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EE 6201/CIRCUIT THEORY

UNIT-I
BASIC CIRCUITS ANALYSIS
PART-A
1. State the limitations of Ohms law.
(AU 2013)
It does not apply to all non metallic conductors It also does not apply to non
linear devices such as zener diode, vacuum tubes etc. It is true for metal
conductors at constant temperature. If the temperature changes the law is not
applicable.
2. Distinguish between mesh and loop of an electric circuit.
(AU 2013)2

A loop is any closed path of a network.

A mesh is the most elementary form of a loop and cannot be further divided

into other
loops.
3. Define Nodal analysis of a circuit.
(AU 2012)
In electric circuits analysis, nodal analysis, node-voltage analysis, or the branch
current method is a method of determining the voltage (potential difference)
between "nodes" (points
where elements or branches connect) in an electrical circuit in terms of the branch
currents.
4. What are the different types of dependent sources?
(AU 2011)2
The different types of dependent or controlled sources are
1. Voltage controlled voltage source(VCVS)
2. Current controlled voltage source(CCVS)
3. Voltage controlled current source(VCCS)
4. Current controlled current source(CCCS)
5. State Kirchoffs voltage and current law.
(AU 2011)3
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KCL states that the algebraic sum of currents in node is zero.

KVL states that the algebraic sum of voltages in a closed path is zero.

6. What is the difference between a circuit and network?

(AU

2011)

An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical elements such as


resistors, inductors, capacitors, transmission lines, voltage sources, current
sources, and switches.

An electrical circuit is a network that has a closed loop, giving a return path
for the current. A network is a connection of two or more components, and
may not necessarily be a circuit.

7. What is node and principal node?


(AU 2011)

A node is a point in a network in which two or more elements have a

common connection.

The meeting point of three or more elements is called principle node.

8. List the active and passive elements of electric circuit.


(AU 2011)2
a. Active Components:
i) Dependent sources
1. Voltage controlled voltage source(VCVS)
2. Current controlled voltage source(CCVS)
3. Voltage controlled current source(VCCS)
4. Current controlled current source(CCCS)
ii) Independent sources
1. Voltage source
2. Current source
b. Passive Components:
i) Resistor

ii) Inductor

iii) Capacitor iv) Coupling inductor v) Ideal

transformer.
9. Reduce the following network into a single voltage source.
(AU 2010)

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V=IR; V=110=10V

10.

Define voltage.

(AU 2010)

Electrical voltage is defined as electric potential difference between two


points of an electric field.

In an electrical circuit, the electrical voltage V in volts (V) is equal to the


energy consumption E in joules (J) divided by the electric charge Q in
coulombs (C).
V=E/Q

PART-B
1. In the circuit shown in the figure below, find the mesh currents.
(AU 2011)

2. Use nodal analysis to determine the values of voltages at various nodes in the
circuit shown in
figure below.
2011)
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(AU

EE 6201/CIRCUIT THEORY

3. In the circuit shown in figure below, find Vx by mesh analysis.


(AU 2011)

4. Using mesh analysis method, determine the currents IA and IB in the following
circuit. (AU 2010)

5. (a) Three loads A, B and C are connected in parallel to a 240V source. Load A
takes 9.6KW, Load
B takes 60A and Load C has a resistance of 4.8. Calculate (1) RA and RB (2)
The total current
(3) The total power (4) Equivalent resistance.
(AU 2013)
(b) Three resistors are connected in parallel and take a total current of 7.9 A. RA
= 48 and
takes 2.5A, IB = 2 IC. Calculate
i) IB and IC ii) V iii)RB and RC
(AU 2013)2
6. (a) Illustrate the Kirchoffs voltage and current law with examples.
(AU 2010)
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(b) What is the voltage across A and B in the circuit shown in figure below?
(AU 2012)

7. Find the current in the each branch of the circuit and the total power consumed
by the circuit of figure below, Assume E=50sin (t+45).
(AU 2009)

8. For the circuit of figure below, find the current in each branch by Nodal method.
(AU 2009)

9. In the circuit shown in figure below, find the different mesh currents, power
delivered by each source and the current through RL.
(AU 2010)

10.

In the circuit shown in figure below, find the different node voltages and the

currents I1,I2 and I3.


(AU 2010)

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UNIT-II
NETWORK REDUCTION AND NETWORK THEOREMS FOR DC AND AC
CIRCUITS
PART-A
1. State the voltage division principle for two resistors in series and the current
division principle for two resistors in parallel.
(AU 2013)2

Voltage across a resistor in series circuit is equal to the total voltage across
the series elements multiplied by the value of that resistor divided by the
total resistance of the series elements.

