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Introduction to P&ID Reading

and Design

Process Engineering

Process engineering is often a synonym of


chemical engineering.

It focuses on design, operation and


maintenance of chemical and material
manufacturing processes.

Process engineering also involves developing


new processes, project engineering and
Process troubleshooting.

Services in Process Engineering

Process conceptual and feasibility study


Process project scope definition
Process design, evaluation and modification
PFD and P&ID development
Process modeling and simulation
Process equipment sizing and selection
Process safety analysis
Process troubleshooting

Applications of Process Engineering

Chemical plants

Biotech plants

Crude oil refineries

Fertilizer production

Oil & gas processing

Food processing

Pharmaceutical manufacturers

Pulp paper mills

Mineral processing

Water treatment plants

Nuclear power plants

......

Type of Flow Diagrams


in Process Engineering

Mass Flow Diagram

Block Flow Diagram (BFD)


Also known as Information Flow Diagram

Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) Also


known as Mechanical Flow Diagram (MFD).

Utility Flow Diagram


This is a type of P&ID for common plant utilities
(steam, utility air, fuel oil, etc.)

An Example of Block Flow Diagram (BFD)


Diluent

Diluted
Bitumen

NHT
CDU

Kerosene

DHT

Diesel

Upgrader
Naphtha

LVGO

VDU

Sour Gas

HC

HVGO

SCO

Treating

FG (upgrader)

Naphtha

SDA

DAO

Pitch

EB

SRU

Diesel
GO

Sulfur

Gasifier H 2S

GSFR

H2 (upgrader)

Syn Gas

Composed of only blocks (rectangles) and straight lines


Each block represents one or more unit operations
The lines represent the major process flow streams (material/
energy flows)

Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

A PFD is a schematic representation of a process using


symbols to illustrate major operation units and major
process flow lines.

A PFD also tabulates process design values for the


streams in different operating modes (minimum, normal
and maximum).

A PFD is typically the first drawing developed for a


process, often in the pre-conceptual or conceptual
design phase.

What should be included in a PFD

A PFD should include:


Major equipment (symbols, names and identification #)
Main process piping and flow direction
Operating pressure and temperature
Major bypass and recirculation lines
Major control and instrumentation (optional)
A PFD should not include:
Pipe line numbers
Minor components and minor bypass lines
Isolation and shutoff valves
Maintenance vents and drains
Relief and safety valves
Code class information

A Sample of PFD

Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)


Scope

It is a detailed symbolic representation of


process interconnection, including all equipment,
piping, and instrumentation.
All items are identified using a standard
numbering system.
It should be developed at the Basic Engineering
stage.
It is the basis for all Detail Engineering work in
plant design.

Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)


Synonyms

Process and instrument diagram (P&ID)

Piping and Instrument diagram (P&ID)

Mechanical flow diagram (MFD)

Engineering flow diagram (EFD)

Piping and wiring diagram (P&WD)

Pipe and identification diagram (P&ID)

Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)


Multidisciplinary

Technical contents of P&IDs rely on multidisciplines:

Process
Mechanical
Piping
Control and Instrumentation
Plant Operation

P&ID Classification

Process P&ID

Utility Plant P&ID

Show the distribution of utilities within a given process. Valving and


instrumentation on piping are shown for main headers up to and
including branch root valves.

Interconnecting (Rack) P&ID

Define utility units such as cooling towers, air compressors, boilers,


unit drain collection systems, fire water systems, and water
treatment plants.

Utility Distribution P&ID

Define on-plot process unit design, as well as off-plot tankage and


shipping systems

They are the connecting link between individual process, utility plant,
and utility distribution P&IDs. They are usually prepared for the
offsite pipe racks and link the various process and utility plants.

Vendor P&ID

Prepared for systems that support major equipment packages.

Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)


Format

There are no universal format to be used in


developing P&IDs.

The P&ID formats vary with industry segments and


contractors.

In reality, every industrial company that develops or


uses P&IDs has its unique formats/guidelines for
P&IDs.

