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Tatanan Tektonik Indonesia
Tektonik Lempeng
Tektonik lempeng adalah suatu teori yang
menerangkan proses dinamika bumi tentang
pembentukan jalur pegunungan, jalur gunung api,
jalur gempa bumi, dan cekungan endapan di
muka bumi yang diakibatkan oleh pergerakan
lempeng.

Lempeng dan pergerakannya


Menurut teori ini kerakbumi (lithosfer) dapat
diterangkan ibarat suatu rakit yang sangat kuat
dan relatif dingin yang mengapung di atas mantel
astenosfer yang liat dan sangat panas, atau bisa
juga disamakan dengan pulau es yang
mengapung di atas air laut. Ada dua kjenis kerak
bumi yakni kerak samudera yang tersusun oleh
batuan bersifat basa dan sangat basa, yang
dijumpai di samudera sangat dalam, dan kerak
benua tersusun oleh batuan asam dan lebih tebal
dari kerak samudera. Kerakbumi menutupi
seluruh permukaan bumi, namun akibat adanya
aliran panas yang mengalir di dalam astenofer
menyebabkan kerakbumi ini pecah menjadi
beberapa bagian yang lebih kecil yang disebut
lempeng kerakbumi. Dengan demikian lempeng
dapat terdiri dari kerak benua, kerak samudera
atau keduanya. Arus konvensi tersebut
merupakan sumber kekuatan utama yang
menyebabkan terjadinya pergerakan lempeng.

Akibat Pergerakan Lempeng


Pergerakan lempeng kerakbumi ada 3 macam yaitu pergerakan yang saling mendekati,
saling menjauh dan saling berpapasan.
Pergerakan lempeng saling mendekati akan menyebabkan tumbukan dimana salah satu
dari lempeng akan menunjam ke bawah yang lain. Daerah penunjaman membentuk

suatu palung yang dalam, yang biasanya merupakan jalur gempa bumi yang kuat.
Dibelakang jalur penunjaman akan terbentuk rangkaian kegiatan magmatik dan
gunungapi serta berbagai cekungan pengendapan. Salah satu contohnya terjadi di
Indonesia, pertemuan antara lempeng Ind0-Australia dan Lempeng Eurasia
menghasilkan jalur penunjaman di selatan Pulau Jawa dan jalur gunungapi Sumatera,
Jawa dan Nusatenggara dan berbagai cekungan seperti Cekungan Sumatera Utara,
Sumatera Tengah, Sumatera Selatan dan Cekungan Jawa Utara.
Pergerakan lempeng saling menjauh akan menyebabkan penipisan dan peregangan
kerakbumi dan akhirnya terjadi pengeluaran material baru dari mantel membentuk jalur
magmatik atau gunungapi. Contoh pembentukan gunungapi di Pematang Tengah
Samudera di Lautan Pasific dan Benua Afrika.
Pergerakan saling berpapasan dicirikan oleh adanya sesar mendatar yang besar seperti
misalnya Sesar Besar San Andreas di Amerika.
Kegiatan Tektonik
Pergerakan lempeng kerakbumi yang saling bertumbukan akan membentuk zona
sudaksi dan menimbulkan gaya yang bekerja baik horizontal maupun vertikal, yang
akan membentuk pegunungan lipatan, jalur gunungapi/magmatik, persesaran batuan,
dan jalur gempabumi serta terbentuknya wilayah tektonik tertentu. Selain itu terbentuk
juga berbagai jenis cekungan pengendapan batuan sedimen seperti palung (parit),
cekungan busurmuka, cekungan antar gunung dan cekungan busur belakang. Pada jalur
gunungapi/magmatik biasanya akan terbentuk zona mineralisasi emas, perak dan
tembaga, sedangkan pada jalur penunjaman akan ditemukan mineral kromit. Setiap
wilayah tektonik memiliki ciri atau indikasi tertentu, baik batuan, mineralisasi, struktur
maupun kegempaanya.
Perkembangan Tatanan Tektonik Indonesia
Pada 50 juta tahun yang lalu (Awal Eosen), setelah benua kecil India bertubrukan
dengan Himalaya, ujung tenggara benua Eurasia tersesarkan lebih jauh ke arah
tenggara dan membentuk kawasan Indonesia bagian barat. Saat itu kawasan Indonesia
bagian timur masih berupa laut (laut Filipina dan Samudra Pasifik). Lajur penunjaman
yang bergiat sejak akhir Mesozoikum di sebelah barat Sumatera, menyambung ke
selatan Jawa dan melingkar ke tenggara - timur Kalimantan - Sulawesi Barat, mulai
melemah pada Paleosen dan berhenti pada kala Eosen.
Pada 45 juta tahun lalu. Lengan Utara Sulawesi terbentuk bersamaan dengan jalur
Ofiolit Jamboles. Sedangkan jalur Ofiolit Sulawesi Timur masih berada di belahan
selatan bumi.
Pada 20 jutatahun lalu benua-benua mikro bertubrukan dengan jalur Ofiloit Sulawesi
Timur, dan Laut Maluku terbentuk sebagai bagian dari Lut pilipina. Laut Cina Selatan
mulai membuka dan jalur tunjaman di utara Serawak - Sabah mulai aktif.
pada 10 juta tahun lalu, benua mikro Tukang Besi - Buton bertubrukan dengan jalur
Ofiolit di Sulawesi Tenggara, tunjaman ganda terjadi di kawasan Laut Maluku, dan Laut
Serawak terbentuk di Utara Kalimantan
pada 5 juta tahun lalu, benua mikro Banggai-Sula bertubrukan dengan jalur ofiolit
Sulawesi Timur, dan mulai aktif tunjangan miring di utara Irian Jaya-Papua Nugini.

