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Technology

Management and Transfer


Presented to

Prof. Dr. Samir Allam


By

Mosad Saber
Dalia Ramzy
Ashraf Sharaf
Mahmoud Abdelhameed
DBA_2nd year
The faculty of Commerce, Cairo University
December 2013

Paper adapted from referenced sources

CONTENTS
1.

PART 1: TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT .................................................................... 2

1.1
What Meant by Technology...................................................................................... 2
1.2
Definition of Management of Technology .................................................................. 3
1.3
The Importance of Managing Technology .................................................................. 4
1.4
The Process of Managing Technology ....................................................................... 4
1.4.1 Making Decisions for Managing Technology .......................................................... 5
1.4.2 Tools for Managing Technology ............................................................................ 6
1.5
Types of Technology ............................................................................................... 7
1.5.1 Product Technology ............................................................................................. 7
1.5.2 Process Technology ............................................................................................. 8
1.5.3 Information Technology ..................................................................................... 10
1.5.4 Basic Technology .............................................................................................. 13
1.5.5 Key Technology ................................................................................................ 13
1.5.6 Emerging Technology ........................................................................................ 14
2. PART 2: THE VIRTUAL TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT .......................................... 15
2.1
VR technology in product design and system design ................................................. 15
2.2
Virtual Prototyping ................................................................................................ 16
2.3
Virtual reality to create standard work environment .................................................. 16
3. PART 3: TECHNOLOGY TRANSFFER MODELS ........................................................ 17
3.1
Technology Transfer concept and Definitions ........................................................... 17
3.2
Technology Transfer across Organizations ............................................................... 19
3.2.1 Inward and Outward Technology Transfer ............................................................ 19
3.3
Case Study : P& G Technology Transfer .................................................................. 21
4. PART 4: CONCLUSION .............................................................................................. 22
5.

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................ 23

Technology Management and Transfer

1. PART 1: TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT


1.1 What Meant by Technology
According to Drejer (2000), definitions vary from very bounded definitions of
technology which include only physical hardware to very open definitions that
include software, brainware, organizational aspects of the technology and even
human skills. Since it is so difficult in practice to separate technology from the
organization and the employees, we have chosen to adapt an open definition of
technology to be the systems of hardware, human beings, and organizational
aspects that are used in the operation of the firm (Drejer, 1997). This will
include process technology and even technologies used for example production
planning, order fulfilment, and other management-related activities. For lack of
a better word, we shall refer to this third kind of technology as administrative
technologies. Furthermore, we emphasize that there are both hard and soft
aspects of technology, e.g. human skills, experiences, procedures, etc. are also
a part of our technology concept (Drejer, 1997).

Accordingly and based on previous research, the term technology is sort of


ambiguous, with various definitions and concepts. The term technology is
inherently abstract concept which is difficult to interpret, observe and evaluate
(Blomstrom and Kokko, 1998). Accordingly the term technology has been
given different definitions by previous literatures.

According to the official Wikipedia 2013; the technology is defined as the


making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques,
crafts, systems, and methods of organization, in order to solve a problem,
improve a pre-existing solution to a problem, achieve a goal, handle an applied
Technology Management and Transfer

input/output relation or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the


collection of such tools, including machinery, modifications, arrangements and
procedures. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal
species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. The term can
either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include construction
technology, medical technology, and information technology.
In addition, a few of the major definitions of technology include:
The processes used to change inputs into outputs
The application of knowledge to perform work
The theoretical and practical knowledge, skills, and artifacts that can be
used to develop products as well as their production and delivery system
The technical means people use to improve their surroundings
The application of science, especially to industrial or commercial
objectives; the entire body of methods and materials used to achieve
such objectives.
1.2 Definition of Management of Technology
One of the most commonly cited definitions of the management of technology
is defined as linking engineering, science, and management disciplines to
plan, develop, and implement technological capabilities to shape and
accomplish the strategic and operational objectives of an organization.
The major shortcoming of this definition is its lack of attention to evaluation
and control, which are required for a strategic approach to the management of
technology. Evaluation and control involve monitoring technology to ensure
that it meets the desired outcomes.
Therefore, the technology management may defined as follows: the linking of
different disciplines to plan, develop, implement, monitor, and control
technological capabilities to shape and accomplish the strategic objectives of
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an organization. This definition clearly recognizes the role of evaluation and


