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Compton eect in hyperbolic media

(Dated: April 28, 2014)

CONTENTS

I. Transition Probability

II. Dierential Cross Section

III. General case with losses

IV. Alternative approach with C.

V. Approach with electronic current

we want to derive the phenomenological formula for the Compton scattering in hyperbolic
media. It can be done simply via the energy and momentum conservation laws. The Compton
scattering formula in vacuum for the scattered photon frequency f :
f =

1+

i
cos())

~i
(1
mc2

(1)

where i is the frequency of the photon before the scattering, is the scattering angle, m is
the electron mass and c is the speed of light. We assume that the electron was not moving
before the scattering which is a valid approximation if the electron velocity is well below the
speed of light. We should note that Compton eect is usually observable for the scattering of
rays, since the frequency decrease is proportional to the ration of the energies of photon and
electron ~i /(mc2 ) and for the visible light this value is of the order of 104 . We will use this
fact for expansion of our results over this small parameter. The expression for vacuum in this
approximation is f = i (1

~i
(1
mc2

cos())). to derive the Compton formula for the case of

anisotropic media we write down the energy and momentum conservation laws:

~i + mc2 = ~f + (pf c)2 + m2 c4 ,


(pf c)2 = h2 (ki kf )2 ,

(2)
(3)

where pf is the electron momentum after the scattering and ki and kf are the initial and
nal photon wavevectors. Let us choose the geometry of the structure. We are considering

2
the uniaxial media dened by the dielectric permittivity tensor components xx = yy = || ,
zz = . We assume that photon before scattering was travelling along x directions and we
are considering the TM mode. then we can write the relations between the photon frequencies
and wavevectors:

(kf c)2 =

(ki c)2 = i2 ,

(4)

f (1 + tan2 ())
.
1 + ( /|| ) tan2 ()

(5)

We then get quadratic equation on f (~ = 1):


(
f2 + i2 2f i + 2mc2 (i f ) =

f (1 + tan2 ())
f i
i2 +
2
2
1 + ( /|| ) tan ()
1 + ( /|| ) tan2 ()

)
.

(6)
while the equation is quadratic its solutions are quite cumbersome so its quite reasonable to
expand them over the small parameter i /(mc2 ). We get only one physical solution which
reads:

[
f = i

(
)]
1
1 1
~i
1
+
,
1
2
mc2
1 + tan2 () 2 + cot ()

(7)

where = /|| . We can see that when = 1, = 1 equation reduces to the equation in
vacuum. In the case of isotropic dielectric = 1, equation reads:
]
[
~i
f = i 1
(1 cos())
mc2

(8)

However in the case of dielectric media the energy decrease can be arbitrary large (which is of
course not possible since the frequency must be positive) when cot() ||.
To avoid the negative frequencies, we can write down the exact solution of the quadratic eq:
[
]

[
]

2 ()(1+ tan2 ()))(( 1)2)


(
/
cos

( + 1) 1 + tan2 ()
1 + tan2 () 1 1
( (+1) 1+ tan2 ())2
f
=
mc2
/ cos2 () (1 + tan2 ())
(9)
I.

TRANSITION PROBABILITY

Now we want to study the transition probability of the scattering of photon on electron in
hyperbolic media. The interaction Hamiltonian is dened as:
int =
H

e2 2
A
2mc2

(10)

3
We assume that electron does not feel the hyperbolicity of the structure and the electron
Hamiltonian is analogous to that in vacuum:
2
el = p
H
,
2m

Eel = ~2 q 2 /2m,

1
el = eiqr
L3

(11)

The initial and nal state read:


|i = |qi |0, .., nk , ..,

(12)

|f = |qf |0, .., nk , ...

(13)

Transition probability general expression:


( 2 )2
(
)
2
e
2 |i|2 ~2 q 2 /2m + ~i ~2 q 2 /2m ~f
W =
|f |A
i
f
2
~ 2mc
Then we must expand A using your notes:

A(r) = ~ d r
dG(r, r , ) (r , )f(r , ) + h.c.
and Green function is taken from [PHYSICAL REVIEW A 86, 023848 (2012)].
is written as:
To compare in vacuum A

(
)
2~c2

ikr
ikr
=
A

e
+
a

e
.
k,
k,
k,
L3 k
k,

(14)

(15)

(16)

Here k, are the polarization vectors. I am quite slow in working through the formalism in
the case of hyperbolic (I work with lossless case as you advised). Moreover, I believe that we
should sum over the initial and nal electron states.

