m o b i l i t y parameter

(kg/m3)

A
r i p p l e height
r
X
r i p p l e length
r
L = l e n g t h scale
s

(m)
(m)
(m)

2IT/T = angular frequency

U)

w = particle f a l l velocity
s
= peak value o f near-bed o r b i t a l excursion
f

w = grain-related f r i c t i o n
z = v e r t i c a l coordinate

y^[}2_LEE:5^!_?L5i

An instantaneous

(-)

coefficient

(-)
(m/s)
(m)
(-)

(m)

(1985)

approach i s f o l l o w e d t o o b t a i n the v e l o c i t i e s and sediment

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s w i t h i n the wave p e r i o d . The method i s v a l i d f o r non-breaking


and

breaking waves over a plane bed.

Flow
P o t e n t i a l f l o w o u t s i d e the wave^ boundary l a y e r :

U = Ug s i n ( w t )
The o r b i t a l v e l o c i t i e s i n s i d e the wave boundary l a y e r are d e r i v e d from t h e
instantaneous

momentum e q u a t i o n a p p l y i n g a l o g a r i t h m i c v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u -

t i o n f o r a rough bed:
3U

ap

1 3T

i t % i l F - p ^
ap .
ax "

" P

= 0

(9.3.47)

at

^*
U = ln(30z/k
K

)
S

V e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n over the wave boundary l a y e r y i e l d s :


S+z
= r

J" I t

(9.3.48)

-9.37-

The eddy v i s c o s i t y o r mixing c o e f f i c i e n t i s represented as:


2
^f =

'

^ ^t

= K |ujj I z( l - z / 6 ) = bottom-induced mixing c o e f f i c i e n t

e. = a k^'^

in

= wave-breaking induced m i x i n g c o e f f i c e n t

which:

S, = m i x i n g l e n g t h s c a l e (Deigaard e t a l , 1986)
k
(

= t u r b u l e n t k i n e t i c energy d e r i v e d from t r a n s p o r t e q u a t i o n f o r t h e
k i n e t i c energy ( k - e q u a t i o n )

= instantaneous wave boundary l a y e r t h i c k n e s s

Ujj = instantaneous bed-shear v e l o c i t y


U

= instantaneous

velocity

Ug = peak value o f o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y Just o u t s i d e boundary l a y e r


P

= instantaneous f l u i d

pressure

= instantaneous f l u i d shear s t r e s s

= f l u i d density

= Von Karman constant (= 0.4)

k^ = bed roughness (= 2.5 d^g)


z

= v e r t i c a l coordinate

Sediment
The sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s ( C ) are d e r i v e d from t h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s

convec-

t i o n - d i f f u s i o n e q u a t i o n a p p l y i n g a p r e s c r i b e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n a t t h e bed:
9C _

3t

3C _ a_ c

s 3z

3z

3CN

(9.3.49)

s 3Z-'

boundary c o n d i t i o n s : C, = f[-,
T:1 a t z = 2 d
^
b
^(pg-p)gd^Q^
50
: w C + H e
= 0 at z = h
s
3Z*- s 3Z''
in

which:

= instantaneous sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n

Wg = p a r t i c l e f a l l
e

velocity

= sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t (e

Pg = sediment d e n s i t y

= e)
S

-9.38-

Hindered

s e t t l i n g e f f e c t s and turbulence damping e f f e c t s due t o t h e l a r g e

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and g r a d i e n t s close t o the bed a r e n o t taken i n t o

account.

Numerical methods are a p p l i e d t o solve t h e momentum and c o n v e c t i o n - d i f f u sion equation.

9.3.9

Comparison o f measured and computed c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s

Nieuwjaar

and Van der K a a i j (1987) compared c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s computed

a c c o r d i n g t o the method o f Nielsen (1984) w i t h measured c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . The


measurements were performed

i n a wave flume w i t h bed m a t e r i a l o f about 200 ym.

The r e s u l t s a r e shown i n F i g . 9 . 3 . 1 2 . As can be observed, t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s


based on the N i e l s e n method a r e reasonably

good near the bed b u t c o n s i d e r a b l y

too s m a l l f u r t h e r away from the bed.


Sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s measured by Bosman (1984) and by Van R i j n
(1987) have been used by the present w r i t e r t o v e r i f y h i s computation
(see S e c t i o n 9 . 3 . 8 ) . The experiments

o f Bosman were performed

i n a small-scale

wave flume w i t h water depths i n t h e range o f 0.1 t o 0.6 m. The bed was
with ripples (height
performed

method

covered

^ 0.01 m). The measurements o f Van R i j n (1987) were

i n a l a r g e - s c a l e wave flume ( l e n g t h ^ 150 m, w i d t h =^ 5 m, depth =^ 7 m

Water depths were i n the range o f 2 t o 3 m. The bed m a t e r i a l s i z e was about


220 ym.
The bed was almost f l a t i n case o f l a r g e waves (H /h > 0 . 4 ) , w h i l e r i p p l e s
s
w i t h a h e i g h t o f about A

= 0.02 m were present i n case o f small waves (H^/h <

0 . 4 ) . The bed roughness h e i g h t i n a l l experiments

i s estimated as (see S e c t i o n

7.3):
^s,w = 3 dgo + 3

(9.3.50)

Measured and computed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a r e presented

i n Figures 9.3.13 t o 9 . 3 . 1 7 ,

showing reasonable agreement.


F i n a l l y , i t i s noted t h a t the computed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s are most s e n s i t i v e t o
the kg^^^-value. More research i n wave t u n n e l s i s necessary t o g e t a b e t t e r
understanding

o f the e f f e c t i v e wave-related

t h e plane bed regime.

bed roughness i n the r i p p l e and i n

-9.39-

9.4

Computation o f sediment t r a n s p o r t r a t e s

9.4.1

Introduction

Measured t r a n s p o r t r a t e s have been analyzed i n s e c t i o n

9.2.3.

H e r e i n , t h e a t t e n t i o n i s focussed on t h e computation methods.


B a s i c a l l y , two types o f approaches a r e a p p l i e d :

1.

sediment t r a n s p o r t formulae s i m i l a r t o the c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed l o a d


formulae and

2.

sediment t r a n s p o r t models r e p r e s e n t i n g
v e l o c i t y and c o n c e n t r a t i o n

9.4.2

both the instantaneous f l u i d

profiles.

Sediment t r a n s p o r t formulae

Since t h e major p a r t o f the sediment suspension i n wave c o n d i t i o n s i s c o n f i n e d


t o a r e g i o n c l o s e t o the bed ( w i t h i n 3 t o 5 times t h e r i p p l e h e i g h t o r t h e
sheet f l o w l a y e r t h i c k n e s s ) , i t seems l o g i c t o compute the w a v e - r e l a t e d
sediment t r a n s p o r t by a simple formula i n analogy w i t h the bed l o a d

transport

formulae a p p l i e d i n steady c u r r e n t s . A d i v i s i o n between bed load and suspended


l o a d o n l y i s o f academic i n t e r e s t .

The

e x i s t i n g formulae a r e g e n e r a l l y based on e m p i r i c a l concepts (as used i n

steady u n i f o r m f l o w ) i n combination w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l data f o r o s c i l l a t i n g


f l o w (wave t a n k s , wave t u n n e l s , o s c i l l a t i n g p l a t e s i n s t i l l

water).

I n some formulae t h e mean t o t a l sediment t r a n s p o r t i n a h a l f p e r i o d o f t h e


o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w (\^if) ^ t h e n e t t o t a l t r a n s p o r t r a t e per c y c l e (q^^g^) i s
expressed as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e h o r i z o n t a l peak v e l o c i t y Just o u t s i d e

t h e boun-

dary l a y e r , t h e g r a i n - r e l a t e d f r i c t i o n f a c t o r and t h e sediment parameters. I n


o t h e r formulae (Madsen and Grant 1976, B a l l a r d 1981) t h e sediment t r a n s p o r t i s
r e l a t e d t o t h e instantaneous f l u i d v e l o c i t y and i n t e g r a t e d over t h e complete
wave c y c l e t o o b t a i n t h e n e t t r a n s p o r t r a t e . I n t h i s l a t t e r approach t h e f o l l o w i n g assumptions a r e i m p l i c i t l y made:
-

t h e r e a r e no phase d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e instantaneous bed shear s t r e s s


and

t h e v e l o c i t y o u t s i d e t h e boundary l a y e r .

t h e r e a r e no phase d i f f e r e n c e s between instantaneous bed shear s t r e s s e s and


instantaneous t r a n s p o r t r a t e s .

-9.40-

These type o f formulae seem t o be best a p p l i c a b l e i n t h e f l a t bed regime where


the n e t t r a n s p o r t i s i n the d i r e c t i o n o f the l a r g e s t peak v e l o c i t y

(onshore).

When r i p p l e s are p r e s e n t ,

l a r g e phase d i f f e r e n c e s between instantaneous v e l o -

c i t i e s and c o n c e n t r a t i o n s

do occur which a r e caused by eddy motions a t t h e

l e e - s i d e o f the r i p p l e s . T h i s may lead t o a net t r a n s p o r t r a t e a g a i n s t the


wave d i r e c t i o n . I n a l l formulae the e f f e c t o f a n e t d r i f t v e l o c i t y i s n e g l e c H e r e i n , the f o l l o w i n g formulae a r e summarized: Madsen and Grant ( 1 9 7 6 ) ,

ted.

B a g n o l d - B a i l a r d ( 1 9 8 1 ) , Mielsen (1988), Hallermaler

( 1 9 8 2 ) , Sato-HorIkawa

( 1 9 8 6 ) , Sawamoto-Yamashita (1987) and Van R i j n .

1.

Madsen and Grant, 1976


^ w , h a l f - ^2-5

(9.4.1)

Wg d 5 Q ( 0 - ) 3

in

which:

h a l f ~ wave-induced sediment t r a n s p o r t averaged over a h a l f


'

cycle

(m^/s)

= p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y o f bed m a t e r i a l

d^Q

- median p a r t i c l e s i z e o f bed m a t e r i a l
0.5 fw(6)2
= 7T-\
~, = m o b i l i t y parameter
(s-1) g d5o
^

(m)
, ^
(-)

f^

= exp[-6+5.2(Ag/d^Q)~'^'- grain-related f r i c t i o n factor

(-)

Ug

= peak value o f near-bed o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y

(m/s)

= peak value o f near-bed o r b i t a l excursion


= f l u i d density
= sediment d e n s i t y

(m)
(kg/m3)
(kg/m3)

(m/s)

Ag
p
p
s
g

= acceleration of gravity

(m/s^)

The e m p i r i c a l c o e f f i c i e n t i s based on t h e c a l i b r a t i o n o f about 110 e x p e r i ments ( F i g . 9 . 4 . I A ) w i t h d^Q i n the range o f 300 t o 2800 ym; wave

periods

i n t h e range o f 1 t o 6 s; i n most t e s t s the bed was f l a t .


Equation ( 9 . 4 . 1 ) y i e l d s a n e t t r a n s p o r t r a t e i n the d i r e c t i o n o f the l a r gest peak v e l o c i t y ( u s u a l l y onshore).
Figure

9 . 4 . 1 A shows measured and p r e d i c t e d t r a n s p o r t r a t e s . According t o

Horikawa e t a l ( 1 9 8 2 ) , Eq. ( 9 . 4 . 1 )

i s a l s o v a l i d f o r sheet f l o w

conditions

based on a comparison w i t h measured t r a n s p o r t r a t e s i n the sheet f l o w


regime.

-9.41-

Bagnold-Bailard^_198l
The i n s t a n t a n e o u s bed load and suspended l o a d t r a n s p o r t r a t e s are
expressed

as:
p f

e
w b
fyS _ ^ | u | 3 i
( p - p ) g tany
~ tany

%,

q
=
^s,w
(Pg-p)g

(9.4.2)

(9.4.3)

[|U^|U - tan6|U|5]
^I
"
Wg
J

i n which:
i n s t a n t a n e o u s wave-induced bed load

%,w
q
^s,w
U

(mVs)

transport

i n s t a n t a n e o u s wave-induced suspended load

(m2/s)

transport

(m/s)

i n s t a n t a n e o u s near-bed o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y
(= 0.11 -

e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r f o r bed load t r a n s p o r t

%
%

e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r f o r suspended load t r a n s p o r t
overall f r i c t i o n

^w
6

0.15)

(= 0. 016 - 0.024)

factor

(-)
C)

bottom s l o p e

dynamic f r i c t i o n

angle

f a l l v e l o c i t y o f bed m a t e r i a l

()
(m/s)

O r i g i n a l l y , the formulae o f Bagnold were developed f o r steady u n i d i r e c t i o n a l f l o w . B a l l a r d a p p l i e d these formulae t o o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w over a


plane s l o p i n g bottom. Experimental v e r i f i c a t i o n has not been performed.
Equations ( 9 . 4 . 2 ) and ( 9 . 4 . 3 ) y i e l d a n e t t r a n s p o r t r a t e i n the d i r e c t i o n
o f t h e l a r g e s t peak v e l o c i t y ( u s u a l l y onshore).

Nielsen^_1988

^ = w c ( a ^ - a)A,

^w,net

s 0^ b

(9.4.4)

i n which:
q
L
^w,net
T
c = 0.005 e
o
r
0'
0 =
^

( 1 - TTA/X)

= net t r a n s p o r t r a t e over a wave c y c l e


^
= bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n
2

(m2/s)
(-)

= m o b i l i t y parameter a c c o u n t i n g f o r
r i p p l e shape

(-)

= r i p p l e height

(m)

= r i p p l e length

(m)

-9.42,

0.5 f ^ ( U 5 ) 2
(s-1)g

" m o b i l i t y parameter
- grain-related

(-)

f r i c t i o n factor

( k ^ = 2.5 d^^)

a^ = 0.5 [g Qj^/g)^ = entrainment c o e f f i c i e n t r e l a t e d t o


'
onshore motion

(-)

SL^ - 0.5 [Ug Qff/UgJ = entrainment c o e f f i c i e n t r e l a t e d t o


'
o f f s h o r e motion

(-)

Ug^on

= shoreward

extreme v e l o c i t y

(m/s)

Ug^off

= seaward extreme v e l o c i t y

(m/s)

Ug

= peak value o f near-bed o r b i t a l


based on l i n e a r theory

velocity
(m/s)

Ag

= peak value o f near-bed o r b i t a l e x c u r s i o n


based on l i n e a r t h e o r y

Equation (9.4.4) p r e d i c t s

a net transport

(m/s)

rate against the d i r e c t i o n o f

the l a r g e s t peak v e l o c i t y and i s o n l y v a l i d i n the r i p p l e

regime.

Hallermeier,_1982

^w,half = ^ 4

^^-^

(9.4.5)

i n which:

= (s-i)g d

) - 2IT/T

" mobility

parameter

= angular frequency

Equation (9.4.5) i s based on about 700 experiments w i t h d^Q i n t h e range


o f 150 t o 4200 ym and wave p e r i o d s i n t h e range o f 1 t o 9 s. The f o r m u l a
agrees w i t h measured t r a n s p o r t

r a t e s f o r 30 < I|J < 200. The p r e d i c t e d

rates

are t o o l a r g e f o r 0.05 < I|J < 30 (see F i g . 9.4. I B ) .


Equation (9.4.5) p r e d i c t s

a net transport

rate i n the d i r e c t i o n o f the

l a r g e s t peak v e l o c i t y .

55t2_:_t!2E:il5?!^5i_196

%
.nPh =
_^ d
. ^ ( 0 ' - 0 )0-5
^w,net
= 7
7 w
Wg
dg^O'-G^.

(9.4.6)

-9.43-

i n which:
q

= n e t t r a n s p o r t r a t e over a wave c y c l e

0' = ,1
( s - 1 ) g d^Q
0

= m o b i l i t y parameter

(-)

= c r i t i c a l m o b i l i t y parameters a c c o r d i n g t o
Shields

(-)

= f r i c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t a c c o r d i n g t o Eq. (2.3.20)
w i t h kg = d^Q as g r a i n roughness

(-)

"
w

(m^/s)

= particle f a l l velocity

(m/s)

= peak value o f near-bed o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y i n


wave p r o p a g a t i o n d i r e c t i o n

(m/s)

aS

Equation (9.4.6), which i s based on 36 e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a , p r e d i c t s a n e t


t r a n s p o r t r a t e a g a i n s t the d i r e c t i o n o f t h e l a r g e s t peak v e l o c i t y and i s
o n l y v a l i d f o r t h e r i p p l e regime (see F i g . 9.4.IC).

Sawamoto-Yamashita, 1987
Based on experiments performed i n a wave t u n n e l w i t h sand ( d ^ ^ = 200, 700
and

1800 ym), coal and p l a s t i c m a t e r i a l , the f o l l o w i n g e m p i r i c a l f o r m u l a

for

t h e sheet f l o w regime i s proposed:

s
i n which:
^
r
0 5^
Uj, = [0.5 f ' J
U = peak bed-shear v e l o c i t y
(m/s)
w
oA
n 1Q
= e x p [ - 6 + 5.2[Ag/dgQ)' ^ ] = g r a i n - r e l a t e d f r i c t i o n f a c t o r
(-)
dgQ = median p a r t i c l e diameter o f bed m a t e r i a l
w
U
A

(m)

= median f a l l v e l o c i t y o f bed m a t e r i a l

(m/s)

= peak value o f near-bed o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y

(m/s)

Ag

= peak value o f near-bed o r b i t a l e x c u r s i o n

(m)

yan_Rijn^_1988
Van R i j n proposes: t o determine the time-averaged t r a n s p o r t r a t e ( i n m 2 / s )
_

over h a l f t h e wave p e r i o d as q
coefficient.

u
= i^ c U. w i t h a. - c a l i b r a t i o n
w,half
1
a 6
1

-9.44-

A p p l y i n g Eq.

(9.3.38),

2 ^ 5 0 "6 T ' " '

\,half

in
T

the f o l l o w i n g expression can be d e r i v e d :

(9.4.8)

which:
= dimensionless bed-shear s t r e s s parameter, see Eq.
= dimensionless

Ug

p a r t i c l e parameter, see Eq.

= peak value o f near-bed o r b i t a l

(9-3.38)

(9.3.38)

velocity

d^Q = median p a r t i c l e diameter o f bed m a t e r i a l


a

- "reference l e v e l {- wave boundary l a y e r t h i c k n e s s )

= c a l i b r a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t (- 0 . 3 )

The c a l i b r a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t has been determined


measurements o f Horikawa e t a l

9.4.3

(1982),

from the sheet f l o w

as given i n s e c t i o n

9.2,3.

Sediment t r a n s p o r t models

A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f l i t e r a t u r e deals w i t h t h e m o d e l l i n g o f t h e sediment


c o n c e n t r a t i o n s w i t h i n the wave p e r i o d as an i n t e r m e d i a t e s t e p t o compute t h e
wave-induced t r a n s p o r t r a t e . This approach may be u s e f u l when t h e phase d i f f e rence between t h e instantaneous v e l o c i t i e s and sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a t t h e
v a r i o u s e l e v a t i o n s above the bed cannot be n e g l e c t e d .
D i v i d i n g t h e instantaneous v e l o c i t y (U) and c o n c e n t r a t i o n (C) i n a t i m e averaged p a r t ( u , c) and a time-dependent p a r t ( u , c ) , as f o l l o w s :

= u

= c

+ u

+ c

(9.4.9)

(9.4.10)

the n e t t o t a l time-averaged
h
\

"

t o t a l t r a n s p o r t r a t e can be expressed as:

h
'^z'^z

dz

(9.4.11)

The f i r s t term on t h e r i g h t hand s i d e r e p r e s e n t s the c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d p a r t ( q ^ )


o f t h e sediment t r a n s p o r t and the second p a r t r e p r e s e n t the wave-related
(5 ) . Thus:
w

part

-9.45-

h
=

(9.4.12)

u^c^ dz

o
q^ =

5^ dz

(9.4.13)

'

o
To compute the sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s w i t h i n the wave p e r i o d , the u s u a l
approach i s t o s o l v e the ( s i m p l i f i e d ) c o n v e c t i o n - d i f f u s i o n e q u a t i o n . Neglect i n g the h o r i z o n t a l convection, the h o r i z o n t a l d i f f u s i o n and the v e r t i c a l
c o n v e c t i o n , t h e s i m p l i f i e d equation reads as:

3t

and

s,m

3C _ 3_ .
9z
9z
s,w

9Ci
3z^

(9.4.14)
vy.t.it;

i s o n l y v a l i d f o r plane bed regime (sheet f l o w ) . A n a l y t i c a l or n u m e r i c a l

s o l u t i o n r e q u i r e s s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f the f a l l v e l o c i t y ( W g ) , the sediment d i f f u s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t (e ) and boundary c o n d i t i o n s a t the bed and a t the water

sur

f a c e . U s u a l l y , a separate o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w model i s a p p l i e d t o compute t h e


sediment d i f f u s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t and the instantaneous bed-shear s t r e s s . T h i s
l a t t e r parameter i s then used to compute the instantaneous bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n .
Based on t h i s ,

the c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s can be computed as a f u n c t i o n o f

time.
A p p l y i n g Equation
ted.

( 9 . 4 . 1 3 ) , the net wave-induced t r a n s p o r t r a t e can be compu-

Various models are proposed i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Bakker (1974) a p p l i e d a

n u m e r i c a l model and used a mixing l e n g t h concept t o determine

the sediment

d i f f u s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t . The expressions o f E i n s t e i n have been a p p l i e d t o s p e c i f y


t h e bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n . Recently, the t h e o r i e s o f Bagnold (1954) r e l a t e d t o
p a r t i c l e i n t e r a c t i o n i n case o f h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s have been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n
t h e model o f Bakker. The
c i t y and

i n f l u e n c e o f the sediment p a r t i c l e s on the f a l l

t u r b u l e n c e i s taken i n t o account (Bakker and Van

Kesteren,

velo-

1986).

Fredsgie e t a l (1985) a p p l i e d a numerical model based on the eddy v i s c o s i t y


concept.

The eddy v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were r e l a t e d t o the i n s t a n t a n e o u s

bed

shear s t r e s s e s and the boundary l a y e r t h i c k n e s s . The bed boundary c o n d i t i o n


for

t h e sediment i s a c o n c e n t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n , which s p e c i f i e s the bed

concen-

t r a t i o n a t a h e i g h t o f two p a r t i c l e diameters above the bed as a f u n c t i o n o f


t h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s bed shear s t r e s s . At the water s u r f a c e the v e r t i c a l sediment
f l u x i s s e t t o zero. The

i n f l u e n c e o f the sediment p a r t i c l e s on the f a l l

velo-

c i t y and eddy v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t i s not taken i n t o account. The method o f


Fredseie e t a l (1985) i s described i n d e t a i l i n S e c t i o n

(9.3.8).

-9.46-

Hagatum and E i d s v i k (1986) presented a numerical model based on a two-equation


t u r b u l e n c e model t o represent t h e eddy v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t . I t i s q u e s t i o nable whether such a s o p h i s t i c a t e d improvement i s necessary c o n s i d e r i n g t h e
e x p e r i m e n t a l problems r e l a t e d t o v e r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n t h e
sheet f l o w l a y e r . A n a l y t i c a l s o l u t i o n s o f the convection d i f f u s i o n e q u a t i o n
are g i v e n by Mielsen (1979) assuming t h a t the eddy v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t i s
c o n s t a n t i n space and time.
F i n a l l y , i t i s noted t h a t a l l t r a n s p o r t models a r e o n l y v a l i d f o r f l a t bed
regime (sheet f l o w ) . The t r a n s p o r t process over bed forms can n o t be r e p r e sented because Eq. ( 9 . 4 , 1 4 ) i s n o t v a l i d f o r the bed form

regime.

-9.47-

9.5

References

ABOU SEIDA, M.M., 1965


Bed Load F u n c t i o n due t o Wave A c t i o n
Report HEL-2-11, I n s t . Eng. Research, Univ. o f C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, USA

BAGNOLD, R.A., 1954


Experiments on a G r a v i t y - f r e e

D i s p e r s i o n o f Large S o l i d Spheres i n a Newtonian

F l u i d under Shear
Proc. Royal S o c , V o l . 225A, England
BAILARD, J.A. and INMAN, D.L., 1981
An E n e r g e t i c s Bed Load Model f o r Plane S l o p i n g Beach
J o u r n a l o f Geophysical Research, V o l . 8 6 , No. C 3 , p. 2035-2043

BAILARD, J.A., 1981


An E n e r g e t i c s T o t a l Load Sediment T r a n s p o r t Model For Plane S l o p i n g Beach
J o u r n a l o f Geophysical Research, V o l . 8 6 , No. C11

BAKKER, W.T., 1974


Sand C o n c e n t r a t i o n i n an O s c i l l a t o r y

Flow

C o a s t a l E n g i n e e r i n g Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 1129-1148

BAKKER W.T. and VAN KESTEREN, W.G.M., 1986


The Dynamics o f O s c i l l a t i n g Sheet Flow
C o a s t a l Eng. Conference, Taiwan

BHATTACHARYA, P.K., 1971


Sediment Suspension i n S h o a l i n g Waves
Ph. D. T h e s i s , Univ. o f Iowa, Iowa C i t y , USA

BOSMAN, J., 1982a


C o n c e n t r a t i o n Measurements under O c i l l a t o r y Motion
DELFT HYDRAULICS, Report M1695-II, D e l f t , The N e t h e r l a n d s

-9.48-

BOSMAN, J., 1982b


The I n f l u e n c e o f Bottom Slope, Water Depth, Breaking Waves, O r b i t a l
and C u r r e n t V e l o c i t y

Velocity

on the C o n c e n t r a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n under Waves and

Currents ( i n Dutch)
DELFT HYDRAULICS, Report M1875, D e l f t , The Netherlands

BOSMAN, J. and STEETZEL, H.J., 1986


Time and Bed-averaged Concentrations under Waves
C o a s t a l Eng.

Conference,

Taiwan

BIJKER, E.W., 1967


Some C o n s i d e r a t i o n s about Scales f o r Coastal Models w i t h Movable Bed
Dissertation,

D e l f t Univ. o f Tech., D e l f t , The Netherlands

BIJKER, E.W., 1971


Longshore T r a n s p o r t Computations
J o u r n a l o f Waterways, Harbour and Coastal Eng.,

V o l . 9 9 , WW4

BIJKER, E.W., 1978


L e c t u r e s Notes Coastal E n g i n e e r i n g , V o l . I and I I
D e l f t Univ. o f Technology, Coastal Eng. Dep., D e l f t , The Netherlands
DEIGAARD, R., FREDS0E, J . and HEDEGAARD, I.B., 1986
Suspended Sediment i n S u r f Zone
J o u r n a l o f Waterway, P o r t , Coastal and Ocean E n g i n e e r i n g , V o l . 112, No.

FREDS0E, J., ANDERSEN, O.H. and SILBERG, S.,

1985

D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Suspended Sediment i n Large Waves


J o u r n a l o f Waterway, P o r t , Coastal and Ocean E n g i n e e r i n g , V o l . I l l ,

GRANT, W.D. and MADSEN, O.S., 1982


Movable Bed Roughness i n Unsteady O s c i l l a t o r y
J o u r n a l Geophysical

Flow

Research, Vol. 87, p. 469-481

HAGATUM, K. and EIDSVIK, K.J., 1986


O s c i l l a t i n g T u r b u l e n t Boundary Layers w i t h Suspended Sediment
J o u r n a l Geophysical

Research, V o l . 91, No. C11

No. 6

-9.49-

HALLERMEIER, R.J.,

1982

O s c i l l a t o r y Bed Load T r a n s p o r t : Data Review and Simple F o r m u l a t i o n


C o n t i n e n t a l S h e l f Research, V o l . 1 , No. 3

HOMMA, M. and HORIKAWA, K.,

1962

Suspended Sediment due t o Wave A c t i o n


Proc. 8 t h Coastal Eng. Conf., Mexico

HORIKAWA, K., WATANABE, A. and KATORI, S.,

1982

Sediment T r a n s p o r t Under Sheet Flow C o n d i t i o n


Coastal Eng. Conference, Cape Town, South A f r i c a , pp.

1335-1352

1964

KALKANIS, G.,

T r a n s p o r t o f Bed M a t e r i a l due t o Wave A c t i o n


U.S.

Army Coastal Eng. Res. Center, Tech. Memo, No. 2 ,

KANA, T.W.,

USA

1979

Suspended Sediment i n Breaking Waves


Techn. Report No. 18-CRD, Coastal Res. D i v . , Dep. o f Geology,
Univ. o f South C a r o l i n a , Colombia, USA

KENNEDY, J.F. and LOCHER, F.A.,

1972

Sediment Suspension by Waves


In:

Waves on Beaches by R.E.

KOS'YAN, R.D.,

Meyer, Academic Press.

1985

V e r t i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Suspended Sediment C o n c e n t r a t i o n s Seawards o f t h e


Breaking Zone
C o a s t a l E n g i n e e r i n g , 9 , p. 171-187

KROON, A. and VAN RIJN, L.C,

1989

Space-Averaging Aspects o f Sediment C o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n the S u r f Zone


Dep. o f Phys. Geography, S t a t e Univ. o f U t r e c h t , U t r e c h t , The N e t h e r l a n d s
LUNDGREN, H.,

1972

T u r b u l e n t C u r r e n t s i n the Presence o f Waves


C o a s t a l Eng. Conf., Vancouver, Canada, pp. 623-634

-9.50-

MADSEN, O.S. and GRANT, W.D., 1976


Sediment T r a n s p o r t i n the Coastal Environment
Report No. 2 0 9 , R.M. Parsons Lab., Dep. o f Civ. Eng., M.I.T.
Cambridge, Massachuseths, USA

MANOHAR, M., 1955


Mechanics o f Bottom Sediment Movement due t o Wave A c t i o n
Techn. Memo, No. 7 5 , Beach Erosion Board, Corps o f Eng., USA

MILLER, R.L., 1976


Role o f V o r t i c e s i n S u r f Zone P r e d i c t i o n : Sedimentation and Wave Forces
Symp. Beach and Nearshore Sedimentation, D a l l a s , USA

NAKATO, T., LOCHER, F.A., GLOVER, J.R. and KENNEDY, J.F., 1977
Wave Entrainment o f Sediment From Ripples
J o u r n a l o f Waterways, P o r t , Coastal and Ocean D i v . , ASCE, No. WW1

NAP, E. and VAN KAMPEN, A., 1988


Sediment T r a n s p o r t i n I r r e g u l a r Non-Breaking Waves
C o a s t a l Eng. Dep., D e l f t Univ. o f Technology, D e l f t , The Netherlands

NIELSEN, P., 1979


Some Basic Concepts o f Wave Sediment Transport
S e r i e s Papers 2 0 , I n s t , o f Hydrodyn. and Hydr. Eng., Techn. Univ. o f Denmark,
Lyngby, Denmark

NIELSEN, P.,

1984

On t h e M o t i o n o f Suspended Sand P a r t i c l e s
J o u r n a l o f Geophysical Research, V o l . 8 9 , No. Cl

NIELSEN, P.,

1985

A S h o r t Manual o f Coastal Bottom Boundary Layers and Sediment T r a n s p o r t


P u b l i c Works Dep., Report TM 8 5 / 1 , NSW, A u s t r a l i a

NIELSEN, P.,

1988

Three Simple Models o f Wave Sediment Transport


C o a s t a l E n g i n e e r i n g , V o l . 12

-9.51-

NIEUWJAAR, M. and VAN DER KAAIJ, Th., 198?


