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gold

Color is golden "butter" yellow.


Luster is metallic.
Transparency is opaque.
Crystal System is isometric; 4/m bar 3 2/m
Crystal Habits include massive nuggets and disseminated grains. Also wires, dendritic and
arborescent crystal clusters.
Cleavage is absent.
Fracture is jagged.
Streak is golden yellow.
Hardness is 2.5 - 3
Specific Gravity is 19.3+ (extremely heavy even for metallic minerals)
Associated Minerals include quartz, nagyagite, calaverite, sylvanite, krennerite, pyrite
and other sulfides.
Other Characteristics: ductile, malleable and sectile, meaning it can be pounded into
other shapes, stretched into a wire and cut into slices.
Notable Occurrences include California and South Dakota, USA; Siberia, Russia; South
Africa; Canada and other localities around the world.
Best Field Indicators are color, density, hardness, sectility, malleability and ductility

http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/elements/gold/gold.htm
sulfur

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

Color is a strong yellow color in thick crystals and duller yellow in small crystals to pale
yellow in massive or powdery forms. Can also be reddish or greenish yellow with
impurities.
Luster is vitreous to more often resinous or earthy in massive forms.
Transparency is transparent to translucent.
Crystal System is orthorhombic; 2/m 2/m 2/m
Crystal Habits include mostly massive or powdery forms but well shaped blocky crystals
are common. Crystals can be made up of two dipyramids, one with steeper faces than the
other, prisms and/or pinacoids in various combinations.
Cleavage is very poor in two directions.
Fracture is conchoidal.
Streak is yellow.
Hardness is 2.
Specific Gravity is 2.0 - 2.1 (well below average)
Associated Minerals are celestite, calcite, aragonite and gypsum.
Other Characteristics: odor (see above), poor heat conductivity makes it brittle when
heated and can actually crack if held tightly in a person's hand.
Notable Occurrences include Michigan and Ohio, USA; Sicily; Poland and Chile.
Best Field Indicators are color, odor, heat sensitivity, lack of good cleavage and crystal
habit.

http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/elements/sulfur/sulfur.htm

silver

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

Color is silver white with exposed specimens tarnishing black.


Luster is metallic.
Transparency is opaque.
Crystal System is isometric; 4/m bar 3 2/m
Crystal Habits include massive and disseminated grains, wires and plates as the most
common, whole individual crystals are extremely rare but when present are usually cubes,
dodecahedrons and octahedrons. "Jack Frost" type crystal growth as shown on some
specimens produces beautiful intricate structures. Wires can form coiled clusters that
resemble rams horns.
Cleavage is absent.
Fracture is jagged.
Streak is silver white.
Hardness is 2.5-3.
Specific Gravity is variable according to purity 10-12 (well above average even for
metallic minerals)
Associated Minerals are silver minerals such as acanthite and prousite, cobaltite,
copper, zeolites and quartz.
Other Characteristics: ductile, malleable and sectile, meaning it can be pounded into
other shapes, stretched into a wire and cut into slices.
Notable Occurrences include Michigan and Arizona, USA; Cobalt, Ontario; Chile; and
Germany.
Best Field Indicators are color, tarnish, ductility and crystal habit

http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/elements/silver/silver.htm
platinum

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

Color is a white-gray to silver-gray, usually lighter than the platinum color of pure
processed platinum.
Luster is metallic.
Transparency is opaque.
Crystal System: Isometric; 4/m bar 3 2/m
Crystal Habits include nuggets, grains or flakes, rarely showing cubic forms.
Cleavage is absent.
Fracture is jagged.
Hardness is 4 - 4.5
Specific Gravity is 14 - 19+, pure platinum is 21.5 (extremely heavy even for metallic
minerals).
Streak is steel-gray.
Other Characteristics: Does not tarnish, is sometimes weakly magnetic and is ductile,
malleable and sectile, meaning it can be pounded into other shapes, stretched into a wire
and cut into slices.
Associated Minerals include chromite, olivine, enstatite, pyroxene, magnetite and
occasionally gold.
Notable Occurrences includes Transvaal, South Africa; Ural Mountains, Russia;
Columbia and Alaska, USA.
Best Field Indicators are color, density, weak magnetism, hardness, associations and
ductility.

http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/elements/platinum/platinum.htm
copper

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

Color is copper colored with weathered specimens tarnished green.