II.

DIFFERENTIAL CROSS SECTION

I start from the equation (2.61) for the total cross-section from Greiner which is general (I
account only for the TM polarization):

|ki kf |2
~e4
kf2 dkf sin()dd
(Ei + ~i ~f Ef )
total = 2
mc
ki kf

(17)

We can immediately integrate over and obtain 2. The relations between frequency and
wavevector for the incident and scattered photon can be written in the form:

i = ki c/ ,

f = kf c/ | cos()| 1 + tan2 ().

(18)
(19)

4
We write down the energy in the relativistic form:

Ef =

Ei = mc2 ,

(20)

m2 c4 + ~2 c2 (ki kf )2

(21)

The energy conservation restriction results in the quadratic equation for kf which has one
physical solution kf .
The delta-function term can be rewritten as:
1

(Ei + ~i ~f Ef ) =
(Ei +~i ~f Ef )


kf
The derivative over kf results in:

(kf kf ).

(22)

kf =kf

(Ei + ~i ~f Ef )
kf ki cos()
.
g=
= ~c cos() 1 + tan2 ()/ +
kf
m2 c2
2
2
+ (ki + kf 2ki kf cos())
~2

(23)
scalar product of the polarization orths results in:


kix kf x 2
2
=
|ki kf | =
k0i k0f 2perp
1
= 2
.
|1 + tan2 ()|

(24)
(25)

In the above we use that incident photon is moving along x. substituting the above expressions
in the integral and making use of function we get:
( 2 )2
e
kf
1
1
total = 2
~c
sin()d
2
2
3/2
mc
ki | cos()|(1 + tan ()) |g(kf )|

(26)

In the case of the vacuum and approximation of the totally elastic scattering kf = ki we get
the expression 2.67 from Greiner book.]
Finally, I write down explicitly the expression for kf :

(
)

(0 + 1) 1 + tan2 ()
kf
(1 + 0 )(cos2 ()(1 + tan2 ()) )

= | cos()|
1 1
ki
cos2 ()(1 + tan2 ())
cos2 ()((0 + 1) 1 + tan2 () )2
(27)
On Fig.1 I plot dierential cross-section d/d versus the scattering angle for the case of
vacuum and hyperbolic metamaterial with = 1, = 1
Figure 2 shows the angular dependence of the frequency of scattered photon

FIG. 1. Dierential cross section vs scattering angle. Red line corresponds to vacuum, green to
hyperbolic media

FIG. 2. Frequency of scattered photon vs scattering angle. Red line corresponds to vacuum, green to
hyperbolic media

6
III.

GENERAL CASE WITH LOSSES

We introduce the general conductivity tensor Q () =


() + i
(), where corresponds
to the imaginary part of dielectric permittivity. Tensor is given by

0 0

0 0

0 0 .

(28)

Following Welsch we rst decompose the tensor in a following way.

i ()ei ei

(29)

i=1,3

where ei are the orthonormal basis vectors [1, 0, 0], [0, 1, 0], [0, 0, 1], 1,2 = , 3 = . we then

introduce the Kernel K :

1/2
K =
i ei ei

(30)

We then evaluate the natural variables gi :


gi (r, ) = ei f (r, ),

f (r, ) =
ei gi (r, )

(31)
(32)

i=1,3

. We can now rewrite the vector potential in this notation.