Sediment C o n c e n t r a t i o n s and T r a n s p o r t i n I r r e g u l a r Non-Breaking Waves
Coastal Eng. Dep., D e l f t Univ. o f Technology, D e l f t , The Netherlands

RIBBERINK, J.S., 1989


Sediment C o n c e n t r a t i o n and Bed Regime Measurements i n Large Wave Tunnel
Report H8i10.22, DELFT HYDRAULICS, D e l f t , The Netherlands

RICHARDSON, Y.F. and ZAKI, W.N., 1954


S e d i m e n t a t i o n and F l u i d i z a t i o n , Part I
Trans. I n s t . Chem. Eng., V o l . 3 2 , p. 3 5 - 5 3

ROELVINK, J.A., 1985


Sand C o n c e n t r a t i o n s under Progressive Waves ( i n Dutch)
D e l f t U n i v e r s i t y o f Technology, Coastal Eng. Dep., D e l f t , The Netherlands

ROELVINK, D., 1988


Large Scale Cross-Shore T r a n s p o r t Tests
Report H596, DELFT HYDRAULICS, D e l f t , The Netherlands
SAWAMOTO, M. and YAMASHITA, T., 1987
Sediment T r a n s p o r t i n Sheet Flow Regime
C o a s t a l Sediments, New Orleans, USA

SATO, S. and HORIKAWA, K., 1986


L a b o r a t o r y S t u d i e s on Sand T r a n s p o r t over Ripples due t o Asymmetric
O s c i l l a t o r y Flows
C o a s t a l Eng. Conference, Taipeh, Taiwan

SHI, N.C., 1983


Reverse Sediment T r a n s p o r t induced by Amplitude-modulated Waves
Univ. o f Washington, Washington, USA
SKAFEL, M.G. and KRISHNAPPAN, B.C., 1984
Suspended Sediment D i s t r i b u t i o n i n Wave F i e l d
J o u r n a l o f Waterway, P o r t , Coastal and Ocean E n g i n e e r i n g , V o l . 1 1 0 , No. 2

-9.52-

SLEATH, J.F.A,, 1978


Measurements o f Bed Load i n O s c i l l a t o r y

Flow

J o u r n a l o f W a t e r w a y P o r t , Coastal and Ocean D i v i s i o n ,

V o l . 104, Wo.

STAUB, C , JONSSON, I.G. and SVENDSEN, I.A., 1984


V a r i a t i o n o f Sediment Suspension i n O s c i l l a t o r y Flow
C o a s t a l E n g i n e e r i n g , Houston, USA

STEETZEL, H., 1987


Model I n v e s t i g a t i o n

Dune Revetments ( i n Dutch)

Report H298 p a r t I , DELFT HYDRAULICS, D e l f t , The Netherlands

SWART, H., 1976


P r e d i c t i v e Equations Regarding

Coastal Transports

C o a s t a l Eng. Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii

SWART, H., 1976


Computation o f Longshore T r a n s p o r t
DELFT HYDRAULICS, Report R968-I, D e l f t , The Netherlands

VAN DE GRAAFF, J.,

1988

Sediment C o n c e n t r a t i o n due t o Wave A c t i o n


T h e s i s , D e l f t Univ. o f Technology, D e l f t , The Netherlands

VAN DER VELDEN, E., 1986


Sediment Suspension i n an O s c i l l a t i n g Flow near t h e Bed
D e l f t Univ. o f Technology, Coastal Eng. Dep., D e l f t , The Netherlands

VAN RIJN, L.C., 1984


Sediment T r a n s p o r t , Part I I : Suspended Load T r a n s p o r t
J o u r n a l o f H y d r a u l i c E n g i n e e r i n g , ASCE, No. HY11

VAN RIJN, L.C., 1987


Data Base Sand C o n c e n t r a t i o n P r o f i l e s f o r Currents and/or Waves
Report M1695-04-1, DELFT HYDRAULICS, D e l f t , The Netherlands

-9.53-

VINCENT, G.E.,

1957

C o n t r i b u t i o n t o the Study o f Sediment Transport on a H o r i z o n t a l Bed due t o


Wave A c t i o n
C o a s t a l Eng. Conference, Miami, USA,

p.

326-355

Source

^50
(m)

^^90
(m)

^a ,meas
(kg/m3)

(m)

(m)

(m)

(s)

r
(m)

.077

2.5

.015

21

A
(C)

Nieuwjaar

.0002

.00028

.08

.0075

.51

(Flume)

.0002

.00027

.3

.0075

.5

. 101 2.5

.015

21

.00021

.00032

.6

.009

.5

. 122 2.4

.018

23

.000205

.00031

1 .6

.009

.5

.153

2.4

.018

24

Van R i j n

.00019

.00024

.0164

2.15

1.27

5.5

.001

(Flume)

.00019

.00024

.8

.016

1 .85

.83

.001

.00019

.00024

1.5

.0171

1.17

6.3

.001

.00019

.00024

2.5

.0161

1.1

5.9

.001

.00022

.00028

0.01

2. 1

.5

5.1

.02

.00022

.00028

0.01

2. 1

.4

5.1

.02

.00022

.00028

.8

.015

2. 1

.3

5.1

.03

.00022

.00028

.2

.015

2. 1

.21

5.1

.03

Steetzel

.000208

.000265

1.1

.0122

1.41

1.1

5.4

.01

(Flume)

.000208

.000265

.0139

1.13

1.1

5.4

.01

.000208

.000265

1.3

.01066

1.4

.86

5.4

.01

.000208

.000265

.0113

.78

.65

5.4

.01

.000208

.000265

5.5

.0122

.82

.76

5.4

.01

Roelvink

.000215

.00027

1.7

.01

2.72

.67

5.1

.02

(Flume)

.00022

.000285

.0137

.93

.65

5.1

.01

Van R i j n

.00024

.0004

.65

.025

1.89

.7

.02

17

(Surfzone)

.00024

.0004

.5

.025

1.72

.65

.02

17

.00024

.0004

.3

.025

1.09

.4

.02

17

.00021

.00035

.7

.025

1.98

.75

.02

17

.00021

.00035

1.3

.025

1.7

.75

.02

17

.00021

.00035

.025

1.12

.5

.02

17

.00023

.0004

1.4

.025

1.28

.5

.02

17

.00025

.0004

.6

.025

1.55

.6

.02

17

.00023

.0004

2.5

.025

.5

.02

17

.00023

.0004

1.5

.025

.9

.35

.02

17

.00023

.0004

. 15

.025

1.2

.3

.02

17

Table 9.1.1

Measured r e f e r e n c e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s

Source

^^50
(m)

^^90
(m)

a,maes
(kg/m3)

(m)

(m)

"s
(m)

A
(s)

r
(m)

Te
(C)

Bosman

.000105

.00015

20

.0075

.4

.27

2.2

.015

20

(Flume)

.000105

.00015

12

.0075

.6

.234

.015

20

.000105

.00015

.0075

.6

. 154 1.8

.015

20

.000105

.00015

20

.0075

.5

.241

.015

20

.000105

.00015

.0075

.4

.114

1.8

.015

20

.000105

.00015

10

.0075

.4

.135

.015

20

.000105

.00015

17

.0075

.4

. 191

.015

20

.000105

.00015

35

.0075

.5

.223

.015

20

.000105

.00015

.0075

.5

.136

1.8

.015

20

.000105

.00015

22

.0075

.6

.256

.015

20

.000105

.00015

.0075

.6

.153

1.9

.015

20

.000105

.00015

25

.0075

.5

.248

2.1

.015

20

.000105

.00015

14

.0075

.4

.15

1.9

.015

20

Source

^50
(m)

^90
(m)

a,maes
(kg/m3)

a
(m)

b,w
(m/s)

T
P
(s)

A
r
(m)

Te
(C)

Van der

.00036

.000725

.01

0.3

,02

16

Velden

.00036

.000725

.014

0.4

,028

16

(wave

.00036

.000725

11

.0175

0.5

.035

16

tunnel)

.00036

.000725

.025

0.3

.05

16

.00036

.000725

1.5

.03

0.4

.06

16

.00036

.000725

2.6

.03

0.45

,06

16

.00036

.000725

.2

.04

0.3

,08

16

.00022

.00024

.0075

0.3

,015

16

,00022

.00024

10

.008

0.4

,016

16

.00022

.00024

15

.0115

0.5

,023

16

,00022

,00024

1.3

.0115

0.2

,023

16

.00022

.00024

1.5

.014

0.3

,028

16

.00022

,00024

4,5

.015

0,4

.03

16

.00022

,00024

1,1

.0175

0,3

.035

16

Table 9.1.1

Measured r e f e r e n c e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s

wave propagation

<-

bed form height


A. UNDERTOW CURRENT DUE TO BREAKING WAVES

wove propagation

<-

B. DRIFT VELOCITIES DUE TO NON-LINEAR EFFECTS

wove propagation
individual
waves

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM Of SURFACE


Flow IN COASTAL ANO NEARSHORE
CURRENT SYSTEMS

wove packet
envelope

.^COASTAL

L C N r r H OC R R O O I N O I O t T C S N E U T I V I
MUNITUOl (FTHC
CUMIINT

CURRENT

i flip HEAD-*;

mean sea level


r - H
Uw

<

i 'S

Uw

MASS TRANSPORT BY WAVES*'

fc

p , . , ^ ^ y . j . i u i . i . i . L . . .

C. ORBITAL VELOCITIES DUE TO FORCED

LONGSHORE AND RIP CURRENTS

LONG WAVE EFFECTS

WAVE - INDUCED V E L O C I T I E S AND C U R R E N T S

DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 9.1.1

-0.3
0.05
x(t)
(m)

y^^'^'^^^^^

0.055 m

0.00

0.05

60
crest
0.01 m J

trough
*

standard
deviation
(crest)

C(0)
(kg.m-3)

0.
0.0

0.1

02

03

0.4

0.5

06

0.7

OB

09

L.

1D = T

0(s)

ENSEMBLE
OF

MEAN AND TOTAL STANDARD DEVIATION

CONCENTRATION IN SINGLE PERIOD T


DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG.

9.2.1

CONCENTRATION

VELOCITY

SAND TRANSPORT

INSTANTANEOUS CONCENTRATIONS, V E L O C I T I E S
AND SAND T R A N S P O R T R A T E S IN S H E E T
F L O W R E G I M E (HORIKAWA E T A L . 1 9 8 2 )
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 9.2 2

Hs (m)

Ar (m)

0.075

0.015

0.1

0.015

0.12

0.018

0.15

0.018
h

= 0.5 m

Tp

2.2 s

dso =^200 \im

10-

6 810"^

4
>

6 810"^ 2
4 6 8io
concentration (kg/m^)

SiQi

A. CONCENTRATIONS IN NON-BREAKING WAVE IN A FLUME WITH A RIPPLED BED


(NIEUWJAAR-VAN PER KAAY, 1987)

10

3 4 5 6 78 1 0 '

>

3 4 5 678io

3 4 5 67810'

tinne-averaged concentration (kg/m^)

B. CONCENTRATIONS IN NON-BREAKING WAVES IN LARGE-SCALE FLUME


WITH A RIPPLED BED AND A FLAT BED (VAN RIJN, 1987)

TIME-AVERAGED

SEDIMENT

CONCENTRATIONS

IN N O N - B R E A K I N G WAVES
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 9.2.3

E
+->

iZ
CT)
sz

0.05
h

2 m

Tp

5 s

0.04
0,03

dso = 210 j l m

0.02
Q.

L 0.01
0
O

JL

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

450

500

10

cn

ripple bed flat sheet flow bed


(non-breaking waves) (spilling breaking waves)

c
O
-t-J

O
t_
c
u
c
O

+-'

10^

TJ
O
cn

O
CS
>
O
t_

10'

10"'

50

100

150
>

200

250

300

350

400

mobility parameter 6^/(s-1) g dso

T I M E - A V E R A G E D SEDIMENT CONCENTRATIONS
IN

N O N - B R E A K I N G AND
DELFT

BREAKING W A V E S

HYDRAULICS

H 461

1 FIG.

9.2.4

1.0
Hs (m) Ar (m)
0.075 0.0104 1
O
0.10
0.009
/ h
V
0.15
0.0075 / (
m
0.18
0.007 3
o
0.20
Bosnnon
0.23
(1982)
w a t e r depth, h = 0.5 m
bed material, dso =100 |lm
peak period, Tp =2.0s
@

0.9

D.8
N

rf
n 0.7
O
JD
O

( o c c .

s p i l l i n g )

( o c c .

s p i l l i n g )

0.6
x:
I/)
(/)

c
O
'(/)
c

2
5
10-^ 2
5
10 2
5
10' 2
5
IQ^
A. CONCENTRATIONS IN NON-BREAKING WAVES IN A FLUME WITH A RIPPLED BED
1.0
10-2

BREAKING AND NON-BREAKING WAVES


N

= 0.3 m

Tp

=2 s

0.8

Hs=C).152 nn
(
!)\

.Q

5 p i l l i n c

>
O 0.6
n

0.4

H s = 0.173 m
(plun(3ing)

dso = 100 (im


\ H S =0.19 m

h Is =0.12 m V
(non - break ng)

\ V''

unginc

(Bosman,
1982)

0.2

0
10-

l l l l

l l l l

l l l l

1 I I

10-

10^
10^
10'
-> concentration (kg/m^)
IB. CONCENTRATIONS IN NON-BREAKING AND BREAKING WAVES IN A FLUME WITH A RIPPLED BED
T I M E - A V E R A G E D SEDIMENT

CONCENTRATIONS

IN NON - B R E A K I N G AND B R E A K I N G
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

WAVES
H

461

FIG. 9.2.5

1.0

<H

r-

-O
H
\
\ p l i jnginc 1 w a v e j

spillir ig w c ves /

JD
C9

JD

05

1
l

0,2

IQ

-<)

10-'

1
1

[Lm

O\
1

0,4

= 0.6-1.8 m

dso = 2 0 0

\
\
\
\
\

2
>

l l l l

5
10 2
concentration

l l l l

5
10'
(kg/m^)

l l l l

10=

A. CONCENTRATIONS IN SPILLING AND PLUNGING BREAKING WAVES IN THE


SURF-ZONE, USA-COAST

(KANA, 1979)

1.0

x:

= 0.9 m

TJ 0.8 Tp

= 5.2 s

JD

Q65 m

V P ungin

-ls = 0,7^3 nn
plungin g)

0.6

D
5

H 5

d s o = 2 1 0 [lm

Hs = OE)6 m \
(spilling/plun ging)

0.4

r 175 nn

Tp

z6 s

d s o = 2 6 0 |lnn

X h s =0.-7 m
(spilli ng)
(spilli n g ) \

Hs = Q 6
02

l l l l

10

-2

10-'

l l l l

2
5
10"
concentration (kg/m^)

B. CONCENTRATIONS IN SPILLING AND PLUNGING


BREAKING WAVES IN LARGE-SCALE

FLUME

l l l l

loMO-'

l l l l

5
10
10concentration (kg/m^)

C. CONCENTRATIONS IN SPILLING
BREAKING WAVES IN SURF

(WATER DEPTH - 0 . 9 m ) WITH A FLAT BED

ZONE, DUTCH COAST

(STEETZEL, 1987)

(KROON - VAN RIJN, 1988)

TIME - AVERAGED
IN

BREAKING

SEDIMENT

CONCENTRATIONS

WAVES
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG.

9.2.6

=190|J,m

=1.08 m/s
(mm)
25

f)

<J

<,T

= 2.6s

7 T

= 2.0s

0.167

c
a
c
7 0 "

'

' I " " I

'

10

- >

WITH

OSCILLATORY
BED

'I

'

100

IN

J_LJ_

->

WAVE

B.

OVER

(HORIKAWA

ET

CONCENTRATIONS
SINUSOIDAL
FLAT

BED

26

' ' I ' I

15^

' M l

SINUSOIDAL
FLOW

C(kg/m3)
26.5

2.65

(-)

CN

CONCENTRATIONS
TUNNEL

->

i . C(kg/m3)
16.7

1.67
'

=1.68 m/s
T=6.8s

= I.J m/s
T=9.1 s

d5o= 2 0 0 \im

FLAT

= 3.4 s

70

A.

= 4.2s

o T
O

9
7

- H

C (m^/m^)
IN

WAVE

OSCILLATORY
(STAUB

ET

TUNNEL
FLOW

AL.

WITH

OVER

1984)

AL,

1982)

0.10

D
CS
n
%
o
n

a08

0.06

^'0.04
JZ

0,02

-10-2

10-'

2
>

C.

CONCENTRATIONS
(JONSWAP

IN

SPECTRUM

WAVE

5
10
2
concentration

TUNNEL

OVER

FLAT

WITH
BED,

5
10'
(kg/m^)

IRREGULAR
RIBBERINK,

OSCILLATORY

l o ^

FLOW

1989)

T I M E - A V E R A G E D SEDIMENT CONCENTRATIONS
IN T H E S H E E T F L O W R E G I M E
D E L F T HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 9.2.7

1.0
h =0.3
0.9

T =2.5

10'

4 5 6

7 8

10-^

10

5 6 7 8

10"'

VERTICAL

H = 0.136 m

4 5

6 7 8

sand

6 7 8

10"

c/ca

6 7 8 i o - i

concentration,

4 5

io"'

sand c o n c e n t r a t i o n ,

A 5 6 7 8 10

c Ica

DISTRIBUTION O F CONCENTRATION

P R O F I L E S ACCORDING TO ROELVINK (1985)


D E L F T HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 9.3.1

1.0
0.9

X
<

>g<

'

/dso.bed

1+0.011(^3-1)(T-25)

0.8
XJ 0.7
O)
Xl
0.6
(0

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
O
0

10
bed-shear
computed

measured

surfzone

measured

Deltoflume

SIZE

OF

20
T

Groote

Keeten

dso

( V a n R i j n , 1 9 8 7 ) d^o^

SUSPENDED

2 5 0 / . i m , CTg
2 1 0 yum,

HYDRAULICS

c 1.6

SEDIMENT

DELFT

25

1.8

PARTICLE

15
stress parameter,

461

FIG.

9,3.2

1.0
N

Ca = 2 5 0 0 5 0 0 0
u
\\
\\
\\
\\
\V
\\
\i
\\
\\
\\
\\

\ V

V
\\

\\
\\

\ \
\ \
\ \
\ \
\\

\\
\\

v\\

\\
\\

0.2

.\
\ \

\ ^
1

t i l t

->

INFLUENCE

=1.0
=0.7
T
=5
dso, bod =100

prn

Ws

= 0.01

m/s

5s

= 0.06

m
s

0,4

l
\
\
\
\

O 0.6
n
O
t

10.000 mg/-?
\ \
\ \
\ \
\ \

l i l t

- - l ~ T - -

concentration

computed

using

Ws,m=Ws

computed

using

Ws,m=(1-c)^Ws

O F HINDERED S E T T L I N G

1 1

l l l l

Ub,W

1,02

m/s

v5

(mg/'i)

EFFECT

ON C O N C E N T R A T I O N P R O F I L E
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 9.3.3

measured

= 0.3

H o m m a and H o r i k a w a , 1962

Hs

= 0.12

Bijker,

Tp

= 1,9

1967

Lundgren,

1972

d s o = 105

|im

Swart,

1976

Ws

= 0.005

m/s

Nielsen,

1979

Ca

= 9500

mg/1

Dally,

1980

Skafel
Kos'yan,

and Krishnoppon,

1984

1985

V E R T I C A L DISTRIBUTION O F S E D I M E N T MIXING
COEFFICIENT

AND
DELFT

CONCENTRATION
HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 9.3.4

1.0
smoothed

Hs/h
Hs
h
Tz

profile

\\

>
o
n
o

\
\

= 0.12

E q u o t ion. (9.3.

= 0.30

= 1.6

22)|

measured

computed
E s, w

0 6

1
^

0.4
m

0 2

^
1

0
10'
->

IO'' O

10'
c o n c e n t r a t i o n (mg/-)

1\^

10'

0 8

21

= 0.4

>^

>

5s
>

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

t-s.W

(mm^/s)

1.0

1.0
smoothed

profile Hs/h = Q 5

Hs
h
Tz

=0.21

=1.65

0 8

Eq u o t i o n (9 ,3.22)

= 0.106 m
n

0,8

computed

measured

E s, w

0.6

0 6

O 0.4

0 4

x:

i
O2

Q2

0
10'
10"
-> concentration (mg/f)

10

WAVE - R E L A T E D
FOR

SEDIMENT

1
1

5s
0.4

0.8
1.2
1.(
> Es.w (mm^/s)

2O

MIXING

NON-BREAKING WAVES
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 9.3.5

4
>

computed,

es,w,bed

5 6

8 10-2

(m^/s)

M E A S U R E D AND C O M P U T E D MIXING C O E F F I C I E N T S
OF

THE N E A R - B E D
DELFT

MIXING

LAYER

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 9.3.6

0.27

4 5

measured

5 6 7 8 9 1 0 ^
p- c o n c e n t r a t i o n

2
(mg/1)

- > concentration

(mg/i)

678

MEASURED

AND

CALIBRATION

OF

COMPUTED

CONCENTRATIONS,

m-COEFFICIENT

DELFT

HYDRAULICS

(Bosman,1 982)

4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 ^ ^

c*
>
o
JD
a

Ts = 2

CQ = 1 5 0 0 0 m g / 1

Ws = 0 . 0 0 5

m/s

\
\
\
'\

= 05

Hs = 0 . 2 2 5

\
\

CD

c o m p u t e d 1/2 ttb
c o m p u t e d ttb
computed 2 a t

\
\
\
\
\

r>

\
\
\

^^^^
A.

10'

I ' l l

'

10'

I l l l l

'

'

10^

1.0

0 8
d"

'

io"

computed
computed
computed

\\ 1
\\ \
\\ \
\
\\ \

l l l l

'

INFLUENCE
OF

ab

I I 1

10"

s = 0.03 m
s = 0.06 m
s = 0 . 0 9 m

06

JD
cn
Sa 0 4

JZ

\'

V ^\

02
=

'

l l l l

10'

'

l l l l

10'

'

computed
computed
computed

\
\
\
\

OF

l l l l

INFLUENCE

5s

10am= 0 . 0 5 0
am=0.035
am=0.020

1
1

\
\
\
\

JD

l l l l

10^

\
\
\
\

1 1

B.

10'

1,0

O
n
o

0.6

\
\

0.4

\
\
\

v\

02

I t l l

10'

10'

2
>

l l l l

5
10^ 2
concentration

C.
1

l l l l

5
10"
(kg/m^)

INFLUENCE
OF

l l l l

am

10=

I N F L U E N C E O F S E D I M E N T MIXING AND
F A L L V E L O C I T Y ON C O N C E N T R A T I O N
P R O F I L E (NON-BREAKING WAVES)
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 9.3.8

BREAKING WAVES
1.0

1.0
N

08

smoothed

profile

@ \
\

= 0.30

Tz

= 1.7

>
o
O

OB

measured C

computed
i

E s,w

tt

06

\@

0.4

0.4

@
i\

0.2

0 2

f
0 1
10^ 0

0
10"^
->

10^

BREAKING

10'
c o n c e n t r a t i o n (mg/-*)

OB
n

4
3

Hs/h = 0 . 6 3
Hs
= Ol 9

= 0.30

Tz

= 1.8

>
O
n 0.6
o

08

computed
E s.w

0.6

04

0.2

\
0

0
10^

1.6

1
E quation (9.3.22)

measured

02

OB
1.2
Es.w ( m m ^ / s )

0.4

>

1.0

IT
N

0.4

WAVES

1.0

<-'
x:
gi

1
1
E q j o t i o n (55.3.22)

Hs/h = 0 . 5 7 m
Hs
= 0.171 m

10"
10'
concentration (mg/f)

W A V E - R E L A T E D S E D I M E N T MIXING

DELFT

HYDRAULICS

10 8

A
5s
V
1.6
2.4
3.2
> Es,w (mm^/s)

4.0

COEFFICIENT

461

FIG. 9.3.9

MEASURED
BREAKING

AND

COMPUTED

WAVES,

CONCENTRATIONS

IN

CALIBRATION abr-COEFFICIENT

DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG.9.3.10

10
9
8
7
6

-O
<u

A Nieuwjaar

(1987)

dso

200 / i m ,

wave

flume

(1988)

dso

100 / i m , wave

flume

(1982)

dso

105

flume

dso

190-220

/ i m , l a r g e wave

dso

210-250

/ i m , surf zone Groote


flume
tunnel

Nap

Bosman
O Van Rijn
A Kroon-Van

(1987)
Rijn ( 1 9 8 8 )

/ i m , wave

V Steetzel

(1987)

dso

210 / i m , l a r g e wave

(1986)

dso

2 2 0 - 3 6 0 / i m , wave

Van der Velden

flume
Keeten

0)

L.

D
in

Q.

0)

O
O

d o"
O O

0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

2.5

7.5

5.0

bed-shear

MEASURED

AND

COMPUTED

stress,

15.0

12.5

10.0

r^^^

17.5

(N/m'

REFERENCE

CONCENTRATIONS
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 9 . 3 . 1 1

0.8
0.7

Hg = 0.075 m

Hg = 0.090 m

Tp = 2.3

= 0.5
Z.5

1p =

= 0.5

m
s

0,6
.0.5
0,4
0.3
0.2
0,1
O '
,-3
10

,,-1

,-2
10'

10
^

,-2
10

10^0 ^

10
(kg/m^)

10"'
->

10^

10'

C (kg/m^)

0.8
0.7

Hg

= 0.120 m

Hg

= 0.150

= 0.5

= 0.5

Tp = 2.4

Tp = 2,4

m
m
s

0.6
0.5
N

A 0.4
0.3

0.2
#

0.1

O
10

10

10 '
C

m e a s u r e d N i e u w j a a r V a n der K a a i j

MEASURED

AND

DELFT

10"'

10"

>

461

10'

(kg/m^)

(1987)

(1985)

COMPUTED

METHOD

10"^

(kg/m^)

c o m p u t e d Nielsen

PROFILES,

10^10-^

10"

CONCENTRATION

OF NIELSEN
HYDRAULICS

(1985)
FIG. 9 . 3 . 1 2

0.40

0.32

.0.24

0.16

0.08

>

concentration

(mg/1)

0.40
measured, (Bosman,

1982)

computed

1988)

(Van Rijn,

0.32

Hg

=0.192 m

Wg =0.007 m / s
ks.w=0.03 m

-0.24
CT)

0.16

0.08

>

MEASURED
PROFILES,

AND

COMPUTED

METHOD
DELFT

VAN

concentration

(mg/l)

CONCENTRATION

RIJN,

1988

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 9 . 3 . 1 3

0.50(
measured (Bosman, 1982)
computed

( V o n Rijn, 1 9 8 8 )

0.40

.0.30

Hg

= 0.278m

Tp

=2.1

Wg

ks^^=0.03

g' = 0 . 0 3

=0.01

Ar

=0.007m/s

0.20

0.10

2
3
- > concentration

8-]o2

4
5
(mg/l)

7 8 8 1 o'^

6 7 8 8io"

0.75

6 7 8 8-10^

2
> c o n c e n t r a t i o n

MEASURED
PROFILES,

AND

COMPUTED

METHOD

DELFT

VAN

3
(mg/l)

CONCENTRATION

RIJN,

1988

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG.

9.3.14

0.75

4 5 6 78io'

4 5 6

78
concentration

(mg/l)

0.40
measured

(Bosman,

computed

(Van

Rijn,

1982)
1988)

0.32
0.235m
.0.24
s:

Wg

k3^^=0.03

_CT1

'm
JZ

A
0.16

0.08

10

MEASURED
PROFILES,

=0.007 m/s

AND

7 8 9IQ3
2
p- c o n c e n t r a t i o n

3
(mg/l)

COMPUTED CONCENTRATION

METHOD VAN

RIJN,

1988

DELFT HYDRAULICS

461

2.00

1.60

,1.20
Ol

SI

0.80

0.40

0
2

3
4 5 6 7 8
concentration ( m g / l )

2.00

1.60

.1.20

0.80

0.40

10"

MEASURED
PROFILES,

4 5 678io^

AND

COMPUTED

METHOD
DELFT

VAN

j2
2
3 4 5 678-] Q3
4 5 678-10^ concentration ( m g / l )

4 5 67

CONCENTRATION

RIJN,

1988

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 9 , 3 . 1 6

2.00

1.60

.1.20

sz
0.80

0.40

7-10-2 2 3 45 7 i o - i 2 3 45 7 i o

2 3 45 710^ 2 3 45 7^0^
> concentration ( m g / l )

2 3 45 7^0^

2 3 45 7^0^

2.75

2.20

.1.65
'(I)

x:
1.10

0.55

> concentration

MEASURED
PROFILES,

AND

COMPUTED

METHOD
DELFT

VAN

(mg/l)

CONCENTRATION

RIJN,

1988

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 9 . 3 . 1 7

10'

/o
/O

10

*
4 4

/' ,

(PjB^ O

LEGEND
Kalkanis
(1964)
d = L 6 8 mm
Sand
' d =2.18 mm
3 = 2.6 3
. d = 2 . 8 2 mm

<M in

A b o u - S e i d o (19651
d =2.61 m m '
. d ' 1.21 mm
Sand
i> d = 0 . 3 0 m m
S=265
d-O.I45mmJ
^ d =0. 7 0 m m
Gloss
I
8 = 2.23

I I I Iniil

I I

III,

/
/ +

xX
0

+ /

10-^
8
6

9'
A. M A D S E N - G R A N T

x
xX

I- '

10' )

:
^

(1976)

X
0

10"' 8:
6
10"

10

I I I f I

"

SI

a a

S2

C2

S3

C3

+
0
-

6 8io^

4 6 8io^

71

I'

B. H A L L E R M E I E R (1982)

Asynmetrlc o s c i l l a t i o n s

indicates 3-D ripples

O
in

10^

TD

K P | = 7 ( i f / - f / c ) i f /

+1
u
c

icr

10"

10-2

I I I

I/I I

10-1

10

I I I

^ ,

,0

C. S A T O - H O R I K A W A ( 1 9 8 6 )

SEDIMENT
FOR

TRANSPORT F O R M U L A E

WAVES A L O N E
D E L F T HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 9.4.1

-10.1-

10.

BED

10.1

MATERIAL SUSPENSIE AND

TRANSPORT IN COMBINED WAVES AND

CURRENTS

Introduction

I n Chapter 9 i t has been shown t h a t wave motion can generate sediment suspensions w i t h large concentrations

i n the near-bed r e g i o n . When t i d e - i n d u c e d ,

wind-induced or wave-induced c u r r e n t s are present,


turbulence

the v e r t i c a l m i x i n g

w i l l be i n t e n s i f i e d y i e l d i n g l a r g e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s

l a y e r s . The

to

i n the upper

basic mechanism i s the entrainment o f p a r t i c l e s by the

wave a c t i o n and

due

stirring

the t r a n s p o r t o f the p a r t i c l e s by the c u r r e n t m o t i o n .

The

t r a n s p o r t o f p a r t i c l e s by the mean c u r r e n t v e l o c i t i e s ( i n the presence o f


waves) i s h e r e i n d e f i n e d as the c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d t r a n s p o r t r a t e (see

section

9.1).
B i j k e r (1967, 1971)

was

one o f the f i r s t , who

presented a d e t a i l e d method

(based on time-averaged v a r i a b l e s ) t o compute the l o c a l t r a n s p o r t r a t e f o r


combined c u r r e n t and
E i n s t e i n (1950).