The current in any branch is equal to the ratio of the opposite parallel branch
resistances to the total resistance value, multiplied by the total current in the
circuit.

2. State the maximum power transfer theorem.


(AU 2013)2
Max power is transferred to load impedance if the load impedance is the
complex conjugate of the source impedance.
3. State reciprocity theorem.

(AU

2012)3
It states that in a linear, bilateral single source circuit the ratio of excitation to
the response is constant w en the position of excitation and response are
interchanged.
4. Give a delta having resistors, write the required expressions to transform the
circuit to a star circuit.
(AU 2012)

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5. State Thevenins theorem.

(AU

2010)3
It states that any linear bilateral network can be replaced by a single voltage
source VTH, in series with single impedance Zth.
6. Define Nortons theorem.
(AU 2010)
It states that any linear bilateral network can be replaced by a single current
source, IN in parallel with single impedance Zth.
7. State super position theorem.
(AU 2009)2
It states that the response of a linear circuit with multiple sources is given by
algebraic sum of response due to individual sources acting alone.
8. Write the expression for resistances when you transform a star connected
network in to a delta connected network.
(AU 2009)

9. A 1V voltage source has an internal resistance of 1 ohm; calculate the maximum


power that can be delivered to any load.
(AU 2008)
Max Power = VO C2 /4 RTH
10.

Max power=12/41 = 0.25W.

Calculate the value of RL, So that the maximum power is transferred from

battery.

(AU 2009)

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Rth =RL= (1010)/(10+10)= 5 (At maximum power delivered)


PART-B
1. (a) Explain the source transformation technique.
(AU 2013)
(b) Use the superposition theorem to find the current through 4 resistor in the
circuit shown
in figure below.
(AU 2013)

2. (a) Derive expression for star connected resistances in terms of delta connected
resistances.
(AU 2013)
(b) Find the current through branch a-b of the network shown in figure below,
using Thevenins
theorem.
(AU 2013)

3. Convert the network shown in figure below, into a -connected equivalent circuit.
(AU 2012)
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4. (a) Calculate the current through the 2 resistor in the circuit shown in figure
below, using
Superposition theorem.
(AU 2012)

(b) Calculate the current through the 2 resistor in the circuit shown in figure
below, using
Thevenins theorem.
(AU 2012)

5. Find the current flowing in the 5 resistance connected across terminals. A and
B of the circuit shown in figure below by Thevenins theorem.
(AU 2011)

6. Using star to delta transformation obtain the equivalent resistance between A


and B.
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(AU
2010)

7. (a) Find the value of RL at which maximum power is transferred to RL and hence
the maximum
power transferred to RL in the circuit shown in figure below.
(AU 2010)

(b) Find the voltage drop across 12 resistance using Nortons theorem for the
circuit shown
below.
(AU 2008)

8. (a) Verify Reciprocity theorem for the circuit shown below.


(AU 2012)

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(b) Find the current through various branches of the circuit shown below, by
employing
superposition theorem.

(AU

2012)

9. (a) State and prove Maximum power transfer theorem for A.C circuits.
(AU 2009)
(b) Verify the reciprocity theorem by finding the current.
(AU 2010)

10.

Find the Thevenins equivalent circuit at (a, b).

(AU 2009)

UNIT-III
RESONANCE AND COUPLED CIRCUITS
PART-A
1. Define band width of a resonant circuit.
(AU 2013)
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The frequency band within the limits of lower and upper half frequency is called
bandwidth.
2. Give the applications of tuned circuits.
(AU 2013)
Radio Receivers - RF Amplifier, Local Oscillator, IF Amplifier.
Filters for frequency division multiplexing - reception filters.
Filters to restrict bandwidth of a signal prior to transmission.
General band-pass and band-stop filters.
3. Define

Quality

factor.

(AU 2009)
The quality factor is defined as the ratio of maximum energy stored to the
energy dissipated in one period.
4. State Dot rule for coupled circuits.
(AU 2012)
It states that in coupled coils current entering at the dotted terminal of one
coil induce an
emf in second coil which is +ve at dotted terminal of second coil.
Current entering at the un dotted terminal of one coil induce an emf in
second coil which is
+ve at un dotted terminal of second coil.
5. What is resonance?