3
A = 0 d r
dG(r, r , )jN (r , ),
where the noise current jN is given by:
( )1/2
( )1/2

~
~
1/2
jN (r, ) =
K f (r, ) =
i ei ei f (r, )

i
Finally, the vector potential A in the SGSE notation is written as:

(
)

d
~c2
3

dr
G(r, r , )
A(r) =
()P + ()P f (r , ) + h.c.,
2

where

1 0 0

P = 0 1 0 ,

0 0 0

0 0 0

P = 0 0 0 ,

0 0 1

(33)

(34)

(35)

(36)

7
we then calculate 0|fx (rf , f )|Hint |fx (ri , i )|0.
0|fx (rf , f )|Hint |fx (ri , i )|0 =

rc 2
~c Gx (r rf , f )Gx (r ri , i )
2 2

(i ) (f )
f i

(37)

We now take the fourier trasform to nd the matrix element 0|fx (kf , f )|Hint |fx (ki , i )|0:

(i ) (f )
rc

2 ir(ki kf )
0|fx (kf , f )|Hint |fx (ki , i )|0 = 2 ~c e
Gx (kf , f )Gx (ki , i )
2 V
f i
(38)
we also should apply the initial and the nal electron states. the initial electron momentum is
0 and nal is q. we then get:

qe 0|fx (kf , f )|Hint |fx (ki , i )|00e

rc
= 2 ~c2 Gx (kf , f )Gx (ki , i )q,ki kf
2 V

(i ) (f )
f i

(39)
We now take the square of absolute value, multiply by 2/~, multiply by the energy deltafunction and get the transition probability. We should also sum-up over the all the ininitial and
nal frequencies. Moreover to evaluate the total cross section we should divide the scattering
rate by the incoming ux, which in the case of the single photon is just c/V (we are assume
that the incoming photon speed is c which is not true strictly speaking). Finally we get the
following expression for the total cross-section:


(k0i ) (k0f )
4rc2
kf2 cos 0 dkf d0 |Gx (kf , k0f )Gx (ki , k0i )|2
dk0f dk0i
total =
2 2
6
(2)
k0f k0i
(k0i + pe k0f

(40)
p2e + (k0i k0f )2 ),

where k0i,f = i,f /c, and pe = mc/~. We can get rid of the integration over kf with the help of
function. we then get

(k0i ) (k0f ) |Gx (kf , 0 , k0f )Gx (ki , k0i )|2
4rc2
total =
dk
dk
cos

d
,
0f
0i
0
0
2 2
(2)6
k0f
k0i
|Res|
where

(ki sin 0 )2 + (k0i k0f )(k0i k0f + 2pe ),


p2e + (k0i k0f )2 )


kf ki cos 0
=
.


dkf
k0i + pe k0f

kf = ki cos 0 +
Res =

d(k0i + pe k0f

kf =kf

There are 2 main problems with this result.

(41)

(42)
(43)

8
IV.

ALTERNATIVE APPROACH WITH C.

Here, instead of the vector operator f (k, ) we use the scalar operator C (k, ) = eTk f (k, ).
For simplicity we will further consider that the imaginary parts of the dielectric permittivities
along all the principal axes are equivalent. We can write down the vector potential via the
C (k, ):

(
[
]
2 ~c
k02
d
it
ikr
A(r, t) =
()
C (k, )e
+
(44)
ek, e

()k02 k2
V k,
])
[
k02
d

it
ikr

C (k, )e
+e
()

()k02 k2
We then study the scattering from the state Cp (ki , i )|0|0e to Cp (kf , f )|0|qe .
f , f )|H
int |C (ki , i )|0|0e =
qe |0|C(k
(
)

2 2
( ) ( )
k
k

1
i
f
0i 0f
= rc (2~c2 ) ki ,kf +qe (ep,ki ep,kf )
(45)
2
2
2
V
i f
((i )k0i kpi )( (f )k0f
k2pf )
Taking the square absolute value, then dividing by the incoming ux (c/V) we get and summing
over the nal states (and initial frequencies we nally get):

dk0f dk0i 2
2
total = 2rc
kf dkf cos()d (i ) (f )|ep,ki ep,kf |2
2 2
k0i k0f

2


2 2

k
k


0i 0f
(k0i + pe k0f p2e + (ki2 + kf2 2ki kf cos ))

2
2
2
2

((i )k0i
kpi )( (f )k0f kpf )

(46)

2 2
if we divide the fraction by k0i
k0f , multiply by (i ) (f ) and write the absolute value

explicitly we get:
2
2
(f )k0f
(i )k0i
2
2 2
2
2 2
( (i )k0i
k2pi )2 + ( (i )k0i
) ( (f )k0f
k2pf )2 + ( (f )k0f
)

(47)

2
2
And this product evidently goes to ( (f )k0f
k2pf )( (i )k0i
k2pi ), as (i ), (f ) go to

zero. Then the expression for the total cross-section is exactly the case without losses

V.