( b r e a k i n g ) wave c o n d i t i o n s f o l l o w i n g the approach o f

Another formula-type

approach was

proposed by Grant

and

Madsen (1976). L a t e r more complicated mathematical models based on i n s t a n t a neous v a r i a b l e s have been developed by Freds5e e t a l ( 1985)
waves and

by Deigaard et a l (1986) f o r b r e a k i n g

f o r non-breaking

waves i n the s u r f zone.

I n t e g r a l p r e d i c t i o n methods have been proposed t o compute the w i d t h - i n t e g r a t e d


longshore sediment t r a n s p o r t (CERC, Kamphuis e t a l , 1986). These i n t e g r a l
methods are based on the longshore component o f the wave energy f l u x a t
breaker l i n e .

The

f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s are presented i n t h i s chapter:

a n a l y s i s o f measured c o n c e n t r a t i o n s

computation o f

computation o f t r a n s p o r t r a t e s i n non-breaking waves

computation o f t r a n s p o r t r a t e s i n b r e a k i n g

10.2

10.2.1

and

transport rates,

concentrations,

A n a l y s i s o f measured c o n c e n t r a t i o n

Time-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n

Time-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n s

waves.

p r o f i l e s and

transport rates

profiles

(averaged over many waves) are r e l e v a n t f o r

c u r r e n t - d o m i n a t e d t r a n s p o r t processes (see s e c t i o n

9.1).

the

-10.2-

Experimental

research i n flumes has been performed

by v a r i o u s i n v e s t i g a t o r s

(Bosman, 1982, Mieuwjaar-Van der K a a i j , 198? and Map-Van Kampen, 1988).


data i n non-breaking

Field

waves w i t h a c u r r e n t over an i n t e r t i d a l f l a t have been

c o l l e c t e d by Van Vessem (see Van R i j n , 1987). F i e l d data i n the s u r f zone w i t h


b r e a k i n g waves and longshore c u r r e n t s have been c o l l e c t e d by J a f f e e t a l (1984)
and by Van R i j n

1.

(1987).

Concentrations

i n non-breaking

waves w i t h a c u r r e n t over a r i p p l e d bed

F i g u r e s 10.2.1 t o 10.2.4 show time-averaged

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s measured by

Nieuwjaar-Van der K a a i j , 1987 f o r a water depth o f 0.5 m and 200 ymsediment and by Map-Van Kampen, 1988 f o r a s i m i l a r water depth and 100
ym-sediment.
I r r e g u l a r waves were generated.

I n a l l t e s t s t h e bed was covered

with

ripples.
The f o l l o w i n g phenomena can be observed:
e

r a p i d decrease o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n lower l a y e r s i n case o f waves alone


( = 0 m/s),

t r a n s p o r t o f sediment t o upper l a y e r s by mixing e f f e c t s i n case o f


combined waves and c u r r e n t s ,

m i x i n g e f f e c t s a r e s m a l l i n case o f a weak c u r r e n t ( = 0.1 m/s), and


l a r g e i n case o f a s t r o n g c u r r e n t ( = 0.4 m/s),

i n f l u e n c e o f c u r r e n t d i r e c t i o n ( f o l l o w i n g o r opposing) on c o n c e n t r a t i o n
p r o f i l e i s r e l a t i v e l y small,

i n f l u e n c e o f c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y on the near-bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , which a r e


in

the range o f 0.1 t o 10 kg/m3, i s o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n case o f s m a l l

waves.
F i g u r e 10.2.5 shows c o n c e n t r a t i o n s measured by Van Vessem (see Van R i j n ,
1987) a t an i n t e r t i d a l f l a t i n the Eastern Scheldt e s t u a r y . The Netherl a n d s . The bed m a t e r i a l had a median p a r t i c l e s i z e o f about 150 ym. The
bed was covered

w i t h s m a l l - s c a l e r i p p l e s (A^ ^ 0.03 m). For a r e l a t i v e

wave h e i g h t o f H^/h ^ 0.17 the sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a r e extremely

small,

p r o b a b l y because t h e bed-shear s t r e s s e s a r e j u s t beyond t h e c r i t i c a l

values

for

i n i t i a t i o n o f suspension.

The sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s show an i n c r e a s e

of more than a f a c t o r 10 when the wave h e i g h t i s increased by a f a c t o r 2


( H / h from 0.17 t o 0.29). The g e n e r a t i o n o f wave and c u r r e n t - i n d u c e d
s
e f f e c t s can a l s o be c l e a r l y observed.

mixing

-10.3-

C o n c e n t r a t i o n s _ i n _ s u r f _ z o n e _ w i t h b r e a k i n g waves and l o n g s h o r e _ c u r r e n t s
Time-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n t h e s u r f zone (USA) w i t h b r e a k i n g

waves

have been measured by J a f f e e t a l (1984) u s i n g an o p t i c a l sampler and by


Van R i j n (1987) u s i n g a pump sampler. The r e s u l t s o f J a f f e e t a l (1984)
are presented

i n F i g . 1 0 . 2 . 5 , showing c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n t h e range o f about

0 . 5 t o 2 kg/m3 i n t h e lowest measuring p o i n t

0 . 1 3 m) above t h e bed. The

l a r g e s t near-bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s have been measured i n s t a t i o n s 3 and 7 ,


where t h e wave h e i g h t i s l a r g e s t . The lowest c o n c e n t r a t i o n s occur i n s t a t i o n s 1 and 2 (longshore t r o u g h area) where t h e wave h e i g h t i s r e l a t i v e l y
s m a l l . The l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s over the depth can be observed i n s t a t i o n 3 which i s c l o s e t o t h e c r e s t o f t h e longshore

bar where s t r o n g wave

b r e a k i n g occurs (H /h ^ 0 . 7 ) . The v e r t i c a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n g r a d i e n t s a r e
s
l a r g e s t i n s t a t i o n 7 J u s t seaward o f t h e longshore

bar, where wave b r e a -

k i n g i s l e s s i n t e n s i v e . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n g r a d i e n t s a r e s m a l l e s t

(which

means a r a t h e r u n i f o r m p r o f i l e ) i n s t a t i o n s 1 and 2 where t h e c u r r e n t r e l a t e d m i x i n g probably

i s i m p o r t a n t ( l o n g s h o r e trough area) and a l s o i n

s t a t i o n 3 where s t r o n g wave-related

m i x i n g i s i m p o r t a n t ( l o n g s h o r e bar

c r e s t ) . I n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e bed form has n o t been r e p o r t e d by J a f f e e t a l


(1984).
F i g u r e 10.2.6 shows time-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n s measured by Van R i j n
( 1 9 8 7 ) i n t h e s u r f zone o f Groote Keeten, The Motherlands.

The measure-

ments were o b t a i n e d from a shore-connected r i g which was l o c a t e d between


two g r o i n s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e longshore
small a t that l o c a t i o n (u

c u r r e n t v e l o c i t i e s were r e l a t i v e l y

0 . 1 t o 0 . 3 m/s). The bed m a t e r i a l s i z e was

about 250 ym. The near-bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s were i n t h e range o f 0 . 1 t o 1


kg/m3 f o r r e l a t i v e wave h e i g h t s o f H^/h i n t h e range o f 0 . 3 t o 0.4. Waver e l a t e d and c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d m i x i n g e f f e c t a r e s i g n i f i c a n t y i e l d i n g concent r a t i o n s a t mid-depth o f t h e order o f 0.01 t o 0 . 1 kg/m^. The suspended
sediment samples have been analysed

i n a l a b o r a t o r y s e t t l i n g tube

yielding

p a r t i c l e s i z e s from 260 ym (near t h e bed) t o about I 8 0 ym (near t h e water


s u r f a c e ) . Averaging

over a l l v a l u e s , t h e depth-averaged suspended sediment

s i z e was about d^ = 0 . 8 d^Q

(see a l s o s e c t i o n 9 . 3 . 3 ) .

I n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e l o c a l sea bottom l e v e l was o b t a i n e d by a system o f


mechanical f e e l e r s . A n a l y s i s o f these measurements shows t h e presence o f a
smooth wavy bottom i n cross-shore

d i r e c t i o n w i t h o n d u l a t i o n s o f 0.01 t o

0.02 m h i g h . T y p i c a l wave r i p p l e s as present i n non-breaking waves have


n o t been observed. The e f f e c t i v e roughness o f t h i s type o f wavy bottom

-10.4-

with a high concentration


the order o f 0.01

boundary l a y e r i n the s u r f zone p r o b a b l y i s o f

m (see s e c t i o n

7.3).

Summarizing, the f o l l o w i n g phenomena have been observed i n the s u r f zone:


e

near-bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s

i n the range o f 0.1

h e i g h t s i n the range of H^/h = 0.3

r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e v e r t i c a l mixing due
mixing

to

0.7,
to wave-related and

current-related

i n the longshore trough area and a t the longshore bar

presence o f smooth bottom o n d u l a t i o n s


t o 0.02
(Hg/h

t o 2 kg/m3 f o r r e l a t i v e wave

area,

w i t h a h e i g h t i n the o r d e r of

m i n cross-shore d i r e c t i o n i n case o f s p i l l i n g breaking


- 0.3

to

0.01

waves

0.4).

The main cause f o r the r e l a t i v e l y small near-bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s

(0.1 t o 2

kg/m3) i n the s u r f zone i s the absence o f the t y p i c a l wave-induced

bed

r i p p l e s and

stirring

the associated

eddies. Wave-induced r i p p l e s are s t r o n g

mechanisms y i e l d i n g l a r g e near-bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s

(1 t o 10 kg/m3) a t r e l a -

t i v e l y small wave,heights, as shown by l a b o r a t o r y experiments ( F i g s . 10.2.1


t o 10.2.4).

10.2.2

Sediment t r a n s p o r t r a t e s

I n Section
waves and

9.1

i t has

been shown t h a t the t o t a l sediment t r a n s p o r t i n combined

c u r r e n t s can be d i v i d e d i n t o

a:

c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d sediment t r a n s p o r t r a t e (q^. ^ ) ,

wave-related sediment t r a n s p o r t r a t e (q^. ^ ) .

The

c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d sediment t r a n s p o r t i s d e f i n e d as the t r a n s p o r t o f p a r t i c l e s

by the time-averaged c u r r e n t v e l o c i t i e s , the l a t t e r being m o d i f i e d


m o t i o n . The

by the wave

wave-related sediment t r a n s p o r t i s d e f i n e d as the t r a n s p o r t o f p a r -

t i c l e s by the o s c i l l a t i n g f l u i d motions ( o r b i t a l

velocities).

Q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n o f measured c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d and

wave-related t r a n s p o r t

r a t e s i s presented by MieuwJaar-Van der K a a i j (1987) and

by Nap-Van Kampen

(1988) f o r non-breaking waves combined w i t h f o l l o w i n g and

Current-related
Figure

opposing c u r r e n t s .

transport rates

10.2.7A shows c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d t r a n s p o r t r a t e s f o r the 100 ym and

200

ym-experiments i n a l a b o r a t o r y flume. The measured v a l u e s have been analyzed


to determine the i n f l u e n c e o f the wave h e i g h t (Hg) and

the depth-averaged

-10.5-

v e l o c i t y () on the t r a n s p o r t r a t e . This a n a l y s i s provide

information o f the

r e q u i r e d accuracy o f wave h e i g h t and c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y p r e d i c t i o n s . For example,


when t h e t r a n s p o r t r a t e depends on u^, the accuracy o f t h e p r e d i c t e d v e l o c i t y
_2
must be much l a r g e r than when t h e t r a n s p o r t r a t e depends on u .
Analysis

o f the measured t r a n s p o r t r a t e s shows t h e f o l l o w i n g phenomena:

no s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e o f the c u r r e n t d i r e c t i o n ( f o l l o w i n g or opposing)
on t h e t r a n s p o r t r a t e ,

r e l a t i v e l y large
c
(q,
K H ) at a
u
c
s
r e l a t i v e l y small
2
(q,
H ) at a

increase

o f the t r a n s p o r t r a t e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g wave h e i g h t

weak c u r r e n t ( u

0.1 m/s),

increase

s t r o n g c u r r e n t ( = 0.4 m/s),

r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e increase

o f the t r a n s p o r t r a t e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g
-4 5
u
) a t low waves (H /h ^ 0.15),

averaged v e l o c i t y (q
u

o f the t r a n s p o r t r a t e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g wave h e i g h t

r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l increase
averaged v e l o c i t y (q

o f the t r a n s p o r t r a t e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g

increase

depth-

u ) a t high waves (H /h ^ 0.35),


UJ c

depth-

o f t h e sediment s i z e by a f a c t o r 2 ( f r o m 100 ym t o 200 ym) causes

a decrease o f the t r a n s p o r t r a t e by a f a c t o r 3 t o 6.'


The r e s u l t s show a r e l a t i v e l y small increase

o f the t r a n s p o r t r a t e s i n case o f

a s t r o n g c u r r e n t and/or h i g h waves. There seems t o be a maximum c a p a c i t y e f f e c t


( s a t u r a t i o n e f f e c t ) . Mear the bed a h i g h - c o n c e n t r a t i o n

l a y e r ( c > 5 kg/m3) i s

generated which has a s h i e l d i n g e f f e c t on the entrainment process reducing t h e


e n t r a i n m e n t r a t e o f new p a r t i c l e s a t h i g h e r shear s t r e s s e s .

Wave-related t r a n s p o r t r a t e
V a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s have observed t h a t the wave-related t r a n s p o r t can be
directed against

the wave-current d i r e c t i o n i n case o f a f o l l o w i n g c u r r e n t i n

s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s . The r e s u l t s o f Map-Van Kampen (1988) p r o v i d e q u a n t i t a t i v e


i n f o r m a t i o n o f these phenomena based on s p e c i a l sand balance experiments. The
experiments c o n s i s t e d

o f measuring t h e sediment mass eroded from t h e bed by

the c u r r e n t w i t h waves between t h e flume entrance and t h e measuring l o c a t i o n


(= 15 meter downstream from the e n t r a n c e ) . Since, t h e r e was no sediment feed
a t t h e flume e n t r a n c e , the t o t a l time-averaged t r a n s p o r t r a t e ( q ^ ) passing t h e
measuring l o c a t i o n i s equal t o t h e eroded mass d i v i d e d by t h e elapsed

time.

-10.6-

S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , time-averaged c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y and sand c o n c e n t r a t i o n

profiles

were measured a t t h e measuring l o c a t i o n , y i e l d i n g t h e time-averaged

current-

r e l a t e d t r a n s p o r t r a t e (q, = u c d z ) . Since, these experiments a r e r a t h e r


c,c
time-consuming o n l y t h r e e experiments have been executed: two experiments w i t h
a f o l l o w i n g c u r r e n t (T15,10 and T15,20) and one experiment w i t h an opposing
current

(T15,-10). The e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s a r e presented i n F i g . 10.2.7B

showing t h e r a t i o q^-Zq^. ^ as a f u n c t i o n o f U^/. The most i m p o r t a n t

results

are:

t h e t o t a l t r a n s p o r t (q^.) i s smaller
(qj.

transport

i n case o f a f o l l o w i n g c u r r e n t which means t h a t t h e w a v e - r e l a t e d

t r a n s p o r t (q^. ^ ) i s d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t

than the c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d

the wave and c u r r e n t d i r e c t i o n ,

t h e w a v e - r e l a t e d t r a n s p o r t r a t e ( a g a i n s t the c u r r e n t and wave d i r e c t i o n ) i s


A

l a r g e s t i n case o f a weak f o l l o w i n g c u r r e n t , q, /q,


t ,w t , c
and q, ,/q, ^ ^ 0,25 f o r U./ =^ 1.5,
t ,

, C

0.4 f o r U ^ ^ 2.5

t h e w a v e - r e l a t e d t r a n s p o r t seems t o be n e g l i g i b l e small

i n case o f an

opposing c u r r e n t .
The

underlying

mechanism o f wave-related t r a n s p o r t a g a i n s t

i s s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o the near-bed eddy motions (see F i g .

t h e wave d i r e c t i o n
10.2.8).

When t h e wave c r e s t superimposed on a f o l l o w i n g c u r r e n t passes a r i p p l e , t h e


near-bed v e l o c i t i e s w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e and a s t r o n g eddy w i t h h i g h
c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i s generated a t t h e r i p p l e back. When the wave trough
the r i p p l e , t h e eddy i s l i f t e d and c a r r i e d a g a i n s t

sand

passes

t h e wave p r o p a g a t i o n d i r e c -

t i o n , whereas t h e eddy a l s o d e s i n t e g r a t e s a t h i g h e r l e v e l s . Some p a r t o f t h e


sediment p a r t i c l e s w i l l f a l l back on t h e bed d u r i n g
ously,

t h i s process. S i m u l t a n e -

another eddy i s generated a t t h e r i p p l e f r o n t when t h e wave

trough

passes. During t h i s phase o f t h e wave c y c l e the near-bed v e l o c i t i e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l and thus t h e eddy v e l o c i t i e s and t h e corresponding sand concent r a t i o n i n t h e eddy a r e a l s o r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . Thus, near t h e bed t h e r e i s a
process o f r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s
v e l o c i t i e s against
centrations

transported

by r e l a t i v e l y

t h e wave d i r e c t i o n and a process o f r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l

transported

1988).

con-

i n t h e wave d i r e c t i o n by r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e v e l o c i t i e s .

Q u a n t i t a t i v e e s t i m a t e s o f both processes i n d i c a t e a n e t w a v e - r e l a t e d
against

small

transport

t h e wave d i r e c t i o n i n case o f a f o l l o w i n g c u r r e n t (Nap-Van Kampen,

-10.7-

Assuming t h a t a systematic

e r r o r o f t h e order o f 30% i s h a r d l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n

sediment t r a n s p o r t p r e d i c t i o n s , i t i s h e r e i n proposed t o n e g l e c t
r e l a t e d t r a n s p o r t r a t e (which

t h e wave-

i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t because r e l i a b l e f o r m u l a e

are n o t a v a i l a b l e ) f o r U / < 2 i n case o f a f o l l o w i n g o r opposing c u r r e n t


0

(4) = 0 , i}) ^ 1 8 0 ) . Outside t h i s l a t t e r range U^/ > 2 , i t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y


important

t o take t h e wave-related t r a n s p o r t i n t o account.

When the wave p r o p a g a t i o n d i r e c t i o n i s more or l e s s p e r p e n d i c u l a r

t o the cur-

r e n t d i r e c t i o n , t h e wave-related t r a n s p o r t process i s the dominating t r a n s p o r t


process i n t h e wave d i r e c t i o n and must, t h e r e f o r e , be taken i n t o account,
e s p e c i a l l y i n c o n d i t i o n s w i t h asymmetrical wave motion (near and i n s i d e s u r f
zone). F a r t h e r o f f s h o r e , the wave motion i s l a r g e l y s i n u s o i d a l y i e l d i n g n e t
w a v e - r e l a t e d t r a n s p o r t r a t e s which a r e probably n e g l i g i b l e s m a l l .
10.3

Computation o f time-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n

10.3.1

profiles

Introduction

V a r i o u s models t o compute the time-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n


l a b l e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . The B i j k e r model ( 1 9 6 7 ,
averaged c o n v e c t i o n - d i f f u s i o n equation,

p r o f i l e s are a v a i -

1971) i s based on t h e t i m e -

Eq. ( 9 . 3 . 1 ) . Other models such as t h a t

o f Fredseie e t a l ( 1985) and t h a t o f Deigaard e t a l ( 1986) a r e based on t h e


instantaneous c o n v e c t i o n - d i f f u s i o n equation,

Eq. ( 9 . 3 . 2 ) . These l a t t e r models

are o n l y v a l i d f o r plane bed c o n d i t i o n s w i t h sheet f l o w .


Since r e l i a b l e

models t o p r e d i c t the time-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n

profiles for

a r i p p l e d bed or a plane sheet f l o w bed a r e s t i l l l a c k i n g , t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r


proposes h e r e a f t e r a new method based on t h e time-averaged
e q u a t i o n and t h e c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d and t h e wave-related m i x i n g
i n Section

1.

c o e f f i c i e n t s given

8 . 3 . 3 and 9 . 3 . 6 . The method i s v a l i d f o r non-breaking and

wave over r i p p l e d or a plane bed.

10.3.2

convection-diffusion

Computation methods

M e t h o d _ o f _ B i j k e r ( 1 9 6 7 , 1971)
The c o n c e n t r a t i o n

p r o f i l e i s described as:

breaking

-10.8-

^ 'b,cw
i n which:
c

= time-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n

(kg/m^)

c^

= time-averaged reference

= k g = reference

kg

= e f f e c t i v e bed roughness h e i g h t

(m)

= water depth

(m)

concentration

a t z=a

(kg/m^)

l e v e l o r t h i c k n e s s o f bed load l a y e r

(m)

T,
= T,
+ T,
= bed-shear s t r e s s
b,cw
b,cw
b,c

1
"^2

(M/m^)

"^b w

~ 1^ ^ "^w^^-^

- 1
T,
b, c

- 2
= P f V = c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed-shear s t r e s s
o
c r

= [C/C]^'^ = efficiency factor

= 18 l o g ( 1 2 h / k g ) = O v e r a l l Chzy-coefficient

(uP'^/s)

C'

= 18 log(12h/dgQ) = Chzy-coefficient r e l a t e d t o g r a i n s

(m*^"^/s)

fg

= (8g)/C^ = c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d f r i c t i o n f a c t o r

(-)

f^^

= exp[-6 + 5 . 2 ( A g / k ^ ) ~ * ^ ' = wave-related f r i c t i o n f a c t o r

(-)

= w / ( k u
S

Wg
K

" wave-related bed-shear s t r e s s

(N/m2)
(N/m^)
(-)

) - suspension parameter

* , C W

(-)

= p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y o f suspended sediment
= Von Karman constant (= 0.4)
rlO '5
- ['^^ cw^*^' ' ~ t i ^ ' ^ " ^ ^ ^ ^ ' " v e l o c i t y

Ujj
p
p
's

= f l u i d density
= sediment d e n s i t y

= empirical c o e f f i c i e n t

d^Q

- median p a r t i c l e s i z e o f bed m a t e r i a l
= peak o r b i t a l excursion

(m/s)

(m/s)
(kg/m^)
(kg/m3)
5)

near the bed (based on

(m)
Hj^^^g)

(m)

U.

= peak o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y near t h e bed (based on H-,)

(m/s)

Vpj

= depth-averaged value o f c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y v e c t o r

(m/s)

Method_of_Freds(Zie e t a l (1985)
The

computation o f the c o n c e n t r a t i o n

given

i n Section

p r o f i l e i n case o f waves alone i s

9.3.8. I n case o f a combination o f waves and c u r r e n t

(under an angle if)) the instantaneous v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e i s assumed t o cons i s t o f two p a r t s : 1. a steady component U due t o t h e mean c u r r e n t and 2.
an unsteady component U^^ due t o the wave motion. The unsteady component i s
r e p r e s e n t e d by p o t e n t i a l f l o w theory o u t s i d e the wave boundary l a y e r and
by a l o g a r i t h m i c v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e i n s i d e the wave boundary l a y e r . The

-10.9-

i n f l u e n c e o f the wave boundary l a y e r on the mean c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y

i s taken

i n t o account by an apparent roughness.


The

c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e i s computed by numerical

integration

applying

the c o n v e c t i o n - d i f f u s i o n equation.

Method_of Van
The

Rijn

c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e can be o b t a i n e d from numerical

integration

of

the time-averaged c o n v e c t i o n - d i f f u s i o n Equation (9.3.1) a p p l y i n g Equation


(9.3.38) as r e f e r e n c e
dc
dz ~

concentration:

(10.3.3)

e
s,cw
d

a - 0-0^5 P 3 ^
in

1.5
V 3

(10.3.4)

which:

= time-averaged c o n c e n t r a t i o n a t h e i g h t z above the bed

"s m

(kg/m3)

= p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y o f suspended sediment

in fluid-sediment mixture
(m/s)
= p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y o f suspended sediment i n c l e a r water (m/s)
2
2
lO 5
E
= e
+ e
* = sediment mixing c o e f f i c i e n t i n combined
s,cw^s,c
s,w^

c u r r e n t s and waves
(m^/s)
p
sediment d e n s i t y
(== 2650 kg/m3)
s
w

= reference

dgQ

= median p a r t i c l e diameter o f bed m a t e r i a l

(m)

- bed-shear s t r e s s parameter

(-)

D^f

= p a r t i c l e parameter

(-)

The

level

sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t i n combined c u r r e n t s and waves i s assumed

t o be given by the sum


related
tic

o f the squares o f the c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d and t h e wave2


2
2
0 5
v a l u e s . Thus: e
= e
+ e
. Since e , k
with k = kines,cw
s,c
s,w

energy and

I = l e n g t h s c a l e , t h i s approach corresponds t o the summa-

t i o n o f the k i n e t i c energy o f both types o f motions, which seems t o be


more r e a l i s t i c than assuming e

= e
+ e
.
s, C W
s, c
s, w
The r e f e r e n c e l e v e l i s assumed t o be equal t o a = 0.5
i n case o f a r i p p l e d bed (A = r i p p l e h e i g h t ) or a = 6 i n case o f a plane sheet f l o w bed
V
w
( 6 ^ = wave boundary l a y e r t h i c k n e s s , see Eq. ( 2 . 3 . 8 ) ) .

The

v a r i a b l e s are s p e c i f i e d i n d e t a i l i n S e c t i o n

10.4.2.

-10.10-

10.3.3

Comparison o f measured and computed c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s

Non-breaking waves
NieuwJaar-Van der K a a i j (1987) and Nap-Van Kampen (1988) have compared comput e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s according

t o the B i j k e r model w i t h c o n c e n t r a t i o n

measured i n a l a b o r a t o r y flume (non-breaking

waves). The water depth was about

0.5 m. The s i g n i f i c a n t wave h e i g h t s were i n the range o f 0.075 t o 0.2 m.


c u r r e n t v e l o c i t i e s were i n the range o f 0.1 t o 0.1 m/s

The

( f o l l o w i n g and opposing

c u r r e n t s ) . The bed m a t e r i a l s i z e was 100 and 200 ym. F i g u r e

10.3.1 shows mea-

sured and computed c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s from the 100 ym-experiments. The


B i j k e r - m o d e l shows t h e " b e s t " agreement w i t h measured values

i n case o f a

r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g c u r r e n t (0.4 m/s) and r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l waves (0.075 m). T h i s


seems l o g i c because t h e B i j k e r - m o d e l i s based on a p a r a b o l i c m i x i n g

coeffi-

c i e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n as v a l i d f o r a c u r r e n t alone. I n case o f a weak c u r r e n t


(- 0.1 m/s) the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f the B i j k e r model are much t o o s m a l l i n t h e
near-bed r e g i o n and much t o o l a r g e i n the upper l a y e r s . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were
found i n case o f the 200 ym-experiments. The main cause f o r t h e d e v i a t i o n s o f
the B i j k e r model i s the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a p a r a b o l i c m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t which i s
n o t v a l i d i n case o f a weak c u r r e n t i n combination

w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e waves

(say Ug/ > 1 ) . Futhermore, the p r e d i c t i o n o f the r e f e r e n c e c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s


also not c o r r e c t .
The measured c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f Nieuwjaar-Van der K a a i j (1987) and Nap-Van
Kampen (1988) have a l s o been used by the present w r i t e r t o v e r i f y h i s method.
Measured and computed c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s are shown i n F i g s . 10.3.2 t o
10.3.7. G e n e r a l l y ,

the agreement between measured and computed

concentration

p r o f i l e s i s q u i t e good except i n case o f a r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g f o l l o w i n g c u r r e n t


( ^ 0.4 m/s) over a f i n e sediment bed ( d ^ ^ ^ 100 ym), see F i g . 10.3.7. I n
t h a t case t h e computed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s are much t o o l a r g e i n the upper l a y e r s .
The reason f o r t h i s may l i e i n the experimental

c o n d i t i o n s , which c o n s i s t e d o f

a s e l f - e r o d i n g c u r r e n t superimposed by waves (no sediment f e e d ) . The


between t h e beginning

distance

o f t h e sediment bed and the measuring s e c t i o n was about

20 times t h e water depth which probably

i s n o t l a r g e enough t o generate

e q u i l i b r i u m c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s . Thus, the measured c o n c e n t r a t i o n s


upper l a y e r are probably

fully

i n the

too s m a l l . These phenomena d i d n o t occur i n t h e 200

ym-experiments because t h e adjustment l e n g t h i s much s m a l l e r f o r coarser


p a r t i c l e s (see F i g . 10.3.4).

-10.11-

Figure

1 0 . 3 . 8 shows computed and measured c o n c e n t r a t i o n

profiles for a field

l o c a t i o n on an i n t e r t i d a l f l a t (Oosterschelde, The N e t h e r l a n d s ) .
concentrations

The sand

have only been measured i n the near-bed l a y e r ( z < 0 . 3 m).

F a i r l y good agreement o f measured and computed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s

can be observed.

Break:ing_waves
Figure

1 0 . 3 . 9 shows measured and computed (Van R i j n method)

The measured sand c o n c e n t r a t i o n s

have been obtained

concentrations.

by an o p t i c a l

instrument

mounted on a sledge i n the s u r f zone (USA, J a f f e e t a l , 1 9 8 4 ) .


The computed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s ,

based on an assumed . f a l l v e l o c i t y o f 0 . 0 1 1

and an assumed bed roughness o f

m/s

= 0 . 0 1 m, are ( i n most cases) a

f a c t o r 2 to 3 too large.

10.4

10.4.1

Computation o f sediment t r a n s p o r t i n non-breaking waves

Introduction

The most f r e q u e n t l y - a p p l i e d methods f o r computation o f the t r a n s p o r t r a t e i n


combined c u r r e n t and non-breaking wave c o n d i t i o n s are those o f B i j k e r ( 1 9 6 7 ,
1 9 7 1 ) , Grant-Madsen

( 1 9 7 6 ) and Bagnold-Bailard ( 1 9 8 1 ) . The method o f Fredseie

e t a l ( 1 9 8 5 ) and the new method o f Van R i j n are a l s o described

i n this section.

A l l these formulae y i e l d a n e t t r a n s p o r t r a t e i n the c u r r e n t d i r e c t i o n , which


may be u n r e a l i s t i c i n case o f a weak c u r r e n t combined w i t h r e l a t i v e l y

large

waves (Ug > ) over a r i p p l e d bed. I n t h a t case the wave-related t r a n s p o r t may


dominate the c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d t r a n s p o r t y i e l d i n g a n e t t r a n s p o r t r a t e

against

the c u r r e n t d i r e c t i o n , as observed by Nap-Van Kampen ( 1 9 8 8 ) .

10.4.2

1.

Computation methods

Method_of_Bijker (1967,

1971)

The method o f B i j k e r y i e l d s the c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed-load and suspendedload t r a n s p o r t r a t e s ; the wave-related t r a n s p o r t r a t e i s n o t taken

into

account. T h e r e f o r e , the method o f B i j k e r i s o n l y v a l i d when the wave


propagation d i r e c t i o n i s approximately perpendicular
tion .

t o the c u r r e n t d i r e c -

-10.12-

Based on t h e concept o f E i n s t e i n

(1950), Bijker

proposed:

- 1-83 q b , c t l 2 ^ ^1 ^ " ( 3 3 h / k ^ ) ]

%,c

(10.4.1)

- 0 . 2 7 ( p -p)g d
. = b u ^ d^^ exp[

22]
5b,c = b ",c % 0
b,cw

(10.4.2)

i n which:
q

= time-averaged suspended load t r a n s p o r t

(m^/s)

q,

= time-averaged bed-load t r a n s p o r t

(m^/s)

= i n t e g r a l of Einstein

a c c o r d i n g t o Eq. ( 8 . 3 . 2 0 )

I2

= i n t e g r a l of Einstein

a c c o r d i n g t o Eq. ( 8 . 3 . 2 1 )

= coefficient

(= 5 )

The o t h e r v a r i a b l e s are s p e c i f i e d

i n S e c t i o n 1 0 . 3 . 2 (see Eqs. 1 0 . 3 . 1 and

10.3.2).

