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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Concept

2.1.1 Mobile Adhoc Network

Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) is a type of adhoc network, in which typically


composed of equal nodes and communicate over wireless link without any
central control. All the network activity inside the MANET must be completed
by the nodes where the network is created. The topology of mobile adhoc
network is highly dynamic and random, causes frequent changes in the
topology over time may be hard to predict. As a result of this unique
characteristic of MANET, it can change location and configure itself easily
without inheriting the limitation of traditional cellular and wired network that
dependence of physical infrastructure such as the base station.

However, also due to its independence characteristic, mobile adhoc network


are affected by a higher loss packet rates and thus causes it to have a higher
delays and jitter for data transmission. This characteristic of the technology
also makes the physical security for the network become limited.

Performance Analysis of Audio Video Codec via Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET)

2.1.2 Performance Analysis

Performance analysis refers to the techniques of analyzing the quality of


service of applications or services, as in this case, of the audio and video
codecs via mobile adhoc network. Performance analysis can be carried out
by using network monitoring tools that are widely available these days, either
as a freeware or commercial software. These kind of analysis would be a help
to the personnel who works in the IT field as it can be used as reference in
order for them to decide which technology is the most reliable to be
implemented in their work or project.

2.1.4.1 PRTG

PRTG network monitoring is developed by Paessler AG and is a


successor of Paessler Router Traffic Grapher. PTRG can runs on
Windows system and designed to monitors network availability and
network usage using SNMP, Packet Sniffing, WMI, IP SLAs and
Netfows and various other protocols. It is available as a freeware with
limited features and commercial editions.

2.1.4.2 VoIP Spear

VoIP Spear is an online network monitoring tool that can monitor VoIP
application QoS 24 hours a day. It uses the packet loss, latency and
jitter characteristics of the internet connection to calculate an industrystandard mean opinion score (MOS) between 1 (very poor quality) to 5
(very good quality). The user needs to create an account under VoIP
Spear in order to use this tool. This tool is available for free for
personal use and also available for full version commercial version with
fee of $1.00 per month.

Performance Analysis of Audio Video Codec via Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET)

2.1.3 Codecs

The codecs are the software that acts as a compressor or de-compressor of


digital media file as of the video conferencing. These codecs consists of
encoder to perform the compression or encoding function, and decoder to
perform the decompression or decoding function. Both of these components
may be included in some codecs but some other codecs may only consist
one of these components.

Audio codecs compress and decompress digital audio data based on the
audio file format or streaming media audio format. Audio codecs are
important to deliver high-reliability audio signal with minimum number of bits
while not dropping the quality. In hardware, audio codec is a single device
that encodes analog audio as digital signals and decodes it back into analog
audio. The audio codecs that are covered in this project include G711, G722,
GSM, iLBC and Speex.

Video codecs compress and decompress digital video to a video compression


specification format. Many video codecs use standard video compression
format and thus making most of them compatible with one another. The video
codecs that are covered in this project are include H263, H264, THEORA,
Cinepak and VP8

2.1.3.1: G.711

G.711 is an ITU-T standard narrowband audio codec that was


released in 1972. It is also known as Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
and is a very regularly used waveform codec. It provides toll-quality
audio at 64 kbit/s and passes audio signals within the range of 300 to
3400 Hz. The audio signal is then sampled at 8000 samples per

Performance Analysis of Audio Video Codec via Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET)

second rate with the tolerance on that rate 50 parts per million (ppm).
8 bits non-uniform or logarithmic quantization used to represent each
sample that results in a 64 kbit/s bit rate. There are two version of this
codec which are -law that is used primarily in North America and Alaw that is in use in other countries except North America.

2.1.3.2: G.722

G.722 is an ITU-T standard 7 kHz wideband audio codec that was


approved by ITU-T in November 1988 and operates at 48, 56 and 64
kbit/s. It provides improved speech quality because of its wider speech
bandwidth at the range of 50-7000 Hz. The audio data is then sampled
at the rate of 16 kHz, resulting in a superior audio quality and quality.