http://www.geocities.com/museumgeologi/Geologi/tatanan.htm
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http://www.cet.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/rock.html

The Rock Cycle is a group of changes. Igneous rock can change into
sedimentary rock or into metamorphic rock. Sedimentary rock can change into
metamorphic rock or into igneous rock. Metamorphic rock can change into
igneous or sedimentary rock.
Igneous rock forms when magma cools and makes crystals. Magma is a hot
liquid made of melted minerals. The minerals can form crystals when they cool.
Igneous rock can form underground, where the magma cools slowly. Or,
igneous rock can form above ground, where the magma cools quickly.

When it pours out on Earth's surface, magma is called lava. Yes, the same
liquid rock matter that you see coming out of volcanoes.
On Earth's surface, wind and water can break rock into pieces. They can also
carry rock pieces to another place. Usually, the rock pieces, called sediments,
drop from the wind or water to make a layer. The layer can be buried under
other layers of sediments. After a long time the sediments can be cemented
together to make sedimentary rock. In this way, igneous rock can become
sedimentary rock.
All rock can be heated. But where does the heat come from? Inside Earth there
is heat from pressure (push your hands together very hard and feel the heat).
There is heat from friction (rub your hands together and feel the heat). There is
also heat from radioactive decay (the process that gives us nuclear power
plants that make electricity).
So, what does the heat do to the rock? It bakes the rock.
Baked rock does not melt, but it does change. It forms crystals. If it has crystals
already, it forms larger crystals. Because this rock changes, it is called
metamorphic. Remember that a caterpillar changes to become a butterfly. That
change is called metamorphosis. Metamorphosis can occur in rock when they
are heated to 300 to 700 degrees Celsius.
When Earth's tectonic plates move around, they produce heat. When they
collide, they build mountains and metamorphose (met-ah-MORE-foes) the
rock.
The rock cycle continues. Mountains made of metamorphic rocks can be
broken up and washed away by streams. New sediments from these
mountains can make new sedimentary rock.
The rock cycle never stops.

http://www.cet.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/rock.html

The Rock Cycle


Rocks are the most common
material on Earth. They are
naturally occurring
aggregates of one or more
minerals.

Rock divisions occur in three


major families based on how
they formed: igneous,
sedimentary, and
metamorphic. Each group
contains a collection of rock
types that differ from each
other on the basis of the size,
shape, and arrangement of
mineral grains.
The rock cycle is an illustration
that is used to explain how the
three rock types are related to
each other and how Earth
processes change a rock from
one type to another through
geologic time. Plate tectonic
movement is responsible for
the recycling of rock materials
and is the driving force of the
rock cycle

http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/K12/rkcycle/rkcycleindex.html

THE ROCK CYCLE


Return to the Mineral Finder

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A ROCK AND A MINERAL?

Minerals are homogeneous, naturally occurring, inorganic solids. Each mineral has a definite
chemical composition and a characteristic crystalline structure. A mineral may be a single
element such as copper (Cu) or gold (Au), or it may be a compound made up of a number of
elements. About 2,500 different minerals have been described.
Rocks are made up of one or more minerals.

THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF ROCKS. THEY ARE:


1. Igneous Rocks : Formed from the cooling of molten rock.
A. Volcanic igneous rocks formed from molten rock that cooled quickly on
or near the earth's surface.
B. Plutonic igneous rocks are the result of the slow cooling of molten rock
far beneath the surface.
2. Sedimentary Rocks : Formed in layers as the result of moderate pressure on
accumulated sediments.
3. Metamorphic Rocks : Formed from older "parent" rock (either igneous or
sedimentary) under intense heat and/or pressure at considerable depths beneath the
earth's surface.

THE INTERRELATIONSHIP AMONG THE ROCK TYPES IS REFERRED TO AS THE


ROCK CYCLE.
THERE ARE FOUR MAIN LAYERS THAT MAKE UP THE EARTH:
1. Inner Core - A mass of iron with a temperature of about 7000 degrees F.
Although such temeratures would normally melt iron, immense pressure on it
keeps it in a solid form. The inner core is approximately 1,500 miles in diameter.
2. Outer Core - A mass of molten iron about 1,425 miles deep that surrounds the solid
inner core. Electrical currents generated from this area produce the earth's magnetic
field.
3. Mantle - A rock layer about 1,750 miles thick that reaches about half the distance to
the center of the earth. parts of this layer become hot enough to liquify and become slow
moving molten rock or magma.

4. Crust - A layer from 4-25 miles thick consisting of sand and rock.
The core, mantle and crust of the earth can be envisioned as a giant rock recycling machine.
However, the elements that make up rocks are never created or destroyed although they can be
redistributed, transforming one rock type to another. See our Periodic Chart of the Elements for
additional information about specific elements.
The recycling machine works something like this. Liquid (molten) rock material solidifies either at
or below the surface of the earth to form igneous rocks . Uplifting occurs forming mountains made
of rock. The exposure of rocks to weathering and erosion at the earth's surface breaks them down
into smaller grains producing soil. The grains (soil) are transported by wind, water and gravity and
eventually deposited as sediments. This process is referred to as erosion. The sediments are
deposited in layers and become compacted and cemented (lithified) forming sedimentary rocks.
Variation in temperature, pressure, and/or the chemistry of the rock can cause chemical and/or
physical changes in igneous and sedimentary rocks to form metamorphic rocks. When exposed to
higher temperatures, metamorphic rocks (or any other rock type for that matter) may be partially
melted resulting in the creation once again of igneous rocks starting the cycle all over again.

As you might expect - since most of the earth's surface is covered by water - molten material from
inside the earth often breaks through the floor of the ocean and flows from fissures where it is
cooled by the water resulting in the formation of igneous rocks. Some low grade metamorphism
often occurs during and after the formation of the rock due to the intrusion of the material by the sea
water. As the molten material flows from the fissure, it begins forming ridges adjacent to it.
If we examine the rock cycle in terms of plate tectonics, as depicted in the figure above, we see that
igneous rocks form on the sea floor as spreading ridges. As the rocks cool, and more magma is
introduced from below, the plate is forced away from the spreading ridge, and acquires a sediment
cover. As shown in the figure, in this case, the oceanic plate eventually "dives" under the adjacent
continental plate. As the oceanic plate travels deeper, high temperature conditions cause partial
melting of the crustal slab. When that occurs, the surrounding "country rock" (existing adjacent
rock) is metamorphosed at high temperature conditions by the contact. The molten material is either
driven to the surface as volcanic eruptions, or crystallizes to form plutonic igneous rocks.

In the classroom, an apple can be used to represent the structure of the earth. The peel
represents the crust, the white portion of the apple, the mantle. The core of the apple represents the
core of the earth. The thickness of each "layer" of the apple approximates the relative thickness of
the earth's structural features. Almost all of our minerals, oil and gas come from just a thin outer
portion of the crust at maximum depths of about three miles.
We have some great oak-framed wall charts showing the rock cycle and how rocks are formed. For
more information, visit our Framed Wall Charts page.
For individual specimens, visit our Rock and Mineral Specimens page. We also have 15 specimen
collections of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks and an Introductory Rock Collection
which includes 5 examples of each of the three types of rocks. Detailed information is available on
our Boxed Collections page.
Top of Page