APPROACH WITH ELECTRONIC CURRENT

We write the initial current which enters the hyperbolic media from vacuum as:
)
(
h z
t) = e0 t0 A0 ei0 t+ik0z
,
A(z,
2

(48)

9
h
where e0 is the polarization orth, 0 is the initial frequency and k0z
is the z component of

h
the initial wavevector k0z
= || (0 )0 /c, and A0 is the normalization constant. The current

operator can be written in the form:


2
j(r, t) = e |rr|A =
2mc

(49)

The |r is the electron position eigenstate which can be expanded via the momentum eigensates
as:
1 iki rii t
|r =
e
cki |0.
V ki
Now substituting this equation into the expression for current we nally obtain:
]
e2
A0 (ki kf ) [ (ki kf +k0z
h ) z( + )t
z
0
i
f
e0 t0
e
e
ckf cki (z)
mc
V k ,k
i

(50)

(51)

where we have used that |0|0| = I.


We then introduce the Greens function of the non-uniform media. We are intrested only in
the that part of the Greens function which corresponds to the source current in the hyperbolic
media z > 0 and the observation point in vacuum z = |z0 | < 0. The Greens function then
can be written as:
i
G(
, z0 , , z , t t ) =
2(2)3

de

i(tt )

d2 k|| ik ( )i(k z +kV z0 )

e
thV eheV , (52)
k
=s,p

where sub and superscripts h, V correspond to the hyperbolic media and vacuum respectively.
The electric eld in the position z0 can be found as:

4
E(
, z0 , t) = G(
, z0 , , z , t t ) 2 jef f ( , z , t )d2 dz dt .
c t
from the integration over z , t and we get:

2

d k|| ik +ikV z0 i((ki kf ) k )
e2
2

E(
, z0 , t) = 3 t0 A0
ckf cki
e
e

d
mc V
k

ki ,kf
[
]
exp[i(i + 0 f )t]

t (eh eV )e0
kiz kf z + k0z k =s,p hV
integration over the gives 4 2 (k|| (ki kf )|| ) and integration over k|| nally gives:

e2
1
V
E(
, z0 , t) = 3 t0 A0
ckf cki eik +ik z0

mc
k
ki ,kf
[
]
exp[i(i + 0 f )t]

thV (eh eV )e0


kiz kf z + k0z k =s,p

(53)

(54)

(55)

10
We then take the fourier Transform over :
E(k , z0 , t) =

1 V
e2 t0 A0
(k (ki kf ) )
ckf cki eik z0
3
mc V k ,k
k
i f
[
]
exp[i(i + 0 f )t]

thV (eh eV )e0


kiz kf z + k0z k =s,p

(56)

We then calculate E(k , z0 , t)E (k , z0 , t). For now we track only the terms with operators
and average using the Wicks theorem:

ckf cki ck ck =
i

f f ii ni (1 nf ) + if i f ni ni .

(57)

We then multiply it by k ,(ki kf ) k ,(ki kf ) . The second term is trivial and we leave only the
rst one.

2
2


e
1 i(kV kV )z0
E(k , z0 , t)E (k , z0 , 0) = 3 t0 A0
e
kf ,ki k ni (1 nf )

mc V
|k |2
ki ,kf
[
][
]
exp[i(i + 0 f )t]
1

kiz kf z + k0z k
(kiz kf z + k0z k )

2



(58)
thV (eh eV )e0

=s,p

We take the Fourier transform over t and get the following expression:

2


e2
1 i(kV kV )z0

I() = 3 t0 A0
e

ni (1 n
f )
|2
mc V
|
k
ki ,kf z
2
(
)

( (i f + 0 ))

thV (eh eV )e0


|kiz kf z k k0z |2

(59)

=s,p

It is now worth remove all the factors, which do not depend explicitly on ki , kf from the
summation:
2
(
)