2.1.3.3: GSM

GSM audio codec or Vocoder is an audio codecs that are universally


used within the GSM system. GSM audio codec compresses 3.1 kHz
audio into either 6.5 kbit/s Half Rate codec or 13 kbit/s Full Rate
codec. This process uses a system based on linear predictive coding
(LPC). These codecs is efficient with bit rates and made identification
of more important parts of the audio become easier, thus allowing the
air interface layer to prioritize these parts of the signal. GSM was then
enhanced further in 1997 with 12.2 kbit/s codec known as the
Enhanced Full Rate codec.

Performance Analysis of Audio Video Codec via Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET)

2.1.3.4: iLBC

iLBC or Internet Low Bitrate Codec is an open source, royalty-free


narrowband speech audio coding format and reference codec
implementation that was developed by Global IP Solutions (GIPS). It
was first a freeware with limited commercial use but was made
available under an open source license as a part of WebRTC project
since 2011. This codec is defined in RFC 3951 and handles the case
of lost frames through graceful speech quality degradation.

2.1.3.5: SPEEX

Speex is an open source patent-free audio compression format


designed for speech. It is well adapted to internet applications and
provides useful features that are not available in most other codecs
such as intensity stereo encoding, integration of multiple sampling
rates in the same bitstream and VBR mode. Speex is designed to
compress audio at bit rate at a range of 2 to 44 kbps.

2.1.3.6: H.263

H.263 is a video compression standard that was first designed as a


low bit rate compressed format for video conferencing. ITU-T Video
Coding Experts Group (VCEG) developed the codec as a part of the
H.26x family of video coding standards in 1995/1996. Since then, this
codec is used in many internet applications such as to view the flash
video content.

Performance Analysis of Audio Video Codec via Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET)

2.1.3.7: H.264

H.264 is a video compression format that is currently one of the most


commonly used format for recording, compressing and distribution of
video content. It is also known as Advanced Video Coding (MPEG-4
AVC) and was first completed in May 2003. H.264 is a block-oriented
motion-compensation-based video compression standard developed
by the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Groups (VCEG) together with the
ISO/IEC JTC1 Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG). The standard
for ITU-T H.264 and ISO/IEC MPEG-4 AVC are maintained together
so that they have identical technical content.

2.1.3.8: Theora

Theora is a free and open source video compression format


developed by the Xiph.Org Foundation and was distributed without
licensing fees alongside their other free and open media projects
which include the Vorbis audio format and the Ogg container. It is
derived from the proprietary VP3 codec which then released into the
public domain by On2 Technologies. It is broadly being compared to
MPEG-4 Part 2, early versions of Windows Media Video, and
RealVideo in design and bitrate efficiency while lacking some of the
features present in some of these other codecs. It is also comparable
in open standards philosophy to the BBC's Dirac codec.

Performance Analysis of Audio Video Codec via Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET)

2.1.3.9: Cinepak

Cinepak is a lossy video codec developed by Peter Barrett at


SuperMac Technologies and was released with the Video Spigot in
1991 before being as part of Apple Computers QuickTime video suite
in 1992. It was designed to encode 320x240 resolution video at 150
kbyte/s CD-ROM transfer rate. It was then ported to the Microsoft
Windows platform in 1993 and was used on the first-generation and
some second-generation CD-ROM game console.

2.1.3.10: VP8

VP8 is a video compression format owned by Google and created by


On2 Technologies. Google provided a permanent promise on its
patents for implementing the VP8 format after the purchased of On2
Technologies in May 2010 and released a specification of the format
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license. Google also
release libvpx, the reference implementation of VP8 under a BSD
license in the same year.

Performance Analysis of Audio Video Codec via Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET)

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2.2 Research Study

2.2.1 Introduction

To carry out this project, related journals and has been researched to act as
references regarding the scope and objectives of the project. The journals and
articles have been researched based on the MANET, video conferencing and
VoIP topics.