Luster is metallic.
Transparency is opaque.
Crystal System is isometric; 4/m bar 3 2/m
Crystal Habits include massive, wires and arborescent or branching forms as the most
common, whole individual crystals are extremely rare but when present are usually cubes
and octahedrons. Occasionally, massive forms will show some recognizable crystal faces
on outer surfaces.
Cleavage is absent.
Fracture is jagged.
Streak is reddish copper color.
Hardness is 2.5-3
Specific Gravity is 8.9+ (above average for metallic)
Associated Minerals are silver, calcite, malachite and other secondary copper minerals.
Other Characteristics: ductile, malleable and sectile, meaning it can be pounded into
other shapes, stretched into a wire and cut into slices.
Notable Occurrences include Michigan and Arizona, USA; Germany; Russia and
Australia.
Best Field Indicators are color, ductility and crystal habit.

http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/elements/copper/copper.htm
bismuth

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

Color is silver white often with a multi-colored iridescent tarnish.


Luster is metallic.
Transparency: Crystals are opaque.
Crystal System is trigonal; bar 3 2/m
Crystal Habits include mostly massive foliated forms in natural specimens, although there
do exist some well formed natural crystals they are rather scarce. Laboratory grown
crystals display trigonal hopper crystals that appear pseudocubic.
Cleavage is perfect in one direction (basal)
Fracture is uneven or jagged.
Hardness is 2 - 2.5
Specific Gravity is 9.7 - 9.8 (unusually heavy even for metallic minerals)
Streak is silver to white.
Other Characteristics: striations on cleavage surfaces.
Associated Minerals include bismuthinite and ores of cobalt and silver found in
hydrothermal veins such as cobaltite and acanthite.
Notable Natural Occurrences include Australia; San Baldomero and La Paz, Bolivia;
Devon, England; Germany and South Dakota, Colorado and California, USA.
Best Field Indicators are tarnish, density and cleavage. Hopper crystals in laboratory
specimens are unmistakable.

http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/elements/bismuth/bismuth.htm

graphite

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

Color is black silver.


Luster is metallic to dull.
Transparency crystals are opaque
Crystal System is hexagonal; 6/m 2/m 2/m
Crystal Habits include massive lamellar veins and earthy masses. also as scaly granules in
metamorphic rocks.
Hardness is 1 - 2
Specific Gravity is 2.2 (well below average)
Cleavage is perfect in one direction.
Fracture is flaky.
Streak is black gray to brownish gray.
Associated Minerals include quartz, calcite, micas, iron meteorites and tourmalines.
Other Characteristics: thin flakes are flexible but inelastic, mineral can leave black marks
on hands and paper, weakly conducts electricity.
Notable Occurrences include New York and Texas, USA; Russia; Mexico; Greenland and
India.
Best Field Indicator is softness, luster, density and streak.

http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/elements/graphite/graphite.htm

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

Color is variable and tends toward pale yellows, browns, grays, and also white, blue,
black, reddish, greenish and colorless.
Luster is adamantine to waxy.
Transparency crystals are transparent to translucent in rough crystals.
Crystal System is isometric; 4/m bar 3 2/m
Crystal Habits include isometric forms such as cubes and octahedrons, twinning is also
seen.
Hardness is 10
Specific Gravity is 3.5 (above average)
Cleavage is perfect in 4 directions forming octahedrons.
Fracture is conchoidal.
Streak is white.
Associated Minerals are limited to those found in kimberlite rock, an ultramafic igneous
rock composed mostly of olivine.
Other Characteristics: refractive index is 2.4 ( very high), dispersion is 0.044,
fluorescent.
Notable Occurrences include South Africa and other localities throughout Africa, India,
Brazil, Russia, Australia, and Arkansas.
Best Field Indicator is extreme hardness.

http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/elements/diamond/diamond.htm
feldspar oligoclase

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

Color is usually off-white or gray or pale shades of green, yellow or brown.