2

2



1
e
(

))
V

i
f
0
thV (eh eV )e0 e2Imk z0
I() = 3 t0 A0
ni (1 n
f )


mc V
|k |2
|kiz kf z k k0z |2
=s,p
ki ,kf z

(60)

11
Delta function can be rewritten in a following way:
~ 2
~ 2
kf z (
(k kf2 ) + )) =
2m
2m i
]
2m 2
2m
2m 1 [
2
2

=
(kf z kf z ) + (kf z + kf z )
(kf z (ki kf )
) =
~
~
~ |kf z |
(f (i + (0 ))) = (

where

kf z =

2
kiz
+

2m
k2 + 2ki k cos(),
~

(61)
(62)

(63)

where is the angle between the in-plane wavevector of incident radiation and in-plane
wavevector of electron. Now changing the the summation over kf z to integration and making use of delta function we get:
2

2

2


e
1 2m 1/3
V

I(, k , ) = 3 t0 A0
thV (eh eV )e0 e2Imk z0
V


mc V
|k |2 ~
=s,p

ki

(64)

1
1
1
+
ni (1 nf (i) )
2
2
|kf z | (kiz + (k0z Rek ) kf z )2 + Imk
(kiz + (k0z Rek ) + kf z )2 + Imk
(65)

If we change the summation over integration, we notice that the resulting integral will be
dimensionless we then can analyze the dimensionful part:

2
2


e t0 A0 1 2m V 4/3
mc3 V
|k |2 ~

(66)

Dimensionality is Djoule s/m. and expression can be rewritten as:


t20 rc2 c2 V 5/3

2m 2
0 |k |2

(67)

I have sent you the pictures for the case of the delta like distribution of electrons. However, I
have signicant problems performing the numerical integration in eq. 65 for Fermi Dirac distribution even in the case of zero temperature. Do you have any ideas of possible simplications
(at least to reduce it to double integral instead of triple one). In the term with transmission
coecient we account only for the TM polarized light and then get:

2

2




1
|k |2




2
thV (eh eV )e0 = |tphv |2 |eh, e0,0 |2 = 4
cos
()
.


1 + k k


2 /c2
=s,p

zv

(68)

12
We then can integrate over to get extra . Finally we can write down the answer in a
following way:

2


8m
1

2ImkV z0
I(, k ) = t20 rc2 c4 V 5/3

(69)

e
k
0 1 + k
zv
[
]

1
1
1
3
d ki ni (1 nf (i) )
+
2
2
|kf z | (kiz + (k0z Rek ) kf z )2 + Imk
(kiz + (k0z Rek ) + kf z )2 + Imk
(70)
Dimensionality of I is Volume energy density per frequency per the two-dimensional
wavevector:
[I] =

[W ]
.
[][2 k ]

(71)

We then switch to the integrand: We rst assume the zero temperature and switch to
spherical coordinates: the integral then can be rewritten as:
[
]
kF

1
1
1
+
ki2 dki sin d d
2
2
|kf z | (kiz + (k0z Rek ) kf z )2 + Imk
(kiz + (k0z Rek ) + kf z )2 + Imk
ki,min
(72)

where kmin =

kF2

2m
(0
~

). We then assume that kF2

2m
(0
~

) = 2 . This

assumption is valid if we consider only the nite frequency shifts. We then introduce the new
dimensionless variables:
ki = ki / 1,

(73)

k0z = k0z /,

(74)

k . . . .

(75)

Moreover, the lower order of integration by dki is then zero. We then expand the integrand in
the series with respect to ki and take only the leading term proportional to k2 . We then get:
i

1
1
1

d sin dki2 dki


+
2
2 2
2
2 2
2

| 1 k | (k0z k + 1 k ) + Imk (k0z k 1 k ) + Imk


(76)

13
Integration over , then give 4 and integration over ki -(kF /)3 /3. The nal result then is
given by:
2


2
3
32
1
mk
2ImkV z0

F
2 2 4 5/3

I(, k ) = t0 rc c V
e

k

3 0 1 + k
zv

1
1
1

(77)


+
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
| k | (k0z k + k ) + Imk (k0z k k ) + Imk