The P&ID preparation should follow the formats from


individual clients.
The P&ID formats are similar for different companies
in the same industry.

Two Key Elements in P&IDs

Piping:

Physical elements that interconnect equipment and process flow.


In different sizes, normally expressed as nominal sizes
In different materials. The most common material is carbon steel.
Other metals, such as various grades of stainless steel, and
plastic materials, such as PVC, Teflon, are also used.
With thermal insulation, if required.

Instrumentation

Devices used to measure, control, and monitor the process


variables. These variables can be flowrate, temperature,
pressure, liquid level, viscosity, and others.
Control valves and relief valves are also an important part of the
instrumentation.

Relationship between PFD and P&ID

For a process, a PFD is a simple representation, while a P&ID


is a definitive and comprehensive representation.
A PFD shows major equipment and major process lines, while
a P&ID shows all equipment and all process lines.
A PFD shows major operating conditions (flow, temperature
and pressure), while a P&ID shows piping, valves and
instruments that monitor and control the process.
P&IDs are more important in the design process, but PFDs
provide a basis for P&IDs development.
PFDs and P&IDs use the same symbols and formats.

What should be included in a P&ID?

All equipment with names and identification numbers


Piping with flow direction and line numbers (pipe specifications
and line sizes are included in line numbers)
All valves
All instrumentation with controlling devices and signal inputs and
outputs
Interconnection references (from one P&ID to another P&ID)
Miscellaneous vents, drains, special fittings, sample lines, and
reducers
Permanent start-up and flush lines
Interfaces for class changes
Vendor and contractor interfaces
Identification of components and subsystems delivered by others
Intended physical sequence of the equipment

What should not be included in a P&ID?

Manual switches
Equipment rating or capacity
Pressure, temperature and flow data
Supplier package piping which is internal to the
package and has no operational interface
Elbows, tees and similar standard pipe fittings
Extensive explanatory notes
Physical details and dimensions
Piping connections and type (e.g. threaded, flanged,
etc.)

Basic Steps for P&ID Preparation

Show all equipments with necessary piping to carry out


the process
Show all connecting process piping necessary to carry
out the process
Show all other piping required for auxiliaries
Show all required valves and major non-standard fittings
Show all required instruments and control loops
Mark size, fluid code, material code & identification
numbers of all pipe lines
Mark interlock numbers as per interlock description
Review P&ID considering all operational, startup
/shutdown, safety, maintenance & aesthetic aspects

Three Key Types of Symbols in P&IDs

Equipment symbols:
Process operation units for mass transfer, heat
transfer, momentum transfer and chemical reaction

Piping symbols:
Relevant to pipe, valves, and connections

Instrumentation symbols:
Sensing, monitoring and controlling
The symbology follows the ISA standard ANSI/ISA5.1-1984 (R1992).

Equipment Symbols in P&IDs

Pumps
Compressors
Fans & blowers
Mixers & agitators
Conveyors & feeders and other material handling
Separation equipment (liquid-liquid, liquid-gas, liquid-solid,
gas-solid, gas-gas)
Tanks & drums (storage)
Heat exchangers
Heating & cooling elements
Reactors
Turbines, generators and motors
Transportation equipment

Examples of Equipment Symbols

Piping Symbols in P&IDs

Process flow lines (often combined with signal


lines for instrumentation)
Valves
P&ID connectors
Reducers/Increasers
Caps
Connections
In-line items
Fire and safety
Miscellaneous labels

Examples of Piping Symbols

Instrumentation Symbols in P&IDs

General instrument or function symbols


Signals and lines
Sensors (four basic instrument groups)
Temperature (T)
Pressure (P)
Flowrate (F)
Level (L)
Self-actuated devices
Pressure (regulators, relief/safety valves)
Temperature, flow, and level (regulators)
Valve actuators
Pneumatic & electric (solenoid, diaphragm, cylinder,

motor, etc.)

