52 views

Uploaded by Shandy Nugraha

pembahasan

- aljabar abstrak
- Struktur Aljabar
- PD Parsial Dgn Laplace
- Laplace Transforms
- INTERVENMTION AND BEST PRACTICES.docx
- v
- Math3175F12E1Sols
- Group introdução
- tmp48DC.tmp
- 2014-fall-122-hmwk-solutions-01-04
- Recent Trends in Mathematics
- abstract algebra - Let G be a nonabelian group of order $p^3$, where $p$ is a prime number. Prove that the center of $G$ is of order $p$
- F16M350Final
- Quickref - The Sage Development Team
- Abstract Algebra LET Review Aug 2015
- 38soln
- Math Analysis Homework
- sol12
- General Math DLL for SHS - (more dll at www.depedtambayanph.net)) Q1, Week 03.xlsx
- 1-s2.0-S0550321315002436-main

You are on page 1of 5

Homomorphisms

Up to now, we have been discussing the groups and their structure. Now we turn to the

discussion of functions from one group to another, which respect the group structure.

These functions are called homomorphisms.

9.1

(ab) = (a)(b)

(9.1)

for all a, b G.

Remark.

1. Note that in the l.h.s. of (9.1), the product ab is taken in G, whereas in the

r.h.s. the product (a)(b) is taken in G .

2. Clearly, an isomorphism between two groups is a special example of a homomorphism.

3. For any groups G and G there is always at least one homomorphism : G G ,

namely the trivial homomorphism dened by (g) = e for all g G, where e is the

identity in G . Equation (9.1) then reduces to the true equation e e = e .

Example 9.2.

1. Consider the groups C and R+ under multiplication and the map

: C R+ given by (z) = |z|. Since |z1 z2 | = |z1 | |z2 |, the equation (9.1) is

satised and is a homomorphism.

2. Consider R under addition and the group U of complex numbers z with |z| = 1 under

multiplication. Let : R U be the map (x) = ei2x . Since

(x + y) = ei2(x+y) = ei2x ei2y = (x)(y),

is a homomorphism.

3. Let F (R) be the group of all functions g : R R under addition. Consider the

mapping of F (R) to R under addition, dened by (g) = g(0) for any g F (R).

Recall that, by denition, the sum of two functions f and g is the function f + g

whose value at x is f (x) + g(x). Thus we have

(f + g) = (f + g)(0) = f (0) + g(0) = (f ) + (g),

and (9.1) is satised, so is a homomorphism.

4. Consider the group GL(n, R). Recall that for matrices A, B GL(n, R) we have

det(AB) = det A det B.

This means that det is a homomorphism from GL(n, R) to R under multiplication.

35

we have

r (m + n) = r(m + n) = rm + rn = (m) + (n),

so r is a homomorphism. Note that 0 is the trivial homomorphism, 1 is the identity

map, and 1 maps Z onto Z. For all other r Z, the map r is not onto Z.

6. Fix n N. Let : Z Zn be the map given by (m) = r, where r is the remainder

when m is divided by n. Let us show that is a homomorphism. We need to show

that

(s + t) = (s)(t),

where is addition modulo n (i.e., the group operation in Zn ). Dividing s and t by

n, we get

s = q1 n + r 1 ,

t = q2 n + r 2 ,

0 r1 < n,

0 r2 < n.

r 1 + r 2 = q3 n + r 3 ,

0 r3 < n.

(9.2)

Thus,

s + t = (q1 + q2 + q3 )n + r3 ,

and so (s + t) = r3 . On the other hand, equation (9.2) shows that (s)(t) = r3 .

7. Let G1 and G2 be groups. It is easy to see that the map f : G1 G2 G1 ,

f : (g1 , g2 ) g1 , is a homomorphism, called projection homomorphism.

9.2

Properties of homomorphisms

(i) If e is the identity in G, then (e) is the identity e in G .

(ii) If a G, then (a1 ) = (a)1 .

Recall that we have already proven this fact for isomorphisms (Theorem 4.5). The proof

below repeats word for word the proof of Theorem 4.5.

Proof. (i) For any a G, one has

(a)e = (a) = (ae) = (a)(e).

Using the cancellation rule, we get e = (e).

(ii) For any a G, one has

e = (e) = (aa1 ) = (a)(a1 ),

e = (e) = (a1 a) = (a1 )(a).

This shows that (a1 ) = (a)1 .

36

Next, we recall the denition of an image of a set. Let A and B be any two sets, and

f : A B be a mapping.

For S A, f [S] = {y B | x S such that y = f (x)} is the image of S.

Theorem 9.4. Let be a homomorphism of a group G into a group G . If H is a subgroup

in G, then [H] is a subgroup of G .

Proof. Consider the set [H]. We shall check the two conditions of Theorem 3.7. In order to

check that [H] is closed under the group operation, let (a) and (b) be any two elements

of [H] and consider their product: (a)(b) = (ab). So we see that their product is in

[H], and thus [H] is closed under the group operation.

Next, for any (a) [H], by Theorem 9.3(ii), one has (a)1 = (a1 ) [H].

Corollary 9.5. Let be a homomorphism of a group G into a group G .

(i) The image [G] of G is a subgroup of G .

(ii) If |G | is nite, then |[G]| is nite and is a divisor of |G |.

Proof. (i) follows from Theorem 9.4(i) with H = G. (ii) follows from (i) by the Theorem

of Lagrange.

9.3

First recall the denition of a pre-image (another term is inverse image) of an element

of a set. Let A and B be any two sets, and f : A B be a mapping. For y B,

f 1 (y) = {x A | f (x) = y} is the pre-image of y.

Let be a homomorphism of a group G into a group G , and let e be the identity in

G . The set 1 (e ) plays a very important role for the homomorphism and has a special

name.

Denition 9.6. Let be a homomorphism of a group G into a group G and e be the

identity in G . The set 1 (e ) = {x G | (x) = e } is called a kernel of , denoted by

Ker().

The kernel of a homomorphism : G G is always non-empty: by Theorem 9.3(i),

the identity of G is always in Ker .

Example 9.7.

1. Consider the groups C and R+ under multiplication and the homomorphism : C R+ given by (z) = |z|. The kernel of is the subgroup U of all

z such that |z| = 1.

2. Consider the group R under addition and the homomorphism : R U given by

(x) = ei2x . The kernel of is the subgroup Z of R.

3. Let F (R) be the group of all functions g : R R under addition. Let : F (R) R

be the homomorphism dened by (g) = g(0) for any g F (R). The kernel of is

the subgroup of all g such that g(0) = 0.

37

Theorem 9.8. Let be a homomorphism of a group G into a group G , and let e be the

identity in G . Then the kernel H = Ker() is a normal subgroup of G. For any a G,

one has

1 ((a)) = {x G | (x) = (a)} = aH.

(9.3)

Note that the rst equality in (9.3) is simply the denition of the set 1 ((a)), whereas

the second one is a statement.

Proof. 1. Let us check that H is a subgroup. We shall check the two conditions of Theorem 3.7.

First, suppose a and b are in H, i.e., (a) = (b) = e . Then (ab) = (a)(b) = e e = e

and so ab H.

Next, if a H, then, by Theorem 9.3(ii), (a1 ) = ((a))1 = e 1 = e , and so e H.

2. In order to prove (9.3), let us prove the two inclusions

aH 1 ((a)),

1 ((a)) aH.

(9.4)

For the rst one, suppose that g aH, i.e., g = ah with h H. Then

(g) = (ah) = (a)(h) = (a)e = (a)

and so g 1 ((a)). For the second inclusion, suppose that g 1 ((a)), i.e., (g) =

(a). Then

e = ((a))1 (g) = (a1 g)

and so a1 g = h H. Thus, g = ah and so g aH.

3. Similarly, to (9.4), one proves the inclusions

Ha 1 ((a)),

1 ((a)) Ha.

(9.5)

Corollary 9.9. A group homomorphism : G G is a one-to-one map if and only if

Ker() = {e}.

Proof. If Ker() = {e}, then the elements mapped into (a) are precisely the elements of

the left coset a{e} = {a}, which shows that is one-to-one.

Conversely, suppose is one-to-one. By Theorem 9.3(i), we know that (e) = e . Since

is one-to-one, we see that e is the only element mapped into e by , so Ker() = {e}.

Example 9.10.

1. Consider the homomorphism det : GL(n, R) R . The kernel of

det is the set of all matrices A GL(n, R) such that det A = 1. This set is called

special linear group and denoted by SL(n, R). Theorem 9.8 states that SL(n, R) is a

normal subgroup of GL(n, R).

2. Consider the complex-valued version of the previous example. Consider the homomorphism det : GL(n, C) C . The kernel of det is the subgroup SL(n, C),

consisting of all matrices of GL(n, C) with determinant equal to 1. Theorem 9.8

states that SL(n, C) is a normal subgroup of GL(n, C).

38

Z. The kernel of is {0}; thus, is one-to-one, which is easy to see straightforwardly.

4. Fix n N. Let n : Z Zn be the homomorphism given by n (m) = r, where r

is the remainder when m is divided by n. The kernel of n consists of all m evenly

divided by n. Thus, Ker(n ) = nZ.

5. Let G1 and G2 be groups and let e1 be the identity in G1 . Consider the homomorphism

f : G1 G2 G1 , f : (g1 , g2 ) g1 . The kernel of f is H = {(e1 , g2 ) | g2 G2 }.

Theorem 9.8 states that H is a normal subgroup of G1 G2 . We are already familiar

with this fact.

39

- aljabar abstrakUploaded byAri Bintang
- Struktur AljabarUploaded byArisBudiWibowo
- PD Parsial Dgn LaplaceUploaded byindrayanapratama
- Laplace TransformsUploaded byAjie Raharjo
- INTERVENMTION AND BEST PRACTICES.docxUploaded byDianne Medianero
- vUploaded byVYELLAREDDY
- Math3175F12E1SolsUploaded byDavid Doan
- Group introduçãoUploaded byarantheo
- 2014-fall-122-hmwk-solutions-01-04Uploaded byMorvaridYi
- tmp48DC.tmpUploaded byFrontiers
- Recent Trends in MathematicsUploaded bySandi
- abstract algebra - Let G be a nonabelian group of order $p^3$, where $p$ is a prime number. Prove that the center of $G$ is of order $p$Uploaded byLaura Vanessa Negrete
- F16M350FinalUploaded byMathew Davies
- Quickref - The Sage Development TeamUploaded bydasnetz
- Abstract Algebra LET Review Aug 2015Uploaded byJester Inga-an
- 38solnUploaded byoscura
- Math Analysis HomeworkUploaded byJoshua Mendez
- sol12Uploaded byJulio César Galindo
- General Math DLL for SHS - (more dll at www.depedtambayanph.net)) Q1, Week 03.xlsxUploaded byIreneRoseMotas
- 1-s2.0-S0550321315002436-mainUploaded byHassan Raza
- Seven Smarandache-Coman sequences of primesUploaded byMia Amalia
- 2 Distributive LatticesUploaded byAravind Kumar
- Introduction Small Divisors 0009232v1Uploaded byst_marmi
- Minis AtUploaded bymhenley8059
- Handouts 2010 DmUploaded byMurtaza Kolsawala

- Explicit ImplicitUploaded bySachin Khandare
- Multi Linear Algebra PDFUploaded byImraans
- AA11Uploaded bytonynugan
- Notes LiveUploaded byAmir Kumar
- Some Properties of Semidirect ProductsUploaded byDuc Quang
- Lie Algebra: A beginner's approachUploaded byBen
- ProblemsUploaded byDhilip Prabakaran
- 323 f09 Pracprobs SolUploaded byTarun Pal
- m331Lab8solUploaded byTarun Pal
- Superfast alghorithm monothonicUploaded byM0n3
- Artin Algebra CheatSheetUploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- KernelUploaded byAlexey Grabarnik
- Quinlan_Galois Theory and Linear AlgebraUploaded byGelfanduss
- Fields and Galois Theory - MilneUploaded bymiguel7788888
- Allen Altman Steven Kleiman - A Term of Commutative AlgebraUploaded byAnonymous j6r5KRtrH2
- Grothendieck, Jacob P. Murre-The Tame Fundamental Group of a Formal Neighbourhood of a Divisor With Normal Crossings on a SchemeUploaded byconrado
- groupUploaded byapi-26870484
- Measure Theory 3: Measure Algebras - D.H. FremlinUploaded byPaulo Henrique Macedo
- TIFR pamphlet on Algebraic TopologyUploaded byRAMJAN
- Atiyah McDonald Commutative AlgebraUploaded byCesar Gomez
- ComAlg4Uploaded bysticker592
- Glossary of TopologyUploaded bymars
- ConvolutionUploaded byMohd Norisman Hussin
- HW04 Columbia Modern Algebra 1Uploaded byCecilia Wang
- ch02Uploaded byngjika
- Www.math.Mcgill.ca Goren MATH371.2014 MATH371notesUploaded byJohannesBrustle
- MATEMATICKI RECNIKUploaded byAleksa Aki Lazarevic
- eca5.pdfUploaded byTrần Lê Quyền
- An Abstract Algebra StoryUploaded byzepapi
- math6310notes.pdfUploaded byJeoff Libo-on