(AU

2011)
An A.C circuit is said to be resonance if it behaves as a purely resistive circuit.
The total current drawn by the circuit is then in phase with the applied voltage,
and the power factor will then unity. Thus at resonance the equivalent complex
impedance of the circuit has no j component.
6. Write the expression for bandwidth of RLC series circuit.
(AU 2011)
For series RLC circuit:

For Parallel RLC circuit:


Damping factor
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7. What are coupled coils?


(AU 2011)2
It refers to circuit involving elements with magnetic coupling. If the flux produced
by an element of a circuit links other elements of the same circuit then the
elements are said to be magnetic coupling.
8. Define mutual inductance.

(AU

2011)
When permeability is constant the mutual inductance between two coupled coils
is defined as the ratio of flux linkage in one coil due to common flux and current
through another coil.
9. Two inductively coupled coils have self inductances L 1=50mH, L2=200mH. If the
coefficient of coupling is 0.5, determine the value of mutual inductance between
the coils.

(AU 2009)

M = K L1L2
M = 0.5(5010-320010-3)
M = 0.7mH
10.

Define coefficient of coupling.

(AU 2009)
In coupled coils the coefficient of coupling is defined as the fraction of the total
flux produced by one coil linking another coil.

PART-B
1. Write

short

notes

on

(AU 2011)
a) Coefficient of coupling.

b) Single tuned circuits.

2. (a) Explain the quality factor of RLC parallel circuit.


(AU 2011)
(b) The parameter of a RLC parallel circuit excited by a current source are
R=40 L=3mH and
C=3F. Determine the resonant frequency, quality factor, bandwidth and
cut-off frequencies.
3. Write short notes on :
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a) Self and mutual inductance.


b) Tuned circuits.
(AU 2011)
4. (a) For the RLC circuit shown in figure below, determine the frequency at which
the circuit

resonate, quality factor, voltage across inductance and voltage

across capacitance at resonance.


(AU 2011)

(b) Explain the bandwidth of RLC parallel circuit.


(AU 2011)
5. (a) A series RLC circuit consists of 50 resistance, 0.2H inductance and 10F
capacitance with applied voltage of 20V. Determine resonant frequency. Find
Q factor of the circuit. Compute the lower and upper frequency limits and the
bandwidth of the circuit.
(b) Define active power, reactive power and apparent power.
(AU 2010)
6. (a) The number of turns in two coupled coils are 600 and 1200 respectively.
When a current of 4A flows in coil1, the total flux in coil1 is 0.5 wb and the
flux linking coil2 is 0.4 mwb. Determine the self inductances of the coils and
mutual inductance between them. Also calculate coefficient of coupling.
(AU 2010)
(b) Two identical coils with L=0.03H have a coupling coefficient of K=0.8. Find
mutual
inductance and equivalent inductance with the coils connected in series
opposition mode.
7. A resistance (R=100ohm) and a capacitor (x=-j250ohm) are connected in series.
If a current of 0.9A is flowing in the current, find the impedance, power factor,
supply voltage, voltage across resistance and voltage across capacitance. Also
calculate the apparent power, active power and reactive power.
(AU 2010)

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8. In an RLC series circuit, R = 100ohm, L = 0.5H and C = 0.4 micro farad. Find the
resonant frequency, bandwidth, half power frequencies and quality factor.
(AU 2010)
9. (a) Obtain a conductively coupled equivalent circuit for the magnetically coupled
circuit shown
below.
(AU 2012)

(b) Two coupled coils have self inductances of L 1=100mH and L2=400mH. The
coupling
coefficient is 0.8. Find M. If N1 is 1000turns, what is the value of N 2? If a
current
i1 = 2sin (500t) A through the coil 1; find the flux 1 and the mutually
induced voltage V2m.
10.

In the circuit shown in figure below, find the value of I1 and I2 and also the

real power supplied


by each source.
(AU 2010)

UNIT-IV
TRANSIENT RESPONSE FOR DC CIRCUITS
PART-A
1. Find the time constant of RL circuit having R=10 and L=0.1mH.
(AU 2013)
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T = L/R = 0.0001/10 = 10sec.


2. In a series RLC circuit, L=2H and C=5F. Determine the value of R to give critical
damping.
(AU 2009)
For critical damping, R=2L/C
R=2(2/5x10-6) = 1265
3. Sketch the transient current i(t) vs t graph for a series RL circuit.
(AU 2012)

4. Draw the h-parameter model of a two port network.


(AU 2011)

5. Why transient occur in electric circuits?

(AU

2011)
In electrical circuit transient do not occur, if it is purely resistive. For the
transients to take place there must be presence of L or C or both in the circuits.
6. Define time constant of RL circuit.
(AU 2011)2
The time constant of RL series circuit is defined as the period during which the
current rises to 63.2% of its final value or steady value.
7. Define transient response.