control that many other definitions have omitted.
1.3 The Importance of Managing Technology
Now that we have defined technology and its management, what will actually
be needed to build an understanding of how to do these activities? The
National Task Force (NTF) on Technology has listed five specific reasons
individuals and organizations should be concerned about the management of
technology. These reasons are as follows:
1. The rapid pace of technological change demands a cross- discipline
approach if economic development is to occur in an effective and efficient
manner to take advantage of technological opportunities.
2. The rapid pace of technological development and the increasing
sophistication of consumers have shortened product life cycles. The result
of these factors is a need for organizations to be more proactive in the
management of technology.
3. There is a need to cut product development times as well as to develop
more flexibility in organizations. The lead-time from idea to market is
being reduced by the emergence of new or altered technologies.
4. Increasing international competition demands that organizations must
maximize competitiveness by effectively using new technologies.
5. As technology changes, the tools of management must change, but the
process of determining what those new tools should be is in its infancy.
1.4 The Process of Managing Technology
The range of tools and issues that a firm must examine through the
strategic perspective can be broad. To illustrate, consider the example of the
iBOT, a new type of wheelchair that has been developed. The wheelchair has
been in existence for more than 100 years, with very little change in its
Technology Management and Transfer

fundamental design. Wheelchair designs have historically confined their use to


relatively flat and smooth surfaces. However, Dean Kamen, the inventor of the
iBOT, saw how difficult it was for someone to handle a wheelchair in settings
that were not flat, such as on stairs. So he went looking for a new solution.
However, rather than thinking of a wheelchair traditionally, he sought to build
a chair that could stand up and balance like a human. The end result would be
a wheelchair that could carry a person up and down stairs.
The development of the iBOT illustrates the role of various elements in the
firm needing to work together for success. For example, the iBOT shows the
need for a new approach and philosophy so that the problem could be attacked
in a different way. Thus, it allows individuals in wheelchairs to roll across sand
or stand to get products off the top shelf in their home or the grocery store.
This case demonstrates the need not only for engineers to design the product
but also for financial experts to underwrite the costs and marketing personnel
to test the product.

The development of this product took substantial funds and investment.


Marketing was also critical to the actual acceptance of the product. While the
$29,000 cost per unit is high and its cost could be offset by the normal cost
associated with modifying a house to meet the needs of a person who uses a
wheelchair, it requires marketing to educate individuals about this benefit.
Thus, it not only took the vision of one person to see a different solution, but it
took an entire organization to develop the product. A full range of tools need to
be considered when examining the management of technology.
1.4.1 Making Decisions for Managing Technology
There are key decisions that need to be made as businesses and managers seek to manage technology. These decisions initially focus on the
Technology Management and Transfer

strategic posture the firm wants to assume. For example, the firm must
determine if it wants to be a leader or follower in its industry. There are
benefits to both, but the choice will result in the firm taking radically different
steps and developing different processes and structures. The firm must also
determine whether it will develop its own new technology or buy the
technology. Again, each of these strategic approaches has benefits and
drawbacks that will be detailed later, but the firm needs to weigh these pluses
and minuses for itself. The strategic decisions do not stop there. The firm will
also have to determine the scope of products it wants to offer.

A key element in this determination is how it can leverage its


technology and innovations to create a total platform of products and
processes. The firm must also determine the scale of products, how it will price
the products, where it will market the products, and where it will manufacture
the products. The firm needs to actively determine each of these issues. If the
business responds in a reactive, piecemeal manner to the competition rather
than actively determining its direction, the performance of the business will
suffer. This book will examine the full range of issues with questions and key
concerns for each provided throughout this book to help build an
understanding about the many decisions managers must consider. The answers
to the questions and the review of relevant concerns will help identify the tools
that need to be employed in the decision-making processes associated with the
management of technology.
1.4.2 Tools for Managing Technology
This perspective on the role of technology in the firm means that the
specific tools necessary to properly manage technology can be very broad. Too
often, managers of technology assume that, since the technology is interesting
Technology Management and Transfer

or attractive to them, it will be demanded by the consumer. However, for


success, the manager does more than rely on his or her own judgment about
the viability of the product. Instead, the manager needs to do things such as:
Analyze the industry structure both domestically and internationally
Understand the firms capabilities and those of its competitors
Conduct a financial analysis of the product and firm
Forecast future changes
1.5 Types of Technology
There are two perspectives to classify technology types, the first one includes
product technology, process technology and information technology. The
second perspective includes basic technology, key technology and emerging
technology. The following paragraphs will demonstrate each type as well.
1.5.1 Product Technology
A product technology becomes a scientific discipline that covers the area of
product design and engineering. The product technology may defined as the
science and art of developing and producing performance products to meet
the demands and requirements of people and achieves this by adding value
to materials by improving existing and designing new products.
Market, imagination and structured innovation are the key elements in the
steps required to develop new products. So product design and development
is strongly market oriented and the relation to the market is usually much
more direct and intensive than with specification or mass products.
In industry, a apparent difference can be observed between large or
specification products and performance products that show a large variety
and that are produced because of the specific functionality requirements of
the market.
Technology Management and Transfer