With & without positioners

Miscellaneous labels

Signal/Line Symbols

Some Sensor & Control Valve Symbols

Exercise: Identification of P&ID Symbols

General Instrument Symbols


Instrument Symbol

Instrument Location
Solid line: Control room panel
No line: Field
Double solid: Remote panel
Dash line: Behind panel in control room
Double dash line: Behind remote panel

A circle -- individual measurement


instruments such as transmitters,
sensors, and detectors for pressure,
temperature, flow, level

A square with a circle inside -instruments that both display


measurement readings and perform
some control function (e.g. DCS
connection and control)

A hexagon -- computer functions.

A square with a diamond -- PLC


(Programmable Logic Control)
functions.

Instrument Identification Tag Number

Instrument symbols should contain


letters and numbers.

The letters indicate the instrument


type, and the numbers identify the
control loop.

PI

PI

PI

217

217

217

Usually 2 or 3 letters are used.

Examples of Instrument #

The first letter identifies the


measured or initiating variable,
The second is a modifier,
The remaining letters identify the
function.

Normally a plant # should be


prefixed to the Tag#.

e.g. 265-PI217 (265 is a plant #)

a.
b.

c.

Pressure indicator, Loop 217,


located in the field.
Pressure indicator, Loop 217, on
control panel, located in the
control room.
Pressure indicator, Loop 217,
signal to DCS.

Instrument Identification Letters


First Letter
Measured or Initiating
Variable

Modifier

Succeeding Letters
Readout or Passive
Function

Output Function

Modifier

Users Choice

Users Choice

Analysis

Alarm

Burner, Combustion

Users Choice

Users Choice

Users Choice

Voltage

Flow Rate

Users Choice

Hand

Current

Power

Scan

Time

Time Rate of Change

Level

Users Choice

Users Choice

Users Choice

Users Choice

Orifice

Pressure, Vacuum

Test Point

Quantity

Radiation

Speed, Frequency

Temperature

Multivariable

Vibration, mechanical analysis

Weight, Force

Unclassified

x-axis

Event, State or presence

y-axis

Relay, Compute, Convert

Position, Dimension

z-axis

Driver, Actuator

Control
Differential
Sensory (Primary)
Ratio
Glass, Viewing Device
High
Indicate

Control Station
Light

Low

Momentary

Middle
Users Choice

Users Choice

Integrate, Totalize
Record
Safety

Switch
Transmit
Multifunction

Multifunction

Multifunction

Unclassified

Unclassified

Well
Unclassified

Some Combinations of Instrument Letters


PC

Pressure controller

TA

Temperature alarm

PI

Pressure indicator

TI

Temperature indicator

PT

Pressure transmitter

TR

Temperature recorder

PR

Pressure recorder

TY

Temperature I/P converter

PY

Pressure converter

TW

Temperature well

PIC

Pressure indicating controller

TIC

Temperature indicating controller

PRC

Pressure recording controller

TRC Temperature recording controller

PSV

Pressure safety valve/


Pressure relief valve

TCV

PCV

Pressure control valve

I/P: Current to Pneumatic.

Temperature control valve

Some Combinations of Instrument Letters


FA

Flow alarm

LA

Level alarm

FE

Flow element

LAH

Level alarm high

FI

Flow indicator

LAL

Level alarm low

FR

Flow recorder

LC

Level controller

FT

Flow transmitter

LG

Level glass

FY

Flow I/P converter

LI

Level indicator

FF

Flow ratio

LIC

Level indicating controller

FCV

Flow control valve

LRC Level recording controller

FRC

Flow recording controller

LCV

Level control valve

A Control Loop Example in P&ID

FT123: field-mounted flow transmitter


FIC123: panel-mounted flow indicating
controller located in a shared
control/display device
TY123: temperature I/P converter
located in an inaccessible location
TT123: filed-mounted temperature
transmitter
TIC123: field-mounted temperature
indicating controller. Its output is
connected via an internal software or
data link to the setpoint (SP) of
FIC123.
YIC123: an event indicating controller.
All inputs and outputs are wired to a
PLC accessible to the operator. YIC
typically indicates a controlled on/off
valve.

