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# Purdue University Calumet

## Electrical Power and Machinery ECET-212

Experiment 2
THREE PHASE SYSTEM, WYE AND DELTA CONNECTION

OBJECTIVE

## (1) To study the phase sequence in a 3- system

(2) To study the current and voltage relations in 3- system with balanced Y and

112111-

## Power source, 120V. 3- , 60 Hz (Panel B)

Capacitor 10F
Lamps with sockets. 120V. 60W.
Ammeter, A.C. (0-1A)
Voltmeter, A.C. (0-150V)

EXPLANATION
Practically all electric power is generated and distributed by the industry as a POLYPHASE system of
voltages. The most common is the THREE PHASE system at the frequency of 60Hz. Some of the
important features of the three phase system, such as phase sequence determination, load connection,
voltage and current relationships, are to be studied.

PHASE SEQUENCE
By phase sequence or phase order is meant the order in which the three phases attain their peak values. A
3-phase source can have two sequences, one called a-b-c or positive sequence, the other a-c-b or negative
1, the voltage Ebn lags the voltage Ean by 1200 and in a similar way the voltage Ecn lag behind that of Ebn
by 1200 (or that of Ean by 2400). Hence, the order in which the voltages of phases a, b and c attain their
maximum values is a-b-c. In Fig.2 the order in which the phases would attain their corresponding
maximum voltages is reversed. The phase sequence is now a-c-b.

In general, the phase sequence of the voltages applied to a load is determined by the order in which the 3phase lines are connected. The phase sequence can be reversed by interchanging any pairs of lines. In the
case of a 3-phase motor, reversal of sequence results in the reversed direction of motor rotation. In the
case of 3-phase unbalanced loads the effect of sequence reversal is, in general, to cause a completely
different set of values of line currents. Hence, when working with such systems, it is essential that phase
sequence be clearly specified otherwise unnecessary confusion will arise.
Special instruments are available to determine the phase sequence, but we can also determine it by using
two incandescent lamps and a capacitor. The devices are connected as shown in Fig.3. If we connect the
circuit to a 3-phase line, one lamp will always burn brighter than the other. The phase sequence is in the
order: bright lamp-dim lamp-capacitor.

## VOLTAGE AND CURRENT RELATIONS IN A 3-PHASE SYSTEM

The loads in a three phase system are connected either in WYE (Y) or DELTA () configuration. When
the impedance of the three branches are identical the circuit is said to be BALANCED.

## VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS IN Y-CONNECTION

The voltage induced in each winding is called the PHASE VOLTAGE and current in each winding is
likewise known as PHASE CURRENT. However, the voltage available between any pair of terminals is
called LINE VOLTAGE VL and the current flowing in each line is called LINE CURRENT IL. (See
Fig.4)

## VAB, VBC, VCA are line voltages

IA, IB, IC are line currents
In a Y connection
a)
b)
c)
d)

## Line voltage (VL) = 3 x Phase voltage (Eph)

Line voltages are 1200 apart.
Line voltages are 300 ahead of the respective phase voltages (for positive sequence)
Line current (IL) = Phase current (Iph)

## VOLTAGE AND CURRENTS IN A CONNECTION

It can be seen from Fig.5 that there is only one phase winding completely included between any pair of
terminals. Hence in a - connection the line voltage is equal to the phase voltage.

In a connection
a)
b)
c)
d)

## Line voltage (VL) = Phase voltage (Eph)

Line Voltage (IL) = 3 x phase current (Iph)
Line currents are 1200 apart.
Line currents are 300 behind the respective phase currents (for positive sequence)

PROCEDURE
Phase sequence Indicator
1. Construct a phase sequence indicator by connecting the two lamps and the capacitor as shown in
figure 3.
2. Determine the phase sequence of laboratory power supply. Connect the phase sequence indicator
to the 120 v. 3 power supply terminals. (A to A, B to B and C to C).
3. Turn the power on. One of the lamps will be brighter than the other.
a. If lamp I is brighter the phase sequence is A-B-C.
b. If lamp II is brighter the phase sequence is B-A-C. (i.e. A-C-B)
Balanced Y and systems
4. Set up the circuit as shown in figure 6.
5. Measure the quantities indicated in the table.
6. Draw the phasor diagram of line voltages phase voltages and phase current taking E AN as the
reference voltage.
7. Set up the circuit shown in figure 7.
8. Measure the quantities indicated in the table.
9. Draw the phasor diagram of line voltages, line current and phase current using EAB as reference.

Note: Turn off power when making changes in the circuit or inserting and removing instruments.
Data Table I

CONCLUSION