The main elements of product technology are structured as production


plant design and operation, strategies for product development, R&D and
teaching of product technology.
The technology involves many stakeholders in product design starting
from conceptual design phase to detailed design and manufacturing so
expertise people, market researchers, process engineers, designers, R&D
etc. are involved in the product development. There are many differences
between the various technologies and products, these differences may be
classified according to the following:
Performance characteristics
shape and structure
Complexity of composition
process(es) to produce the product
1.5.2 Process Technology
Any mechanism that helps to fold product line properties into an
automated tool can be thought of as process technology.

An example of

such a tool is the CM tool for product lines. The tool provides for the
incorporation of product line information in the form of constraints,
dependencies, responsibilities, propagation of changes, and so on. The
challenge is to understand: what is the space for tool support/automation,
and what are the general mechanisms for incorporating product line
properties. The more tools that incorporate such product line knowledge,
the better. On the other hand, tooling up for product lines can be expensive,
as the Shuttle software experience has shown. Even more generally,
incorporating into tools knowledge about any product, individually or as
part of a product line, offers significant leverage. Incorporation of such
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knowledge also impacts infrastructure components that percolate into


process technology, such as object management. For example, software
product representation can be serverized to support requests for product
information and state.

However, this serverization may need to be

specialized based on characteristics of specific products, for example to


support optimization of queries or constraint enforcement. Any technology
that helps or enables the enactment of a process is a kind of process
technology. Examples include agenda managers, workflow managers,
animators, and help systems. Other examples are not traditionally thought
of as process technology; consider generators, or model management tools
(that detect inconsistency and incompleteness between separate views of a
system). Any use of a tool is an example of automating a part of a process.
Enactment support is not an all-or-nothing proposition. It is possible to
support process enactment with a whole variety of tools, and never get to
complete automation. Conversely, complete automation may be a more
achievable goal in the case of product lines than in the general case.
However, the problem of interoperation of tools is significant; on the one
hand, integrating independent tools is difficult; on the other hand, an
integrated toolset without a process is useless.
Manual

Automatic

The technology level in process automation varies from full manual to


full automation scale. At the level of moderate to high automation; the
processes Flexible Manufacturing Technology (FMT) which involves
changing easily from product to another, Auto Storage and Retrieval
System (ASRS), Auto Guided Vehicle System (AGVS) and Automated
Technology Management and Transfer

Identification System (AIS) are presented.


The management of process technology is critical to firm strategy, The
twenty-first centurys automated decision-making systems bring huge
change to the modern state that last centurys procedural structures cannot
manage. In the past, computer systems helped people apply rules to
individual cases. Now, automated systems have become the primary
decision makers. On the other hand the automation radically reduces the
human role in executing government policy and programs, state can cut
staff and close field offices which increase the unemployment.
1.5.3 Information Technology
Information Technology ( IT ) involves the processing of information by
a computer. Usually this means the use of hardware, software, services, and
the supporting infrastructure to manage, receive and deliver information. IT
has changed rapidly our daily personal lives radically over recent years - the
use of mobile phones to make calls and send text messages, the use of
websites to book cheap flights and the use of ATM machines for banking
are all an integral part our society today.
Obviously, the business environment has been hugely impacted by these
developments and practically every company has had to adapt IT in some
form in order to compete effectively. eBusiness is one application of IT to
business processes; i.e. the process of doing business with trading partners
electronically. This includes, for example, processing business transactions
electronically, integrating business processes electronically and transferring
payments electronically and delivering services electronically.
There are many components for IT system, these components may be
represented in brief as follow:
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Hardware
Hardware can be defined as IT-related machinery and equipment - if you can
fall over it, its hardware! This would include physical machines such as CNC
machines, personal computers (PC's), storage devices (such as CD's) and
cables etc. In order to operate however, a computer uses software - hardware
and software are interdependent.
Software
Software can be defined as the set of instructions for the computer - it dictates
what is to be done. Software runs on (i.e. operates on) hardware. A set of
instructions that undertakes a particular requirement or task is known as a
"program." The two major categories of software are "system software" and
"application software." System software is made up of control programs for the
computer itself, such as the operating system and database management system
(DBMS). Application software is any program that processes data for the user
(e.g. Accounts receivable, inventory, payroll, spreadsheets, word processors,
etc.).
Networks
A network is a group or a number of people or things linked or connected
together, either physically or by association. A Local Area Network (LAN) is
common in business and it serves users within a confined geographical area.
Networking an office involves each individual piece of hardware and software
- for example your PC's, printers, fax machine, scanner and phone connectionto be networked together to pass and share information. Although networking
is traditionally done by physical cabling some LANs run on radio links without
the need for cabling, in much the same way as cordless phones have removed