2.2.2 Performance of Conferencing over MANET Routing Protocols


From the journal Performance of Conferencing over MANET Routing
Protocols by Md Ibrahim Abdullah, M Muntasir Rahman, Ahsan-ul-Ambia and
Md Zulfiker Mahmud (2012), an adhoc networks is a network environment
where all nodes in the network are mobile and can be dynamically in an
arbitrary manner. All the nodes behave like a router and personally take part
in routers discovery and maintenance in their network area.
The writers used network simulator NS-2 to carry out the performance test
and follow end to end delay that includes all delays caused by buffering
during conferencing activity to measure performance of audio and video
conferencing in ad hoc network. The simulation are was first set up to 300m x
300m to evaluate the performance of video conferencing and measured the
packet loss for Adhoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) and Dynamic
Source Routing (DSR) routing protocol with time delay as the constraint in the
case.
As a conclusion, AODV is a little better than DSR in terms of performance
as it has larger coverage area with lower end to end delay because nodes
usually experience route breaking and elapse more time to find an efficient
route that caused the increased of packet loss and end to end delay in a large
area.

Performance Analysis of Audio Video Codec via Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET)

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2.2.3 VoIP Applications over MANET: Codec Performance Enhancement by


Tuning Routing Protocol Parameters

From the journal VoIP Applications over MANET: Codec Performance


Enhancement by Tuning Routing Protocol Parameters by S El Brak, M
Bouhorma, M El Brak and A A Boudhir (2013), a VoIP application requires
limited end-to-end delay and packet loss rate to ensure its quality of service,
thus it needs suitable codecs to perform analog or digital voice signal
conversion and digital compression.
VoIP calls are very sensitive to packet loss since it can affect the system
saturation but they should also be bounded on transmission delay to assure
correct communication because they have a very strict delay constraint. The
audio codecs add additional delay to the total network delay because route
re-discovery in MANET routing protocol may lead to packet losses and/or
delay that affect the quality of outgoing VoIP calls. The writers analyzed the
performance evaluation of ITU-T audio codec standards in contexts of
MANET voice call via a series of simulation based on real data of an urban
environment because of the fact that voice quality is mainly influenced by the
choice of codecs. The discrete event network simulator ns-2 is used by the
writers combined with a road traffic generator aiming to a significantly higher
level of simulation accuracy. At the application level, the writers used
ns2voip++ to generate VoIP communication. The simulations are used to
determine the network based on delay, packet loss, mean opinion score
MOS, throughput and normalized routing load (NRL).
As a conclusion, the study shows that codecs are unable to deal with VoIP
application requirement especially over large scale MANET environment
successfully. The results also show that codec or routing adaptation
mechanism may be an emerging solution for maximizing voice quality and
provide suitable quality of service for VoIP application over MANET.

Performance Analysis of Audio Video Codec via Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET)

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2.2.4 Study the Best Approach Implementation and Codec Selection for VoIP
over Virtual Private Network
From the journal Study the Best Approach Implementation and Codec
Selection for VoIP over Virtual Private Network by Mohd Nazri Ismail (2013),
IPv4 over IPv6 can improve the internet or intranet with benefits such as it has
expended addressing capabilities, enhanced support for multicast and QoS and
more efficient and robust mobility mechanisms.
The writer focused the analysis performance on codec selection
measurement during conversation between two parties. The VoIP over VPN
technology is analyzed using network management service. Based on system
performance, codec G.711 and G.726 generate the highest percentage memory
usage for hardware VPN implementation. Based on CPU utilization, it can be
conclude that VoIP conversation did not affect the CPU utilization performance
using hardware. Based on delay, overall result shows that codec G.726 achieve
the highest delay, followed by codec G.711, GSM and iLBC. Based on jitter, the
result shows that VoIP over VPN hardware implementation will generate low jitter
compare to VoIP over VPN software implementation. Based on mean opinion
score (MOS), VoIP over VPN software can degrade VoIP performance compare
to VoIP over VPN hardware.
As a conclusion, VoIP over VPN using software base can contribute
higher delay jitter and CPU utilization compared to VPN hardware device. Due to
the result, the writer recommended to implement VoIP over VPN using hardware
base in order to achieve a good quality service conversation.