http://www.rocksandminerals.com/rockcycle.htm

Lempeng tektonik adalah segmen keras kerak bumi yang disokong oleh magma di bawahnya.
Disebabkan ini maka lempeng tektonik ini bebas untuk menggesek satu sama lain.
Pergerakan antara lempeng tektonik ini tidak berjalan secara perlahan-lahan. Sebaliknya pergeseran
antara tanah dan batu yang membentuk lempeng tektonik menyebabkan pergeseran itu berjalan
tersentak-sentak. Pergerakan inilah yang menyebabkan terjadinya gempa bumi.
Daratan dan juga dasar lautan akan secara perlahan-lahan dibawa ke arah kedudukan baru apabila
lempeng beralih. Batas lempeng ditandai oleh lingkaran gempa bumi dan rangkaian gunung berapi.
Teori lempeng tektonik muncul setelah Alfred Wegener dalam bukunya The Origin of Continents
and Oceans (1915) mengemukakan bahwa benua yang padat sebenarnya terapung dan bergerak di
atas massa yang relatif lembek (continental drift).
Gravitasi dianggap sebagai penyebab utama dari semua pergerakan lempeng. Gaya gravitasi
menarik lempeng yang tersubduksi karena bagian itu meman lebih tua dan lebih berat bobotnya.
Kemudian karena tertarik, ada celah di tengah punggung samudera ang kemudian terisi material
dari dalam mantel.
Diperoleh dari "http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lempeng_tektonik"

Tektonik lempeng termasuk sebuah teori baru yang mengubah cara pandang orang dari sudut
pandang geologi terhadap bumi kita.
Menurut teori ini, permukaan bumi terpecah menjadi beberapa lempeng besar. Ada sepuluh
lempengan utama pembentuk kerak bumi, yaitu:
1. Lempeng Afrika
2. Lempeng Antartika
3. Lempeng Australia
4. Lempeng Eurasia
5. Lempeng Amerika Utara
6. Lempeng Amerika Selatan
7. Lempeng Pasifik
8. Lempeng Cocos
9. Lempeng Nazca
10.
Lempeng India
Lempeng-lempeng tersebut mengapung di atas astenosfer. Pertemuan antara lempeng-lempeng ini,
merupakan tempat-tempat yang memiliki kondisi tektonik yang aktif, yang menyebabkan misalnya
gempa bumi, gunung berapi dan pembentukan dataran tinggi.
http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tektonik_lempeng
plate tectonic

http://aeic.bmg.go.id/images/plate_tektonik.jpg

A rock "sight-seeing" tour around


the world might well begin in the
Hawaiian Islands with a visit to the
world's most active and beststudied volcano, Kilauea. This
famous volcano, like others across
the globe, is the birthplace of
thousands of tons of rocks.

Focus Topics
. Forged by Fire
. Storytellers
7c.Changed Rocks

The rocks are "born" as volcanic eruptions eject massive


amounts of magma onto Earth's
Igneous rocks are formed surface. Remember that magma is
when lava or magma cools nothing more than a large body of hot
and hardens.
liquid rock and minerals. As the
magma cools into a solid rock around
the base of the volcano, it can be
collected as samples of rocks such as basalt, pumice, or
obsidian.
Traveling east to Zion National Park in Utah, tourists would
find the well-known Navajo Sandstone Formation. It looks
like a towering sand dune that has been permanently
solidified against the landscape. The sandstone rocks that
make up the Navajo Sandstone Formation began millions of
years ago as tiny grains of sand in a prehistoric desert.
Over time, winds carried the sand and deposited it into
giant sand dunes. The pressure of each new sand deposit
caused the sand underneath to compact and cement
together into solid rock.
Although these sandstone rocks began as a collection of
individual grains of sand,
the sand grains
Checkerboard Mesa in Zion National Park,
themselves had to come Utah is the remains of an ancient sand dune.
from somewhere and
something else. Where
might these sand grains may have originated?
Geologists theorize that the sand grains may have broken
off a larger rock formed earlier by a volcanic eruption. Or
they may have broken off older sandstone rocks. Because
the Earth is so dynamic, rocks are always changing.
Minerals that make up rocks are constantly moved and
acted upon by the environment. Environmental agents
change one type of rock into an entirely new rock. The web
of environmental processes that forms and changes rocks
is known as the ROCK CYCLE.

