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this is Investigatory project for AISSCE prescribed by CBSE




Exam. Reg. No. :





This is to certify that this bonafide project work in the
subject of chemistry has been done by
______________ of class XII science in the academic
year 2011-2012 and submitted to AISSCE practical
examination conducted by CBSE at J N V Devarahalli
on _______________






I hereby acknowledge my deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to
the following personalities whose immense help, genius guidance,
encouragement, necessary suggestions, initiations, enthusiasm and
inspiration made this work a master art and a joint enterprise.
Mrs. C. Ammal - (Principal)
Mrs. Rakhee. Y. D - (PGT Chemistry)
Mr. Anantharaju - (Lab assistant)





THOUGHTS:"Scientific and humanist

approaches are not
competitive, but supportive
and both are ultimately

-Robert C Wood.
"There is no higher or lower
knowledge, but one and
only one, flowering out of
-Leonardo da Vinci


To analyze the
available honey for
presence of different

minerals and




Test tubes, Test tube stand, Burner, Water



Fehling solution A, Fehling solution B,

Ammonium chloride solution, Ammonium oxalate

solution, Ammonium phosphate, Conc. Nitric

acid, Potassium sulphocyanide solution.

Honey, thick, sweet, super
manufactured by bees to feed their
larvae and for the subsistence during
Bee honey is composed of
fructose, glucose and water, in varying
proportions. It also contains several
enzymes and oils. The color & flavor
depends on the age of the honey and
the sources of the nectar .It colored
honeys are usually of higher quality
than dark coloured honeys. Other high
grade honeys are made by bees from

orange blossoms, clover and Alfalfa. A

well known, poorer grade honey is
produced from buckwheat.


Honey has a fuel value of about 3307

cal/kg [1520 cal/ lbs]. It readily picks
up moisture from the air and is
consequently used as a moistioning
agent for Tobaco and in baking.
Glucose crystallizes out of honey on
standing at room temperature, leaving
on uncrystallized layer of dissolved
fructose. Honey to be marketed is
usually heated by a special process to
about 66oC [150.01 F] to dissolve the
crystals and is sealed to prevent
crystallized honey ferments readily at
about 160C.


PROCEDURE:TEST FOR MINERALS:1. Test for Potassium:2ml of honey is taken in a test tube
and picric acid solution is added.
Yellow precipitate indicates the
presence of K+.

2. Test for Calcium:2ml of honey is taken in a test tube

and NH4Cl solution and NH4OH
solution are added to it. The
solution is filtered and to the filtrate
2ml of ammonium oxalate solution

is added. White ppt. or milkiness

indicates the presence of Ca2+ ions.

3. Test for Magnesium:-

2 ml of honey is taken in a test tube

and NH4Cl solution is added to it
and then excess of Ammonium
phospate solution is added. The
side of the testtube is scratched
with a glass rod. White precipitate
indicates the presence of Mg2+ ions.

4. Test for Iron:2ml of honey is taken in a test tube

and a drop of conc. HNO3 is added
and it is heated. It is cooled and 2-3
drops of Potassium sulphocyanide

solution is added to it. Blood red

colour shows the presence of iron.


1. Fehling`s test :
2mL of honey is taken in a test tube and
1mL each of Fehling`s solution A and
Fehling`s solution B are added to it and
boiled. Red precipitate indicates the
presence of reducing sugars.
2. Tollen`s test:
2-3 mL of aqueous solution of honey is
taken in a test tube. 2-3mL of Tollen`s
reagent is added. The test tube is kept in
a boiling water bath for about ten
minutes. A shining silver mirror

indicates the presence of reducing



Substance taken: honey




Test for Potassium:-


Honey + Picric acid


Yellow ppt.is

Potassium is

White ppt.or
milkiness is not

Calcium is

White ppt.is not


Magnesium is

Blood red colour

is observed

Iron is present.

Test for Calcium:-


Honey + NH4Cl soln. +

NH4OH soln. filtered +

Test for


Honey+ NH4OH (till

solution becomes
alkaline) + (NH4)3Po4

Test for Iron:-


Honey+ conc.HNO3,
heated and cooled, +

Fehling`s test:-


Honey + 1mL each of

Fehling`s solution A and
Fehling`s solution B

Red ppt. is

Reducing sugar
is present.

Shining silver
mirror is observed

carbohydrate is

Tollens test:-


Honey + 2-3mL Tollen`s

reagent, test tube in
water bath for 10


RESULT : Potassium is present.