(1976)
Grant and Madsen consider t h a t t h e wave and c u r r e n t motions near t h e bed
cannot be t r e a t e d

separately.

The i n s t a n t a n e o u s t o t a l t r a n s p o r t

= ^ 0 "s % 0

% , t

r a t e (m^/s) i s represented as:

# [

(^'^^3)

i n which:
Wg

= particle f a l l

velocity

dcQ = median p a r t i c l e diameter o f bed m a t e r i a l


r 2
2
iO 5
U
= [U^ + u^ + 2
u^ cos<|>J = instantaneous v e l o c i t y v e c t o r near t h e
bed
U^^

s i n ( a ) t ) = near-bed o r b i t a l

velocity

= near-bed c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y
0
f,,
w
()>

0.5
= ^g

f u2
^

= friction

= particle mobility

parameter

factor

= angle between c u r r e n t d i r e c t i o n and wave p r o p a g a t i o n d i r e c t i o n .

-10.13-

Averaging over the wave p e r i o d y i e l d s the mean t r a n s p o r t r a t e and


t i o n . The

t r a n s p o r t r a t e comprises b o t h the c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d and

direc-

the wave-

related contributions.

Bagnold-Bailard (1981)
The

instantaneous bed

load and

suspended load t r a n s p o r t r a t e s are expressed

as:

q, . /

^b

[U^ -

(p^-p)g bany ^

q
.
^s
(P3-p)g

(10.4.11)

tany ' ' ^

[|u3|u - ^
^
Wg

tang

(10.4.5)

|U|5]
I J

i n which:

%
^s

% 6 Y "s fw

i n s t a n t a n e o u s bed-load t r a n s p o r t r a t e

(m2/s)

i n s t a n t a n e o u s suspended-load t r a n s p o r t r a t e

(m2/s)

f r i c t i o n factor
e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r f o r bed

l o a d t r a n s p o r t (= 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 1 5 )

e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r f o r suspended load

t r a n s p o r t (= 0 . 0 1 6 - 0 . 0 2 4 )

l o c a l bottom "slope

()

dynamic f r i c t i o n

()

angle

particle f a l l velocity

f u + u + 2U u cos<J)l
= instantaneous near-bed v e l o c i t y v e c t o r
i w
c
w c
sin()t) = near-bed o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y
"w = 0
near-bed c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y
^c
angle between c u r r e n t d i r e c t i o n and wave propajg a t i o n d i r e c t i o n .
4U

O r i g i n a l l y , the formulae o f Bagnold were developed f o r steady u n i d i r e c t i onal f l o w . B a l l a r d a p p l i e d these formulae t o o s c i l l a t o r y f l o w i n combinat i o n w i t h a steady c u r r e n t over a plane s l o p i n g bottom.
Averaging over the wave p e r i o d , the t o t a l t r a n s p o r t r a t e and
obtained

( b o t h the wave-related and

d i r e c t i o n are

the c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d c o n t r i b u t i o n s ) .

Kachel and S t e r n b e r g ( 1 9 7 1 ) have shown t h a t the e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r s (ej^

and

e,^) are not c o n s t a n t ,


s

and

but are s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o the bed-shear s t r e s s

the p a r t i c l e diameter. These r e s u l t s suggest t h a t the v a l i d i t y o f


Bagnold concept i s r a t h e r

questionable.

the

-10.14-

Method o f Fredseie e t a l (1985)


The computation o f c u r r e n t v e l o c i t i e s , o r b i t a l v e l o c i t i e s , bed-shear s t r e s ses and sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s

i s given i n Sections 9.3.8 and 10.3.2.

The i n s t a n t a n e o u s t r a n s p o r t r a t e i s computed as the sum o f t h e i n s t a n t a n e ous bed load t r a n s p o r t (qj^) and the instantaneous suspended load

transport

(Qg), as f o l l o w s :
h
a
i n which:
= i n s t a n t a n e o u s bed load t r a n s p o r t by a formula
qg = i n s t a n t a n e o u s suspended load

transport

Vpj = i n s t a n t a n e o u s r e s u l t a n t v e l o c i t y a t h e i g h t z above bed


C

= instantaneous concentration

= reference

= water depth

a t h e i g h t z above bed

l e v e l (= 2 d^,,)

Method o f Van R i j n
The c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed-load t r a n s p o r t (q,
) and the c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d
b, c
suspended-load t r a n s p o r t ( q
) are described. The t o t a l t r a n s p o r t i s
Sfc
d e f i n e d as the sum o f the c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d and the wave-related t r a n s p o r t .
The l a t t e r i s d e s c r i b e d i n Section 9.4.2.
C u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed-load t r a n s p o r t :
Equation (8.2.20) i s a p p l i e d t o compute the c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed-load
t r a n s p o r t r a t e (see a l s o next s e c t i o n ) :
Thus,

%,c

";,c S o T^-^/D'^

(10.4.7)

i n which:
q,

=
'
,c=
d^Q =
T

time-averaged bed-load t r a n s p o r t
ri0 5
I'^ypJ
' = c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d g r a i n bed-shear v e l o c i t y
c
median p a r t i c l e diameter o f bed m a t e r i a l

= dimensionless bed-shear s t r e s s parameter due t o c u r r e n t


and waves

= dimensionless p a r t i c l e parameter

(m^/s)
(m/s)
(m)

-10.15-

The T - p a r a m e t e r
bed m a t e r i a l

is

a stirring

particles

parameter.

Equation

100 t o

ym, y i e l d s

500

parameter

whereas

(10.4.7)

the

governing
-parameter

which

is

valid

a zero-transport

rate

for

the

entrainment

acts

as

particles

when

the

of

the

transport

in

current

the

range

velocity

of
is

zero.

Current-related

suspended

The

time-averaged

the

depth

h
=

the

vc

s,c

in

of

transport:

suspended-load
product

of

transport

velocity

and

is

computed

concentration,

by

integration

as

follows:

dz

over

(10.4.8)

which:

= time-averaged
S

load

Vpj

= resultant
(in

the

= sediment

= reference

= water

Total

load

transport

'

(m^/s)

imposed

in

which:

c
q.

at

height

velocity

at

height

z above

the

bed

vector),
z above

(m/s)

bed

(-)

level

(m)
(m)

transport:

by waves

-- \Cqf

the

concentration

time-averaged

velocity
of

depth

sediment

total

current

direction

The

suspended

sediment

can be o b t a i n e d

(q^)^

+ 2

| q j

transport

rate

(q^.)

in

a current

by

addition,

as

follows:

|q^|

vector

oos^f

super-

(10.4.9)

= q,

+ q
- total current-related transport
c
s J c
= current-related bed-load transport
rate

rate

ID J

O ^c

= current-related

suspended

load

transport

rate

S c

q
"

= J u c d z = q
-q
o
"'"^^

. =

net wave-related sediment


transport
rate i n the d i r e c t i o n of the l a r g e s t
bed-shear s t r e s s (see Eq. 9 . 4 . 8 )

q
^w,max
q
.
^w,min

= a

^6,max
= a
.
6,min

w,max
6
.
w,min

- c 1
a,max
a-"
fc
- c
.1
a
a,mm-'
fc

-10.16-

= time-averaged bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n according

t o Eq.

(9.3.38)

a.

applying

= T;

c
= maximum bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n according t o Eq. (9.3.38) a p p l y i n g
a,max
r
o
^ o
^
,n K
^<;w,max = [ ( ^ ; ) ^ ( ^ w ) ^ 2 | x ; | | x ' | c o s ^ ] 0 - 5
o m-ir, = minimum bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n according t o Eq. (9.3.38) a p p l y i n g
a,mm
,
o
^ o
"
,a c
^cw,min = [ ( ^ ; ) ^
I x J cos^]-5
A

6, max'
'
'^w max'
'

U.
6

,min
'

= maximum and minimum peak o r b i t a l v e l o c i t i e s near the bed


,.
,
,
a c c o r d i n g t o higher order Stokes t h e o r y ( t o account f o r
wave asymmetry)

'^w min " "^^^ boundary l a y e r t h i c k n e s s based on maximum and minimum


'
peak o r b i t a l excursions ( h i g h e r o r d e r Stokes t h e o r y )

a = c o e f f i c i e n t (

0.3)

4) = angle between c u r r e n t d i r e c t i o n and wave p r o p a g a t i o n


The

above-given method y i e l d s a net wave-related

combined c u r r e n t and
A

direction

t r a n s p o r t r a t e i n case o f

waves, even i f the waves are assumed t o be s i n u s o i d a l


A

( s y m m e t r i c a l , U.
= U.
= U.) due
0,max
0,min
o

t o wave-current i n t e r a c t i o n .

The

computation procedure f o r the method o f Van

1.

S p e c i f y the i n p u t data

R i j n i s as f o l l o w s :

water depth

(m)

"s

s i g n i f i c a n t wave h e i g h t

(m)

peak wave p e r i o d

(s)

depth-averaged value o f the v e l o c i t y

angle between wave d i r e c t i o n and

%0

median diameter o f bed m a t e r i a l

(m)

^90

90% diameter o f bed

(m)

"s

f a l l v e l o c i t y o f suspended sediment

'^s,c

c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed

'^s,w
a

wave-related

reference

t h i c k n e s s o f near-bed wave-related

acceleration of g r a v i t y

fluid

"^s

sediment d e n s i t y

kinematic

^R
t-

bed

vector

current d i r e c t i o n

material

()

(m/s)

roughness

(m)

roughness

l e v e l bed

(m/s)

(m)

concentration

(m)
mixing

layer

(m)

s
density

viscosity coefficient

(m/s2)
(kg/m3)
(kg/m3)
(m2/s)

-10.17-

- Constant Von Karman (= 0.4)

= r a t i o o f sediment and f l u i d mixing c o e f f i c i e n t

1)

Fall velocity, Wg
The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p a r t i c l e s i z e o f the suspended sediment can be
o b t a i n e d from Eq. ( 9 . 3 . 5 ) . A reasonable
Bed roughness, k g j , ,

e s t i m a t e i s d^

0.8 d^^

The bed roughness can be o b t a i n e d from Eqs. (7.2.14) and (7.3.7) which
r e l a t e t h e k g - v a l u e t o t h e r i p p l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A reasonable
mate f o r c u r r e n t s and non-breaking

waves i s k ^ = k ,,

esti-

3 A , with

values i n the range o f 0.03 t o 0.1 m. I n case o f b r e a k i n g waves w i t h


sheet f l o w c o n d i t i o n s the bed roughness w i l l be o f t h e order o f t h e
wave boundary l a y e r t h i c k n e s s g i v i n g k ,, =^ 6
b , W

w i t h values i n t h e range

of 0.01 t o 0.02 m.
Reference l e v e l , a
The r e f e r e n c e l e v e l i s proposed t o be equal t o h a l f t h e r i p p l e h e i g h t
(a = 2 Aj.) i n case o f non-breaking

waves and equal t o t h e wave boun-

dary l a y e r t h i c k n e s s ( a = 6^) i n case o f s h e e t f l o w c o n d i t i o n s .


Near-bed m i x i n g l a y e r t h i c k n e s s , 6
s
This parameter can be obtained from Eq, ( 9 . 3 . 2 3 ) , g i v i n g 6

3 A in

the r i p p l e regime and '^3 = 3 6^ i n the sheet f l o w regime. Both

expres-

s i o n s y i e l d values i n the range 0,03 t o 0,1 m. I n case o f b r e a k i n g


waves t h e 6 value may be somewhat l a r g e r (6 0.2 m) due t o t h e
s
s
b r e a k i n g e f f e c t . More f i e l d data from t h e s u r f zone a r e necessary t o
b e t t e r d e f i n e the 6 -parameter f o r b r e a k i n g wave c o n d i t i o n s .
s
Compute sediment c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , D^^ and T

r e l a t i v e density

: s

p a r t i c l e parameter

= p /p
s r
2i1/3
= d^^ [ ( s - 1 ) g / v J
50
-1
1
= 0.24
0.64
= 0 . 1 4 D^'
0 1
= 0.04 D^^"
*
= 0,013 0'^^

S h i e l d s parameter

1 < D < < 4


4 < D < 10
10 < Djf <

20

20 < D < 150

: 6
: 0
: 0
cr
: 0
Cl?

D > 150
critical

bed-shear s t r e s s

: 0
: T
cr

= 0,055
= (p - p ) g d^^ 0
o
Ov-* c r

-10.18-

Compute wave l e n g h t L'

A^, U^, 6

Compute wave parameters

H
near-bed o r b i t a l e x c u r s i o n

: A,
'6 "

near-bed o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y

^
2 sinh(2Trh/L')
TT H

=
0

sinh(2TTh/L')
A

wave boundary l a y e r t h i c k n e s s : 6 = 0.072 A, (A/k


)~0-25
w
6 s,w

in

which:
= r e l a t i v e wave p e r i o d ( c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o peak o f spectrum)

Compute apparent bed roughness, k^


A

: k^ = k^ ^ exp

a,max

[y U^/Vj^]

= 10 k
s,c

Y = 0.75

f o r <t) =

Y = 0.75

f o r ()) =

90

Y = 1.1

f o r ((> = 180

( l i n e a r i n t e r p o l a t i o n f o r intermediate values)

Compute f r i c t i o n f a c t o r s , f . , f,, and f ^

c u r r e n t : C' = 18 log(12h/3 dgp)


C

= 18 l o g ( 1 2 h / k 3 ^ j , )

f ' = 0.24 log"^(12h/3 dgg)


f g = 0.24 log"^(12h/kg ^)
f ^ = 0.24 l o g " ^ ( 1 2 h / k ^ )

waves

exp[-6,5.2(A^/k^_r''5|

f w, max = 0.3

10.19-

7.

Compute e f f e c t i v e time-averaged bed-shear s t r e s s e s , x' and x'


O

e f f i c i e n c y factor current

: y
c

e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r waves

: y^

=f ' / f
c c
= O.S/U^
l n ^ ( 9 0 6 /k )

wave-current i n t e r a c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t : a
"

^"'(90 6^/kg^^)

("cw = 1

< '^s,c/30)

bed-shear s t r e s s c u r r e n t

- 1
- 2
: x ' = Qpo(
y f(v)
c
o
cw c a K

bed-shear s t r e s s waves

: x'
w

bed-shear s t r e s s

1
= 77 p y
4

' 2
(U.)

current-waves
c

CW

8.

if

Compute bed-shear s t r e s s parameter, T


'cw

'cr

^cr
(T = 0

9.

i f T < 0)

Compute v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n over the depth:

o u t s i d e wave-boundary

Vp l n ( 3 0 z / k ^ )
l a y e r , z > 3 6^: v^^^ = -1 . l n ( 3 0 h / k )
cL

v^ l n ( 3 0 z / k ^ ^)
i n s i d e wave-boundary

layer,

z < 3 6^: v^^^^ =

ln(90S^/k/5
\

ln(906yk^)

" -1 + l n ( 3 0 h / k )

10.20-

10. Compute sediment mixing c o e f f i c i e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n over t h e depth

current

, ' z < 0.5 h

: e
S

z > 0.5 h

= K 6 u^, ^ z ( 1 - z / h )
4

- (8-'

".,0

waves

= 0.25 k 6 u,,
h
*,c

s,c

z < 6^
s

: e ,, = e . . = 0.004 D a, 6
s,w
s,bed
* br s

z > 0.5 h

: e ,
s,w

6 < z < 0 . 5 h : e
s
s,w

c u r r e n t and waves

= e
= 0.0,35 a, h H /T'
s,max
br
s p
=

^ ^ +
-e ^ ^ ^ ^, ,
s,bed
^ s,max s,bedJ^0.5h-6^

= 3(Hg/h) - 0.8

a.
br

= 1 f o r H /h < 0.6
s

:e

(e

s,cw

11. Compute c o n c e n t r a t i o n

l + f e

s,c^

) ^-^
SjW-*

'

d i s t r i b u t i o n over t h e depth by n u m e r i c a l i n t e -

gration
.

concentration

g r a d i e n t ( z > a)

(1-0)^0 w

= s, cw

bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n

(z < a)

: c = 0.015
a

d 0
a

1.5
0.3
"a

12. Compute c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d t r a n s p o r t r a t e s
suspended load t r a n s p o r t (numerical

integration)

: q
'
bed load t r a n s p o r t

:q

h
=
a

u c dz

= 0.25 u^
D,C

d
,C

0.5

t o t a l load t r a n s p o r t

: q.
CjC

+ q
DjC

SjC

T,1.5
^

t)U qU . J

-10.21-

A reasonable e s t i m a t e o f the suspended load t r a n s p o r t can a l s o be obt a i n e d by the f o l l o w i n g formula which i s an approximate s o l u t i o n
h

an inaccuracy o f a f a c t o r 3) o f the d e p t h - i n t e g r a t i o n

The

:q
S

wave-related c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r

= (P
J C

+ F )vp h c
C

[a/hf^

current-related correction factor : F

:F
"

c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d suspension number : ZC

3.

- [a/h]1-^

[1.2-ZC] [ 1 - ( a / h ) ] ^ 0

[ a / h ] ^ " - [a/h]''-^
[1.2-ZW] [ 1 - ( a / h ) ] ^ "
w
s
e K u^

w
V T'
; ZW = a [ ] 0 ' 9 [ ^ pj 1.05
Vr

wave-related suspension number

= 7

f o r h > 100 6
s

= 0.7(h/6 )"5
s

f o r h < 100 6
s

ZW-number i s based on computer f i t t i n g u s i n g the r e s u l t s o f 500

computations w i t h 150 < d^Q


m/s,

uc dz.

approximate s o l u t i o n (see a l s o Eq. (8.3.26) reads as:

suspended load t r a n s p o r t

The

(with

400 ym, 1 < h < 20 m, 0.1 < Vj^ < 1 .5

0.1 < Hg/h < 0.5 and a = 0.01

h.

A PC-computer programme TRANSP t o compute the c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d


port rates

( i n Fortran)

i s given i n Appendix 10.1.

trans-

A floppy disc i s

enclosed t o run the TRANSP programme.

10.4.3

Comparison o f measured and computed t r a n s p o r t

Nieuwjaar-Van der K a a i j

rates

(1987) and Nap-Van Kampen (1988) have compared compu-

t e d t r a n s p o r t r a t e s a c c o r d i n g t o the methods o f N i e l s e n (1985), B i j k e r (1967,


1971)

and B a g n o l d - B a i l a r d (1981) w i t h measured t r a n s p o r t r a t e s . The measured

-10.22-

t r a n s p o r t r a t e s are based on v e l o c i t y and c o n c e n t r a t i o n measurements i n a


flume w i t h a c u r r e n t superimposed by i r r e g u l a r non-breaking waves ( f o l l o w i n g
and apposing) over a bed o f 100 ym and 200 ym. The water depth was about 0.5 m
i n a l l t e s t s . The c u r r e n t v e l o c i t i e s were i n the range o f 0.1 t o 0.4 m/s.

The

s i g n i f i c a n t wave h e i g h t was v a r i e d i n the range o f 0.07 t o 0.18 m. The peak


wave p e r i o d was about 2.5 s. The bed was covered w i t h s m a l l - s c a l e

ripples in

a l l tests.
Figure

10,4.1 and 10.4.2 show the measured and computed t r a n s p o r t r a t e s accor-

d i n g t o t h e three methods. The computed values are based on the rms-wave h e i g h t .


The bed roughness has been taken equal t o 3 times the measured r i p p l e h e i g h t .
The B i j k e r method shows t h e l e a s t s c a t t e r . The computed values a r e much t o o
l a r g e ( f a c t o r 3 t o 10) a t small t r a n s p o r t r a t e s and much t o o s m a l l

(factor 3

t o 5) a t l a r g e t r a n s p o r t r a t e s i n both cases (100 and 200 ym). The

deviations

are l a r g e s t f o r the 200 ym-experiments.

The B a g n o l d - B a i l a r d method i s based on instantaneous v e l o c i t i e s w i t h i n t h e


wave p e r i o d . The o r b i t a l v e l o c i t i e s have been computed by a p p l y i n g

t h e second

o r d e r Stokes t h e o r y . The computed time-averaged t r a n s p o r t r a t e s show l a r g e


s c a t t e r because the computed r e s u l t s a r e s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d by t h e c u r r e n t
d i r e c t i o n , whereas t h e measured values are only weakly a f f e c t e d by t h e c u r r e n t
d i r e c t i o n ( f o l l o w i n g o r opposing).

The N i e l s e n method y i e l d s r e s u l t s t h a t are s y s t e m a t i c a l l y t o o l a r g e ( f a c t o r 5)


i n case o f the 200 ym t e s t s . I n case o f the 100 ym t e s t s t h e computed v a l u e s
are a f a c t o r 3 too s m a l l a t small t r a n s p o r t r a t e s and a f a c t o r 5 t o 10 t o o
large at large transport rates.

Figure

10.4.3 shows measured and computed bed-load t r a n s p o r t r a t e s a c c o r d i n g

t o t h e method o f Van R i j n . The measured (flume) values have been d e r i v e d

from

measured r i p p l e h e i g h t s and measured r i p p l e m i g r a t i o n v e l o c i t i e s ( N i e u w j a a r


Van der K a a i j , 1987 and Nap-Van Kampen, 1988). The f i e l d d a t a r e f e r t o some
r i v e r s i n the Netherlands. As can be observed, the computed t r a n s p o r t r a t e s
show reasonable agreement w i t h the measured values a t l a r g e t r a n s p o r t r a t e s ,
but t h e computed r e s u l t s are much too l a r g e ( f a c t o r 5 t o 10) a t s m a l l

trans-

p o r t r a t e s . I t i s noted t h a t the measured t r a n s p o r t r a t e s i n the flume a r e


u n r e l i a b l e because t h e number o f r i p p l e s considered t o d e r i v e t h e bed load
t r a n s p o r t r a t e was extremely small

(about 10). Furthermore, the bed load

-10.23-

t r a n s p o r t r a t e s were much smaller


Figure

10.4.4 shows measured and

a c c o r d i n g to the method o f Van


v e l o c i t y and

concentration

than the suspended l o a d t r a n s p o r t r a t e s .


computed suspended load t r a n s p o r t

R i j n . The

measured values were d e r i v e d

measurements i n a flume w i t h 100 ym

sediment (NieuwJaar-Van der k a a i j , 1987

rates

and

from

200

ym

and Nap-Van Kampen, 1988). Based on

a n a l y s i s o f measured v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e s , the e f f e c t i v e bed

roughness was

t o be

computed r e s u l t s o f

i n the range o f 3 t o 7 times the r i p p l e h e i g h t . The

F i g . 10.4.4 are based on a value o f 3 times the r i p p l e h e i g h t (k

= k
s, c

As can be observed, the measured and

found

s ,w

computed t r a n s p o r t r a t e s show reasonably

good agreement. Most (80^) o f the computed values are w i t h i n a f a c t o r 2 o f


measured values. On

10.5

The

the average the computed values are somewhat too l a r g e .

Computation o f sediment t r a n s p o r t i n b r e a k i n g

10.5.1

the

waves

(surfzone)

Introduction

longshore sediment t r a n s p o r t i n s i d e the surfzone ( b r e a k i n g waves) m a i n l y

c o n s i s t s o f suspended load t r a n s p o r t as a r e s u l t o f the m i x i n g


the breaking

waves and

the generated longshore c u r r e n t s . The

properties of

t r a n s p o r t process

i n s i d e the s u r f z o n e t y p i c a l l y has a sawtooth motion because the wave d i r e c t i o n


i s almost p e r p e n d i c u l a r

10.5.2

to the c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y d i r e c t i o n .

Computation methods

B a s i c a l l y , two methods are a v a i l a b l e t o compute the longshore t r a n s p o r t r a t e


i n the s u r f z o n e :

1. l o c a l method and 2. i n t e g r a l method. The

attempts t o represent

the physics o f the sediment t r a n s p o r t process, t a k i n g

a l l r e l e v a n t parameters i n t o account and

1.

f i r s t method

i s t h e r e f o r e more u n i v e r s a l ,

Local_method
The

l o c a l method i s based on the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a sediment t r a n s p o r t f o r -

mula r e l a t e d t o l o c a l parameters (, H , T e t c . ) and i n t e g r a t i o n o f the


s
p
l o c a l t r a n s p o r t r a t e (q^^) over the w i d t h o f the s u r f zone, y i e l d i n g :
b
Qj. = Qt

" i ^ ^

'^t = ^ ( " ' " s ' "^D' '50' Wg...)

(10.5.1)

-10.24(
D e t a i l e d p r e d i c t i o n o f the wave h e i g h t d i s t r i b u t i o n and the c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n across t h e s u r f z o n e i s r e q u i r e d . T i d a l c u r r e n t s can a l s o
be taken i n t o account.
The methods o f B i j k e r (1967, 1971), Fredseie and Deigaard e t a l ( 1 9 8 5 ,
1986)

and Van R i j n can be a p p l i e d i n b r e a k i n g wave c o n d i t i o n s (see S e c t i o n

10.4.2).

2.

I n t e g r a l methods
The i n t e g r a l method r e l a t e s t h e t o t a l longshore sediment t r a n s p o r t t o t h e
longshore component o f the wave energy f l u x a t t h e breaker l i n e , as f o l lows :

'^t = ^ ( " b r '

V'

Two i n t e g r a l methods a r e d e s c r i b e d h e r e i n :

CERC

The CERC-formula developed by t h e U.S, Corps o f Engineers reads as (see


Shore P r o t e c t i o n Manual, 1 9 8 4 ) :

- 0 - 0 2 5 H^^ n^^^ c^^^ s i n ( 2 0 ^ ^ )

(10,5.3)

i n which:
= longshore sediment t r a n s p o r t by volume ( m 3 / s , i n c l u d i n g p o r e s ) ; t h e
sediment t r a n s p o r t by w e i g h t i s Q^^^^^^^^

= i^-p)p^

^t,volume

= s i g n i f i c a n t wave h e i g h t a t t h e breaker l i n e (m)


05

Cjjj, = phase v e l o c i t y o f t h e waves a t t h e breaker l i n e ^ ( g h^^^)


"br =

( 2 k h ) / s i n h ( 2 k h ) ] = c o e f f i c i e n t a t breaker l i n e =^ 1

Q^^ = wave angle a t the breaker l i n e ()


h^^ = water depth a t t h e breaker l i n e (m)
p
p

= p o r o s i t y f a c t o r (= 0.4)
= sediment d e n s i t y {- 2650 k g / m 3 )

A p p l y i n g n^^ - 1, c^^ -

(g h ^ ^ r ^ ^ " ^ ' ^"'^

= V ^ V '

^^"^^^0"

(10.5.3)

can be rearranged t o ;

-10.25-

= 0.078

H 2 ; 5 3in(20^^)

(10.5.4)

Equation (10.5.4) i s a r a t h e r crude formula showing no i n f l u e n c e o f t h e


p a r t i c l e diameter and the beach slope i n s i d e the s u r f z o n e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e
CERC-formula i s o n l y v a l i d f o r a narrow range o f c o n d i t i o n s as r e p r e sented by t h e c a l i b r a t i o n

data. According t o Kamphuis e t a l (1986), t h e

CERC-formula shows reasonable r e s u l t s f o r p a r t i c l e s i z e s i n t h e range o f


200 t o 600 ym and beach slopes i n the range tang = 0.015 t o 0.15, ( s e e
Fig.

10.5.1). The CERC-formula cannot be a p p l i e d when t i d a l c u r r e n t v e l o -

c i t i e s are s i g n i f i c a n t .

Kamphuis e t a l (1986)

Based on the a n a l y s i s o f l a b o r a t o r y and f i e l d d a t a , t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a


is

proposed:

Q. z 1.28
fc
So
in

tanB sin(20,

(10.5.5)

which:
= longshore sediment t r a n s p o r t by weight

(kg/s)

= s i g n i f i c a n t wave h e i g h t a t breaker l i n e

(m)

0j^^

- wave angle a t breaker l i n e

()

d^Q

= median p a r t i c l e s i z e i n surfzone

(m)

tan6 = beach slope d e f i n e d as the r a t i o o f the water depth a t the breaker


l i n e and the d i s t a n c e from the s t i l l water l i n e t o the breaker

line

the beach slope may be represented by tang = 1.8 ('^|-)p/'^5o^~^'^'

see F i g . 10.5.1.
The value 1.28 i s a dimensional c o e f f i c i e n t

r e l a t e d t o the S I system.

Equation (10.5.5) takes i n t o account the beach slope and the p a r t i c l e


s i z e which i s an improvement t o the CERC-formula. The c a l i b r a t i o n

data

c o n s i s t o f data w i t h p a r t i c l e s i z e s i n t h e range o f 200 t o 600 ym and


beach slopes i n the range o f 0.015 t o 0.15.

-10.26-

10.5.3

Comparison o f measured and computed t r a n s p o r t

rates

F i g u r e 10.5.1 shows measured longshore t r a n s p o r t r a t e s and computed values


based on t h e CERC-raethod. As can be observed,

the g e n e r a l t r e n d i s f a i r l y good

represented, but the s c a t t e r i s r e l a t i v e l y large.

-10,27-

10,6

References

BAGNOLD, R.A., 1966


An Approach t o t h e Sediment Transport Problem from General Physics
G e o l o g i c a l Survey P r o f . Paper 422-1, Washington, USA
BAILARD, J.A., 1981
An E n e r g e t i c s T o t a l Load Sediment T r a n s p o r t Model f o r Plane S l o p i n g Beach
J o u r n a l o f Geophysical Research, V o l . 86, No. O i l

BOSMAN, J . , 1982
The I n f l u e n c e o f Bottom Slope, Water Depth, Breaking Waves, O r b i t a l V e l o c i t y
and C u r r e n t V e l o c i t y on t h e C o n c e n t r a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n under Waves and
C u r r e n t s ( i n Dutch)
DELFT HYDRAULICS, Report M1875, D e l f t , The Netherlands

BOSMAN, J. and STEETZEL, H.J., 1986


Time and Bed-averaged Concentrations under Waves
C o a s t a l Eng. Conference, Taiwan

BIJKER, E.W., 1967


Some C o n s i d e r a t i o n s about Scales f o r Coastal Models w i t h Movable Bed
D i s s e r t a t i o n , D e l f t Univ. o f Tech., D e l f t , The Netherlands

BIJKER, E.W., 1971


Longshore T r a n s p o r t Computations
J o u r n a l o f Waterways,

Harbour and Coastal Eng., V o l . 99, WW4

DEIGAARD, R., FREDS0E, J . and BR0KER HEDEGAARD, I . , 1986


Suspended Sediment T r a n s p o r t i n the S u r f Zone
J o u r n a l o f Waterway, P o r t , Coastal and Ocean E n g i n e e r i n g , V o l . 112, No,

EINSTEIN, H,A,, 1950


The Bed-Load F u n c t i o n f o r Sediment T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n Open Channel Flow
T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No, 1026, U,S. Dep, o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Washington, USA

-10.28-

FREDS0E, J., ANDERSEN, O.H. and SILBERG, S., 1985


D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Suspended Sediment i n Large Waves
J o u r n a l o f Waterway,'Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, V o l , I I I , No.