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the need to be dragging a long telephone line behind you - you can talk and
move around at the same time.
Virtual private network
A Virtual Private Network (VPN) may utilize your existing network and public
networks such as the Internet. With the remote connection established, the user
has access to everything that is normally available when sitting at the desk.
IT tradeoff in business
IT can give your company a significant competitive advantage; the other side
is that if you fail to embrace technology in your business, your competitors
will get ahead. Moreover, an eBusiness approach consolidates a company's
position in the market, opening up new business opportunities and improving
profit margins.
eBusiness offers a reliable, cost effective and involuntary means of
doing business
More players will enter the market as technology enables firms to
penetrate overseas; this represents both an opportunity and a threat.
New technologies can change the face of your business; look at the Irish
airline industry and consider how the internet has changed the entire
business model in this market.
Information Technology can give companies a competitive advantage.
However, this can mean that customers, suppliers, contractors, and
business partners are routinely allowed access to critical business data
and to the systems that process and store the information.

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1.5.4 Basic Technology


Basically, it is the technology without it the input materials will not processed
to output. According to Kumar et. al (1999) technology consists of

two

primary components:
1) A physical component which comprises of items such as products,
tooling, equipments, blueprints, techniques, and processes; and
2) The informational component which consists of know-how in
management, marketing, production, quality control, reliability, skilled
labor and functional areas.
The earlier definition by Sahal (1981) views technology as configuration,
observing that the transfer object (the technology) relies on a subjectively
determined but specifiable set of processes and products.
Technology as the intangible assets of the firm is rooted in the firms routines
and is not easy to transfer due to the gradual learning process and higher cost
associated with transferring tacit knowledge (Rodasevic,1999). Valuable
technological knowledge which is the intangible assets of the firm is never
easily transferred from one firm to another because the technological learning
process is needed to assimilate and internalized the transferred technology
(Lin,2003).
1.5.5 Key Technology
According to Maskus ( 2003 ) refer to The information necessary to
achieve a certain production outcome from a particular means of combining or
processing selected inputs which include production processes, intra-firm
organizational structures, management techniques, and means of finance,
marketing method or any of its combination. Technology may be codified in
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formulas, blueprints, drawings, and patent applications or uncodified in the


sense of requiring implicit know-how on the part of personnel.
Tihanyi and Roath ( 2002 ) show that Information such as a patent, knowhow or trade secrets. Conversely, it can be modified as equipment, component
assemblies/parts or as a final product. Production techniques/processes, which
require necessary skills to apply different methods of production, represent a
combination of tangible and intangible technology. Technology can also
include information that is not easily reproducible or transferable.
1.5.6 Emerging Technology
Future and Emerging Technologies (FET) fosters exploratory research to
open up new avenues across the full breadth of future information and
communication technologies. It supports new and alternative ideas, concepts or
paradigms of risky or non-conventional nature. Future and Emerging
Technologies (FET) aims to go beyond the conventional boundaries of ICT
and ventures into uncharted areas, often inspired by and in close collaboration
with other scientific disciplines.
Future and Emerging Technologies Proactive provides targeted support to
selected promising domains where critical mass needs to be built up, aligned
with economic and social challenges and priorities that call for long-term
foundational and transformative research.