Performance Analysis of Audio Video Codec via Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET)

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2.2.5 Implementation of P2P Computing in Design of MANET Routing Protocol


From the journal Implementation of P2P Computing in Design of MANET
Routing Protocol by M Abolhasan, B Hagelstein, JC-P Wang, D R Franklin and
T Wysocki (2008), contribute to the development of a wireless adhoc network
test bed that consists of a large number of self-contained and self-configured
nodes called Portable Wireless Adhoc Nodes (PWANs). The nodes are based
around a battery powered, Linux-based embedded system with multiple network
radio and are configures with a variety of adhoc routing protocols.
OLSR is a proactive routing protocol that maintains consistent optimal routes
to all nodes in the network. It inherits the stability of the classic link state routing
algorithm, and has the advantage of providing immediate route information due
to its proactive nature. Two types of control messages are exchanged by the
nodes: Hello and Topology Control (TC) messages in the OLSR protocol. The
writers also developed a modified PWAN prototype that could be used to
investigate the performance of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) over a multihop ad hoc network. They considered two options which are firstly, a purely
software-based VoIP implementation known as a softphone and secondly, a
dedicated VoIP hardware platform when designing this system. Based on the
node capacity test bed, the results suggest that the network is capable of
supporting many simultaneous, bi-directional, single hop VoIP calls. Based on
Multi hop adhoc test bed, two observation can be made from the result which
are, firstly, the introduction of single-hop traffic has a significant effect on the
multi-hop flows and secondly, the loss of TC packets reduces the accuracy of the
routing table at each forwarding node which adds further delay to the delivery of
each packet as it travels towards the destination.
As a conclusion, the PWANs created provide a good test bed for examining
the performance of multi hop ad hoc routing protocols in a real-world test.

Performance Analysis of Audio Video Codec via Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET)

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2.2.6 Development and Performance Evaluation of a Flexible, Low Cost


MANET
From the journal Development and Performance Evaluation of a Flexible,
Low Cost MANET by Zupeng Li, Xiaochuan Yin, Peiyang Yao and Jinnan Huang
(2006), the research of P2P network and MANET are always taken as two
separated areas but the writers indicated from their study that there are lots of
joints between these two technologies.
The writers summarized the similarities between MANET and P2P network as
first; nodes in P2P networks and MANET may randomly join and leave the
network without any signs, which causes the network topology changes
frequently with time, second; nodes in both of two networks connect with each
other via multi-hop routing, third; both P2P network and MANET have a
decentralized structure with no administration point in the network as what is in a
Client/Server mode network, and lastly; nodes in P2P network and MANET act
both as a client and a server, as well as a router. The writers objective for the
design is to construct a new type of MANET routing model based on P2P
computing technology.
As a conclusion, the writers propose a new type of MANET routing protocol
named PDSR as it is seamlessly integrates the functions of P2P overlay routing
protocols operating in a logical namespace with those of MANET routing
protocols operating in a physical namespace by building up a P2P overlay
network on top of MANET's physical infrastructure. The simulation results
indicate that the overall routing performance of PDSR is remarkably better over
DSR.

Performance Analysis of Audio Video Codec via Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET)

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2.3 Critical Analysis

To do this project, I am required to search for journal or article with related topic with the project title. In this section,
we will discuss an in-depth explanation of the articles.

2.3.1 Literature Review Matrix

Author

Title

Purpose

Research Question

Methodology

Results and Analysis

Abdullah M I,
Rahman M M,
To study the

Ul-Ambia A,
Performance of

performance of

Conferencing

routing protocols

Islamic University,

over MANET

DSR and AODV

Pabna Science

Routing

when the nodes

and Techology

Protocols

involved in video

Mahmud M Z.

University,

conferencing

Which is the most


reliable routing

Simulation studies

protocol out of

show that AODV is

AODV and DSR

better than DSR in

based on

coverage area with

conferencing area

acceptable delay and

with tolerable delay

packet loss

and packet loss?