Iron is present.
Calcium is absent.
Magnesium is absent.
Honey contains reducing sugar.
Foaming Capacity of Soaps This is to certify that Mr. Pratyush Mishra of Class XI B has
satisfactorily completed the project on Foaming Capacity of Soap under the guidance of Sir
Francis Xavier during the session 2009-2010. Place: D-22 RDVV UNIVERSITY
JABALPUR Date: (Sir Francis Xavier) School Stamp Id like to express my greatest
gratitude to the people who have helped & supported me throughout my project. I m grateful
to Sir Francis Xavier for his continuous support for the project, from initial advice &
encouragement to this day. Special thanks of mine goes to my colleague who helped me in
completing the project by giving interesting ideas, thoughts & made this project easy and

accurate. I wish to thanks my parents for their undivided support & interest who inspired me
& encouraged me to go my own way, without which I would be unable to complete my
project. At last but not the least I want to thanks my friends who appreciated me for my work
& motivated me and finally to God who made all the things possible S. no. Contents Page
6 Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of higher fatty acids like stearic, palmitic and oleic
acids can be either saturated or unsaturated. They contain a long hydrocarbon chain of about
10-20 carbon with one carboxylic acid group as the functional group. A soap molecule a
tadpole shaped structure, whose ends have different polarities. At one end is the long
hydrocarbon chain that is non-polar and hydrophobic, i.e., insoluble in water but oil soluble.
At the other end is the short polar carboxylate ion which is hydrophilic i.e., water soluble but
insoluble in oil and grease. Long Hydrocarbon Chain Hydrophobic end Hydrophilic end
When soap is shaken with water it becomes a soap solution that is colloidal in nature.
Agitating it tends to concentrate the solution on the surface and causes foaming. This helps
the soap molecules make a unimolecular film on the surface of water and to penetrate the
fabric. The long non-polar end of a soap molecule that are hydrophobic, gravitate towards
and surround the dirt (fat or oil with dust absorbed in it). The short polar end containing the
carboxylate ion, face the water away from the dirt. A number of soap molecules surround or
encircle dirt and grease in a clustered structure called micelles, which encircles such
particles and emulsify them. Cleansing action of soaps decreases in hard water. Hard water
contains Calcium and magnesium ions which react with sodium carbonate to produce
insoluble carbonates of higher fatty acids. 2C17H35COONa +Ca2+ (C17H35COO) 2 Ca
+2Na+ (Water soluble) (ppt.) 2C17H35COONa + Mg2+ (C17H35COO) 2 Mg +2Na+ This
hardness can be removed by addition of Sodium Carbonate. Ca2++ Na2CO3 CaCO3 + 2Na+
Mg2++ Na2CO3 MgCO3 + 2Na+ Aim: To compare the foaming capacities of five different
commercial soaps. Apparatus: 5 test tubes, 5 conical flasks (100 ml), test tube stand, Bunsen
burner and stop watch. Materials Required: 5 different samples of soap and distilled water
Theory: The foaming capacity of a soap sample depends upon the nature of soap and its
concentration. This can be compared for various samples of soaps by taking the same
concentration of solution and shaking them. The foam is formed and the time taken for
disappearances of foam in all cases is compared. The lesser the time taken by a solution for
the disappearance of foam, the lower is its foaming capacity. Procedure: Five conical flasks
(100 ml each) are taken and numbered 1 to 5. In each of these flasks equal amounts (say 5
gm) of the given samples of soap shavings or granules are taken and 50 ml of distilled water
is added. Each conical flask is heated few minutes to dissolve all the soap completely. In a
test-tube stand, five big clean and dry test tubes are taken and numbered 1 to 5 One ml of the
five soap solution is then poured in the test tubes of corresponding number. 10 ml. of distilled
water is then added to each test tube. Test tube no 1 is then shaken vigorously 5 times. The
foam would be formed in the empty space above the container. Stop watch is started
immediately and the time taken for the disappearance of foam is noted. Similarly the other
test tubes are shaken vigorously for equal number of times (i.e., 5 times) with approximately
with the same force and the time taken for the disappearance of foam in each case is
recorded. The lesser the time taken for the disappearance of foam, the lower is the foaming
capacity. Observation: Amount of each soap sample taken Amount of distilled water taken
Volume of each soap solution taken Volume of distilled water added = 5 gm. = 50 ml. = 1 ml.
= 10 ml. S. No. Soap Sample Time taken (seconds) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Conclusions: The soap for
which the time taken for the disappearance of foam is highest has maximum foaming
capacity and is the best quality soap among the soaps tested.
Read more at: http://projects.icbse.com/chemistry-321