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2. PART 2: THE VIRTUAL TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT


Considering the computer system, Burdea and Coiffet (2003) divide VR
technology into input devices (e.g., trackers, navigation, and gesture interfaces)
and output devices (e.g., graphics, sound, and haptic displays). Thus, from the
human point of view, input devices are activated from user action (e.g., head
motion, body motion, and voice) and output devices activate human senses
(e.g., visual, aural, tactile, proprioceptive).
VR technology defined from these two flows of information between human
and computer. The more inputs and outputs are complete, the greater the
system is immersive. According to Steuer (1992), immersion is also defined by
its breadth (e.g., multiple sensory modalities stimulated) and depth (e.g.,
resolution with respect to vision). The greater the breadth and depth, the more
immersive is VR. Thus, in VR there is no clear separation between immersive
or not immersive. Nonetheless, for practical reasons, we will use the Gutirrez,
Vexo, and Thalmann (2008) classification of non-immersive, semi-immersive,
and fully immersive.
2.1 VR technology in product design and system design
Virtual reality may play very significant role in designing a new
product. VR technology has been applied into two different applications in
design; design and prototyping VR provides a virtual environment for the
designers in the conceptual design stage of designing a new product; the
designer could produce 3D sketch of a product in the virtual environment. At
this stage, functional experimentation of mechanical features such as hinges,
assembly, etc. could be performed to evaluate the conceptual design and
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modifications could be made as required.

2.2 Virtual Prototyping


Once the designers are satisfied with their design, then the design could
be detailed to make the necessary modifications. In the product development
process, prototyping is an essential step. Prototypes represent important
features of a product, which are to be investigated, evaluated, and improved.
Virtual prototyping could be used before building the physical prototype to
prove design alternatives, to do engineering analysis, manufacturing planning,
support management decisions, and to get feedback on a new product from
prospective customers.
2.3 Virtual reality to create standard work environment
The virtual environment for prototyping should include.
a) Functionality: the virtual prototype should be clearly defined and
realistically simulated to address product functionality and dynamic
behavior.
b) Human interaction: the human functions involved must be realistically
simulated, or the human must be included in the simulation.
c) Environment: an offline computer simulation of the functions can be
carried out, or a combination of computer offline and real time
simulation can be carried out.

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3. PART 3: TECHNOLOGY TRANSFFER MODELS


3.1 Technology Transfer concept and Definitions
The technology transfer concept is not only concern about the transfer of
technological knowledge or information but also the technology recipients
capability to learn and absorb technology into the production function
(Maskus, 2003).
Baranson (1970) defines technology transfer as transmission of knowhow (knowledge) which enable the recipient enterprise to manufacture a
particular product or provide a specific service. As compared to the sale of
machinery and equipment, the transfer of technology requires a sustained
relationship between two enterprises over a period of time to enable the
receiving enterprise to produce the product with the desired level of quality
standards and cost efficiency (Reddy and Zhoa, 1990).
The current studies on the technology transfer have connected
technology directly with knowledge and more attention is given to the process
of research and development (Dunning, 1994).
Reddy and Zhoa (1990) argue that the early concept of technology
contradicts with a strand of literatures on international technology transfer
which holds that technology is conceived as firm-specific information
concerning the characteristics and performance properties of the production
process and product design. They further argue that the production process or
operation technology is embodied in the equipment or the means to produce a
defined product. Pavitt (1985) suggests that technology is mainly differentiated
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knowledge about specific application, tacit, often uncodified and largely


cumulative within firms. Thus, based on this argument, technology is regarded
as the firms intangible assets or firm-specific which forms the basis of a
firms competitiveness and will generally release under special condition
(Dunning, 1981). Tihanyi and Roath (2002) propose that technology can
include information that is not easily reproducible and transferable.
Based on this argument technology is seen as tacit knowledge (Polanyi,
1967) or firm-specific, secrets or knowledge known by one organization
(Nonaka, 1994).
Technology as the intangible assets of the firm is rooted in the firms routines
and is not easy to transfer due to the gradual learning process and higher cost
associated with transferring tacit knowledge (Rodasevic,1999).
Hoffman and Girvan (1990) argue that technology transfer needs to be
perceived in terms of achieving three core objectives:
1) The introduction of new techniques by means of investment of new plants;
(2) The improvement of existing techniques and
(3) The generation of new knowledge.
It involves the process how an organization or a country transfers
scientific or technological achievements, new uses for technology, designs, and
the technical knowledge that can be used in production (Chun 2007).
Technology can also be transferred from one place to another or from a
university to an enterprise (Solo and Rogers, 1972). The process that involves
does not only concern about the transmission of knowledge but it is also relate
to a learning process where technological knowledge is continually
accumulated into human resources that are engaged in production activities. A
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successful technology transfer will eventually lead to a deeper and wider