GRANT, W.D. and MADSEN, O.S., 1 9 7 6


Q u a n t i t a t i v e D e s c r i p t i o n o f Sediment T r a n s p o r t by Waves
Proc. 15th Coastal Eng. Conf., page 1093-1112
JAFFE, B.E., STERNBERG, R.W. and SALLENGER, A.H., 1984
The Role o f Suspended Sediment i n Shore-Normal Beach P r o f i l e Changes
C o a s t a l Engineering Conference, Houston, USA

KACHEL, N.B. and STERNBERG, R.W., 1971


T r a n s p o r t o f Bed Load as Ripples d u r i n g an Ebb Current
Marine Geology, 19, p. 229-244

KAMPHUIS, J.W., DAVIES, M.H., NAIRN, R.B. and SAYAO, O.J., 1 9 8 6


C a l c u l a t i o n o f L i t t o r a l Sand T r a n s p o r t Rate
C o a s t a l E n g i n e e r i n g , V o l . 1 0 , page 1-21

NAP,

E. and VAN KAMPEN," A., 1 9 8 8

Sediment T r a n s p o r t i n I r r e g u l a r Non-Breaking Waves


C o a s t a l Eng. Dep., D e l f t Univ. o f Technology, D e l f t , The Netherlands

NIELSEN, P., 1 9 8 5
A S h o r t Manual o f Coastal Bottom Boundary Layers and Sediment T r a n s p o r t
P u b l i c Works Dep.,

Report TM 85/1, NSW,

Australia

NIEUWJAAR, M. and VAN DER KAAIJ, Th., 1987


Sediment C o n c e n t r a t i o n s and T r a n s p o r t i n I r r e g u l a r Non-Breaking Waves
C o a s t a l Eng. Dep., D e l f t Univ. o f Technology, D e l f t , The Netherlands

SHORE PROTECTION MANUAL, 1 9 8 4


CERC, Waterways Experiment S t a t i o n ,
VAN

Vicksbury, M i s s i s s i p p i ,

USA

RIJN, L.C, 1 9 8 7

Data Base Sand C o n c e n t r a t i o n P r o f i l e s f o r Currents and/or Waves


Report

M1695-04-1,

DELFT HYDRAULICS, D e l f t , The Netherlands

10'3

10"2

IO"""

C [kg/m3]

10

10"3

10-2

1Q-1

C [kg/m3]

10

.Hg - -075 (m) ( f o l l o w i n g )

EiHg - -150 (m) ( f o l l o w i n g )

+ Hg - .100 (m) ( f o l l o w i n g )

aHg - .150 (m) (opposing)

/Hg - .100 (m) (opposing)

bed material,

^ H , - .120 (m) ( f o l l o w i n g )

w a t e r depth,

^^Hg - .120 (m) (opposing)

peak period,

0.5 m

Tp = 2.5 s

dso s 2 0 0 [Lm (Nieuwjaar - Van der Kaaij, 1987)

TIME - AVERAGED CONCENTRATIONS IN COMBINED


CURRENTS AND NON-BREAKING WAVES (FLUME)
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 10.2.1

- 0.10 (m)

10-3

10'2

10-1

C [kg/m3]

10

10-2
IO-''
C [kg/m3] -H

10"

C [kg/m3)

- .
- -I-

- . 1 (m/s)

-X

-AO

- .2 (m/s)

-.1

[kg/m3)

= 0

(m/s)

10

= .4 (m/s)
^ -.4 ( m / s )

+ following c u r r e n t
_ opposing

current

~-.2 (m/s)

bed nriaterial, d^Q s 2 0 0 [im (Nieuwjaar - Van der Kaaij, 1987)


w a t e r depth, h

= 0.5

peak period, Tp =2.5 s

TIME- AVERAGED CONCENTRATIONS IN COMBINED


CURRENTS AND NON-BREAKING WAVES (FLUME)
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 10.2.2

Hs =

.075

(ra) f o l l o w i n g ^

opposing 0

Hs =

.10

(ra) f o l l o w i n g H

opposing

Hs -

.15

(ra) f o l l o w i n g ^

Hs -

.18

(ra) f o l l o w i n g e

bed

opposingA
opposing

material, dso 1 0 0 |im

w a t e r depth,

0.5 m

peak period,

Tp

= 2.5 s

( N a p - Van Kannpen, 1 9 8 8 )

TIME-AVERAGED CONCENTRATIONS IN COMBINED


CURRENTS AND NON-BREAKING WAVES (FLUME)
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 10.2.3

bed

material,

water

depth,

peak period,

d s o 1 0 0 \lm
h

a 0.5

Tp

= 2.5 s

(Nop - Van Kampen, 1 9 8 8 )

TIME-AVERAGED CONCENTRATIONS IN COMBINED


CURRENTS AND NON-BREAKING WAVES (FLUME)
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 10.2.4

3 4 5 67810-^
>

A.

NON-BREAKING
h=1m,

WAVES,

u= 0.1m/s,

3 4 5 678 io

concentration

INTERTIDAL

d5o=150/xm,

3 4 5 678 io^

(kg/m-^)

FLAT,

OOSTERSCHELDE

Tp~5s

DUCK 82
OCT. 13

O.5

7a
I
1
1.0
1.5
TIME-AVERAGED SUSPENDED-SEDIMENT CONCENTRATION (gm/kg)

h = 2.3 m
h = 2.3 m

-B-

h = 2.5

h = 2.2

h = 3.5

h = 3.5

h = 4-.0 m
B.

BREAKING

TIME-AVERAGED

WAVES

H rms =
H rms =

0.75m

0.4 m / s

station

0.75m

m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s

station

station

H rms = 1 . 4 0
H rms = 1 . 0 0
H rms = 1 . 2 0
H rms = 1.10
H rms = 1 . 4 0
IN

SURF

2.0

u =

0.4

u =

0.3

station

station

0.2 m / s

station

u =

0.1 m / s

station

USA

(JAFFE

0.2

0.2

ZONE,

ET

AL,

1984)

CONCENTRATIONS IN COMBINED

CURRENT AND WAVES (FIELD)


DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG.10.2.5

=1.8
H3 =0.6
Tp = 1 0
u
=0.2
=210
Wg =0.019
kg =0.01

Sl
N

'<

m
m
s
m/s
pm
m/s
m

Groote Keeten
The Netherlands

10-2

3 4 5 6 7 8 10-1

5 4 5 678 io

=
Hs =
=
u
=
=
Ws =
=
h

3 4 5 678 iol

2.3
m
0.9
m
6
s
0.15 m/'.
260 yum
0.023 m / i
0.01 m

10-2

4 5 6 7 8 10-1

3 4 5 678 io

3 4 5 678 ioi

10-2

3 4 5 67810-1

3 4 5 678 10

3 4 5 678iol

N
x:
JZ

>

TIME-AVERAGED

concentration

(kg/m-^)

CONCENTRATIONS IN

CURRENTS AND WAVES (SURF ZONE)


DELFT HYDRAULICS

461

FIG.10.2.6

qt,c
IKG/HS)

0.10

0.15

0.20

025

H3

CURRENT-RELATED
AND

Cm)

r
040

aso

(m/s)

pm
pm

200
100

A.

1
0.30

0.30

VELOCITY,

TRANSPORT

h~0.5m,

(NIEUWJAAR-VAN

PER

Tp ~

KAAIJ,

RATE

AS

FUNCTION

OF W A V E

HEIGHT

2.5s
1987;

NAP-VAN

KAMPEN,

1988)

1.50-

'1.25H

1.00-

ri5,-10

0.75

T15,20

T 15,10

0.50

0.25

0-

B.

RATIO

OF

T15,1Q

(NAP-VAN

TOTAL
TEST

AND
WITH

KAMPEN,

CURRENT-RELATED
Hs=0.15m

AND

TRANSPORT

RATE

D= 0.1m/5

1988)

INFLUENCE OF WAVE HEIGHT AND

CURRENT

VELOCITY ON SEDIMENT TRANSPORT


DELFT HYDRAULICS

461

FIG.10.2.7

w a v e s <#
c u r r e n t <
velocity

>

WAVE C R E S T

time

PASSES ( u > 0 )

WAVE-RELATED EDDY MOTIONS


OVER A RIPPLED BED
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 10.2.8

concentration

(kg/m^)

>

concentration

(kg/m^)

measured
computed

MEASURED

Bijker

AND COMPUTED

CONCENTRATIONS

METHOD OF BIJKER
DELFT HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 10.3.1

0.50
measured
Van

der

(Nieuwjaar
Kaaij,

computed

Van

1987)
Rijn,

(flume)
1988

T 7.5,10
= 0.51

= 0.076 m

IP

= 2.6

= 0.11

s
m/s

= 0.022
= 200

"50
'<s.c = k 3 , ^ = 0 . 0 5

10^

678

4 5 678io2

-> concentration

m/s
yum
m

= 0.05

= 0.016

678^0^

(mg/l)

0.471
measured
Van

der

(NieuwjaarKaaij,

computed

Van

1987)
Rijn,

(flume)
1988

0.38
T 7.5,40

Ws

= 0.5
m
= 0.076m
= 2.4
s
= 0.45
m/s
= 0,022m/s

^50

h
N

Hs

.0.28

IP
u

Sl
0.18

' ^ s , c ~ '^s.

200

fj,m

0.05

= 0.05 m
= 0.014 m

^s

\
0.10

678

5 678

MEASURED AND COMPUTED

2
3 4 5 678
> c o n c e n t r a t i o n ( m g / l )

678

CONCENTRATION

PROFILES, METHOD OF VAN RIJN


DELFT HYDRAULICS

461

FIG.10.3.2

0.45,
measured
Van

der

computed

(NieuwjaarKaaij,
Van

1987)

(flume)

Rijn

0.36
T 15,10
h
N

Hs

,0.27
JZ

CTl

0.5

0.15

2.4

= 0.11

m/s

= 0.022
= 220
0.18

=k

s,w

m/s
yu.m

= 0.05

= 0.05

= 0.018

0.09

10

4 5 67810^

10^
concentration

4 5 67

4 5

(mg/l)

0.45

0.36

.0.27
CTl

'o)
0.18

0.09

MEASURED AND COMPUTED

4 5 6 7 8 10^
2
P- c o n c e n t r a t i o n (r

67

CONCENTRATION

PROFILES, METHOD OF VAN RIJN


H

461

FIG.10.3.3

0.50

measured
Van

(Nieuwjaar-

der Kaaij, 1 9 8 7 ) (flume)

computed

Van

Rijn

0.40
T 15,-40

.0.30
s:

0.51

Hs

0.15

2.1

Tp

'm

= -0.44m/s
0.022 m / s

Ws

Sl

200
0.20

=k

/xm

= 0.05

0.05

0.024m

^
0.10

4 5 6 7 8 10
in2

2
3 4 5 6 78
concentration (mg/l)

measured
Van

4 5 6 7 8 10

(Nieuwjaar-

der Kaaij, 1 9 8 7 ) ( f l u m e )

c o m p u t e d Van

Rijn

0.60
T 18.5,- 4 0

,0.45
s:
Dl

= 0.52

Hs

= 0.185 m

Tp
U

= -0.43m/s

dso

= 210

/zm

= 0.05

= 2.4

<u

m
s

= 0.022 m / s

JC
0.30

= 0.029m

Ar
0.15

8io^

4567810^

2
>

MEASURED AND COMPUTED

45678to^

4567810^*

concentration (mg/l)

CONCENTRATION

PROFILES, METHOD OF VAN RIJN


DELFT HYDRAULICS

461

FIG.10.3.4

0.75
measured

(NapVan

Kampen,

1988)

computed

Van

(flume)
Rijn,

1988

0.60
T 10,10

-0.45
JZ
j r

= 0.5

Hs

= 0.10

Tp
u

= 2.3

= 0.1

m/s

= 0.01

m/s

= 110

pm

Ws
0.30

0.045m

0.045m

= 0.01

0.15

10^

4 5

6 7 8

2
4 5 6 7 8 ^ 02
concentration ( m g / l )

4 5

6 7 8 10^

0.47
measured
Kampen,
computed

(NapVan
1988)

(flume)

Von

Rijn,

1988

0.38
T 1 0 , -- 2 0

.0.28

JC
'a)

0.18

= 0.49

Hs

= 0.11

Tn
_P
u

= 2.3

= -0.2

m/s

Ws

= 0.01

m/s

dso

= 110

/xm

kg_^=

0.045m

= 0.045 m
= 0.01

4 5

6 78

0.10

4 5

6 7 8 10'

MEASURED AND COMPUTED

2
3
4 5 6 7 8 10^
concentration
(mg/l)

CONCENTRATION

PROFILES, METHOD VAN RIJN


DELFT

HYDRAULICS

461

FIG.10.5.5

0.45
measured
Kampen,

(NapVan
1988)

computed

(flume)

Van

Rijn

0.36
T 10,40

.0.27
JZ
'(U

JZ

0.18

= 0.5

Hs

= 0.1

Tp
u

= 2.3

= 0.35

Ws

= 0.01

m/s

^50

= 110

/xm

<5s

m/s

^=

0.045m

0.045m

= 0.015

0.09

concentration

10'
(mg/)

0.47

0.38

.0.28
JI

gi
j;
A

0.18

0.10

10

3 4 5 678ioi

3 4 5 67810^

> c o n c e n t r a t i o n

MEASURED AND COMPUTED

3 4 5 678io'

4 5

67

(mg/l)

CONCENTRATION

PROFILES, METHOD OF VAN RIJN


DELFT HYDRAULICS

461

FIG.10.5.6

0.50

0.40

.0.30

sz
0.20

0.10

7 8 9-10^
> c o n c e n t r a t i o n

(mg/l)

0.50

0.40

.0.30
'a>

0.20

0.10

MEASURED AND COMPUTED

CONCENTRATION

PROFILES, METHOD VAN RIJN


DELFT HYDRAULICS

461

FIG.10.3.7

1.75

1.40

s:
at
sz
0.70

0.35

6 7 8

io""

6 7 8
2
3
^ concentration
(mg/l)

6 7 8

0.75.
measured
Eastern

Galgeplaat,

Scheldt

computed

estuary

Van

Rijn

0,60

= 0.65

h
N

.0.45

CT)
'o)

= 0.15

= 3

= 0.13

m/s

= 0,012

m/s

= 170
0.30

/xm

,= 0.045 m
=

0.045m

0.15

4 5 6 7 8 TQ2

5 6 7 8 10'

->

MEASURED AND COMPUTED

concentration

4 5 6 78

(mg/l)

CONCENTRATION

PROFILES, METHOD VAN RIJN


DELFT HYDRAULICS

461

1 FIG.10.3.8

1.0

1
h

=2.3
H3 = 1 . 0 5
Tp = 1 2
050 = 1 5 0
W3
= 0.011
kg = 0 . 0 1

O
^

O,

^- O,

m
m
s
yUm
m/s
m

0.8
<

0.7

Wg

^~ 0.6

JZ

kg

=2.5
=1.9
=12
= 150
= 0.011
=0.01

m
m
s
Aim
m/s
m

0.

x:

0)
JZ

0.

0.4

A 0.

0.3

0.

0.2

0.1

O
10-2 2

3 4 5 7 1 0 - 1 2 3 4 5 7 1 0 2 3 4 5 7 10'
c o n c e n t r a t i o n (kg/m-')

10-2

3 45 7

2 3 4 5 7 10 2 3 4 5 7 iQl
concentration ( k g / m > ' )

10-1

1.0

1.0
h
H3

Tp
d5o
Wg
kg

. 0.8
^

0.7

0.6

O'S

tl
Hg
Tp
d5o

0.9

=3.5
=1.55
=12
= 150
= 0.011
=0.01

m
m
s

0.9
0.8

fj,m

0.7

m/s
m

0.6

h
Hg
Tp
dso
Wg

= 4
=2
=12
= 150
=0.011

kg

=u,ui

m
m
s
fJ.m

m/s
m

0.5

0.4

0.4

0.3

0.3
0.2

0.2

>

0.1

0.1
O
10-2 2 3 4 5 7 1 0 - 1 2 3 4 5 7 1 0 2 3 4 5 7

>
concentration ( k g / m ^ )

measured

in

surf

computed

Van

zone,

O
10-2

1 0 '

Jaffe

et

al

2 3 45 7 1 0 - 1 2 3 45 7 1 0 2 3 45 7

concentration
(kg/m^)

1 0 '

(1984)

Rijn

MEASURED AND COMPUTED

CONCENTRATIONS

METHOD OF VAN RIJN


DELFT HYDRAULICS

461

FIG.10.5.9

The NIELSEN m o d e l
c o m p a r i s o n of m e a s u r e d a n d c o m p u e t e d
r e s u l t s , n = H r m s , K s = 3*r, D 5 0 - 1 0 0 m u

.)

lOfn^

-4

-3
- 2 - 1 0
Qs ( N i e l s e n ) i n k g / m . s

The BIJKER model


c o m p a r i s o n of m e a s u r e d a n d c o m p u t e d
r e s u l t s , l I = H r m s , K s = 3*r, D 5 0 = 1 0 0 m u

IO'T^S

-4
-3
-2
-1
Qs ( B i j k e r ) i n k g / m . s

Y
0

T h e BAILARD m o d e l
c o m p a r i s o n of m e a s u r e d a n d c o m p u t e d
r e s u l t s , H = H r m s , K s = 3r, D 5 0 = 1 0 0 m u

flume d a t a : 1 0 0 |im s e d i m e n t , c u r r e n t s and

F O L L O W I N G

P R O S I N G

non-breaking w a v e s

MEASURED AND COMPUTED TRANSPORT


METHODS OF NIELSEN. BIJKER AND BAILARD
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 10.4.1

(
The NIELSEN model
c o m p a r i s o n of m e a s u r e d a n d c o m p u t e d
r e s u l t s , H=Hprob, Ks(Nielsen), D 5 0 ^ 2 0 0 m u

qs

The BIJKER model


c o m p a r i s o n of m e a s u r e d a n d c o m p u t e d
r e s u l t s , H = H r m s , K s = 3r, D 5 0 = 2 0 0 m u

(Nielsen) in k g / m . s

qg ( B i j k e r ) i n

kg/m.s

The BAILARD m o d e l
c o m p a i i s o n of m e a s u r e d a n d c o m p u t e d
r e s u l t s , H - f l r m s , Ks = 3 r
, n50-200mu

qs ( B a i l a r d ) i n

f l u m e d a t a : 2 0 0 [Lm

kg/m.s

sediment, current and non-breaking w a v e s

MEASURED AND COMPUTED TRANSPORT

METHODS OF NIELSEN, BIJKER AND BAILARD


DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

1 FIG. 10.4.2

E
to
\

cn
X)
(U

V-

(O
D
(U

10

cr

4 5 6 7 8 i n - ^

2
->

200
100

fxm,
fxm,

^s-0-05ml^^^^^^
kg=0.04m)

950

luim

Waal

690

fxm

IJssel

400

jLm

Dommel

qs,

4 5 6 7 8 i n - 2

computed

alone

4 5 6 7 8 ^ Q - I

(kg/sm)

non-breakinq

current

waves

(flume)

(field)

MEASURED AND COMPUTED BED LOAD

TRANSPORT

METHOD OF VAN RIJN


DELFT HYDRAULICS

4-61

FIG.10.4.3

2
qs,

200 /xm,

Ws=0.022m/s,

ks = 0 . 0 5 m

100 /xm,

Ws=0.01

ks=0.04m

computed

current
h

~ 0.5

Tp^2.5

~ 0.1-0.4

QO

(kg/sm)

and

non breaking

waves

(flume)

Hg ~ 0 . 0 7 5 - 0 . 1 8

m/s,

3 4 5 678-1

m/s

MEASURED AND COMPUTED SUSPENDED

LOAD

TRANSPORT, METHOD OF VAN RIJN


H

461

FIG.10.4.4

103
D
O
A
A
X
0
7

LEGEND
E L MORENO BEACH
SILVER STRAND BEACH
LEADBETTER BEACH
TORREV PINES BEACH
DUCK
AJIGUARA
SOUTH LAKE WORTH INLET
CHANNEL ISLANDS HARBOUR
PRICE INLET

0> Meatured k g / t

A.

LONGSHORE
(KAMPHUIS

SEDIMENT
ET AL,

TRANSPORT

ACCORDING

TO

CERC-FORMULA

1986)

10^
o
O
,
A
K
0

LEGEND
E L MORENO BEACH
SILVER STRAND BEACH
LEADBETTER BEACH
TORREY PINES BEACH
DUCK
AJIGUARA

SOUTH LAKE WORTH INLET


CHANNEL ISLANDS HARBOUR
PRICE INLET
MODEL R E S U L T S

a
a,
^

10"

-J

1II

10

V V

L-

Relative Grain Size

B.

BEACH

_l

10"

SLOPE

LONGSHORE SEDIMENT

VERSUS

I I

10"

^^r/'^so

GRAINSIZE

(KAMPHUIS

ET

AL,

1986)

TRANSPORT

DELFT HYDRAULICS

461

FIG. 10.5.1

APPENDIX 1 0 . 1

PROGRAM TRANSP

c
c
c
c

COMPUTATION OF CONCENTRATION VERTICALS AND SUSPENDED LOAD TRANSPORT


THROUGH NUMERICAL INTEGRATION AND FORMULAE APPROXIMATION
LOGICAL BO
DIMENSION RMAT(25,4)
CHARACTER KAR*1

c
c
c

READING INPUT FROM SCREEN AND WRITING TO F I L E TRANSPOR.OUT


OPEN(2,FILE='TRANSPOR.OUT',STATUS='UNKNOWN')
WRITE(2,'(A)')CHAR(12)
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( " INPUT ; " , / ) ' )
WRITE(*, ' ( " HD
]=
WATER DEPTH
V7RITE(2, ' (' 'HD
WATER DEPTH [ M ]
READ (*,*)HD
WRITE(2,*)HD
M/S ] =
MEAN CURRENT VELOCITY
W R I T E ( * , ' ( ' ' UG
M/S
MEAN CURRENT VELOCITY
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( ' ' UG
READ (*,*)UG
WRITE(2,*)UG
SIGNIFICANT WAVE HEIGHT [ M ] =
W R I T E ( * , ' ( ' ' HS
SIGNIFICANT WAVE HEIGHT [ M 1 =
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( ' ' HS
READ (*,*)HS
WRITE(2,*)HS
[ S ] =
PEAK WAVE PERIOD
W R I T E ( * , ' ( ' ' TP
[ S ] =
PEAK WAVE PERIOD
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( ' ' TP
READ (*,*)TP
WRITE(2,*)TP
ANGLE CURRENT AND WAVES 0-180 [ DEG
W R I T E ( * , ' ( " PHI
ANGLE CURRENT AND WAVES 0-180 [ DEG
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( ' ' PHI
READ (*,*)PHI
WRITE(2,*)PHI
MEDIAN PARTICLE S I Z E OF BED [ M ] =
W R I T E ( * , ' ( ' ' D50
MEDIAN PARTICLE S I Z E OF BED [ M ] =
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( " D50
READ (*,*)D50
WRITE(2,*)D50
90 0/0 PARTICLE S I Z E [ M ]
W R I T E ( * , ' ( ' ' D90
90 0/0 PARTICLE S I Z E [ M
WRITE(2, ' ( " D90
READ (*,*)D90
WRITE(2,*)D90
M/S ]
WRITE(*, ' ( " WS
F A L L V E L O C I T Y SUSP. SEDIMENT
M/S
]
F
A
L
L
V
E
L
O
C
I
T
Y
SUSP.
SEDIMENT
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( ' ' WS
READ (*,*)WS
WRITE(2,*)WS
CURRENT-RELATED ROUGHNESS [ M ] =
WRITE(*, ' ( " RC
CURRENT-RELATED
ROUGHNESS [ M ] =
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( " RC
READ (*,*)RC
TOITE(2,*)RC
WRITE(*, ' ( " RW
WAVE-RELATED ROUGHNESS [ M ] =
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( ' ' RW
WAVE-RELATED ROUGHNESS [ M ] =
READ (*,*)RW
WRITE(2,*)RW
WRITE(*, ' ( " DS
MIXING LAYER THICKNESS NEAR BED [ M ] =
WRITE(2, ' ( " DS
MIXING LAYER THICKNESS NEAR BED [ M ] =
READ (*,*)DS
WRITE(2,*)DS
WRITE(*, ' ( " A
= REFERENCE L E V E L [ M ]

")')

\JRITE(2
READ (*
WRITE(2
WRITE(*
WRITE(2
READ (*
WRITE(2
WRITE(*
WRITE(2
READ (*
WRITE(2
WRITE(*
WRITE(2
READ (*
WRITE(2
WRITE(*
WRITE(2
READ (*
WRITE(2

' ( "
=
*)A
*)A
' ( " RNU
' ( " RNU
*)RNU
*)RNU
' ( " RHOW
' ( ' ' RHOW
*)RHOW
*)RHOW
' ( " RHOS
' ( " RHOS
*)RHOS
*)RHOS
' ( " BETA
' ( " BETA
*)BETA
*)BETA

REFERENCE L E V E L [ M ] =

")')

KINEMATIC V I S C O S I T Y C O E F F I C I E N T [ M ]
KINEMATIC V I S C O S I T Y C O E F F I C I E N T [ M ]

FLUID DENSITY [ KG/M3


FLUID DENSITY [ KG/M3

SEDIMENT DENSITY [ KG/M3 ] =


SEDIMENT DENSITY [ KG/M3 ] =

RATIO SEDIMENT AND F L U I D MIXING


RATIO SEDIMENT AND FLUID MIXING

[ -]
[ -]

I N I T I A L I Z I N G SOME NUMERICAL AND PHYSICAL PARAMETERS


NN
= 12
G
= 9.81
PI
= 4.*ATAN(1.)
DEL=(RHOS-RHOW)/RHOW
RKAP=.4
DSTER=D50*(DEL*G/RNU**2)**(1,/3.)
COMPUTATION OF WAVE LENGTH AND WAVE NUMBER
I F ( H D . L E . O . ) S T O P 'WATER DEPTH .LE. 0'
I F (TP.GT.O.
) THEN
Y=4.02*HD/TP/TP
P0L=1.+Y*(.666+Y*(.355+Y*(.161+Y*(.0632+Y*(.0218+.00654*Y)))))
WAVENR=SQRT(Y**2+Y/P0L)/HD
RLS=2.*PI/WAVENR
ARG=WAVENR*HD
I F (ARG.GT.50.) THEN
ABW=0.
FW=0.
UBW=0.
ELSE
ABW=HS/(2.*SINH(ARC))
FW=EXP(-6.+5.2*(ABW/RW)**(-0.19))
IF(FW.GT.0.3 )FW=0.3
UBW = 2.*PI/TP*ABW
ENDIF
ELSE
ABW=0.
ABR=0.
RLS=0.
FW=0.
UBW=0.
ENDIF
C R I T I C A L SHEAR STRESS

SHIELDS

IF(DSTER.LE.4.)THETCR=.24/DSTER
I F ( 4 . .LT.DSTER.AND.DSTER.LE.10.)THETCR=.14*DSTER**(-.64)

3
IF(10..LT.DSTER.AND.DSTER.LE.20.)THETCR=.04*DSTER**(-.1 )
IF(20..LT.DSTER.AND.DSTER.LE.150.)THETCR=.013*DSTER**(.29 )
IF(DSTER.GT.150.)THETCR=.055
TAUCR=(RHOS-RHOW)*G*D50*THETCR
C
C
C

COMPUTATION OF REFERENCE

CONCENTRATION CA

CC=18.*ALOG10(12.*HD/RC)
FC=0.24*ALOG10(12.*HD/RC)**(-2)
FC1=0.24*ALOG10(12.*HD/3./D90)**(-2)
RMUC=FC1/FC
RMUW=0.6/DSTER
UST=G**0.5*ABS(UG)/CC
DELS=0.
IF(ABW.GT.0.)THEN
DELS=0.216*ABW*(ABW/RW)**(-0.2 5)
ENDIF
HULP10=UBW/UG
GAMMA=0.
IF(HULP10.GE.2.5)HULP10=2.5
IF(0.LE.PHI.AND.PHI.LE.180.)THEN
GAMMA=.75
IF(PHI.GT.90.)GAMMA=GAMMA+(PHI-90.)/90.*.35
ENDIF
RA=EXP(GAMMA*HULP10)*RC
FCA=0.24*ALOG10(12.*HD/RA)**(- 2)
IF(DELS.LE.RC/10.)THEN
ALFAW=1.
ELSE
ALFAW= (ALOG(30.*DELS/RA)/ALOG(30.*DELS/RC))**2
ENDIF
TAUC=0.125*RHOW*FCA*UG*UG
TAUW=0.25*RHOW*FW*UBW*UBW
TAUCEF=RMUC*ALFAW*TAUG
TAUWEF=RMUW*TAUW
TAUCWE=TAUCEF+TAUWEF
THET1=TAUCWE/(RHOS-RHOW)/G/D5 0
T=(THET1-THETCR)/THETCR
T=MAX(.0001,T)
CA=0.015*D50/A*DSTER**(-.3)*T**1.5
C
C NUMERICAL INTEGRATION OF U*C OVER VERTICAL, TO STARTING POINT X=A
C
JTAL= 8
NN = JTAL*NN
DYM = CA/NN
DXM = HD/NN
DYX = DYM/DXM
BO = .FALSE.
HULP30=-1.+ALOG(30.*HD/RA)
IF(DELS.GT.O.)THEN
UDEL=UG*ALOG(30.*DELS/RA)/HULP30
ENDIF
C
C COMPUTATION OF DERIVATIVE DC/DY OR DC/DX
C
ABR=MAX(3.*(HS/HD)-.8,1.)
EBW=.004*DSTER*ABR*DS*UBW
I F ( T P . G T . l . E - 4 ) THEN
EMAXW=0.035*ABR*HD*HS/TP

4
ELSE
EMAXW=0.
ENDIF
IF(EMAXW.LE.EBW)EMAXW=EBW
EMAXC=0.25*RKAP*UST*HD*BETA
C=CA
Z=A
IF(Z.LE.DS)ESW=EBW
IF(Z.GT.DS.AND.Z.LE.0.5*HD)ESW=EBW+(EMAXW-EBW)*((Z-DS)/
*(0.5*HD-DS))
IF(Z.GE.0.5*HD)ESW=EMAXW
IF(Z.GE.0.5*HD)ESC=EMAXC
I F ( Z . L T . 0 . 5 * H D ) E S C=EMAXC-EMAXC*(1.-2.*Z/HD)**2
ES=(ESW**2.+ESC**2.)**0.5
fcc=0.
I F ( C . G T . l . E - 8 ) THEN
IF(Z.GE.A)fcc=-WS/ES*C*(l.-G)**5.
ENDIF
YPRIME=fcc
F F = 1./CA*YPRIME
IF(DELS.GT.O.)THEN
UC=UDEL*ALOG(30.*A/RC)/ALOG(30.*DELS/RC)
ENDIF
IF(A.GE.DELS)UC=UG*ALOG(30.*A/RA)/HULP30
C
C
C