Measuring the Amount of Acetic Acid In Vinegar AIM Measuring the Amount of Acetic
Acid In Vinegar by Titration with an Indicator Solution Certificate This is to certify that
Mohit K.Das of class XII has completed the chemistry project entitled DETERMINATION
OF AMOUNT OF ACETIC ACID IN VINEGAR himself and under my guidance. The
progress of the project has been continuously reported and has been in my knowledge
consistently. Mrs. Aditi Kapoor (P.G.T CHEMISTRY) MOTHER DIVINE PUBLIC
SCHOOL Acknowledgement It gives me great pleasure to express my gratitude towards our
chemistry teacher Mrs. ADITI KAPOOR for her guidance, support and encouragement
throughout the duration of the project. Without her motivation and help the successful
completion of this project would not have been possible. Navi Arora Index 1 Certificate 2
Acknowledgement 3 Aim 4 Objective 5 Introduction 6 Materials and Equipment 7 Theory 8
Experimental Procedure > Experiment 1 > Experiment 2 > Experiment 3 9 Result 10
Precautions 1 1 Bibliography Objective The goal of this project is to determine the amount of
Acetic Acid in different types of vinegar using titration with a coloured pH indicator to
determine the endpoint. Introduction Vinegar is a solution made from the fermentation of
ethanol (CH3CH2OH), which in turn was previously fermented from sugar. The fermentation
of ethanol results in the production of acetic acid (CH3COOH). There are many different
types of vinegar, each starting from a different original sugar source (e.g., rice, wine, malt,
etc.). The amount of acetic acid in vinegar can vary, typically between 4 to 6% for table
vinegar, but up to three times higher (18%) for pickling vinegar. In this project, we will
determine the amount of acid in different vinegars using titration, a common technique in
chemistry. Titration is a way to measure the unknown amount of a chemical in a solution (the
titrant) by adding a measured amount of a chemical with a known concentration (the titrating
solution). The titrating solution reacts with the titrant, and the endpoint of the reaction is
monitored in some way. The concentration of the titrant can now be calculated from the
amount of titrating solution added, and the ratio of the two chemicals in the chemical
equation for the reaction. To measure the acidity of a vinegar solution, we can add enough
hydroxyl ions to balance out the added hydrogen ions from the acid. The hydroxyl ions will
react with the hydrogen ions to produce water. In order for a titration to work, we need three
things: a titration solution (contains hydroxyl ions with a precisely known concentration), a
method for delivering a precisely measured volume of the titrating solution, and a means of
indicating when the endpoint has been reached. For the titrating solution, well use a dilute
solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Sodium hydroxide is a strong base, which means that
it dissociates almost completely in water. So for every NaOH molecule that we add to the
solution,we can expect to produce a hydroxyl ion. To dispense an accurately measured
volume of the titrating solution, we will use a burette. A burette is a long tube with a valve at
the bottom and graduated markings on the outside to measure the volume contained in the
burette. The burette is mounted on a ring stand, directly above the titrant solution (as shown
in the picture). Solutions in the burette tend to creep up the sides of the glass at the surface of
the liquid. This is due to the surface tension of water. The surface of the liquid thus forms a
curve, called a meniscus. To measure the volume of the liquid in the burette, always read
from the bottom of the meniscus. In this experiment, we will use an indicator solution called
phenolphthalein. Phenolphthalein is colourless when the solution is acidic or neutral. When

