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# FACULTY OF ENGNEERING

MEACHANICAL ENGEENRING
DEPARTMENT
MATERIAL SCINCE LABARATORY
EXP. #5
COOLING CURVES

## Students Name : Mohanad Altahrawi.

Instructors Name : Eng. Mohanad Altamimi.

## Date of submission: 14/12/2014.

1. Objectives
To identify and recognize the meaning of cooling curve and its relation to phase
diagrams.

1. Introduction
2.1. Phase diagram
The understand of phase diagram for alloy systems is extremely importance because there
is strong correlation between microstructure and mechanical propitiates ,and the
development of microstructure of an alloy is related to the characteristics of its phase
diagram .In addition phase diagram provide valuable information about melting ,casting
crystallization and other phenomena.

## 2.2. Cooling curve

A cooling curve is a type of graph used in chemistry, physics, engineering, and other
disciplines to chart the progress of a cooling substance. One axis of graph, usually the x
axis, charts time, while temperature is represented on the other axis. As such, a cooling
curve generally slopes downward from left to right as the temperature decreases over
time. It is important to note that such a curve does not always progress downward at a
uniform rate over the course of the graph because cooling curves are often used to depict
physical phase changes, such as the change from water to ice. The temperature decreases
at a uniform rate as the water cools to the freezing point, but the curve flattens out at the
freezing point when the liquid water freezes to solid ice.
Many different factors can influence the progression of a cooling curve. Two of the most
important factors are the initial temperature of the cooling substance, often called the
"pouring temperature," and the temperature of the environment into which the substance
is poured. The specific traits of the cooling substance are major determinants of the
progression of the cooling curve. Other factors, such as pressure and the volume of the
cooling substance, can also drastically affect the curve.

## 2.2.1. Unary phase diagram

Phase diagrams are used to map out the existence and condition of various phase of a
give system .The phase diagram of water is a common example. Water may stay in
liquid, solid or gaseous states in different pressure temperature region. Boundaries of
regions express the regions express the equilibrium conditions in terms of P and T.

## 2.2.2. Binary phase diagram

Isomorphism binary phase diagrams is found in a number of metallic and ceramic
systems. In the isomorphism systems, only one solid phase forms; the two components in
the system display complete solid solubility.
Typically, the isomorphism system has a liquid area, a solid area, and an area that is a
mixture of both liquid and solid. Typically, a binary isomorphism phase diagram consists
of two phase boundaries: the liquids and the solidus.

## 2.3. Cooling curve for pure Iron

Iron is a relatively soft and ductile metal

## Iron has a melting point of 1539C.

Iron is allotropic metal, which means that it exists in more than one type of lattice
structure (e.g., B.C.C. /F.C.C.) depending upon temperature.
In its normal room temperature state, iron is B.C.C. in lattice arrangement, whereas at
908C it changes to F.C.C. and then at 1403C back to B.C.C. again and vice versa.
One another change occurs at about 770C (called the Curie point) at which the room
temperature magnetic properties of iron disappear and it becomes non-magnetic.
The iron remains non-magnetic until the temperature drops back below the Curie point
upon which its magnetic properties reappear.
Fig (1) shows a cooling curve for pure iron with allotropic forms of iron marked over it.
Iron is molten above 1539C. It solidifies in the B.C.C. delta form.

Cooling curves and their phase diagram of (Sb-Bi) that seen like( Ni-Cu):

## 2.4. The lever rule

If an alloy consists of more than one phase, the amount of each phase present can be
found by applying the lever rule to the phase diagram.
The lever rule can be explained by considering a simple balance. The composition of the
alloy is represented by the fulcrum and the compositions of the two phases by the ends of
a bar. The proportions of the phases present are determined by the weights needed to
balance the system.

## Figure 5: lever rule

4. Reference
1.
2.
3.
4.

www.southampton.ac.uk/~pasr1/tielines.htm
http://www.scribd.com/
http://www.doitpoms.ac.uk/tlplib/phase-diagrams
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phase_diagram