STORAGE OF RESULTS I N MATRIX RMAT


RMAT(1,1)=Z
RMAT(1,2)=CA*RH0S
RMAT(1,3)=UG
RMAT(1,4)=CA*UG*RHOS

C
C
C

FURTHER INTEGRATION
Y = CA ^
TERM1=UC*Y
XEND=A
SS=0.
NTEL = 0
IT
=2

C
100

CONTINUE
NTEL = NTEL+1
XOLD = XEND
YOLD = Y
I F (-YPRIME .GT. DYX) THEN
Y = YOLD-DYM
I F ( Y .LT. 2./3.*YOLD) Y = 2./3.*YOLD
XEND = XOLD+ALOG(Y/YOLD)/FF
ELSE
XEND = XOLD+DXM
I F (XEND .GE. HD) THEN
XEND = HD
BO = .TRUE.
ENDIF
Y = EXP(ALOG(YOLD)+(XEND-XOLD)*FF)
ENDIF
C=Y
Z=XEND
IF(Z.LE.DS)ESW=EBW

5
IF(Z.GT.DS.AND.Z.LE.O.5*HD)ESW=EBW+(EMAXW-EBW)*((Z-DS)/
*(0.5*HD-DS))
IF(Z.GE.O.5*HD)ESW=EMAXW
IF(Z.GE.0.5*HD)ESC=EMAXC
IF(Z.LT.O.5*HD)ESC=EMAXC-EMAXC*(1.- 2.*Z/HD)**2
ES=(ESW**2.+ESC**2.)**0.5
fcc=0.
I F ( C . G T . l . E - 8 ) THEN
I F ( Z . G E . A ) f c c = - W S / E S * C * ( l . -C)-**5.
ENDIF
YPRIME=fcc
F F = 1./Y*YPRIME
IF(DELS.GT.O.)THEN
UC=UDEL*ALOG(30.*XEND/RC)/ALOG(30.*DELS/RC)
ENDIF
I F (XEND.GE.DELS)UC=UG*ALOG(30.*XEND/RA)/HULP30
TERM2=UC*Y
SS=SS+(XEND-XOLD)*(TERMl+TERM2)/2 .
TERM1=TERM2
C
C
C

STORAGE OF RESULTS I N MATRIX RMAT


IF

(NTEL .EQ. NN/JTAL.OR.BO) THEN


RMAT(IT,1)=Z
RMAT(IT,2)=Y*RH0S
RMAT(IT,3)=UC
RMAT(IT,4)=TERM2*RH0S
I T = IT+1
NTEL
= O
ENDIF
I F (.NOT. BO) GOTO 100
C
C
C

TRANSPORT ACCORDING TO FORMULA


AA=7.
IF(HD/DS.LE.100.)AA=.7*SQRT(HD/DS)
ZW=0.
FAKTW=0.
IF(TP.GT.O..AND.HS.GT.O.)THEN
ZW=AA*(WS/VG)**.9*(UG*TP/HS)**1.05
ZW=MIN(ZW,25.)
RES3=(A/HD)**ZW-(A/HD)**1.2
RES4=(1.-A/HD)**ZW*(1.2-ZW)
FAKTW=RES3/RES4
ENDIF
ZC=WS/RKAP/BETA/UST
ZC=MIN(ZC,25.)
RES1=(A/HD)**ZC-(A/HD)**1.2
RES2=(1.-A/HD)**ZC*(1.2-ZC)
FAKTC=RES1/RES2
USTER1=SQRT(TAUCEF/RHOW)
S S F=(FAKTC+FAKTW)*UG*HD*CA*RHOS
SBF=0.25*D50*USTER1*T**1.5/DSTER**0.3*RH0S
SSR
= SS*RH0S

C
C
C

RESULTS OUTPUT TO F I L E TRANSPOR.OUT


WRITE(2,'(A)')CHAR(12)
WRITE(2 , ' ( " PHYSICAL PARAMETERS : " , / ) ' )
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( " DSTER = P A R T I C L E PARAMETER

] ",

6
*E10.4)')DSTER
M
]
WAVE LENGTH
WRITE(2,'(" L
*E10.4)')RLS
M/S ]
PEAK ORBITAL VELOCITY
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( " UBW
*E10.4)')UBW
M
]
PEAK ORBITAL EXCURSION AT BED
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( " ABW
*E10.4)')ABW
N/M2 ]
WAVE-RELATED BED-SHEAR STRESS
WRITE(2, ' ( " TAUW
*E10.4)')TAUW
CURRENT-RELATED BED-SHEAR STRESS
N/M2 ]
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( " TAUC
*E10.4)')TAUC
WAVE-RELATED FRICTION C O E F F I C I E N T
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( " FW
]
*E10.4)')FW
CURR-RELATED FRICTION C O E F F I C I E N T
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( " FC
]
*E10.4)')FC
M0.5/S]
GHEZY COEFFICIENT
WRITE(2,'(" C
*E10,4)')CC
APPARENT ROUGHNESS
M
1
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( " RA
*E10.4)')RA
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( " ALFAW = WAVE-CURRENT COEFFICIENT
*E10.4)')ALFAW
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( " TAUCR = C R I T I C A L BED-SHEAR STRESS
[ N/M2 ]
*E10.4)')TAUCR
CURR-RELATED E F F I C I E N C Y FACTOR
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( " UC
= CURR-RELATED
[ ]
*E10.4)')RMUC
WAVE-RELATED E F F I C I E N C Y FACTOR
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( " UW
*E10.4)')RMUW
BED-SHEAR STRESS PARAMETER
WRITE(2, ' ( " T
]
*E10.4)')T
WRITE(2,'(///)')
KG/SM]'
SS=SUSPENDED LOAD TRANSPORT
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( " NUMERICAL
*E10.4)')SSR
SS=SUSPENDED LOAD TRANSPORT
KG/SM]'
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( " FORMULA
*E10.4)')SSF
SB=BED LOAD TRANSPORT
KG/SM]'
WRITE(2,'( "
*E10.4)')SBF
WRITE(2,'(A)')CHAR(12)
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( " PROFILES
:",//)')
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( " HEIGHT Z
CONCENTRATION
VELOCITY
TRAN
*SPORT'')')
WRITE(2,'("
[M ]
[KG/M3]
[M/S]
[K
*G/SM2] " ) ')
DO 200 I = 1 , I T - 1
W R I T E ( 2 , ' ( 4 ( 1 X , E 1 0 . 4 , 5 X ) ) ' ) R M A T ( I ,1),RMAT(I ,2),RMAT(I , 3 ) ,
* RMAT(I ,4)
200 CONTINUE
C
C

RESULTS OUTPUT TO SCREEN


WRITE(*,'(////////////)')
WRITE(*, ' ( " PHYSICAL PARAMETERS : " , / ) ' )
W R I T E ( * , ' ( ' ' DSTER = PARTICLE PARAMETER
*E10.4)')DSTER
WAVE LENGTH
WRITE(*, ' ( " L
*E10.4)')RLS
PEAK ORBITAL VELOCITY
W R I T E ( * , ' ( ' ' UBW
*E10.4)')UBW
PEAK ORBITAL EXCURSION AT BED
W R I T E ( * , ' ( ' ' ABW
*E10.4)')ABW
W R I T E ( * , ' ( ' ' TAUW
WAVE-RELATED BED-SHEAR STRESS

[
[

]
]

[ M/S

[ N/M2 ]

7
*E10.4)')TAUW
CURRENT-RELATED BED-SHEAR STRESS [ N/M2 ]
W R I T E ( * , ' ( ' ' TAUC
*E10.4)')TAUC
WAVE-RELATED FRICTION C O E F F I C I E N T [
]
W R I T E ( * , ' ( ' ' FW
*E10.4)')FW
CURR-RELATED FRICTION C O E F F I C I E N T [
]
WRITE(*, ' (' 'FC
*E10.4)')FC
CHEZY COEFFICIENT
[M0.5/S]
WRITE(*,'(' ' C
*E10.4)')CC
APPARENT ROUGHNESS
[ M
]
W R I T E ( * , ' ( ' ' RA
*E10.4)')RA
WAVE-CURRENT COEFFICIENT
[ ]
W R I T E ( * , ' ( ' ' ALFAW
*E10.4)' )ALFAW
C R I T I C A L BED-SHEAR STRESS
[ N/M2 ]
WRITE(*, ' ( " TAUCR
*E10.4)')TAUCR
CURR-RELATED E F F I C I E N C Y FACTOR
[ ]
W R I T E ( * , ' ( ' ' UG
*E10.4)')RMUC
WAVE-RELATED E F F I C I E N C Y FACTOR
[ ]
WRITE(*, ' ( " UW
*E10.4)')RMUW
BED-SHEAR STRESS PARAMETER
[ ]
WRITE(*,'('' T '
*E10.4)')T
WRITE(*,'(///)')
SS=SUSPENDED LOAD TRANSPORT [ KG/SM]'
W R I T E ( * , ' ( " NUMERICAL
*E10.4)')SSR
SS=SUSPENDED LOAD TRANSPORT [ KG/SM]'
W R I T E ' ( ' ' FORMULA
*E10.4)')SSF
SB=BED LOAD TRANSPORT
[ KG/SM]'
WRITE(*, ' ( "
*E10.4)')SBF
W R I T E ( * , ' ( A ) ' ) ' TYPE C TO CONTINUE :'
READ(*,'(A)')KAR
WRITE(*,'(////////////)')
W R I T E ( * , ' ( " PROFILES
:",//)')
TRAN
VELOCITY
W R I T E ( * , ' ( " HEIGHT Z
CONCENTRATION
* S P O R T " ) ')
[M/S]
WRITE(*, ' ( "
[ M ]
[KG/M3]
[K
*G/SM2]")')
DO 300 1 = 1 , I T - 1
W R I T E ( * , ' ( 4 ( 1 X , E 1 0 . 4 , 5 X ) ) ' ) R M A T ( I ,1),RMAT(I ,2),RMAT(I , 3 ) ,
*
RMATCI ,4)
300 CONTINUE
STOP 'NORMAL END TRANSPOR'
END

INPUT :
HD

= WfiTER DEPTH C M 3 =
1.000000
UB
= MEAN CURRENT VELOCITY C M/B 3 =
1.000000
HS
= S I G N I F I C A N T WAVE HEIGHT C M 3 =
1.000000
TP
= PEAK WAVE PERIOD
C S 3 =
5.000000
PHI
= ANGLE CURRENT AND WAVES 0-180 [ DES 3
90.000000
D50
= MEDIAN PARTICLE S I Z E OF BED C M 3 =
3.000000E-04
D90 = 90 0/0 PARTICLE S I Z E C M 3 =
5.000000E-04
WS
= FALL VELOCITY SUSP. SEDIMENT C M/S 3
e.OOOOOOE-OS
RC
= CURRENT-RELATED ROUGHNESS C M 3 =
5.O0O0O0E-0
RW
= WAVE-RELATED ROUSHNESS C M 3 =
5.OO00O0E-02
DS
= MIXING LAYER THICKNESS NEAR BED C M 3
5.OO0000E-02
A
= REFERENCE L E V E L [ M 3 =
1.OOOOOOE-Oe
RNU
= KINEMATIC V I S C O S I T Y C O E F F I C I E N T E M 3
1.O0O000E-06
RHOW = FLUID DENSITY C K6/M3 3 =
1000.000000
RHOS = SEDIMENT DENSITY C KG/M3 3 =
2650.000000
BETA = RATIO SEDIMENT AND FLUID MIXING C - 3
1.000000

PHYBICAL PARAMETERS ;
i:
PARTICLE PARAMETER
- 1
DSTER
1
C M
L
WflV LENGTH
[ M/S 1
PEAK ORBITAL VELOCITY
UBW
1
C M
PEAK ORBITAL EXCURSION AT BED
ABW
C N/M 1
WAVE-RELATED BED-SHEAR STRESS
TAUW
CURRENT-RELATED BED-SHEAR STRESS C N/M 1
TAUC
:i
WAVE-RELATED FRICTION COEFFICIENTC FW
CURR-RELATED FRICTION COEFFICIENT i; FC
CMO. 5/s:i
CHEZY COEFFICIENT
C
= APPARENT ROUGHNESS
1
c M
RA
c WAVE-CURRENT COEFFICIENT
ALFAW
i: N/M
TAUCR = CRITICAL BED-SHEAR STRESS
[ CURR-RELATED EFFICIENCY FACTOR
UC
i; WAVE-RELATED EFFICIENCY FACTOR
UW
1
c ...
T
= BED-SHEAR STRESS PARAMETER

NUMERICAL
FORMULA

. 759E+01
, .t5'5E+0
.148E+01
. naOE+01
. e359E+0
. 8333E+0.t
.4e94E-01
. 436E-0.l
. 484E+0
. .l50E+00
.5443E+00
.185aE+00

.3719E+00
.7g06E-01
. i81E+0e

: SS=SUSPENDED LOAD TRANSPORT C K G / S M J .1976E+0


; SS^-^SUSPENDED LOAD TRANSPORT [ KG/5M:I . iOG&E+O
: SB-BED LOAD TRANSPORT
C KG/SM3 .347E+00

PROFILES

HEIGHT Z
C M 3
. lOOOE-01
. 4663E-01
. 9383E-0i
. 1661E+00
. 2799E+00
. 4049E+00
. 5299E+00
. 6549E+00
. 7799E+00
. 9049E+00
, lOOOE+01

CONCENTRATION
CKG/M33
.5006E+0
.43aOE+02
.3755E+02
.3ie9E+oe
.e55E+0
.10aE+0
.iai6E+0
.1576E+0
.1366E+0
.1184E+0
. 106E+0

VELOCITY
CM/S3
3085E+00
5736E+00
6939E+00
8144E+00
936E+00
I0E+01
1085E+01
1135E+01
1175E+01
1210E+01
133E+01

TRANSPORT
CKG/SM3
.1544E+0
.51E+0
. 605E+0
.54aE+0
.364E+0
.155E+0
. 1971E+0
. 178aE+0
.1606E+02
.1433E+02
.1309E+02

-11.1-

11 ,

BED MATERIAL TRANSPORT IN NC84-STEADY AND NON-UNIFORM FLOW

11.1

Bed

Introduction

load t r a n s p o r t i n non-steady and non-uniform f l o w can be modelled by a

f o r m u l a type o f approach because the adjustment o f the t r a n s p o r t o f sediment


p a r t i c l e s close t o the bed can be assumed t o proceed r a p i d l y t o the new
h y d r a u l i c c o n d i t i o n s . Suspended sediment t r a n s p o r t , however, does not have
such a behaviour because i t takes time t o t r a n s p o r t the p a r t i c l e s upward and
downward over the depth and t h e r e f o r e i t i s necessary t o model the v e r t i c a l
c o n v e c t i o n - d i f f u s i o n process.
T h i s chapter p r e s e n t s the basic f e a t u r e s and equations o f sediment t r a n s p o r t
i n non-steady and non-uniform f l o w .

11.2

Non-steady suspended sediment t r a n s p o r t

11.2.1

River flow

In g e n e r a l , a r i v e r f l o o d wave i s a r e l a t i v e l y slow process w i t h a t i m e

scale

o f a few days. Consequently, the sediment t r a n s p o r t process i n r i v e r f l o w can


be r e p r e s e n t e d as a quasi-steady process. T h e r e f o r e , the bed l o a d

transport

formulae and the suspended load t r a n s p o r t formulae as presented i n Chapter 8


can be a p p l i e d f o r t r a n s p o r t r a t e p r e d i c t i o n s . An exception

t o t h i s may be t h e

sediment t r a n s p o r t process i n a f l a s h f l o o d wave ( b a n d j i r ) and i n the


i n f l u e n c e d lower reach o f the

11 .2.2

tide-

river.

Tidal flow

T i d a l flow i s characterized

by a d a i l y ebb and f l o o d c y c l e w i t h a time

scale

o f 6 t o 12 hours ( s e m i d i u r n a l or d i u r n a l t i d e ) and by a neap-spring c y c l e w i t h


a time s c a l e o f about 14 days.
Sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n
300

measurements i n t i d a l f l o w over a f i n e sand bed (50 t o

ym) show a continuous adjustment o f the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s

t o the f l o w v e l o c i -

t i e s w i t h a l a g p e r i o d i n the range o f 0 t o 60 minutes, as shown i n F i g . 11.2.1


f o r a s t a t i o n i n the entrance o f the Eastern S c h e l d t ,
to the bed the time l a g between the c o n c e n t r a t i o n

The Netherlands. Close

and the depth-averaged v e l o -

c i t y i s n e g l i g i b l e s m a l l , but i t increases t o about 45 minutes near the water


surface.

-11.2-

The

b a s i c t r a n s p o r t process i n t i d a l f l o w i s shown i n F i g . 11.2.2. Sediment

p a r t i c l e s are suspended when the c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y exceeds a c r i t i c a l v a l u e .

In

a c c e l e r a t i n g f l o w t h e r e i s always a net v e r t i c a l upward t r a n s p o r t o f sediment


p a r t i c l e s due

t o t u r b u l e n c e - r e l a t e d d i f f u s i v e processes, which c o n t i n u e s as

l o n g as the sediment t r a n s p o r t c a p a c i t y exceeds the a c t u a l t r a n s p o r t r a t e .

The

time l a g p e r i o d AT.j i s the time p e r i o d between the moment o f maximum f l o w

and

the moment o f equal t r a n s p o r t capacity and a c t u a l t r a n s p o r t r a t e . A f t e r t h i s


l a t t e r moment t h e r e i s a net downward sediment t r a n s p o r t because s e t t l i n g
dominates y i e l d i n g s m a l l e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s

and

t r a n s p o r t r a t e s . I n case o f

f i n e sediments ( s i l t ) or a l a r g e depth the s e t t l i n g process can

continue

the s l a c k water p e r i o d g i v i n g a l a r g e time l a g AT^ which i s d e f i n e d as


p e r i o d between a zero t r a n s p o r t c a p a c i t y and
Figure

the s t a r t o f a new

during
the

erosion

cycle.

11.2.2 c l e a r l y shows t h a t the suspended sediment t r a n s p o r t d u r i n g dece-

l e r a t i n g f l o w i s always l a r g e r than d u r i n g a c c e l e r a t i n g

11.3

very

flow.

Non-uniform suspended sediment t r a n s p o r t , adjustment l e n g t h

A fundamental phenomenon o f non-uniform sediment t r a n s p o r t i s the c o n t i n u o u s


adjustment o f the sediment t r a n s p o r t t o the sediment t r a n s p o r t c a p a c i t y .

t y p i c a l example o f t h i s i s the v a r i a t i o n o f the suspended sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and

the t r a n s p o r t across a t r e n c h or channel i n the bed.

Figure

11.3,1

shows the e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s o f a t r e n c h w i t h side slopes o f 1:3 i n a flume


(Van

R i j n , 1985,

160 pm. The


u^ = 0.51

0.01

h^ = 0.39

m. The

current velocity

S m a l l - s c a l e r i p p l e s w i t h a h e i g h t o f about 0.025 m and


m were p r e s e n t on the bed

r a t e a t the i n l e t was
t r a n s p o r t was

bed m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t e d o f f i n e sand w i t h a d^Q o f

upstream water depth was

m/s.

o f about 0.2

1986). The

q^ = 0.03

i n the upstream s e c t i o n . The

equal to q,. = 0.04

a length

sand

feed

kg/sm. The measured suspended l o a d

kg/sm. Hence, the bed load t r a n s p o r t r a t e was

kg/sm.

Upstream o f the t r e n c h the sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s


near the bed

t o about 20 mg/1

t r a t i o n gradients

vary from about 1000 mg/1

near the water s u r f a c e . There are l a r g e concen-

i n the near-bed l a y e r . I n the d e c e l e r a t i o n zone ( p r o f i l e

where the f l o w v e l o c i t y i s reduced, there i s a decrease o f the


and

was

the v e r t i c a l g r a d i e n t s near the

4)

concentrations

bed.

I n the middle o f the t r e n c h ( p r o f i l e 6) a f u r t h e r decrease o f the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s can be observed. Thus, the s e t t l i n g process i s dominant i n b o t h
d e c e l e r a t i o n and

the

the middle zone o f the t r e n c h . I n the a c c e l e r a t i o n zone

-11.3-

( p r o f i l e 7) the e r o s i o n process i s dominant and the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s show an


i n c r e a s i n g t r e n d . Downstream o f the t r e n c h ( p r o f i l e 8) the c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n the upstream

section.

S i m i l a r r e s u l t s f o r a c u r r e n t superimposed
sented by Van R i j n , 1985,

by f o l l o w i n g waves have been p r e -

1986.

Another t y p i c a l example o f non-uniform sediment t r a n s p o r t i s the generation: o f


c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s i n a c l e a r flow (no sediment l o a d ) e n t e r i n g a channel
w i t h a plane sediment bed. F i g u r e 11.3.2 shows c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s a t v a r i ous l o c a t i o n s i n a flume i n case o f a c u r r e n t ( = 0.18 m/s)

superimposed

f o l l o w i n g waves (H = 0.11 m) over a f i n e sediment bed ( d ^ ^

100 ym).

by

The

h o r i z o n t a l adjustment l e n g t h o f the c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e s and the t r a n s p o r t


r a t e t o the e q u i l i b r i u m values i s approximately equal t o 20 times the water
depth. Graphs t o determine the adjustment l e n g t h as a f u n c t i o n o f sediment and
f l o w c o n d i t i o n s are presented i n S e c t i o n 11.5.2, see F i g , 11.5.1.

11.4

11,4.1

Mathematical d e s c r i p t i o n o f suspended sediment t r a n s p o r t

Mass-balance e q u a t i o n

A p p l i e d t o i n s t a n t a n e o u s v a r i a b l e s , the mass-balance e q u a t i o n s o f a u n i t volume


are

g i v e n by:

Fluid

: 1
^ ( p ( 1 - C ) ) + 1^ (p(1-C) U^^.) = 0
i

sediment: |^ ( p ^ d - O ) + f ^ ; (pg C U^^.) = 0

(11.4,1)

(11,4,2)

i n which:
C

= l o c a l volume c o n c e n t r a t i o n

Uj. = l o c a l f l u i d

velocity

Ug = l o c a l sediment
p

= fluid

velocity

density

Pg = sediment d e n s i t y

(-)
(m/s)
(m/s)
{kg/m3)
(kg/m3)

= coordinate

(m)

= time

(s)

The e f f e c t o f t u r b u l e n c e can be i n t r o d u c e d by a p p l y i n g the well-known Reynolds'


procedure i n which the v a r i a b l e s are represented as the sum o f a time-averaged
( o v e r b a r ) component and a f l u c t u a t i o n (prime) component, as f o l l o w s :

-11.4-

U = u + u'

(11.4.3)

(11.4.4)

S u b s t i t u t i o n o f Eqs. (11.4.3) and (11.4.4) i n Eqs. (11.4.1) and ( 1 1 . 4 , 2 ) , aver a g i n g over time and assuming t h e f l u i d and sediment d e n s i t y t o be c o n s t a n t ,
results i n :

It

^ ^ ^ i ^ '

3
it

(1-) ^ k ; ((1-) ' ^ f , i - ^ f , i ) )


/ - N

.
9
^ ^

= 0

(11.^.5)

( " s , i * '"'s,i^ =

(11.4.6)

The f l u i d and sediment p a r t i c l e s a r e assumed t o behave as a f l u i d - s e d i m e n t


m i x t u r e . The sediment v e l o c i t y i s assumed t o be equal t o t h e f l u i d

velocity

(= m i x t u r e v e l o c i t y ) w i t h exception o f t h e v e r t i c a l d i r e c t i o n where a c o n s t a n t
s l i p v e l o c i t y equal t o p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y (w^) i s assumed. Thus:

"s,i = " f , i

- "s * i

The eddy v i s c o s i t y
induced

(X = ^

= 0, 6^ = 1)

(11,4,7)

( d i f f u s i o n ) concept i s a p p l i e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e t u r b u l e n c e -

t r a n s p o r t components. The c o e f f i c i e n t s expressing t h e t r a n s f e r o f

f l u i d momentum and sediment mass a r e h e r e i n s h o r t l y c a l l e d f l u i d and sediment


mixing c o e f f i c i e n t .

A p p l y i n g t h e e d d y - v i s c o s i t y concept, t h e t u r b u l e n c e - r e l a t e d components a r e :

f,i

= -"f

(11.4.8)

^,i = - ^ s l f :

(11.4.9)

i n which:
= f l u i d mixing c o e f f i c i e n t

(mVs)

Eg = sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t

(mVs)

S u b s t i t u t i o n o f Eqs. (11.4.7), (11.4.8) and (11.4.9) i n Eqs. (11.4.5) and


(11,4,6) r e s u l t s i n :

-11.5-

^MiSient:

( O ^ | ^ ( c ( u ^ ^ . - w^S.) -

^ 0

(11.4.11)

In t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l - v e r t i c a l ( x - z ) plane t h e mass-balance equations read, as


follows:

iMid

It

(1-c) ^

sediment: |t ( O - |^ (c u -

in

If) . 1^

(d-c) u .

|f)

(d-c) w .

. |^ ( c (w-w^) -

e,-|f)

|f) = 0

0 (11.4.12)

(11.4.13)

which:

X = l o n g i t u d i n a l coordinate

(m)

z = v e r t i c a l coordinate

(m)

u = f l u i d velocity i n x-direction

(m/s)

w = f l u i d velocity i n z-direction

(m/s)

For a steady and u n i f o r m f l o w (3u/9t = 0, 8c/3t = 0, 9u/3x = 0, 9c/3x = 0 ) ,


the equations reduce t o :

fluid

: (1-c) w +

sediment:

(11.4.14)

c (w-w ) - e ^ = 0
s
s dz

Elimination

(1-c)

gf = 0

(11.4.15)

of the v e r t i c a l f l u i d v e l o c i t y

c Wg + ( e ^ + c ( e ^ - e^))

(w) y i e l d s :

= 0

(11.4.16)

Equation (11.4.16), f i r s t presented by H a l l b r o n (1949) and Hunt (1954), r e p r e sents t h e sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o f i l e f o r e q u i l i b r i u m


introduction

conditions.

By t h e

o f t h e mass-balance e q u a t i o n , the v e r t i c a l r e t u r n f l o w due t o t h e

f l u i d d i s p l a c e d by the f a l l i n g p a r t i c l e s has been taken i n t o account.


Assuming t h a t the f l u i d and sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t s are a p p r o x i m a t e l y
equal (e

d-c)

c w^ +

e ) , i t follows

= 0

that:

(11.4.17)

-11.6-

Equation

(11.4.17) can a l s o be expressed, as:

dc
c ws,in
+ e : s3 dz
- = 0

\ M. 1
. .4H 1
.

8)

i n which:
"s,m - (''-c)Wg = p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y i n f l u id-sed iment m i x t u r e .

Experimental

research by Richardson and Zaki (1954) has shown t h a t the

v e l o c i t y i s not o n l y a f f e c t e d
but a l s o by a d d i t i o n a l

by the r e t u r n f l o w due

t o the d i s p l a c e d

fall
fluid

e f f e c t s such as: p a r t i c l e c o l l i s i o n s , p a r t i c l e - i n d u c e d

t u r b u l e n c e and m o d i f i e d drag c o e f f i c i e n t s . The o v e r a l l e f f e c t can be r e p r e sented

by:

"s,m = ^^'^^"^ "s

(11.4.19)

i n which:
Wg = p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y i n a c l e a r , s t i l l f l u i d
a

- coefficient ( 4

The

and

t o 5 f o r p a r t i c l e s i n the range o f 50 t o 500

i n f l u e n c e o f the sediment p a r t i c l e s on the t u r b u l e n c e

ym).

characteristics

r e s u l t i n g i n a damping o f the turbulence and hence a r e d u c t i o n o f the

effec-

t i v e m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t (e ) should a l s o be taken i n t o account.


s
For s m a l l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s (1-c ^ 1) Equation

(11.4.18) reduces t o the

following

expression:

"s ^ ^s i
11.4.2

(11.4.20)

Ffomentum balance f o r f l u i d - s e d i m e n t m i x t u r e

To r e p r e s e n t the m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the f l u i d m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t s and hence the


f l u i d v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e s due t o the presence o f the suspended sediment p a r t i c l e s , the momentum balance f o r the f l u i d - s e d i m e n t m i x t u r e should be

solved.

I n the present a n a l y s i s i t i s assumed t h a t the f l u i d and sediment v e l o c i t y


(= m i x t u r e v e l o c i t y ) are equal i n the h o r i z o n t a l

d i r e c t i o n s , while there i s a

c o n s t a n t s l i p v e l o c i t y equal t o the p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y i n the v e r t i c a l


direction.

-11.7-

A p p l i e d t o instantaneous v a r i a b l e s , t h e momentum balance f o r t h e f l u i d - s e d i m e n t


m i x t u r e i s g i v e n by:

It

* fT

(oA.i-'^j' = - kl

* I t <".,ij)

^V

i n which:
p

= p(1-C) + p C = d e n s i t y o f f l u i d - s e d i m e n t m i x t u r e

(kg/m3)

171

U .
m,i
Pjjj

.- w 6. = l o c a l v e l o c i t y o f f l u i d - s e d i m e n t m i x t u r e
f,i
s 1
= l o c a l pressure

.. = l o c a l v i s c o u s shear s t r e s s
m,ij
g
= acceleration o f gravity

The

(m/s)
(N/m2)
(N/m2)
(m/s2)

viscous shear s t r e s s due t o t h e shearing o f t h e i n t e r g r a n u l a r f l u i d and

t h e " s h e a r i n g " by sediment p a r t i c l e i n t e r a c t i o n s can be represented by:


3U

,
^
'^m 3x
J

m, 1

m,ij
in

(11.4.22)

which:
"2
= y^ (1+a.jC)
= dynamic v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f t h e f l u i d
as m o d i f i e d by t h e presence o f t h e p a r t i c l e s

(kg/sm)

y^

= dynamic viscc
v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f t h e f l u i d phase

(kg/sm)

a^a^

= coefficients

U s u a l l y , t h e v i s c o u s shear s t r e s s i s n e g l e c t e d i n the momentum balance e q u a t i o n


for

a c l e a r f l o w . For a two-phase f l o w , however, t h e sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s

may be r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e near the bed. Consequently, t h e viscous shear s t r e s s e s


near t h e bed may become i m p o r t a n t because o f t h e increased

The
as

viscosity.

e f f e c t s o f t u r b u l e n c e a r e i n t r o d u c e d by a p p l y i n g t h e Reynolds'-procedure,
follows:

. + u'
.
m, 1
m, 1

(11.4.23)

P
m

= p + p'
*^m "^m

(11.4.24)

p
^m

= p + p'
^m ^m

(11.4.25)

-11.8-

S u b s t i t u t i o n o f Eqs.

(11.4.22), (11.4.23), (11.4.24) and

(11.4.25) i n Eq.