Rules of Thumb in P&ID Design

P&IDs are typically developed from PFDs, so that understanding


the designed process is a key basis for P&ID design.

P&IDs do not have a drawing scale and usually present only the
functional relationship, not the relative physical locations of
components.

P&IDs are done in a single line format that represents all piping
and ductwork as a single line regardless of size.

P&IDs should be specific to one system only, i.e. no more than one
system should be shown on a single diagram.

P&IDs should be configured such that major flow should generally


be from left to right and from top to bottom, if possible. Primary
flow paths should not suffer major changes in directions on P&IDs.

P&IDs should start simple and then be enhanced in several


revisions to address the real process by various disciplines.

Following the style from the existing P&IDs for the same client.

Line Designation (Line Number) in P&IDs

Line # is required for piping in P&IDs

Position of the line #: normally above piping lines

Different formats of line # for different companies

A line # contains the following basic information:

Plant #
Commodity symbol
Line serial #
Piping/Line size
Piping/Line class (optional)

An example: 6N1-4-CA2B
Plant 6, Nitrogen line 1, 4 pipe, piping class CA2B

Styles for Flow Direction in P&IDs


1.

Flow arrow at each turning point

2.

3.

Flow arrow at the end of each line

Flow arrow at the middle of each line

Valve Status for Bypass Lines

Its better to mark the valve status on the bypass


lines including safety relief lines:

NC Normal Closed
NO Normal Open
CSC Car Seal Closed
CSO Car Seal Open
LC Lock Closed
LO Lock Open

Relief valves need to indicate their set pressures

e.g. SET @125 PSIG

Accompanying Deliverables from P&IDs

Equipment List

Line List (Line Designation Table - LDT)

Valve List

Instrument List

Tie-In List
A Tie-in List shall be issued indicating the extent of the Vendor package battery limits
each time a P&ID issue is made starting with IFA. For plant modification, the tie-in
point is the point where from process or utility is connected in the existing systems.

Holds List
A "Holds" list must be issued each time a P&ID issue is made starting with IFD. The
"Hold" indicates where the information used as input to the P&ID is preliminary and
the item is used with risk in the downstream design.

Revision list
A Revision List defines the changes made in the design so that appropriate action
can be taken to accommodate those changes. A Revision List must accompany any
issue of P&IDs after IFH if the changes are too extensive to be distinguished in the
revision box and by clouding.
(IFA - Issued for Approval, IFD - Issued for Design, IFH - Issued for HAZOP)

As-Built P&IDs

When there are modifications done in construction,


commissioning, qualification, or at any other time after the
facility has been validated and operating, the P&ID must be
modified to indicate the latest information.

Frequently these modifications arise from construction,


post-construction, and C&Q walk-downs prior to the
system turn-over from IQ, OQ and PQ.

All changes must be processed through the Quality


Management System (QMS).

All changes on a P&ID must be bubbled, signed and dated.

Often a new revision number should be assigned to a AsBuilt P&ID.

Software for Developing P&IDs

AutoPLANT P&ID AutoCAD-based (Bentley)

PlantSpace P&ID MicroStation-based (Bentley)

SmartPlant P&ID Able to convert AutoCAD or


MicroStation based P&ID to SmartPlant P&ID
(Intergraph)

CADWorx P&ID AutoCAD-based (CodeCAD Inc.)

AutoCAD P&ID AutoCAD-based (Autodesk)

CADPIPE P&ID AutoCAD-based (AEC Design Group)

AutoFLOW AutoCAD-based (PROCAD)

HexaCAD P&ID (Hexagon Software)

AutoCAD P&ID 2007


for Developing P&IDs
1.

Industry standard P&ID symbols

2.

Dynamic process and signal lines

3.

Dynamic components

4.

Report and list generation

5.

Import and export to MS Excel

6.

Tag generation and uniqueness

7.

Search and edit using a spreadsheet interface

8.

Easy symbol creation and substitution

9.

Review and approve data edits


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