the solution becomes slightly basic, phenolphthalein turns pinkish, and then light purple as
the solution becomes more basic. So when the vinegar solution starts to turn pink, we know
that the titration is complete. Materials and Equipment To do this experiment we will need
the following materials and equipment: . Vinegar, three different types. . Distilled water .
Small funnel . 0.5% Phenolphthalein solution in alcohol (pH indicator solution) . 0.1 M
sodium hydroxide solution . 125 mL Conical flask . 25 or 50 mL burette . 10 mL graduated
cylinder . Ring stand . Burette clamp Theory Required amount of sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
can be calculated using the following formula: W _ Molarity x Molarmass x Volume(cm ) _
1000 Molar mass of NaOH = 40 g/mol = 0.5 x 40 x 500 ~ 1000 = 10 g The acetic acid
content of a vinegar may be determined by titrating a vinegar sample with a solution of
sodium hydroxide of known molar concentration (molarity). CH3COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq)
CH3COONa(aq) + H2O(l) (acid) + (base) > (salt) + (water) At the end point in the
titration stoichiometry between the both solution lies in a 1:1 ratio.
MCH3COOHVCH3COOH 1 MNaOHVNaOH 1 Strength of acid in vinegar can be
determined by the following formula: Strength of acetic acid = MCH COOH x 60 Indicator:Phenolphthalein End Point:- Colourless to pink Experimental Procedure Performing the
Titration Pour 1.5 ml of vinegar in an Conical flask. Add distilled water to dissolve the
vinegar so that the volume of the solution becomes 20 mL. Add 3 drops of 0.5%
phenolphthalein solution. Use the burette clamp to attach the burette to the ring stand. The
opening at the bottom of the burette should be just above the height of the Conical flask we
use for the vinegar and phenolphthalein solution. Use a funnel to fill the burette with a 0.1 M
solution of sodium hydroxide. Note the starting level of the sodium hydroxide solution in the
burette. Put the vinegar solution to be titrated under the burette. Slowly drip the solution of
sodium hydroxide into the vinegar solution. Swirl the flask gently to mix the solution, while
keeping the opening underneath the burette. At some point we will see a pink colour in the
vinegar solution when the sodium hydroxide is added, but the colour will quickly disappear
as the solution is mixed. When this happens, slow the burette to drop-by-drop addition. When
the vinegar solution turns pink and remains that colour even with mixing, the titration is
complete. Close the tap (or pinch valve) of the burette. Note the remaining level of the
sodium hydroxide solution in the burette. Remember to read from the bottom of the
meniscus. Subtract the initial level from the remaining level to figure out how much titrating
solution we have used. For each vinegar that we test, repeat the titration at least three times.
EXPERIMENT 1 I. Take the household vinegar in the conical flask and do the titration
with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as mentioned. OBSERVATIONS S.no Volume of vinegar
solution Burette Reading Volume of NaOH solution used Initial (in mL) Final (in mL) 1. 20 0
27 27 2. 20 0 27 27 3. 20 0 27 27 Concordant volume = 27 mL CALCULATIONS We know
VNaOH CH3COOH COOH 0.5 x 27 => MCH 20 = 0.675 mol/L Strength of acetic
acid=0.675 x 60 =40.5 g/L EXPERIMENT 2 I. Take the wine vinegar in the conical flask
and do the titration with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as mentioned. OBSERVATIONS S.no
Volume of vinegar solution Burette Reading Volume of NaOH solution used Initial (in mL)
Final (in mL) 1. 20 0 48 48 2. 20 0 48 48 3. 20 0 48 48 Concordant volume = 48mL
COOH V M NaOH VNaOH CH3COOH COOH 0.5 x 48 => MCH 20 = 1.2 mol/L Strength
of acetic acid=1.2 x 60 =72 g/L EXPERIMENT 3 I. Take the fruit(Persimmon) vinegar in
the conical flask and do the titration with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as mentioned.
OBSERVATIONS S.no Volume of vinegar solution Burette Reading Volume of NaOH
solution used Initial (in mL) Final (in mL) 1. 20 0 32 32 2. 20 0 32 32 3. 20 0 32 32
Concordant volume = 32 mL CALCULATIONS We know that, MCH3COOHVCH3COOH

MCH 20 = 0.8 mol/L Strength of acetic acid=0.8 x 60 =48 g/L Result > Strength of acetic
acid in household vinegar = 40.5 g/L. > Strength of acetic acid in wine vinegar = 72 g/L. >
Strength of acetic acid in fruit vinegar = 48 g/L. Graphically plotting various vinegar samples
in accordance with the amount of acetic acid present in them we present a stunning find:
Household Vinegar Wine Fruit Vinegar Order of amount of acetic acid in different samples
of vinegar is: Wine > Fruit vinegar > Household vinegar Precautions > Transference of
measured vinegar into a measuring flask should be done very carefully. > Measuring must be
performed carefully. > Look at the meniscus of solution at eye level to avoid parallax. > Look
at the lower meniscus in the light coloured solution and upper meniscus in the dark coloured
solution because of visibility. > Do not forget to add distilled water to the vinegar.
Read more at: http://projects.icbse.com/chemistry-327