(11.4.21) and averaging over t i m e , y i e l d s :

it

^Pm \ , i ^

^ IT

(Pm % , i

"m,J^ = " IT

J
in

^^m^ ^ i T ? (^m,ij ^ ^ m , i j

(11.4.26)

which

-V

^ .. =
m,ij

(3u_ ./3x.) = viscous shear s t r e s s


m,1
j

^m ^ 1 = " Pm '^m i "^1 1 - 'J-, p I


m,ij
m m,i m,j
m,im
5

= p (1-c) + p

m,j

^ "

m,J

4 p ' ^' . = t u r b u l e t t c c - I n d u c e d
m m,i
shear s t r e s s ( i . J)

c = mean d e n s i t y o f m i x t u r e

= y^ ( 1 + a.jC) 2 = dynamic v i s c o s i t y o f m i x t u r e
p'
m

= ( p ^ - p) c'
s

= density f l u c t u a t i o n of mixture

To d e r i v e Equation (11.4.26), the f o l l o w i n g terms have been n e g l e c t e d :


t i m e dependent f l u c t u a t i o n s , 3(p'u' . ) / 3 t = 0
m ni J1.
f l u c t u a t i o n terms due t o viscous shear s t r e s s
t r i p p l e f l u c t u a t i o n terms o f the t u r b u l e n t shear s t r e s s , p'u' .u' , = 0
' m m,i m,j
t u r b u l e n c e - i n d u c e d p r e s s u r e , p u^ ^u^ . = 0
The turbulence-induced shear s t r e s s ( T ^ ) can be represented by ( i * J ) :
.
^ m , i j = - (P - PC - P3C)

3u

.
- (P3-P)

u^^. I f -

(11.4.27)

I n the x-z plane w i t h v e l o c i t i e s u and w Equation (11.4.27) reads, as f o l l o w s :

It

<v>

in

which:

X - =

* k

< v

V - =
,zx = -

Equations

") * k

< v

> = -

* k

'':,.x * '^,.K> ^ V

^ l*
* V X ' f X S

<"-''-2

<"-*-3>
* I f ' - (P^-.'XS"" M

* " |f)<".t.31)

(11.4.12), (11.4.13), (11.4.28) and (11.4.29) d e f i n e a system o f 4

e q u a t i o n s w i t h 5 unknown v a r i a b l e s , being c, u, w, p^^^ and e. By r e l a t i n g t h e


m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t t o l o c a l f l o w v a r i a b l e s a p p l y i n g a simple m i x i n g l e n g t h

-11.9-

model or a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d k-Epsilon model ( i n c l u d i n g terms f o r the s o l i d


phase), the system can be closed and solved using a p p r o p r i a t e boundary

condi-

t i o n s . The k-Epsilon model which i s based on the a p p l i c a t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t


equations f o r the k i n e t i c energy ( k ) o f the turbulence and i t s d i s s i p a t i o n
r a t e ( E p s i l o n ) , o f f e r s the most promising r e p r e s e n t a t i o n because the damping
of

the t u r b u l e n c e energy and hence the r e d u c t i o n o f t h e m i x i n g

can be represented

11.4.3

coefficients

i n a s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d way.

H o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l f l u i d and sediment m i x i n g

General
M i x i n g processes i n f l u i d s a r e r e l a t e d t o molecular d i f f u s i o n , t u r b u l e n t d i f f u s i o n o f s m a l l - s c a l e random f l u i d motions ( e d d i e s ) and t o l a r g e - s c a l e c i r c u l a t i o n c e l l s (near o b s t a c l e s and s t r u c t u r e s ) .

U s u a l l y , the e d d y - v i s c o s i t y concept i s a p p l i e d t o r e p r e s e n t the t r a n s f e r o f


f l u i d momentum and sediment mass. I n analogy w i t h the shearing i n a l a m i n a r
f l u i d f l o w ( T ^ J = pv 3 u ^ / 3 X j ) , the shearing i n a t u r b u l e n t f l u i d f l o w i s
represented as: T ^ J - pe 3u^/3Xj, w i t h e = eddy v i s c o s i t y or f l u i d

mixing

coefficient.

B a s i c a l l y , the f l u i d m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t i s d e f i n e d as:

^ f = "T^

(11.4.32)

i n which:
u | = f l u i d v e l o c i t y f l u c t u a t i o n and
a. - m i x i n g l e n g t h .
H e r e i n , two types o f shear f l o w s are d i s t i n g u i s h e d : wall-bounded shear f l o w s
and f r e e shear f l o w s .

For wall-bounded shear f l o w s w i t h a constant shear s t r e s s i n the n e a r - w a l l


r e g i o n , the eddy v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t can be d e r i v e d by assuming

t h a t the

m i x i n g l e n g t h v a r i e s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the d i s t a n c e ( z ) from the w a l l and

that

the v e l o c i t y f l u c t u a t i o n s a r e o f the order o f the c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d shear v e l o c i t y (u), y i e l d i n g :

= K Ujj z

in

(11.4.33)

which:

K = p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y constant
order o f

0.1

0.4). The depth-averaged e^-value i s o f t h e

h.

For f r e e - s h e a r f l o w s t h e eddy v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t u s u a l l y i s r e l a t e d

t o the

l o c a l t h i c k n e s s o f the m i x i n g l a y e r and t h e v e l o c i t y d i f f e r e n c e across

this

layer, yielding:

= a b Au

in

(11.4.34)

which:

Au = v e l o c i t y

difference

= m i x i n g l a y e r t h i c k n e s s and

= p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y constant

0.01).

In s h a l l o w water t h e w a l l - s h e a r and t h e free-shear e f f e c t i n t e r a c t , b u t gener a l l y t h e f r e e - s h e a r e f f e c t i s dominating when:

Assuming u^j/Au

0.1, t h i s means b >> h.

The sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t (e^) g e n e r a l l y i s r e l a t e d t o t h e f l u i d

mixing

c o e f f i c i e n t ( e ^ ) as f o l l o w s :

Eg = 6 <(>

in

(11.4.35)

which:

6 = factor related

t o t h e m i x i n g o f sediment mass and f l u i d momentum

(see s e c t i o n 8.3)
4 = t u r b u l e n c e damping f a c t o r ( s e c t i o n 8.3).

Horizontal mixing
H o r i z o n t a l m i x i n g g e n e r a l l y i s most i m p o r t a n t near c i r c u l a t i o n c e l l s because
i t governs t h e t r a n s f e r o f f l u i d momentum and sediment mass from t h e main f l o w

-11.11-

t o the c i r c u l a t i o n c e l l . Herein, the h o r i z o n t a l mixing c o e f f i c i e n t i s assumed


t o be constant over the depth. Most i n f o r m a t i o n from the l i t e r a t u r e i s r e l a t e d
t o the d i s p e r s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t (K) which i s d i f f e r e n t from the eddy v i s c o s i t y
c o e f f i c i e n t ( e ^ ) . U s u a l l y , the d i s p e r s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s determined
d e p t h - i n t e g r a t e d mathematical

from a

model a p p l i e d t o s i m u l a t e a dye-release e x p e r i -

ment by t u n i n g the d i s p e r s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t . For example, the two-dimensional


v e r t i c a l c o n v e c t i o n - d i f f u s i o n equation f o r small sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s reads
as:

If -1; <-> - k <^,. If> * k "-"s>=> - k


The p h y s i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Eq.

lf> =

(11.4.36) i n a steady f l o w ( 9 u / a t = 0,

3c/at = 0) i s t h a t the sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s are convected

in longitudinal

and v e r t i c a l d i r e c t i o n by the mean f l o w (u,w), w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y the s e d i ment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s are mixed i n both d i r e c t i o n s by the t u r b u l e n t motions
(e

, e
S J X

) and are moved downwards by g r a v i t y (w ) . The c o n v e c t i o n and d i f S y Z

f u s i o n process i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g . 11.4.1A, showing the behaviour

of a line

i n j e c t i o n o f dye (Wg = 0) a f t e r r e l e a s e a t t = 0.
Equation

(11.4.36) can be s i m p l i f i e d by i n t e g r a t i n g over the depth,

yielding

1
^ (h5) . 1
^ (h5) - 1
^ [h(K . i ^ ^ P | | ] . S = 0

in

(11.4.37)

which:
h

he

Jc

dz

o
h

= water

depth

= depth-averaged
sediment mixing c o e f f i c i e n t
depth-averag
S } X

= d i s p e r s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , S = source term.

A p p l y i n g t h i s approach, a d i s p e r s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s i n t r o d u c e d which becomes a


t u n i n g parameter r e f l e c t i n g a l l p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s such as c o n v e c t i v e t r a n s p o r t
by secondary c u r r e n t s and c o n v e c t i v e e f f e c t s r e l a t e d
procedure.

t o the d e p t h - a v e r a g i n g

G e n e r a l l y , the d i s p e r s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t K i s much l a r g e r

mixing c o e f f i c i e n t

than

the

. When t h i s l a t t e r parameter i s n e g l e c t e d , the d i s p e r

s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t a l s o represents t u r b u l e n c e - r e l a t e d m i x i n g processes. Thus,


the p r i c e t o be paid f o r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f Eq,

(11.4.36), i s the

introduction

-11.12(
o f a d i s p e r s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t which i s mainly r e l a t e d

t o the f l o w system c o n s i -

dered. The magnitude o f the d i s p e r s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t can o n l y be determined


mathematical

s i m u l a t i o n o f dye-release experiments

from

i n t h e f i e l d . An order o f

magnitude e s t i m a t e can be obtained from formulae and graphs presented i n t h e


l i t e r a t u r e . Some i n f o r m a t i o n o f the d i s p e r s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s givn by Okubo
(1971), who reexamined data r e l a t e d

t o the h o r i z o n t a l spreading o f i n s t a n t a -

neous dye releases i n t h e upper mixed l a y e r s o f marine and e s t u a r i n e f l o w s . Mo


d i f f e r e n c e was made between transverse and l o n g i t u d i n a l

m i x i n g because o f t h e

extremely i r r e g u l a r dye d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s . The d i s p e r s i o n l e n g t h s c a l e was


a r b i t r a r i l y d e f i n e d as t h e diameter o f an e q u i v a l e n t c i r c l e i n which 95% o f
the dye was enclosed a t t h e time o f o b s e r v a t i o n . Okubo p r e s e n t s the e f f e c t i v e
h o r i z o n t a l d i s p e r s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t as a f u n c t i o n o f a d i s p e r s i o n l e n g t h s c a l e
( a ) . Some t y p i c a l values a r e (see a l s o F i g . 11.4.IB):
S, = 10 m

K = 10"^ mVs

a = 10^ m

K = 10 mVs

d = 10^ m

K = 10^

mVs

il = 10^ m

K = 10^

mVs

I n f o r m a t i o n o f the l o n g i t u d i n a l

d i s p e r s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s a l s o given by T a y l o r

(1954) and Elder (1959). For f u l l y developed

boundary l a y e r f l o w i n a s t r a i g h t

channel they d e r i v e d t h e o r e t i c a l l y :

^x = %

with a

10

(11.4.38)

Much l a r g e r a -values have been found f o r l a r g e - s c a l e meandering r i v e r s


(Sayre, 1975). Equation

(11.4.38) y i e l d s values which a r e much l a r g e r than t h e

t u r b u l e n c e - r e l a t e d m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t . R e c a l l , f o r example, t h a t the d e p t h averaged e d d y - v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t i s

=^ 0.1 Uj^h.

I n f o r m a t i o n o f the t r a n s v e r s e d i s p e r s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i n f u l l y developed

boun-

dary l a y e r f l o w i n f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s i s given by Sayre (1975) and by Prych


( 1 9 7 0 ) . Based on a n a l y s i s o f experimental r e s u l t s , i t was found

K =
y

uh

that:

(11.4.39)

-11.13-

with a

0.1 t o 0.2 f o r s m a l l - s c a l e

s t r a i g h t channels and

^ 0.2 t o 2 f o r

l a r g e - s c a l e meandering r i v e r s . D e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s
i n s t r a i g h t channels shows some ( u n c l e a r ) i n f l u e n c e o f t h e channel w i d t h o r
b e t t e r t h e w i d t h - d e p t h r a t i o because t h i s parameter a f f e c t s t h e s i z e o f v e r t i cal

secondary c i r c u l a t i o n c e l l s causing transverse

r e l a t i o n s h i p s representing

mixing.

Generally-accepted

the w i d t h - e f f e c t a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e . N a t u r a l r i v e r s

have the f o l l o w i n g t y p i c a l f e a t u r e s i n t e n s i f y i n g t h e t r a n s v e r s e m i x i n g

process:

1. i r r e g u l a r depth,
2. meandering p l a n f o r m and
3. presence o f s t r u c t u r e s and obstacles
Transverse m i x i n g

(groins, spurdikes,

i s i n t e n s i f i e d by generation

bridge p i e r s e t c . ) .

o f free-shar l a y e r s and by

secondary c u r r e n t s . I n case o f a s l o w l y meandering r i v e r and a small


roughness (few g r o i n s ) the a -value w i l l be i n the range o f a

side-wall

0.2 t o 1. I n

case o f a s h a r p l y curved r i v e r w i t h a l a r g e s i d e - w a l l roughness (many g r o i n s )


the a - value w i l l be i n t h e range o f a
y
y
Transverse m i x i n g

i n free-shear

1 t o 2.

l a y e r s can be estimated

from Eq. (11.4.34),

giving:
y = 0.01 b AU

(11.4.40)

D e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n o f the i n f l u e n c e o f the h o r i z o n t a l mixing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s


on t h e computed depth-averaged v e l o c i t y f i e l d

i n and near r e c i r c u l a t i n g f l o w s

i s given by F l o k s t r a e t a l (1986) a p p l y i n g a depth-averaged f l o w model. V a r i o u s


values o f t h e h o r i z o n t a l d i s p e r s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t were used i n t h e computations
(K = 10, 1, 0.1 m2/s). The computer r e s u l t s show a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e

influence

o f t h e K-value on the v e l o c i t y f i e l d near r e c i r c u l a t i o n zones when t h e K-value


i s i n t h e range o f 10 t o 1 mVs. The i n f l u e n c e i s s m a l l f o r K i n t h e range o f
1 t o 0.1 m2/s. F l o k s t r a e t a l a l s o found a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e
l o c a l bathymetry on t h e v e l o c i t i e s near the r e c i r c u l a t i o n zone. Applying

Eq.

(11.4.40) w i t h b = 100 m and Au = 1 m/s, which a r e t y p i c a l values f o r t h e geometry considered by F l o k s t r a e t a l , the K-value i s found t o be about 1 m2/s.
The

v a l u e s o f Okubo (1971) y i e l d K=^ 0.1 m2/s. Thus, t y p i c a l K-values f o r

s h a l l o w water f l o w a r e i n the range o f 0.1 t o 1 m2/s. The exact value i s n o t


o f e s s e n t i a l importance because i t s e f f e c t on t h e computed v e l o c i t i e s i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l f o r K i n t h i s range.

-11.14-

Although t h e K-values may be l e s s i m p o r t a n t f o r a good r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e


r e c i r c u l a t i o n zone, a good e s t i m a t e o f the K-value i s s t i l l

important f o r the

d i f f u s i v e sediment t r a n s p o r t , because i t d i r e c t l y a f f e c t s t h e magnitude o f t h e


t r a n s v e r s e d i f f u s i v e t r a n s p o r t o f sediments from t h e main f l o w t o t h e r e c i r c u l a t i o n zone.

Vertical

mixing

Assuming q u a s i - e q u i l i b r i u m boundary f l o w , the v e r t i c a l m i x i n g


u s u a l l y i s represented

by a p a r a b o l i c d i s t r i b u t i o n , as f o l l o w s :

^s,z = ^s,max " ^s,max


's,max =

coefficient

" R^J^

(11.4.4la)

6 K u^ h

(11.4.4lb)

in which:
^s,z " c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d v e r t i c a l sediment mixing
Ujj

= bed-shear v e l o c i t y

= water depth

= Von Karman constant

= r a t i o o f sediment and f l u i d mixing

The maximum e
The

-value

(=: 0.4)
1)

i s equal t o 0.1 uh f o r K = 0.4 and 6 = 1 .

depth-averaged value i s

A parabolic-constant

coefficient

^ = 0.067 Uj^h.

mixing c o e f f i c i e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n may a l s o be a p p l i e d (see

s e c t i o n 8.3), as f o l l o w s :
t2 1

s ,max
^s,z = ^s,max =

lBCiy?!25?_f

c.

1 - h~J

6 < u^ h

v e r t i c a l density

f o r z/h < 0.5

(11.4.42a)

f o r z/h > 0.5

(11.4.42b)

gradients

V e r t i c a l d e n s i t y g r a d i e n t s caused by t h e presence o f t e m p e r a t u r e , s a l i n i t y and


sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n v a r i a t i o n s have a damping ( s t a b i l i z i n g ) e f f e c t on t h e
v e r t i c a l m i x i n g process because a d d i t i o n a l energy i s needed t o mix a f l u i d
p a r c e l o f a l a r g e r d e n s i t y i n a lower l a y e r w i t h a f l u i d p a r c e l o f a l e s s e r
d e n s i t y i n an upper l a y e r a g a i n s t t h e a c t i o n o f g r a v i t y . T h i s a d d i t i o n a l

-11.15-

energy i s e x t r a c t e d from the t u r b u l e n t


turbulent

k i n e t i c energy r e s u l t i n g i n s m a l l e r

v e l o c i t y f l u c t u a t i o n s and e d d y - v i s c o s i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s . T h i s

g e n e r a l l y i s modeled by i n t r o d u c t i o n

o f the Richardson number, as

effect

follows:

c_ = e ^ (1 + a R i ) ^
f
f, o
in

(11.4.43)

which:

e
= f l u i d m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t i n the absence o f v e r t i c a l d e n s i t y g r a d i e n t
f ,0
2
Ri
= g ( 3 p / 3 z ) / ( p ( a u / a z ) ) = Richardson number
a,3

= coefficients

S i l t and mud

suspensions have a s m a l l v e r t i c a l d e n s i t y g r a d i e n t ( e x c e p t c l o s e

t o the bottom,

f l u i d mud)

and thus these suspensions would be expected

t o have

l i t t l e e f f e c t upon the v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e and the f l u i d m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n . Fine sand suspensions have a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e v e r t i c a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n


g r a d i e n t near the bed y i e l d i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l e damping of t u r b u l e n c e .

11.4.4

Scale a n a l y s i s

The b a s i c equation f o r the sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n the

two-dimensional

v e r t i c a l plane reads as:

If

* h (-) -h^'sk*k

(^<"-"s - k <'s lf> =

A p p l y i n g the f l u i d mass balance |^ + |^ = 0, Eq.


OA

<"-'-^"

(11.4.44) can be

simplified

oZ

to:
ic^^^lc
3t
9x

3 c _ l c _ 3_ ( aC) _ 3_
^) = 0
9z
s 9z
9X ^ s 3x'^
3z ^ s 3z'^

(11.4.45)

The magnitude o f each s i n g l e term can be estimated by u s i n g a n o r m a l i z i n g


method. Each term i s represented as the product o f a c o n s t a n t s c a l e f a c t o r
a dimensionless

v a r i a b l e o f the order o f u n i t y , 0 ( 1 ) . The

term i s then i n d i c a t e d
Applying t = T t ' ,
E e', Equation
s

importance

by the r e l a t i v e magnitude o f i t s s c a l e

o f each

factor.

c = C c ' , u = U u ' , w=Ww', x = L x ' , z = H z '

(11.4.45) can be expressed as:

and

and

- 1 1 . 1 6 -

C r l c ^ l ^ y_C r
T Ut'^
L
I"

3c_|_i ^ W_C
9x'J ^ H

r . 9c'
"sC r9c'
" 9i^J - I T
9i^J ^

The s e t t l i n g terra w 9c/3z i s taken as the r e f e r e n c e term and each term i s


s
m u l t i p l i e d by H/(WgC), g i v i n g :

J L ll + O
"sT 9 t '

[u. 9cl ^ W_ [. 901] _ [9cli ^


ax'

"s

9z'

9Z'

As an example t h e case o f trench dredged i n a t i d a l channel i s c o n s i d e r e d . The


t r e n c h has a depth s c a l e o f H = 1 0 m, a l e n g t h s c a l e o f L = 1 0 0 m. The v e l o c i t y s c a l e s a r e U = 1 m/s, W = 0 . 1 m/s. The m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t s c a l e i s E =
0 . 1 m2/s. The f a l l v e l o c i t y i s Wg = 0 . 0 1 m/s. The t i d a l time s c a l e i s T =
10000

s.

The s c a l e f a c t o r s o f Eq.

( 1 1 . 4 . 4 7 )

become:

'

0(10,

S
0(10)

W
S
^ "
WsL2

WgH

0 ( 1 0 - 2 )

0 ( 1 0 0 )

Based on these r e s u l t s , the l o n g i t u d i n a l d i f f u s i v e t r a n s p o r t (e ac/ax) i s


s
found t o be n e g l i g i b l e s m a l l . The time-dependent c o n c e n t r a t i o n term ( a c / a t ) i s
a l s o r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , which means t h a t t h e time l a g between t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and f l o w v e l o c i t i e s remains small i n case o f a depth o f 1 0 m and a f a l l
v e l o c i t y o f 0 . 0 1 m/s. The time l a g w i l l increase f o r a l a r g e r depth and a
s m a l l e r f a l l v e l o c i t y ( s i l t s and muds). I n case o f a s m a l l time l a g p e r i o d
(AT^ ^ 0 ) t r a n s p o r t r a t e p r e d i c t i o n s can be made i n t i d a l f l o w by a p p l y i n g t h e
formulae g i v e n i n s e c t i o n s 8 . 2 and 8 , 3 .

-11.17-

11.4.5

The

R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f neap-spring c y c l e i n sediment t r a n s p o r t

computations

t i d a l range o f a neap-spring t i d a l c y c l e v a r i e s as a f u n c t i o n o f time which

i s mainly caused by astronomical e f f e c t s .


Apart from a s t r o n o m i c a l e f f e c t s , t h e r e a r e a l s o c l i m a t o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s (wind
e f f e c t ) which a r e superimposed on the a s t r o n o m i c a l v a r i a t i o n s .
The

neap-spring c y c l e can be represented by a mean t i d a l c y c l e . To r e p r e s e n t

the sediment t r a n s p o r t over a neap-spring c y c l e c o r r e c t l y , t h e mean t i d a l


c y c l e must be a d j u s t e d t o account f o r t h e higher v e l o c i t i e s d u r i n g

springtide

(power-law r e l a t i o n s h i p o f sediment t r a n s p o r t and v e l o c i t y ) . T h i s e f f e c t can


be taken i n t o account by m u l t i p l y i n g t h e c u r r e n t v e l o c i t i e s o f t h e mean t i d e
by a c o r r e c t i o n

factor ( 5 ) .

In t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s the c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r ( 5 ) i s d e r i v e d , assuming:
a power-law r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e sediment t r a n s p o r t
averaged v e l o c i t y (),

The

(q^.) and t h e d e p t h -

q^ = a *^ (zero time l a g ) .

depth-averaged f l o w v e l o c i t y () o f each d a i l y c y c l e i s assumed t o v a r y

sinusoidally

i n time:

= sin(w t )

(11.4.48)

i n which:

= c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y a t time t o f a d a i l y t i d a l c y c l e ( f l o o d or ebb)

= maximum c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y o f a d a i l y t i d a l c y c l e ( f l o o d or ebb)

0) =
~
T = duration
m

frequency
o f t i d a l cycle

Assuming a power-law r e l a t i o n s h i p (q, = a '^) between t h e sediment


(qj.) and t h e depth-averaged f l o w v e l o c i t y (),
transport

the tide-integrated

transport
sediment

(Qj.) can be r e l a t e d t o t h e maximum v e l o c i t y () o f a t i d a l

cycle.

The

v a r i a t i o n o f t h e t i d a l range (H) d u r i n g a neap-spring c y c l e i s assumed t o

be

sinusoidal.

The

t i d a l range (H) i s expressed as:

H = a H
m

(11.4.49)

-11.18-

in which:
H

= t i d a l range a t time T

Hjjj = t i d a l range o f mean t i d e


A

= 1 + a sin(u)T) = t i d a l

coefficient

) = 2t\/T = a n g u l a r frequency
T

= d u r a t i o n o f a neap-spring c y c l e

= t i d a l rage o f s p r i n g t i d e

The maximum depth-averaged v e l o c i t y o f each t i d e i s assumed to. be r e l a t e d t o


the t i d a l range, as f o l l o w s :
u H,n

(11.4.50)

For t h e mean t i d e i t f o l l o w s

that:

I n most e s t u a r i n e channels t h e r e i s a n e a r l y l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p
maximum f l o w v e l o c i t y

between t h e

() and t h e t i d a l range (H) r e s u l t i n g i n n =^ 1. I n coas-

t a l c o n d i t i o n s (open sea) t h e n - c o e f f i c i e n t may be as s m a l l as n = 0.5. Measurements should be analyzed t o determine t h e exact v a l u e o f t h e n - c o e f f i c i e n t


for

each s p e c i f i c

location.

The a s t r o n o m i c a l c o r r e c t i o n

f a c t o r c, , which i s a m u l t i p l i c a t i o n f a c t o r f o r
Si

the v e l o c i t i e s o f t h e mean t i d e , can be determined, as f o l l o w s :

(11.4.52)

Substitution

o f Eqs. (11.4.48), (11.4.49), (11.4.50), (11.4.51) i n Eq.

(11.4.52) y i e l d s :
/

n>b

r / n n>b ,
(11.4.53)

or
f,-

\^

r "b ,

( 1 + a sintoT)"^ d

(11.4.54)

11.19-

Equation (11.4.54) y i e l d s :

nb = 2

= f'

nb = 3

= [1 + I ( a ) ^ ] ^ ^ ^

^ (a)2]^^2

nb = 4

^3 = [ l + 3 ( a ) 2 + I

nb = 5

?a =

nb = 6

5^")^
[ 1 . If

(11,4.55)

(a)^]^/^

()^]^^^

( ; ) 2 . ] i | ( i ) ^ , 5 ^ ( ^ ) 6 ] 1/6

F i g u r e 11.4.2 shows t h e c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r ^

as a f u n c t i o n o f a and nb.

3.

Climatological_effects
The maximum c u r r e n t o f ^ t h e mean t i d e i s assumed t o have a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n
w i t h an average value

and standard d e v i a t i o n a .

Thus:
A

n)

--

e-^^-%)^/2a2

(11.4.56)

(2TT)0-5au

or,
2

f(x)

e"^

(11.4.57)

(2tt)-5 G^a
i n which:
A

X = f - ^)/^
m-^ m
a = a /u
u m
The p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t

F() = J

f() d =

< < 2 or x.^ < x < X2 i s : .

J
XI

f ( x ) dx =

(2TT)0-bo x i

e"^ ^

dx

(11.4.58)

-11.20-

The c o r r e c t i o n

f a c t o r t.

due t o c l i m a t o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s f o l l o w s

from:

c
A

" h
^'^c ^m^ -

" .
(lI)

"

"
dO

(11.4.59)

Gl
resulting i n :

- (^)-^ f ' i i j ^

( H x ) ^ f ( x ) dx =

13-

The 5 - c o r r e c t i o n

( U x ) ^ e-^^=^dx

""1

(11.4.60)

c o e f f i c i e n t has been determined f o r v a r i o u s values o f b and

O by u s i n g a numerical i n t e g r a t i o n method. The r e s u l t s are.presented i n F i g u r e


11.4.2.

Characteristic

t i d e f o r sediment

transport

The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t i d e can be determined by m u l t i p l y i n g the v e l o c i t i e s o f the


mean t i d a l c y c l e w i t h a c o r r e c t i o n

f a c t o r ( ^ ) . The c o r r e c t i o n

factor (5) i s

d e f i n e d as:

^ =

^c

(11.4.61)

In the afore-mentioned method the neap-spring t i d a l c y c l e i s assumed t o v a r y


sinusoidally

i n time superimposed

by a normal p r o b a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n t o

r e p r e s e n t the c l i m a t o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s . The l o n g - p e r i o d t i d a l components have


been n e g l e c t e d . Furthermore, i n p r a t i c e i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t t o separate t h e
v a r i o u s e f f e c t s ( a s t r o n o m i c a l and

11.5

11.5.1

climatological).

Mathematical models

Introduction

E a r l y a t t e m p t s o f two-dimensional v e r t i c a l m o d e l l i n g have been c a r r i e d o u t by


K a l i n s k e (1940) and by Dobbins (1943). L a t e r a more g e n e r a l approach

was

pre-

sented by O'Connor (1971). Smith and O'Connor (1977) presented a two-dimensio n a l v e r t i c a l model based on the l a t e r a l l y - i n t e g r a t e d momentum and

continuity

e q u a t i o n s f o r the f l u i d and sediment phases, and an "one-equation" t u r b u l e n c e


c l o s u r e model t o r e p r e s e n t the f l u i d shear s t r e s s e s and d i f f u s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s .
Kerssens e t a l (1979) presented a two-dimensional v e r t i c a l model f o r g r a d u a l l y varied

f l o w s n e g l e c t i n g v e r t i c a l c o n v e c t i o n and l o n g i t u d i n a l d i f f u s i o n .

-11.21-

L o g a r l t h m i c v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e s were used t o represent the f l u i d v e l o c i t y


The

field.

v e r t i c a l sediment mixing c o e f f i c i e n t s were represented by a p a r a b o l i c -

c o n s t a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n . A c o n c e n t r a t i o n - t y p e boundary c o n d i t i o n was
the bed, assuming instantaneous adjustment
bed. Van R i j n (1980,

1985,

1986,

t o e q u i l i b r i u m c o n d i t i o n s near the

198?) improved t h i s model by a p p l y i n g a semi-

a n a l y t i c a l method t o r e p r e s e n t non-uniform
f i c i e n t s . The f l o w w i d t h was

applied at

v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e s and m i x i n g

coef-

i n c o r p o r a t e d t o extend the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the

model t o g r a d u a l l y v a r i e d f l o w i n t r a n s v e r s e d i r e c t i o n .
C e l i k and Rodi (1984) presented a model s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f Smith and O'Connor
(1977). However, the former a p p l i e d a "two-equation"
( k - e p s i l o n model).

t u r b u l e n c e c l o s u r e model

From 1980 onwards t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l models are becoming

i n c r e a s i n g l y popular because o f the advancement o f computer technology.


d i m e n s i o n a l m o d e l l i n g has been performed
and

by Sheng and B u t t e r ( 1 9 8 2 ) , by Wang

Adeff (1986), by O'Connor and Nicholson

(1986,

Three-

(1988) and by Van

R i j n and

Meijer

1988).

H e r e i n , the two-dimensional v e r t i c a l and the t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l approach o f


Rijn (1987)

11.5.2

are described

Van

briefly.

Two-dimensional v e r t i c a l suspended sediment model

T h i s s t e a d y - s t a t e model i s based on the mass balance o f suspended sediment i n


the v e r t i c a l plane, represented

as:

1
^ (buc) . 1
^ [b(w-W3)c] -

(be^ If) - 0

in

which:

= l o c a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n a t h e i g h t z above bed

= l o c a l h o r i z o n t a l f l u i d v e l o c i t y a t h e i g h t z above bed

= l o c a l v e r t i c a l f l u i d v e l o c i t y a t h e i g h t z above bed

(11.5.1)

w = p a r t i c l e f a l l v e l o c i t y
e = sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t
s
X

= h o r i z o n t a l coordinate

= v e r t i c a l coordinate

= width of flow

H o r i z o n t a l d i f f u s i v e t r a n s p o r t has been n e g l e c t e d (see s e c t i o n 11.4.3).

The

f l u i d v e l o c i t y f i e l d i s represented by simple l o g a r i t h m i c p r o f i l e s i n case o f a

-11.22-

c u r r e n t ( w i t h o r w i t h o u t waves) over a g r a d u a l l y v a r y i n g bottom topography. The


v e l o c i t y p r o f i l e s i n s t r o n g l y non-uniform

f l o w s w i t h s e p a r a t i o n and r e v e r s a l

are d e c r i b e d by a f l e x i b l e p r o f i l e method which i s based on a l i n e a r combinat i o n o f a l o g a r i t h m i c p r o f i l e r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e law o f t h e w a l l and a p e r t u r b a t i o n p r o f i l e r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f pressure g r a d i e n t s .