Courtesy of the Mineralogical Society of America

Rock Cycle

The rocks on Earth cycle among the following three


categories:
Types of Rocks
Type

Igneous rocks

Sedimentary rocks

Metamorphic rocks

Characteristics

Examples

Igneous rocks are created


Granite
when molten material such as Obsidian
magma (within the Earth) or Basalt
lava (on the surface) cools and Pumice
hardens. The hot material
Andesite
crystallizes into different
Diorite
minerals. The properties and Rhyolite
sizes of the various crystals
depend on the magma's
composition and its rate of
Sedimentary rocks are made
up of sediments eroded from
igneous, metamorphic, other
sedimentary rocks, and even
the remains of dead plants
and animals. These materials
are deposited in layers, or
strata, and then are squeezed
and compressed into rock.
Most fossils are found in
sedimentary rocks.

Sandstone
Shale
Conglomerat
e
Limestone
Chert
Coal
Gypsum

Metamorphic rocks are


produced when sedimentary
or igneous rocks are
transformed by heat and/or
pressure. The word
"metamorphic" comes from
the Greek language, which
means "to change form."

Marble
Slate
Quartzite
Schist
Gneiss

To gain an idea of how the rock cycle works, the world rock

tour that began in Hawaii might end in east Greenland.


Millions of years ago there, magma deep inside the Earth
forced its way into another rock and solidified. This created
an igneous rock. Then, intense pressure in the Earth caused
the rock to up-heave, fold, and crumple, until it became an
entirely new rock: a metamorphic rock. That new rock now
makes up a mountain formation in Greenland.

In this interactive schematic of the rock cycle find out how rocks are formed and
destroyed.

And the rock cycle continues today. Everyday, little pieces


of the mountain rock are worn away by water and wind.
Those pieces collect somewhere and are compressed into
new sedimentary rocks, which will continue to change and
reenter the cycle as different metamorphic rocks or as
melted material that can form new igneous rock. Then the
process will begin all over again.
The rock cycle never ends
6-11
http://www.beyondbooks.com/ear82/7.asp

The Rock Cycle


The Earth is active. As you are reading this:

Volcanoes are erupting and earthquakes are shaking;


Mountains are being pushed up and are being worn down;
Rivers are carrying sand and mud to the sea;
Huge slabs of the Earth's surface called tectonic plates are slowly
moving - about as fast as your fingernails grow.

The Rock Cycle


Plate Tectonics
Earth Structure
Earth Origin
Volcanoes
Earth's Atmosphere
Fossil Fuels
Polymers

Weathering and Erosion


Rocks of every sort and shape are worn away over time. Weathering is the
process which breaks rocks into smaller bits. There are three main types:

Physical weathering is a physical action which breaks up rocks : An


example of this is called freeze-thaw weathering when water gets into
tiny cracks in rocks. When the water freezes it expands, if this is
repeated the crack grows and bits eventually break off.
Chemical weathering is when the rock is chemically attacked: An
example of this is the breakdown of limestone by acid rain.
Biological weathering is when rocks are weakened and broken down
by animals and plants. An example would be a tree root system slowly
splitting rocks.

Erosion is a type of physical weathering which involves wearing down rocks.


Have you heard of coastal erosion? Read about the disaster at Beachy Head.
There is an important point to remember. ROCKS ARE
WEATHERED AT DIFFERENT RATES. Dartmoor is an
upland area of 241 square miles reaching up to 2,000 feet in
height making it the largest and highest area of moorland in
the South of England. It is also the largest granite surface in
England. (see picture). Granite is made up of large
interlocking crystals (igneous rock) that give it a granular
texture and make it one of the toughest rocks on Earth.
Sedimentary rocks such as sandstone tend to be much
weaker

home
Moorland School
Clitheroe,
Lancashire
BB7 2AJ
England
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Transportation
The rock cycle goes round and round, taking hundreds of millions of years.
Once the rock has been broken down into smaller bits it's got to somehow
move. Streams and rivers carry the small bits towards the sea (continually
wearing down as the they progress). Big rivers such as the Humber and the
Severn carry millions of tonnes of sediments out to sea each year.

Deposition
Deposition simply means that the sand and sediments
in the sea eventually settle to the bottom.
LOOK AT THIS ANIMATION:-

Sedimentary Rocks
Sedimentary rocks are formed in three steps:

Layers of sediment are deposited at the


bottom of seas and lakes.
Over millions of years the layers get squashed
by the layers above.
The salts that are present in the layers of
sediment start to crystallize out as the water is
squeezed out. These salts help to cement the
particles together.

How can you spot a Sedimentary rock?