Bangladesh (2012)

Performance Analysis of Audio Video Codec via Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET)

VoIP
Brak S E,
Bouhorma M,
Brak M E,
Boudhir A A

Abdelmalek Essadi
University, Tangier,
Tetouan, Morocco
(2013)

Applications
over MANET:

To study the

Codec

impact of routing

Performance

protocol

Enhancement

parameter setting

by Tuning

on codec

Routing

performance

How service quality

Optimal call quality can

of a call can be

be achieved by

maximized by codec

selecting codec with

selection and its

tuning routing

parameter?

parameters

Protocol
Parameters
To analyzed the
Study the Best
Approach

Ismail M N

Implementation
and Codec

University of Kuala
Lumpur, Malaysia
(2013)

Selection for
VoIP over
Virtual Private
Network

VPN over open


VoIP over VPN

source
application and

Is hardware device

measurement via

hardware device

and open source

hardware device is

performance area application affect

able to contribute

with the service

the performance of

better performance

quality of VoIP

VoIP over VPN?

compare to open
source application.

conversation
between
branches

Performance Analysis of Audio Video Codec via Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET)

Li Z P,

To propose a

Yin X C,

new kind of

Yao P Y,

protocol that is

Huang J N

used in MANET,

Is the P2P networks

Peer Computing

advantage can be

based Dynamic

integrated

Source Routing

successfully into

(PDSR) that has

MANET routing

been deployed

protocol design in

with passive

order to improve the

Corporate

MANET routing

performance of

Research and

algorithm and

MANET?

Development,

innovative P2P

Lenovo China,

routing

China (2006)

mechanism.

Implementation
Telecommunication
Engineering
Institute, Airforce
Engineering
University, Lenovo

of P2P
Computing in
Design of
MANET Routing
Protocol

Performance Analysis of Audio Video Codec via Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET)

The simulation results


indicate that PDSR
has an improved
routing performance in
comparison with the
DSR protocol.

Abolhasan M,
Hagelstein B,
Wang J C P,
Franklin D R,
Safaie F,
Wysocki T

Telecommunication
and Information
Technology
Research Institute,
University of

To develop a

Is PWAN able to

A network with high

Development

Portable Wireless

increase the quality

node density in a

and

Ad hoc Node

of service of a

short-range, multi-hop

Performance

(PWAN) device

MANET under the

environment is capable

Evaluation of a

which establishes

condition of high

of providing high

Flexible, Low

multi-hop routes

node density in a

quality connections

Cost MANET

using the OLSR

short-range, multi-

when traffic density is

routing protocol

hop environment

low.

Wollongong,
Australia,
University of
Nebraska
Lincoln, USA
Table 1: Literature Review Matrix

Performance Analysis of Audio Video Codec via Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET)

2.3.2 Research Study Comparison

Module Provided

Literature Literature

Literature Literature

Literature

Review 1

Review 3

Review 5

Review 2

Review 4

MANET performance
tested using network
simulation software
Appropriate MANET routing
protocol to maximized its
performance
Audio and video codec
selection for best
performance
Best approach to enhance
codecs performance
Table 2: Literature Review Comparison

Legend
Literature Review 1
Literature Review 2

Literature Review 3

Literature Review 4

Literature Review 5

Performance of Conferencing over MANET Routing Protocols


VoIP Applications over MANET: Codec Performance
Enhancement by Tuning Routing Protocol Parameters
Study the Best Approach Implementation and Codec
Selection for VoIP over Virtual Private Network
Implementation of P2P Computing in Design of MANET
Routing Protocol
Development and Performance Evaluation of a Flexible, Low
Cost MANET
The article does discuss the module
The article does not discuss the module

Table 3: Legend Guide for Literature Review Comparison


Performance Analysis of Audio Video Codec via Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET)

2.4 Project Overview

MANET

Diagram 1: Area of Testing

Diagram 1 show the area of testing for the project where three laptops will be
connected in a MANET. Each of the laptops has been installed with Linphone and
Eyebeam softphone software. The software is configured with audio and video
codecs that will be covered in this performance analysis project. Laptop A will be
installed with VoIP Spear and PRTG Monitoring Tool to do the performance analysis
of the audio and video codecs via the MANET connection.

Performance Analysis of Audio Video Codec via Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET)