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Educational research

refers to a variety of methods,[1][2][3] in which individuals evaluate different aspects of education


including: student learning, teaching methods, teacher training, and classroom dynamics.[4]

Qualitative research is a method of inquiry employed in many different academic disciplines,


traditionally in the social sciences, but also in market research and further contexts.[1] Qualitative
researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that
govern such behavior.

In sociology, quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of social


phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques.[1] The objective of
quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and/or hypotheses
pertaining to phenomena. The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because
it provides the fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical
expression of quantitative relationships. Qualitative research, on the other hand, asks broad
questions and collects word data from participants. The researcher looks for themes and
describes the information in themes and patterns exclusive to that set of participants

Data Collection

Data collection Definition: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from
various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and
electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.

Analysis of data is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data with the
goal of discovering useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision making.
Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a
variety of names, in different business, science, and social science domains.
Linguistic research ?

linguistic area
noun Linguistics .
a geographical area in which several languages sharing common features are spoken.

Macam-macam penelitian
Kinds of research
1. quantitative research
Quantitative research is based on the philosophy of positivism that emphasizes phenomena
objectively and quantitatively assessed. There are several research methods that can be
incorporated into a quantitative research that is noneksperimental, ie methods: descriptive,
survey, exposure facto, comparative, correlational and action research.
2. Experimental quantitative research
Experimental research is a quantitative study that Palin pure, because all the principles and rules
of quantitative research can be applied to this method.
3. Qualitative Research
Qualitative research (qualitative research) is a research aimed at describing and analyzing
phenomena, events, social activities, attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, thoughts of people
individually or in groups.

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(a) reducing the data (such as by simplifying complex data, with mengektrak recurring theme with
coding), (b) displays the data (like in the matrix, charts, or graphs), and (c) draw conclusions (explaining
the findings). This process would not be separated from the process of sensemaking, for that belongs to
the meaning of the data.

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general framework of the research (especially research with quantitative approach consists of the
following components:
A. Title of Research
Good research title reflects the relationship between the variables to be studied. The title does not need
to elaborate because the particulars relating to title section can be given that addresses the scope of the
problem.
B. Background
Background which is used in the proposed research is needed so that people can understand the context
or environment, the factors relating to the issues to be studied
C. Problem
The research problem should inquire the linkages between the variables to be studied, both for research
that is descriptive / ex post facto and the experimental.
D. Destination
In summary it can be said that the purpose of the study was to look for empirical information, objective,
logical about something or determine the relationship between the variables in question.
E. Framework Theory, Research and Relevant Mindset.
Every scientist in the habit of reading and reviewing the literature in the field.
F. Hypothesis
Hypothesis is the presumption or assumption should be tested through the data or facts obtained
through research.
G. Identification and Definition of Variables
Variables can be defined as a totality of symptoms or an object of observation to be studied.
H. Research Design
Draft (design) essentially covers the content and scope of abstraction (the design is the content and
scope of the study).
I. Selection and Development Tools Data Collectors
Quality data collection tool will determine the quality of data obtained, and will ultimately determine
the quality of the results of a study.

H. Draft Sampling
Since the beginning of the researcher should determine the research population. He therefore had to
define the population that people know where these results can be generalized
I. Analysis
If we will conduct quantitative research we should be able to understand and use certain formulas that
are often required for data processing
. Interpretation of Research Results
An analysis of the results tend to still factual, that means must be given meaning by the researcher. The
results compared with the research hypothesis, matched with univariatnya results, discussed and held
discussions.

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A. Title Research
Good research title reflects the relationship between the variables to be studied. The title
does not need to elaborate because the particulars relating to title section can be given
that addresses the scope of the problem.
C. The problem formulation
The research problem should inquire the linkages between the variables to be studied,
both for research that is descriptive / ex post facto and the experimental. In other words,
the research problem is the question researchers are encouraged to conduct research.

Landasan teori
Making the theoretical / research framework is essentially
show systematic thinking when will start a study using concepts that have been
developed in the social sciences and humanities.

Teknik pengambilan sampel


Sampling Techniques
Random Samples ricochet
1. Simple random sampling
What is meant by simple random sampling is the sampling such that each base unit has an
equal opportunity to be taken as a sample,
2. Stratified random sampling
Stratified random sampling is that sampling is done by dividing the population into

several strata where each stratum is homogeneous.


3. Multstage random sampling
Sampling divides the population into several factions then sampled.
4. Systematic random sampling
Systematic random sampling is done when random sampling is done sequentially with
specific interal.
5. Random cluster sampling
Random sampling is done when our group will hold a study by taking the basic units as a
sample group.
6. Proporsionate Probability to Size
PPS sampling method is a variation of stratified sampling with large PSU is done
proportionally
Random sampling without
Without random sampling is used when we want to take a very small sample of the
population at large. Random sampling without consists of:
1. Sampling potluck (Accidental sampling)
Sampling was performed subjectively by the terms of the ease of research, sampling sites,
and the number of samples to be taken.
2. Berjatah sampling (quota sampling)
Way of sampling with quota sampling is similar to improvised, but with better controls to
reduce the occurrence of bias.
3. Sampling based on the consideration (purposive sampling)
Sampling method based on considerations when sampling is done in such a way, so that
the representation is determined by the investigator based on consideration of people people who have experienced. Sampling in this way is better than the previous two
because of the way done based on the experience of various parties.
Sampling in clinical research
In the clinical study sampling is often based on time or amount. Sampling was carried out
at a certain time period, in which patients who come to the hospital and meet the study
criteria were sampled until a predetermined time period. Sampling using this method
does not depend on the number.

Data Collection Techniques


Data collection methods are techniques or methods that can be used by researchers for data
collection. Appoint a technique in which abstract words and not embodied in objects, but their

use can only be seen through: questionnaires, interviews, observations, tests (tests),
documentation, and others. Researchers can use one or a combination of techniques depending
on the problem encountered or studied.