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Aerodynamic Lab Works

1.
Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel:
It is an apparatus in which air stream flows around stationary components such
airfoils for experimental purposes.
Wind tunnels can be divided into:
- Subsonic (M<1) and supersonic (M>1).
- Open loop and closed loop.
Prodit wind tunnel allows performing such experiments as:
Determination of air velocities and velocity profiles.
Determination of lift and drag forces for various model shapes.
Flow visualization studies.
Measurements of air pressure fields around different bodies
(airfoils, cylinders, spheres and others).
Study of laminar and turbulent boundary layers.
Analysis of geometric shape effects on aerodynamic coefficients (Cl
, Cd ,Cp,Cm).
Wing flutters experiments.
2. Devices Included in the Prodit Wind Tunnel:

Adjustable Slope Micro Manometer with tilting scale table type:


0 250mm (90 deg)
0 170mm (45 deg)
0 110mm (30 deg)
0 50mm (15 deg)
Suitable for use with Hg (=13600kg/
), red fluids (=826kg/ ),
green fluids (=1000kg/
), blue fluids (=1500kg/
), water
(=1000kg/ )

Smoke Generator: device used to show air flow around airfoils


and other shapes in order to study vertex shedding, flow separation,
tip vertices, stream lines, boundary layer evolution.

Multitube Micromanometer :( 20 tubes) to measure pressure


distribution around airfoils.

Pilot Tube: to measure air velocity.


Set of Models:
(C=150mm) NACA 2412 with variable flap span=280mm.
(C=150mm) NACA 0012 with 20 static pressure tappings.
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Cylinder, =60mm.
Flat plate for boundary layer experiments.
(C=100mm) NACA 0012 with adjustable leading edge slot
and trailing edge flap.
airfoil for flutter experiments
too many shapes (Hemispheres).
3. The Wind Tunnel is Composed of:
Effuser -> Working section -> Diffuser -> Silencer
Motor -> Fan -> Control Panel -> Display.
4. Operating Instructions:
Starting Procedures:
1-turn on the main switch (4/1)
2-turn on the start push button (4/3)
3-adjust the fan speed using the knob (4/5)
Shutdown Procedures:
1-press the fan OFF button (4/4)
2-switch off the main switch (4/1) done after the complete stop of the fan.

Models are mounted in the working section and connections to


manometers and Pitot tube, by the instructor.

5. Theoretical Approach of Aerodynamics:


Aerodynamics: is the branch of physics that studies airflows and the
interaction of that flow with objects such as wings and aircrafts.
5.1- the basic equations used in aerodynamics are:
1. Continuity equation:

Q=VA

2. Bernoulli equation:
3. The above two equations are used for steady, viscous less,
incompressible flow (M<0.3).
6. Continuity equations:
7. Energy equation:

8. State equation:

m = VA = constant

P= RT

9. Isentropic relation:

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The last four equations are used for compressible steady viscous-less
airflow (M > 0.30)
5.2- Mach Number:
a=

Speed of sound for isentropic flows (adiabatic).

a=

M= :

and R=287J/Kg.K

Mach Number

M < 1 subsonic flow


M = 1 sonic flow
M > 1 supersonic flow

5.3-Stagnation Properties of Air:


h0 = h+

T0 = T +

5.4-Critical Properties : the air properties where M=1

5.5-Effect of Area Variation on Flow Properties (Isentropic Flow)

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5.6-Airfoil Characteristics:

Langley center (wind tunnel)


Wright brothers (wind tunnel-home made)
GAW (general aviation)-general Whitcomb aviation
Variable wind tunnel
NACA: national advisory committee for aeronautics
NASA: national aeronautics and space administration
Main geometric characteristics of airfoils:

5.7- Lift and Drag:


L = Cl

[N]

D = Cd

[N]

Cl - lift coefficient
A - airfoil area
Cd- drag coefficient

- air density
V- air velocity

Cd=Cp + Cdi
Cp- profile drag coefficient (skin friction), Cdi - induced drag coefficient
Cd i=

where: e-span efficiency factor

5.8 - Aspect ratio: AR =

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for rectangular wings

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5.9 - Flap is a hinged, pivoted or sliding airfoils, usually near the trailing edge of
the wing. It is designed to increase the lift, drag or both when deflected and is
used on for landing and take-off, most flaps are 15-25% of the airfoils chords.
The deflection of a flap produces the effect of adding a large amount of camber
well on the chord. The more camber that the airfoil has results in a greater
pressure differential and the creation of more lift. Flops are normally installed on
the inboard section of the wing trailing edge.

Bassam Riachi

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Lab.1- Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoil NACA 2412


Contents: Abstract, Introduction and back ground, governing equations,
equipments and procedures, (Data, calculation, results (tables, graphs), analysis,
conclusion, ref.).

Introduction and back ground:


General definitions (L,D,N,A,CL,CD,CN,CA,,V,Re,M)
Airfoil Geometry

Governing equations:
P = RT

R= 287J/Kg.K

=0

T0=291.15K
C=120
0=18.27

Re =

X=C,

Relation between CL, CD and CN, CA


Cp =

q =

Reference area of airfoil: A=b x C


V is determined by a Pitot-Static tube
Pdyn = Ptot Pstatic , Pdyn =
(V can be determined from the graph V= f(N) N:fan speed).

Equipments :
A wind tunnel (open type) with a test section
(300mmx300mmx700mm) with a variable speed fan(D=500mm, Nmax
= 3000 rpm, Pmax = 5 KW)
NACA2412 with a flap (c=150mm, b=280mm).
Pitot-static tube with transverse mechanism.
Angle of attack changing mechanism.
X-Y load cell and indicator.

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Experiment setup:

Before beginning (P,T,) must be determined taking


Re=250000(laminar flow).
The rpm of the fan must be fixed.

Experiment procedures:

X-Y to be recorded for various at n=constant -10 deg < < 20 deg
Repeat at least 3 times and take (X,Y) average

Calculation and Graphical Presentation of Results.


From X and Y calculate L and D for each angle of attack then calculate Cl
and Cd
Plot Cl and Cd versus angle of attack
Determine the critical angle of attack, the best angle of attack
corresponding to the maximum value of Cl over Cd, the minimum drag
angle of attack and the zero lift angle of attack

Conclusions :( make comparisons between your results and NASA


results and discuss.)

Bassam Riachi

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