accumulation of knowledge (Shiowattana, 1991).
Das (1987) argues that technology transfer can be of two types:
1) Production of new product (product or embodied technology transfer); and
2) More efficient production of existing products (process or disembodied
technology transfer).
Both technology and knowledge transfer are inseparable because when a
technological product is transferred or diffused the knowledge upon which its
composition is based is also transferred (Bozeman, 2000).
In his study on the effectiveness of technology transfer in China, Li-Hua
(2006) indicates that the technology will not occur without knowledge transfer
as knowledge is the key to control technology. Simonin (1999b), in the study
of transfer of marketing know-how in strategic alliance, suggests that study on
knowledge transfer turn almost invariably to technology transfer when
empirical investigation is in order. Studies have shown that the tendency of the
current studies have connected technology directly with knowledge (Dunning,
1994).
3.2 Technology Transfer across Organizations
Manufacturing companies are nowadays adopting the open innovation
approach, where the approach of limiting innovations related activities
internally, is replaced by actively collaborating with external partners
throughout the innovation process.
3.2.1 Inward and Outward Technology Transfer
Technology transfer may be achieved in two ways, One way is when
firms acquire technology from external sources and complement their internal
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R&D by the active acquisition of external knowledge, which leads to


substantial inbound technology transfer. Like in case of strategic alliance
created in order to gain access to external technology. The other way is when
firms exploit their own technology in outbound open innovation processes.
Accordingly, companies complement their internal product development
activities by the active commercialization of knowledge, which results in
outbound technology transfer. e.g. technology licensing agreement to generate
additional income. In addition, firms can combine inbound and outbound open
innovation in coupled processes.
For inward technology transfer, firms need to develop absorptive
capacity, which refers to a firms ability to acquire and utilize external
knowledge. In the mean time, firms also need to obtain or develop desorptive
capacity, which refers to a firms outward technology transfer capability.
Whereas, the two types of inter-organizational technology transfer form a
major managerial challenge, especially for the outward transfer of particular
technology, such as core technology, as it is usually weakening the competitive
edge of the organization. (passive external technology transfer strategies).
Sometimes due to high transaction costs in technology markets, or due to
difficulties in identifying a suitable technology transfer partner. Most interorganizational technology transfers are primarily one-way transactions, i.e.,
they involve one firm that is mainly the technology source and another firm
that is the technology recipient. Accordingly, the technology flow occurs
primarily in one direction although a very limited amount of knowledge may
flow in the opposite direction. In these technology transfers, the technology
recipient needs sufficient absorptive capacity, and the technology source needs
sufficient desorptive capacity. In contrast, some technology transactions are
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specifically directed at mutual technology transfer. An example is the recent


cross-licensing agreement between Microsoft and Panasonic. This agreemen
was established at the beginning of 2010, and it binds each firm to transfer
some of its technology to the other company. In these situations, both firms
will need to rely on their absorptive and desorptive capacity.
However, that open innovation approach is not always successful, as some
firms do not achieve adequate profitability by adopting it. So, the technology
transfer performance whether inward or outward varies from an organization to
the other.

3.3 Case Study : P& G Technology Transfer


About 50 percent of Procter & Gambles (P&G) new product
development projects involve key ideas from external sources through
technology transfer strategy. In the meantime P&G also pursues an active
licensing strategy that helps it generate high revenues.
With regard to outbound technology transfer, Procter & Gamble also pursues
an active licensing strategy,

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4. PART 4: CONCLUSION
Both technology and technology transfer concepts encompass many
different interpretations and views depending on the organizations objectives.
Although we can see technology benefits from different perspective, the
organizations should focus on their competitive edge.
The performance of technology transfer inward or outward depends on several
factors related to the partners technology transfer capabilities. First, the
technology sources overall desorptive capacity and the technology recipients
overall absorptive capacity provide an appropriate basis for transferring
technology. Second, the technology sources partner-specic desorptive
capacity and the technology recipients partner-specic absorptive capacity
affect the particular technology transfer process. Third, there may be important
interdependencies between absorptive and desorptive capacity at an overall
level and at a partner- specic level. These interdependencies between inward
and outward technology transfer have been relatively neglected. However, they
may lead to potential synergies that may be achieved by combining strong
desorptive capacity of the technology source with strong absorptive capacity of
the technology recipient. In sum, these three factors will enhance the
likelihood of achieving a successful technology transfer. While these
arguments have focused on technology transfer between two rms, the logic
can easily be extended to networks of more than two partners.

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5. REFERENCES
Anders Drejer, (2000) "Integrating product and technology development",
European Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 3 Iss: 3, pp.125 136
Drejer, A. (1997), ``Management of technology in a complex world'',
International Journal of Materials and Product Technology , Vol. 12 Nos 4-6.
A. White and D. Bruton (2007) The Management of Technology and
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