The v e r t i c a l f l u i d v e l o c i t y f o l l o w s from t h e c o n t i n u i t y
1
b

3(bu)

equation:

9w
i i =

(11.5.2)

The v e r t i c a l c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t i s represented by a


parabolic-constant v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n :

^s,c =

- ( 1 - 2 z / h ) 2 ] 0.25 K

p h

^s,c = -2^ " " , c ^


in

f o r z/h < 0.5

(11.5.3a)

^^"^

(11.5.3b)

> 0.5

which:

u ^ ^ j , = c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed-shear v e l o c i t y
h

= water

depth

= Von Karman c o n s t a n t (== 0.4)

The v e r t i c a l wave-related sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t i s represented by an


e m p i r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , as described i n s e c t i o n

^s,w

= ^s,w,bed

^s,w = ^s,w,max

< 6^

(11.5.4a)

> 0.5 h

(11.5.4b)

s " ^ " ^'^^

(11.5.4c)

for z
r

's,w = ^s,w,bed ^

1 r ^-^s
1
^s,w,max- ^s,w,bedJ l o T s h l i - J

s
in

which:

^s,w,bed " wave-related sediment mixing c o e f f i c i e n t near t h e bed


^s,w,max ^ wave-related sediment mixing c o e f f i c i e n t i n upper h a l f o f t h e depth
"Sg
= near-bed m i x i n g l a y e r t h i c k n e s s

^s,w,bed
Ufi, H and T.

^s,w,max" values are r e l a t e d t o b a s i c wave parameters such as

-11.23-

In case o f combined c u r r e n t s and waves t h e o v e r a l l sediment mixing c o e f f i c i e n t


i s computed as:

e
= [(e
)2 + (e
s,cw
s,c
s,w
The

(11.5.5)

bed boundary c o n d i t i o n , which i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t boundary c o n d i t i o n , i s

modeled by p r e s c r i b i n g the bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n a t a s m a l l h e i g h t

(z=a=reference

l e v e l ) above t h e mean bed l e v e l . I n t h a t case t h e bed c o n c e n t r a t i o n


be represeented by i t s e q u i l i b r i u m value ( c ^ g) as described
The

reference

( c ^ ) may

by Eq.

(8.3.17).

l e v e l i s a p p l i e d a t h a l f t h e bed form h e i g h t .

At t h e water s u r f a c e
z e r o : w^c +

i t i s assumed t h a t t h e n e t v e r t i c a l sediment t r a n s p o r t i s

9c/9z = 0.

At t h e i n l e t boundary t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n
computation o f t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n

p r o f i l e i s prescribed.

After

and v e l o c i t y f i e l d t h e d e p t h - i n t e g r a t e d

sediment t r a n s p o r t (q^.) i s computed as:


h
q*. = Qu +

The

J
a

buc dz

(11.5.6)

bed load t r a n s p o r t ( q j ^ ) i s represented by a f o r m u l a which r e l a t e s t h e bed

load t r a n s p o r t t o t h e l o c a l bed-shear s t r e s s .
The

bed l e v e l change (zj^) f o l l o w s froms:

9(bZ|^)
9t

9(bqj.)

p (1-p)
s

9x

Computed c o n c e n t r a t i o n

= 0

(11.5.7)

p r o f i l e s and t r a n s p o r t r a t e s based on t h e above-given

model a r e shown i n F i g s .

11.3.1 and 11.3.2. Reasonable agreement between

measured and computed values can be observed.


The

model has a l s o been a p p l i e d t o compute t h e adjustment l e n g t h o f sand

concentration

p r o f i l e s i n case o f under- and overloaded c u r r e n t s . The

adjustment l e n g t h i s d e f i n e d as the l e n g t h a f t e r which t h e suspended sediment


t r a n s p o r t d i f f e r s l e s s than 5% from the e q u i l i b r i u m t r a n s p o r t . Based on a
l a r g e number o f computations, an adjustment l e n g t h graph has been composed
which i s shown i n F i g . 11.5.1. This graph can be a p p l i e d t o determine t h e type
o f mathematical model t o be a p p l i e d i n a m o r p h o l o g i c a l study. When t h e
adjustment l e n g t h i s l a r g e r than t h e maximum a l l o w a b l e g r i d s i z e , a suspended
sediment model r e p r e s e n t i n g

t h e v e r t i c a l c o n v e c t i o n - d i f f u s i o n process should

be a p p l i e d . Otherwise, a model based on a t r a n s p o r t formula can be used.

-11.2l^-

11.5.3

Three-dimensional suspended sediment model

The t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l steady s t a t e model i s based on 3D mass balance e q u a t i o n ,


as f o l l o w s :

i i ' - ) * i7

- h

" " - " 3 ' = ' - I J < s , X l f > -17 <s,y I7'

The f l o w v e l o c i t i e s i n v e r t i c a l d i r e c t i o n are d e s c r i b e d by l o g a r i t h m i c
p r o f i l e s , as f o l l o w s :

" = -1 . l n ( h / z ^ )

^ = -1

1 " ^^/^o)

. In(h/z^)

(11.5.9a)

1"

(11.5.9b)

i n which: u and v a r e depth-averaged v e l o c i t i e s computed by a two-dimensional


h o r i z o n t a l model f o r depth-averaged f l o w .
The v e r t i c a l f l o w v e l o c i t y (w) f o l l o w s from t h e mass balance e q u a t i o n :
9u

9v

9w

i i ^ 9 ^ - i i = 0

(11.5.10)

The v e r t i c a l sediment m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t (e

) i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f Eqs.

S Jz

( 1 1 . 5 . 3 ) , (11.5.4) and ( 1 1 . 5 . 5 ) . The h o r i z o n t a l m i x i n g c o e f f i c i e n t s e


and
^
s,x
e

a r e assumed t o be c o n s t a n t i n the computational domain. R e a l i s t i c values

are i n t h e range o f 0.1 t o 1 m2/s (see s e c t i o n 11.4.2).


The boundary c o n d i t i o n s a r e s i m i l a r t o those presented i n s e c t i o n 11.5.2.
A f t e r computation o f t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n and v e l o c i t y f i e l d , t h e d e p t h i n t e g r a t e d sediment t r a n s p o r t r a t e s a r e determined as:
h
^t,x = % , x W

'^t.y ' '^b,y

(UC - e^^^ 9c/9x)dz

(11.5.11)

h
'' (vc - e^^y 9c/9y)dz

(11.5.12)

An example o f computed t r a n s p o r t r a t e s i n a p a r t i a l l y c l o s e d channel a r e shown


i n F i g . 11.5.2.

-11.25-

11, 6

REFERENCES

DOBBINS, W.E., 1944


E f f e c t o f Turbulence

on Sedimentation

Am. Soc. o f Civ. Engrs. T r a n s a c t i o n s , Vol. 109, USA

CELIK, I . and RODI, W., 1984


A D e p o s i t i o n - Entrainment Model f o r Suspended Sediment T r a n s p o r t
Report SFB 210/T/6, Univ. o f Techn. o f K a r l s r u h e , West Germany

ELDER, J.W., 1959


The D i s p e r s i o n o f Marked F l u i d i n Turbulent Shear Flow
J o u r n a l o f F l u i d Mechanics, V o l . 5, p. 544- 560

FLOKSTRA, C. VERBOOM, G.K., WIERSMA, A.K., 1986


Computation o f Steady R e c i r c u l a t i n g Flow
Report Rl150-2, D e l f t H y d r a u l i c s , D e l f t , The Netherlands

HALLBROW, G., 1949


Remarque sur l a Theorie de "L'Austausch" applique au T r a n s p o r t des Materiaux
en Suspension
T h i r d lAHR-Congress, Grenoble, France

HUNT, J.N., 1954


The T u r b u l e n t T r a n s p o r t o f Suspended Sediment i n Open Channels
Proc. Roy. S o c , V o l . 224 A, p. 322-335, London
KALINSKE, A.A., 1940
Suspended M a t e r i a l under Non-Equilibrium C o n d i t i o n s
Trans. Am. Geophysical

Union, Vol. 21

KERSSENS, P.J.M. , PRINS, A. and VAN RIJN, L.C, 1979


Model f o r Suspended Sediment Transport
J o u r n a l o f the H y d r a u l i c s D i v i s i o n , ASCE, HY5

-11.26-

O'CONNOR, B.A., 1971


Mathematical Model f o r Sediment

Distribution

14th lAHR Conference, Paper D23, P a r i s , France

O'CONNOR, B.A, and NICHOLSON, J., 1988


A Three-Dimensional Model o f Suspended P a r t i c u l a t e

Sediment T r a n s p o r t

Coastal E n g i n e e r i n g , 12, p. 157-174

OKUBO, A., 1971


Oceanic D i f f u s i o n

Diagrams

Deep-Sea Research, V o l , 18, p, 789-802, Pergamon Press

PRYCH, E.A.,
Effects

1970

o f Density D i f f e r e n c e s on L a t e r a l Mixing i n Open Chanel Flows

Report KH-R-21, W.M. Keck Lab., C a l i f o r n i a I n s t , o f Technology


Pasadena, C a l i f o r n i a , USA
RICHARDSON, Y.F. and ZAKI, W.N., 1954
Sedimentation and F l u i d i z a t i o n , Part 1
Trans. I n s t . Chem. Engrs., V o l . 32, p. 35-53

SAYRE, W.M.,

1975

N a t u r a l M i x i n g Processes i n Rivers
I n : Environmental Impacts on Rivers e d i t e d

by H.W, Shen,

F o r t C e i l i n g s , Colorado, USA

SHENG, Y.P. and BUTLER, H.L., 1982


Modeling C o a s t a l Currents and Sediment Transport
I 8 t h ICCE-conference, Cape Town, South A f r i c a

SMITH, T.J. and O'CONNOR, B.A., 1977


A Two-Dimensional Model f o r Suspended Sediment Transport
lAHR-congress, Baden-Baden, West-Germany

TAYLOR, G.I., 1954


The D i s p e r s i o n o f Matter i n T u r b u l e n t Flow through a Pipe
Proc. Royal soc. A 223, p. 446-468

-11.27-

VAW RIJN, L.C., 1980


Model f o r Sedimentation P r e d i c t i o n s
19th lAHR-congress, New D e l h i ,

India

VAN RIJN, L.C., 1985


Two-Dimensional V e r t i c a l Mathematical Model f o r Suspended Sediment Transpo
f o r C u r r e n t s and Waves
Report S 488-IV, D e l f t H y d r a u l i c s , D e l f t , t h e Netherlands

VAN RIJN, L.C., 1986


Mathematical M o d e l l i n g o f Suspended Sediment i n Non-Uniform Flows
J o u r n a l o f H y d r a u l i c Engineering, V o l . 112, No. 6
VAN RIJN, L.C., 1986
Sedimentation o f Dredged Channels by Currents and Waves
J o u r n a l o f t h e Waterway, P o r t , Coastal and Ocean E n g i n e e r i n g ,
ASCE, V o l . 112, No. 5

VAN RIJN, L.C. and MEIJER, K., 1986


Three-Dimensional M o d e l l i n g o f Suspended T r a n s p o r t f o r Current and Waves
Repport H 461/Q 250/Q 432, D e l f t H y d r a u l i c s , D e l f t , The Netherlands

VAN RUM,

L.C. , 1987

Mathematical M o d e l l i n g o f M o r p h o l o g i c a l Processes i n t h e case o f Suspended


Sediment T r a n s p o r t
Thesis, D e l f t University

o f Technology, D e l f t , The Netherlands

VAN RIJN, L.C., 1987


The S t a t e o f t h e A r t o f Sediment T r a n s p o r t M o d e l l i n g
Keynote L e c t u r e , I n t . Symp. o f Sed. T r a n s p o r t M o d e l l i n g , New Orleans, USA

WANG, S.S.Y. and ADEFF, S.E., 1986


Three-Dimensional M o d e l l i n g o f River Sedimentation Processes
Third

I n t . Symp. on River Sedimentation, Univ. o f M i s s i s s i p p i ,

USA

0.150

(mg,

300

c
O

ncenl

O
[_

200

iment

0
u

100

9,00

11.00

13.00
15.00
> t i m e (hours)

17.00

19.00

MEASURED VELOCITIES AND CONCENTRATIONS


IN THE EASTERN SCHELDT ESTUARY,
THE NETHERLANDS
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 11.2.1

time lag AT^

c
c

time lag AT2

transport
capacity

K EROSION

- > time

SEDIMENTATION

t r a n s p o r t capacity
>
local transport

t r a n s p o r t capacity
<
local transport

TIME LAG OF SUSPENDED SEDIMENT


TRANSPORT IN TIDAL
DELFT

FLOW

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 11.2.2

PROFILE

8
1.0

0.39

Qo=0S1 m/s

0.5

\4

0 5

2.0

1.5

Q5
1^

1.0

maasuras
in m.

>

.175
flow
0.4

Q2
1

0.60

0.6

vslocity
0.8

-^tlow

(m/s)
02

1.0
1

E
N

N
0.5O

020

0.50

040

CJ

020

0.10

lO'^

10-^
concantration
-^floW
02
1

0 6 0

0 4 0

f r . flow
0,2

1.0

6
i

020

XI
O

t
\x

'\

(m/s)

0.8

1.0
1

DD/-iirii tr

0 4 0

O30

O 20
\
0.10

<l

>

0
2

-fr. c o n c e n t r a t i o n
flow

velocity

10'

(ppm)

8,_2 2
10^

(m/s)

4 6 8

,
10^

concentration

4 6

8 .
10^

(ppm)

Flow velocity

M
0 5 0

=RC) F I L .E
B

XI
CS
040

\N

O
-t-

10"

O)

>
o

velocity

0.6

O50

<

TD"

0.4

0,60

=ROFIL- E

0.60

10^
10^ ,
^ . c o n c e n t r a t i o n (ppm)

(m/s)

-Q-

0.3O

OIO

^
10^

o>

0.8

\\

0 5 0

0.6
1

<

(ppm)

"8

0.4

vatocity

/<

PRC FIL E
4

030

10'

0.10

(m/s)
1.0

-C

OB

>
O

0.30

XI
CS

velocity

0.6

xf

PR DPI - E
0 4 0

0.6O

04

O30

Sediment concentration
computed

Ul

computed
measured

020

measured

0.10

/It
a.

0
2
10'

6 8 , 2
4
6 8
IO-'
10-=
-> concentration

10"
(ppm)

FLOW VELOCITIES AND CONCENTRATIONS


IN A TRENCH
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

1 FIG 11.3.1

outflow w a t o r *
ssdimont <pump)

(moasuros in m)

A. EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP
1,2

IV)

\
a

>!*

hi
0.4

=Q 24

18

20

measured

ff/

02
0

computed

. = 0 011 k g / s m ( c o m j u t c d )

0.6

10

12
>

14

16

distance,

22

24

26

28

30

^
h

B. SUSPENDED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT


1,^
F =

PRC>FIL

N|

.J_..LIU J.

.05

.1

r m

111'

PR

T"

PROFILE 4 , " f
n

4.2

8.3-

computed
measured

o'

B
IC

rni.

' h

4 6

IL c

5 E
10^

D,

6 8

IC

6 B

sediment

C.

o'

concentration

(ppm)

CONCENTRATIONS

CONCENTRATIONS GENERATED BY AN
INITIALY CLEAR FLOW WITH WAVES
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 11.3.2

surface

A.

DISPERSION RELATED TO A LINE SOURCE

I08|

RHENO
A 1964
1962 n
O 1962 n
o 1961 I
I
" *Z
A #3

CM

E
u
c

I *4
#5
#6
10' h- O NEW

NORTH
SEA

OFF
CAPE
KENNEDY

YORK BIGHT

'u
1*0
@

O
u

c
,o

I05

t_
cs

*b

@ # c OFF
9 *<i CALIFORNIA
e e
a> * f
<: BANANA RIVER

Q.
0)

O
H
C
O

I04

L.

x:

lO^i

10^

10"*

B.

lo5

dlspersion

|o6

length scale

]Q7

(cnn)

DISPERSION COEFFICIENTS

DISPERSION OF CONCENTRATIONS

DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 11.4.1

1.15
nb = 6

nb = 5

nb

1.10

=4

astronomical

nb = 3

effect

1.05
nb=2

1.00

0.1

02

0.3

0.4

05

06

1" a

1.15
B

'

1.10

b=E

V-O
^b=4

climatological

effect

b=;

1.05

1.00
0.06 0.10

014

018

022

026 Q30

> a- =u
H
CL r maxinlum tidal

max

CT,= relative

standard deviation of maximum c u r r e n t velocity


'-'
of mean tide
: exponent of p o w e r - l a w relationship of sediment t r a n s p o r t and
current velocity

ar =
b

coefficient

CORRECTION FACTOR REPRESENTING

NEAP-

SPRINGTIDE AND CLIMATOLOGICAL EFFECTS


DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 11.4.2

= 0.05

= 0.05<^

10,-1

101
^

,0.5
C

=18 log

4 5 6 789 ,

4 5 6789^,
.
8

-h-

c u r r e n t - related
^

-"8

bed-shear

velocity

c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d Chzy - coefficient
depth-averaged c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y
p a r t i c l e fall velocity
c u r r e n t - r e l a t e d bed-roughness height
w a v e - r e l a t e d bed-roughness height
w a t e r depth
s i g n i f i c a n t wove height
e q u i l i b r i u m sediment t r a n s p o r t
= a d j u s t m e n t length f r o m
= to

's,w

H.

(m/s)
(mO-5/s)
(m/s)
(m/s)
(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)
(kg/sm)
= 1

ADJUSTMENT LENGTH OF SUSPENDED


SEDIMENT TRANSPORT
DELFT

HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 11.5.1

HORIZONTAL DISTRIBUTION OF DEPTH - INTEGRATED


SEDIMENT TRANSPORT
DELFT HYDRAULICS

H 461

FIG. 11.5.2

-12.1-

12.

TRANSPORT OF COHESIVE MATERIALS

12.1

Introduction

Sediment m i x t u r e s w i t h a f r a c t i o n o f c l a y p a r t i c l e s (d < 4 pm, Am. Geoph,


Union Scale) l a r g e r than about 10^ have cohesive p r o p e r t i e s because e l e c t r o s t a t i c a l f o r c e s comparable t o or higher

than t h e g r a v i t y f o r c e s a r e a c t i n g

between t h e p a r t i c l e s . Consequently, t h e sediment p a r t i c l e s do n o t behave as


i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c l e s b u t tend t o s t i c k t o g e t h e r forming aggregates known as
f l o e s whose s i z e and s e t t i n g v e l o c i t y a r e much l a r g e r than'those o f t h e
individual particles.
F l u i d - s e d i m e n t m i x t u r e s c o n s i s t i n g o f water, f i n e s i l t s , c l a y s and o r g a n i c
m a t e r i a l s are g e n e r a l l y c a l l e d muds. I n a n a t u r a l environment t h e r e i s a
c o n t i n u o u s t r a n s p o r t c y c l e o f mud m a t e r i a l w i t h o f s e t t l i n g ,

deposition,

c o n s o l i d a t i o n , e r o s i o n and so on.
Because o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y

and the lack o f fundamental knowledge, t h e

d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s processes i s l a r g e l y e m p i r i c a l . T h i s chapter
summarizes t h e most i m p o r t a n t

processes i n t h e f o l l o w i n g o r d e r :

cohesion, p l a s t i c i t y , v i s c o s i t y and y i e l d

stress

flocculation

settling

deposition

consolidation

erosion

transport

12.2

Cohesion, p l a s t i c i t y , v i s c o s i t y and y i e l d stress

I f a cohesive s o i l sample w i t h a low water content


stresses

i s submitted

t o shear

( T ) under v a r i o u s normal pressures ( a ) t o t h e p o i n t o f f a i l u r e , t h e

r e l a t i o n s h i p between x and a can be expressed as (Law o f Coulomb):

T =

+ o t a n (t)

(12.2.1)

i n which:
T

= yield

stress

= angle o f i n t e r n a l

friction

-12,2-

The

y i e l d stress i s generally

i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e "cohesion" o f t h e sample.

Thus, a cohesive sediment sample i s able t o w i t h s t a n d


for

0 = 0 . The angle o f i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n

a f i n i t e shear

r e p r e s e n t s t h e machanical

stress
resistance

t o d e f o r m a t i o n by f r i c t i o n and i n t e r l o c k i n g o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c l e s .
P l a s t i c i t y i s the property

o f cohesive m a t e r i a l t o undergo s u b s t a n t i a l

permanent d e f o r m a t i o n w i t h o u t

breaking.

Suspensions o f w a t e r , f i n e sand, s i l t ,

c l a y (and o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l ) have a

p s e u d o - p l a s t i c o r a Bingham p l a s t i c shearing behaviour, which means t h a t t h e


r e l a t i o n s h i p between s h e a r - s t r e s s ( x ) and shear r a t e (3u/9z) i s n o n - l i n e a r .
The

s l o p e o f t h e curve expresses t h e e f f e c t i v e v i s c o s i t y o f t h e m a t e r i a l . The

i n t e r c e p t w i t h t h e shear s t r e s s a x i s i s c a l l e d t h e y i e l d s t r e s s

(x ) and

r e p r e s e n t s t h e i n i t i a l p a r t i c l e i n t e r a c t i o n f o r c e which must be overcome t o


give a d i s t o r t i o n i n the m a t e r i a l .
V i s c o s i t y and y i e l d s s t r e s s can be measured i n a viscometer. T h i s i n s t r u m e n t
usually

c o n s i s t s o f two c o n c e n t r i c

c y l i n d e r s i n which the sediment m a t e r i a l i s

p l a c e d . Once c y l i n d e r i s r o t a t e d a t a c o n s t a n t r a t e g i v i n g a c o n s t a n t s h e a r i n g
r a t e , w h i l e t h e f o r c e i s measured on t h e o t h e r

c y l i n d e r g i v i n g t h e shear

stress.
Based on e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a , t h e y i e l d s t r e s s i s found t o be p r o p o r t i o n a l t o
the sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n

( x ^ c 3 ) . Many a t t e m p t s have been made t o r e l a t e

the y i e l d s t r e s s t o t h e chemical p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e sediment m a t e r i a l . General


r e l a t i o n s h i p s do n o t e x i s t . Krone (1962) measured yild s t r e s s e s o f v a r i o u s
n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l s and found values i n t h e range o f 0,01 t o 0,1 W/m2 f o r
concentrations

i n t h e range o f 30 t o 60 kg/m3. Other values a r e g i v e n i n t h e

f o l l o w i n g t a b l e (Allersma,

1984):

-12.3-

Sediment C o n c e n t r a t i o n (kg/m3)

Material

Kaolinite

= 0.05

- 0.1 N/m2

0.1

250

150

100

50

0.3

0,5 -

1.0

1 -

y
Natural

mud

i n f r e s h water

Natural

=0.5-1.0

N/m2

>

N/m2

1 -

10

mud

= 0.1

0.3

>

10

in saline

water

Viscosity

values f o r n a t u r a l mud

as a f u n c t i o n o f the sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n

are g i v e n i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e (Nedeco, 1965). The

v i s c o s i t y o f the

fluid-

sediment suspension begins t o d e v i a t e markedly from t h a t o f c l e a r water f o r


c o n c e n t r a t i o n s l a r g e r than 50
especially

t o 100

i n s a l i n e water.

Sediment C o n c e n t r a t i o n {kg/m3)

Material

50

0
natural

200

100

350

500

5-10

20-50

mud

s a l i n e water

natural

kg/m3. Then, i t i n c r e a s e s r a p i d l y ,

n=0.001 kg/sm

0.002-0.004 0.01

Ti=0.001 kg/sm

0.001

-0.03

0.3

-0.7

mud

fresh

water

12.3

Flocculation

0.002-0.003 0.007-0.01 0.1-0.6

3-9

Most o f the c l a y p a r t i c l e s have a n e g a t i v e charge. I n the absence o f


d i s r u p t i v e f o r c e s (such as t u r b u l e n t f l u i d f o r c e s ) the s t a b i l i t y o f a
suspension o f cohesive p a r t i c l e s i s mainly c o n t r o l l e d by the magnitude o f

the

e l e c t r o k i n e t i c p o t e n t i a l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p a r t i c l e s .
I n f r e s h water the e l e c t r o k i n e t i c p o t e n t i a l g e n e r a l l y
and

is sufficiently

as a r e s u l t the p a r t i c l e s w i l l r e p e l each o t h e r . I n s a l i n e water

p o t e n t i a l i s reduced below a c r i t i c a l value and


a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p a r t i c l e s c o l l a p s e s and

the e l e c t r i c a l

large
the

layer

the p a r t i c l e s f l o c c u l a t e

(stick

-12.Al-

t o g e t h e r ) due

t o the presence o f dominating

molecular

a t t r a c t i v e f o r c e s , known

as the London-Van der Waals f o r c e s . Other b i n d i n g f o r c e s are

electro-statical

s u r f a c e f o r c e s (double l a y e r ) and chemical f o r c e s (hydrogen bonds, c a t i o n


bonds,

cementation).

F l o c c u l a t i o n r e q u i r e s p a r t i c l e c o l l i s i o n s . T h e t h r e e most i m p o r t a n t

collision

mechanisms a r e : (1) the Brownian motions o f the p a r t i c l e s (< 4 ym)

due

t o the

random bombardment by the t h e r m a l l y agigated water molecules, (2) t u r b u l e n t


m i x i n g due

t o the presence o f v e l o c i t y g r a d i e n t s i n the f l u i d and

(3)

d i f f e r e n t i a l s e t t l i n g v e l o c i t i e s because the l a r g e r p a r t i c l e s have l a r g e r


s e t t l i n g v e l o c i t i e s and may

t h e r e f o r e " f a l l " on the s m a l l e r

particles.

Other f a c t o r s enhancing f l o c c u l a t i o n a r e : s i z e , c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p a r t i c l e s ,
salinity,

temperature and o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l .

A s m a l l p a r t i c l e s i z e i n combination

with a large concentration g r e a t l y

i n t e n s i f i e s the f l o c c u l a t i o n process because these two f a c t o r s y i e l d a s m a l l


r e l a t i v e d i s t a n c e between the p a r t i c l e s . Experimental

research

(Krone,

1962)

has shown t h a t f l o c c u l a t i o n q u i c k l y reaches an e q u i l i b r i u m s i t u a t i o n a t a


s a l i n i t y o f about 5 p r o m i l l e which i s s m a l l compared t o t h a t (35 p r o m i l l e ) o f
sea water ( F i g . 12.3.1 A). A low temperature a l s o enhances the f l o c c u l a t i o n
process because the thermal motions o f the ions decrease i n magnitude and

this

leads t o a decreased r e p u l s i o n . Organic m a t e r i a l i n and on the f l o e s


s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t e n s i f y the f l o c c u l a t i o n process, because the
m a t e r i a l s g e n e r a l l y have a p o s i t i v e charge. The
due

organic

b i n d i n g f o r c e s become l a r g e r

t o the presence o f o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l and the f l o e s are much harder t o break

up.
Break up o f the f l o e s i s caused by l a r g e s h e a r i n g f o r c e s i n the f l u i d . When
these f o r c e s are l a r g e r than the s t r e n g t h o f the f l o e s , the f l o e s are broken
i n t o s m a l l e r f l o e s o r p a r t i c l e s . Large shearing f o r c e s e x i s t close t o the
bottom where the v e l o c i t y g r a d i e n t s are l a r g e s t . Large shearing f o r c e s are
a l s o generated i n s m a l l - s c a l e eddies everywhere i n the f l u i d . Under the
i n f l u e n c e o f t u r b u l e n t f o r c e s t h e r e i s a continuous

process o f f l o c c u l a t i o n

and break-up r e s u l t i n g i n a dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m o f the f l o e s ( s i z e , d e n s i t y


and s t r e n g t h ) .
A n a l y s i s o f under-water photographs shows the presence o f macroflocs
s i z e s i n the range o f 100 to 1000
to

100 ym and

with

ym, m i n i f l o c s w i t h s i z e s i n the range o f

s i n g l e m i n e r a l p a r t i c l e s s m a l l e r than about 10

10

ym.

-12.5-

12.4

Settling

An i m p o r t a n t parameter i n sedimentation s t u d i e s o f cohesive m a t e r i a l s i s t h e


s e t t l i n g v e l o c i t y o f the f l o e s . A n a l y s i s o f l a b o r a t o r y

and f i e l d data has

shown t h a t the s e t t l i n g v e l o c i t y o f the f l o e s i s s t r o n g l y

related

t o the

sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n ( c ) .
In case o f f l o c c u l a t i n g suspensions ( s a l i n i t y > 5 p r o m i l l e )

with

c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n c r e a s i n g i n the range from 100 t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10000 mg/l


t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e o f the s e t t l i n g v e l o c i t y . When the sediment
concentrations are larger

than a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10000 mg/l,

the s e t t l i n g

decreases w i t h i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n s due t o the hindered s e t t l i n g

velocity
effect.

Hindered s e t t l i n g i s the e f f e c t t h a t the s e t t l i n g v e l o c i t y o f the f l o e s i s


reduced due t o an upward f l o w o f f l u i d d i s p l a c e d by the f l o e s . At very l a r g e
c o n c e n t r a t i o n s the v e r t i c a l f l u i d f l o w can be so s t r o n g t h a t the upward f l u i d
drag f o r c e s on the f l o e s become equal t o the downward g r a v i t y f o r c e s r e s u l t i n g
i n a s t a t e o f dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m

w i t h no n e t v e r t i c a l movement o f t h e f l o e s .

T h i s s t a t e which occurs close t o bed,


laboratory

g e n e r a l l y i s c a l l e d f l u i d mud. I n t h e

the h i n d e r e d s e t t l i n g v e l o c i t y can be q u i t e a c c u r a t e l y determined

from c o n s o l i d a t i o n t e s t s by measuring t h e subsidence o f the

sediment-fluid

i n t e r f a c e . The s e t t l i n g v e l o c i t y i n t h e two ranges can be expressed, a s :

for

k c

f l o c c u l a t i n g suspensions (0-10000 mg/l)

(12.4.1)

s ,m
= w

(1-c)

in hindered-settling

suspensions (> 10000 mg/l)

(12.4.2)

i n which:
w
= s e t t l i n g v e l o c i t y o f floes i n fluid-sediment mixture
s ,m
w
= s e t t l i n g velocity o f individual floes
s
c

= volume c o n c e n t r a t i o n

= coefficient

= coefficient

= c o e f f i c i e n t (== 3 t o 5)

1 t o 2)

Some r e s u l t s f o r cohesive m a t e r i a l
The

i n s a l i n e water a r e shown i n F i g .

12.3.IB.

s e t t l i n g v e l o c i t i e s i n f l o c c u l a t i n g suspensions were mostly determined i n

s t i l l water by a n a l y z i n g f l u i d - s e d i m e n t samples taken from the o r i g i n a l


suspension and may not represent the a c t u a l
turbulent

flow.

settling velocity in a natural

-12.6-

A n a l y s i s o f s e t t l i n g v e l o c i t i e s i n f l u i d s o f d i f f e r e n t water depths shows a


marked i n f l u e n c e o f the water depth, which i s caused by the d i f f e r e n t i a l
s e t t l i n g e f f e c t . Larger f l o e s have l a r g e r s e t t l i n g v e l o c i t i e s than the
f l o e s and may

t h e r e f o r e " f a l l " on the smaller f l o e s forming new

smaller

larger floes.

Consequently, i n n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s the s e t t l i n g v e l o c i t i e s i n the lower


l a y e r s w i l l be l a r g e r than those i n the upper l a y e r s , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the
s l a c k water p e r i o d o f t i d a l f l o w , when the d i s r u p t i v e t u r b u l e n t f l u i d

forces

are absent ( F i g . 12,3. IC). I n f l o w i n g water t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n


o f the s e t t l i n g v e l o c i t i e s close t o