Sedimentary rock will often have layers or


bands across them.
It will often contain fossils which are
fragments of animals or plants preserved
within the rock. Only sedimentary rocks
contain fossils....... click here to find out why.
The rock will tend to scrape easily and often
crumble easily.

SOME COMMON SEDIMENTARY ROCKS:

Sandstone

Sandstone is one of the most


common sedimentary rocks.
It is made from sand grains
eroded from older rocks,
cemented together and then
hardened into new rock.
Here we see a picture of a
Jurassic sandstone from the
USA, notice the layers. Each
layer is a record of an event
in the past.

Conglomerate
This is made from pebbles and smaller stones stuck together in a matrix.

Limestone
Limestones are made from fragments
of sea creatures that sank to the bottom
of ancient tropical seas. Many
limestones from Southern England are
made from dissolved lime which
builds up around sand grains to form
tiny spheres called oolites. Limestones
frequently contain fossils. Here we see
a stalactite from the limestone cave
system a few miles away in Ingleton.

Mudstone or Shale
These are simply just mud hardened into rock. They consist of much finer
particles than sand .They often contain fossils.

Heat and pressure make Metamorphic Rocks


Earth movements can push all types of rock deeper into the Earth. These rocks
are then subjected to massive temperatures and pressures causing the
crystalline structure and texture to change. THEY DO NOT MELT. The high
pressure involved are often associated with mountain building processes.

Slate
This is formed from mudstone or clay and is the most common kind of
metamorphic rock in Britain. Pressure causes new minerals to grow in parallel
sheets - which makes slate split easily to make roofing tiles.

Marble
Marble is limestone that has been squashed and heated .The shells of the
limestone breakdown and recrystallise into tiny crystals. Marble is chemically
the same as limestone but it is much harder and far more expensive. Some of
the finest marble comes from Italy and it is used for sculptures and as a fine
building material.

Schist
Formed from mudstones subjected to great heat over long periods of time. It
looks to have layers of banded crystals (It cannot be igneous because igneous
rocks don't have layers)

Igneous Rocks
Igneous rocks form when molten rock (Magma if it is below the surface or
lava if it has erupted from a volcano) solidifies. These rocks can be identified
by the following tell-tale clues:

Igneous rocks contain a minerals randomly arranged in crystals


(Remember CRYSTALS !!!!!!)
If the rock has small crystals this means that it had rapidly cooled,
possibly because it was erupted into the ocean. We call it an
EXTRUSIVE IGNEOUS rock. If the rock has large crystals it means
that it slowly cooled, the molten rock solidifies deep down within the
crust without ever reaching the surface via an eruption. We call it an
INTRUSIVE IGNEOUS rock.
The rock are usually tough and hard (With the most famous exception
being pumice stone).

This bit is worth remembering:-

COOLED SLOWLY
UNDERGROUND
COOLED QUICKLY AFTER
SMALL CRYSTALS
AN ERUPTION
COMMON IGNEOUS ROCKS
BIG CRYSTALS

INTRUSIVE
EXTRUSIVE

Basalt
This is the most common form igneous rock which makes up most of the
ocean floors. It is smooth and velvety-black in appearance and very hard.
Basalt is formed when magma is erupted onto the sea-bed, as soon as it hits
the cold sea water it cools quickly - it's got tiny crystals.

Pumice
This rock floats on water. Carbon dioxide and water dissolved in the molten
rock is released with the decrease in pressure as it reaches the surface. Lava
cools quite quickly in the air so the bubbles of gas get trapped.

Granite
If molten rock doesn't reach the surface via a volcano and
cools underground instead, it solidifies very slowly (WHAT
WOULD THE CRYSTAL SIZE BE?). This is because
overlying layers of rock insulate the magma keeping it
warm, this only allows gradual cooling. Some crystals grow
to a much bigger size giving granite a speckled appearance.
Granite is the most common form of igneous rock in the
UK.

Earthquakes, Folding and Faulting


Sedimentary rock are often found tilted, folded, fractured and twisted. This
indicates that the Earth has moved with enormous force (obviously over huge
timescales). Large scale movements of the Earth's crust can push up whole
mountain ranges. More information on the Himalayas can be found here.
'What goes up must come down' as the old saying goes, weathering will ensure
that the rock cycle starts all over again.
GO TO THE ROCK TEST
Back to the Earth Science zone
http://www.moorlandschool.co.uk/earth/rockcycle.htm