Luster is vitreous to dull if weathered..
Transparency crystals are translucent to transparent.
Crystal System is triclinic; bar 1
Crystal Habits include blocky, or tabular crystals. Crystals have a nearly rectangular or
square cross-section with slightly slanted dome and pinacoid terminations. Twinning is
almost universal in all plagioclases. Crystals can be twinned according to the Albite,
Carlsbad, Manebach and Baveno laws. Oligoclase can be found as a major rock forming
component in granites and syenites.
Cleavage is perfect in one and good in another direction forming nearly right angled
prisms.
Fracture is conchoidal.
Hardness is 6 - 6.5.
Specific Gravity is approximately 2.64 - 2.68 (average)
Streak is white.
Associated Minerals are quartz, muscovite and K-feldspars.
Other Characteristics: index of refraction is 1.533 - 1.552. Lamellar twinning may cause
a grooved effect on cystal and cleavage surfaces that appear as striations.
Notable Occurrences include Sri Lanka; New York, USA; Russia; Sweden and Canada.
Best Field Indicators are occurence, twinning striations, shimmer, density and index of
refraction.

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feldspar ortoklas

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

Color is off-white, yellow, or shades of red, orange to brown.


Luster is vitreous to dull if weathered.
Transparency crystals are usually opaque, may be translucent or rarely transparent.
Crystal System is monoclinic; 2/m
Crystal Habits include blocky or tabular crystals. Crystals have a nearly rectangular or
square cross-section with slightly slanted dome and pinacoid terminations. Twinning is
common. (see above). A psuedo-orthorhombic or psuedo-trigonal variety, found in alpine
veins is called adularia, and forms more flattened tabular crystals.
Cleavage is good in 2 directions forming nearly right angled prisms.
Fracture is conchoidal or uneven
Hardness is 6
Specific Gravity is approximately 2.53 - 2.56 (average)
Streak is white.
Associated Minerals are quartz, plagioclase feldspars, micas, garnets, tourmalines and
topaz.
Other Characteristics: some crystals may show opalescence and are called moonstone.
Notable Occurrences are many but these are a few of them: Salzburg, Austria; Cornwall,
England and New York, Vermont, Maine and New Hampshire, USA.
Best Field Indicators color, lack of striations, cleavage, twinning if present and occurrence

http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/silicate/orthocla/orthocla.htm
biotite

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

Color is black to brown and yellow with weathering.


Luster is vitreous to pearly.
Transparency crystals are transparent to translucent.
Crystal System is monoclinic; 2/m
Crystal Habits include tabular to prismatic crystals with a prominant pinacoid termination.
Biotite's four prism faces and two pinacoid faces form pseudo-hexagonal crystal "books".
The sides of the crystal often tend to tapper and can have a "hard candy that has been
sucked on, look". Also as lamellar or granular rock forming masses providing the luster for
most schists and gneiss.
Cleavage is perfect in one direction producing thin sheets or flakes.
Fracture is not readily observed due to cleavage but is uneven.
Hardness is 2.5.
Specific Gravity is approximately 2.9 - 3.4+ (slightly above average)
Streak is white.
Associated Minerals are quartz, feldspars, apatite, calcite, hornblende, garnets and
schorl.
Other Characteristics: cleavage sheets are flexible and elastic, meaning they can be bent
and will flex back to original shape.
Notable Occurrences include Bancroft and sudbury, Ontario; Sicily; Russia and many
other locallities around the world.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, color, cleavage, elastic sheets and associations

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olivin
http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/silicate/olivine/olivine.htm
hornblende
http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/silicate/hornblen/hornblen.htm
piroksin
http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/silicate/pyroxene.htm
obsidian
http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/mineralo/obsidian/obsidian.htm