(AU

2010)2
The storage elements deliver their energy to the resistances; hence the response
changes with time, get saturated after sometime, and are referred to the
transient response.
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8. Give

the

Laplace

transform

of

(AU 2009)
a) sin t

and b) cos t

f(t) = sin t, F(s) = / (s2 + 2)


f(t) = cos t, F(s) = s / (s2 + 2)
9. Write the integro-differential equation of R-L-C series circuit with supply voltage.
(AU 2009)
E=L(di/dt)+iR+(1/C)
10.

Find

the

Laplace

VC(t)
transform

of

x(t)

u(t)

(t).

(AU 2009)
X(s) = (1/s) +1
PART-B
1. Derive an expression for the current response of RLC series circuit with sinusoidal
excitation.
From the results, discuss the nature of transient and steady state responses.
Comment on the
phase angle involved.
(AU 2012)2
2. Derive the step responses of RL and RC circuits. Compare their performances.
(AU 2011)
3. In the circuit shown in Fig., obtain the equations for i 1(t) and i2(t) when the switch
s is closed at
t=0.
(AU 2011)

4. (a) Explain step response of RLC series circuit with various damping conditions.
(AU 2011)
(b) In the RL circuit of Fig., the switchs is closed at t=0.Find the current i(t) and
voltage across
resistance and inductance.
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5. In the RL circuit of shown Fig. the switch is closed to position 1 at t=0.Then at


t=0.24 second the
switch is moved to position 2.Determine the response i(t) and sketch the
response. Also
determine the time at which i(t) is zero.
(AU 2011)

6. (a) The Z parameters of a two port network are Z11 = 6; Z22 = 4; Z12 =Z21 =
3.Compute the Y parameters and ABCD parameters and write the describing
equations.

(AU 2011)

(b) A series circuit consists of R-C in series with switch and supply voltage E, the
capacitor has
initial charge E0. Find the transient voltage Vc(t) when the switch is closed at
t=0.
7. A series RL circuit R =10 L=1H has a sinusoidal voltage source 200 sin
(500t+) applied at a time when =0. Find the expression for the current.
(AU 2010)
8. In the circuit shown in figure, find the expression for current if the switch is
closed at t=0 and
the value of current at t=1 msec. Assume initial charge on the capacitor is zero.
(AU 2010)

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9. Determine the expression for current i(t) for the circuit given below, if the switch
is closed at
time t=0.
(AU 2010)

10.

Obtain the expression for the voltage across C for the circuit shown below.

(AU 2010)

UNIT-V
THREE PHASE CIRCUITS
PART-A
1. What is phase sequence of a 3-phase system?
(AU 2013)
In a three phase system the voltage or current sinusoid attain peak values
periodically one after another. The sinusoid are displaced 120 degrees from each
other. So also phasors representing the three sinusoids for voltage or current
waves of three lines are phase displaced by 120 degrees.
2. Define power factor of a circuit.
(AU 2012)3
The power factor of an electrical power system is defined as the ratio of the real
power flowing to the load, to the apparent power in the circuits.
3. Draw the inter-connection between a three-phase delta connected source and
star connected
load.
(AU 2011)2

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4. Write the relationship between line voltage and phase voltage in a star
connected balanced
network.
(AU 2010)
The relation between line and phase voltage in star connection is
EL=3Eph
The relation between line current and phase current in a star connection is
IL=Iph
5. What are the advantages of 3-Phase System Over 1-Phase System?
(AU 2009)
a) For the same size a 3 phase machine delivers more power than single phase
machine. A three phase induction motor delivers 1.5 times the power as
single phase motor of same size. Thus 3 phase machines are economical and
occupy less space as compared to equivalent single phase machines.
b) Parallel operation of three phase alternatives is very smooth compared to
single phase alternators.
c) Power transmission by 3 phase system is very economical as it requires less
amount of copper for transmitting same amount of power.
6. Calculate the power factor if V(t) = V mSin(t-45O) and I(t) = Imsin(t-135O).
(AU 2009)
Power factor = cos
= cos (Voltage angle Current angle) = cos (-45 + 135)
= cos 90o
=0
7. In a 3 phase 3 wire systems how many wattmeter required for measuring the
total power.

Two

wattcmeters

required.

(AU 2010)
8. List out the methods of power measurements in the three phase balanced
circuits.

(AU 2009)

(i) Three wattmeter method


(ii) Two wattmeter method
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(iii) Single wattmeter method


9. A 3 400 volts supply is given to a balanced star connected load of impedance
8+j6 ohms in
each branch. Find the line current.
(AU 2009)
IL = Iph
VL = Vp/3 = 400/3 = 230.9
I = V/Z = 230/(8+j6) = 23<-36.90
10.

Write the expression for power measurement by two wattmeter methods.


(AU 2010)

P=W1+W2
PART-B
1. (a) What are the advantages of three phase system?
(AU 2013)
(b) The two wattmeter method produces wattmeter readings P 1=1560 W and
P2=2100 W when
connected to a delta connected load. If the line voltage is 220V, calculate
(i) the per-phase average power (ii) the per-phase reactive power (iii) the
power factor
(iv) the phase impedance.
2. (a) Prove that the total instantaneous power in a balanced three phase system
is constant and
is equal to the average power whether the load is star or delta connected.
(AU 2013)
(b) An unbalanced star-connected load has balanced voltages of 100 V and RBY
phase sequence.
Calculate the line currents and the neutral current.
Take : ZA = 15 , ZB = (10+j5) , Zc = (6-j8) .
3. (a) A 3-phase balanced delta-connected load of (4+j8) is connected across a
400V 3-phase
supply. Determine the phase currents and line currents. Assume the RYB
phase-sequence.
Also calculate the power drawn by the load.
(AU 2012)
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(b) Three equal inductors connected in star, take 5 kW at 0.7 pf when connected
to a 400 V,
50Hz, three phase, three wire supply. Calculate the line currents (1) if one
of the inductors is
disconnected and (2) if one of the inductors is short circuited.
4. (a) If W1 and W2 are the readings of the two wattmeters which measures power in
the three
phase balanced system and if W 1/W 2= a, show that the power factor of the
circuit is given
by cos = (a + 1)/a2-a+1
(AU 2012)
(b) Obtain the readings of two wattmeters connected to a three phase three-wire
120V system
feeding a balanced connected load with a load

impedance of

12<30o.Assume either phase


sequence. Find the phase power and compare the total power to the sum of
the wattmeter
readings.
(AU 2012)
5. (a) Explain voltage, current and power in a three-phase star connected system.
(AU 2011)
(b) A symmetrical three-phase, three-wire 440V supply is connected to a starconnected load.
The impedances in each branch are Z R=(2+j3) ZY=(1-j2) ZB=(3+j4).
Find the equivalent
delta connected load and the phase sequence is RYB.
6. An unbalanced four wire star connected load has a balanced voltage of 400V,the
loads are
Z1=(4+j8) ;

Z2+(3+j4);

Z3(15+j20); Calculate the (a) line currents (b)

current in the neutral


wire and (c)the total power.
(AU 2011)
7. An unbalanced four-wire, star connected load has a balanced voltage of 400V,
the loads are

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Z1=(4+j8); Z2=(3+j4); Z3=(15+j20). Calculate the (a) Line currents (b)


Current in the
neutral wire and (c) The total power.
(AU 2011)
8. (a) Explain voltage, current and power in a delta connected system.
(b) Three impedances Z1 = 20<30, Z2 = 40<30 &Z3 = 10<-90, are delta
connected to a 400V,
three phase system. Determine the (i) Phase current (ii) Line currents and
(iii) Total power consumed by the load.
(AU 2011)
9. (a) The number of turns in two coupled coils are 600 and 1200 respectively.
When a current of
4A flows in coil 1, the total flux in coil 1 is 0.5 wb and the flux linking coil 2
is 0.4mwb.
Determine the self inductances of the coils and mutual inductances
between them. Also
calculate

coefficient

of

coupling.

(AU 2010)
(b) Two identical coils with L=0.03H have a coupling coefficient of K=0.8.Find
mutual
inductance and equivalent inductance with the coils connected in series
opposition mode.
10.

(a) A 3-phase,220 V,50 Hz,11.2KW induction motor has a full load efficiency

of 88 percent and
draws a line current of 38 Amps under full load, when connected to 3phase, 220V supply.
Find the reading on two wattmeters connected in the circuit to measure
the input to the
motor. Determine also the power factor, at which the motor is operating.
(b) State the advantages and disadvantages of two wattmeter method.
(AU 2010)
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