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City Development Plan

Guwahati

July 2006

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 : Need & background of City Development Plan


1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

Background
Objectives & Goals
Strategic Aims & Implementation Programme
Evolvement of CDP through a Consultative Process

Chapter 2 : Introduction to the Region


2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7

Guwahati Metropolitan Area


Population
Geographical Location
Climate of the Region
Soil Profile of the Region
Institutional Responsibility
Regional Linkages
2.7.1 Roads
2.7.2 Railways
2.7.3 Airways
2.8 Seismic Zone

8-15

16-27

Overall Decadal Population & Growth Rate


Population Density
Population Projections
Migrations
Urbanization
Age Mix and Sex Ratio
Literacy Rate
Work force Variance
3.8.1 Work Break-Up
3.8.2 Income Variance

Chapter 4 : Economic Base


4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4

5
6
7
7

8
9
9
11
11
12
13
13
14
14
14

Chapter 3 : Demography
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8

5-7

16
18
19
20
22
22
24
24
25
27

28-34

Background
Industry
Key Industries
Informal Sector

28
28
30
34

Chapter 5 : Profile of Urban Local Bodies


5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6

Background
Introduction to Guwahati Municipal Corporation
Financial Profile Guwahati Municipal Corporation
Summary of Key Observations
Action Plan
Funding for Capacity Building

Chapter 6 : Situation Appraisal

35-42
35
35
37
39
40
40

43-76

6.1 Environment

43

6.1.1 Disaster Management

45

6.2 Tourism

48

6.3 Water

49

6.4 Housing

53

6.5 Transportation

55

6.6 Drainage & Storm water Drainage

64

6.7 Sanitation & Sewerage

69

6.8 Basic Services for Urban Poor

70

6.9 Solid Waste Management

71

6.10 Water Front Development

75

6.11 Urban Renewal

75

Chapter 7 : Environment

77-80

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Background
7.3 Action Plan
7.3.1 Water Pollution
7.3.2 Drainage and Dredging
7.3.3 Air Pollution
7.3.4 Forest, Soil erosion & Hill Cutting
7.3.5 Water Bodies
7.3.6 Disaster Management

Chapter 8 : Vision & Perspective

77
77
77
77
78
78
78
79
79

81-83

8.1 Background

81

Chapter 9 : Land Use and Availability

84-88

9.1 Background
9.2 Present Scenario
9.3 Land Use 2025

84
84
86

Chapter 10 : Tourism
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6

89-93

Background
Vision
Waterfront Attraction
Religious Places
Other Places (Outside GMA)
Action Plans

89
89
89
90
91
92

Chapter 11 : Water
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4

94-98

Background
Vision
Action Plans
Schemes

94
94
94
98

Chapter 12 : Housing

99-99

12.1 Aims and Objectives


12.2 Background
12.3 Situation Appraisal

99
99
99

Chapter 13 : Transportation

100-107

13.1 Background
13.2 Vision
13.3 Major Action Points
13.3.1 Traffic Management System
13.3.2 Integrated Transportation System

Chapter 14 : Drainage & Storm Water Drainage


14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4

Background
Action Plans
Background Storm Water Drainage
Action Plan

100
100
100
101
103

108-113
108
108
109
110

Chapter 15 : Sanitation & Sewerage

114-115

15.1 Background
15.2 Action Plan

114
114

Chapter 16 : Basic Services to the Urban Poor


16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4

Background
Vision
Key Interventions
Key Actions

116-120
116
116
117
117

Chapter 17 : Solid Waste Management


17.1 Background
17.2 Action Plans

121-127
121
122

Chapter 18 : Waterfront Development

128-130

18.1 Background
18.2 Action Plans
18.3 Major Action Points

128
128
129

Chapter 19 : Urban Renewal Programme


19.1 Vision
19.2 Background
19.3 Major Action Points

131-133
131
131
131

Chapter 20 : Reform Program

134-142

20.1 Background and Reform Goals


20.2 Reform Agenda

134
134

Chapter 21 : City Investment Plan


21.1
21.2
21.3
21.4

143-152

Background
Sustainability & Financial Options
Sector Wise Utilisation
Financial Operating Plan

143
143
148
151

ANNEXURE 1 : CDP Through a Consultative Process


ANNEXURE 2 : Table on Institutional responsibility
ANNEXURE 3 : Analysis on Air Samples, Standards & Ambient Air Quality
ANNEXURE 4 : Details on Receipt & Expenditure of GMC (2002-2004)

155-160
161-161
162-162
163-164

1. Need & background of City Development Plan


1.1

Background

Cities and towns play a vital role in the countrys socio-economic growth, its
transformation and change. The exponential increase in population and
unplanned growth over the years have created enormous pressure on the
availability of land and infrastructure with the result that most cities and towns are
severely stressed in terms of available infrastructure and delivery of basic
services.

Guwahati is recognized to be the most critical city in the Northeast India. The city
has a well-developed connectivity with the rest of the country and acts as the
gateway to the entire North Eastern India. Hence, the development of the city is
not only critical to the state of Assam but also to the entire Northeast. Given the
criticality of the city to the entire region, it is quite evident that population of the
city would continue to grow rapidly in the future.

It is therefore extremely important that for the entire region to grow, the city
needs to adopt a holistic and an all round Plan for development. An Integrated
City Development Plan laying down a long-term vision for the city and also

The City Development Plan

identifying key Strategies and Action Plans for achieving the same is important.

if efficiently and equitably

Absence of the same would lead to Piece-meal and Skewed development.

managed,

will

trigger

collateral development of its

In order to encourage planned development of the urban sector across the


country, the Government of India has recently launched the Jawaharlal Nehru

adjoining hinterland mostly


through

trickling

down

effect- which will in turn

National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). The Mission aims at bringing about

help raise the level of over

fast track planned development of identified cities with a clear focus on bringing

all welfare in this part of the

efficiency in urban infrastructure and service delivery mechanisms, community

region directly, and all over

participation, and accountability of ULBs/ Parastatal agencies towards citizens.

the State as well as the

Guwahati is one of the 63 cities, which have been identified under the said
mission. The mission has also identified drawing up a City Development Plan as
one of the critical milestones in this regard.

In view of the above, Guwahati has taken up a programme of a City


Development Plan (CDP). The CDP focuses on the development of infrastructure
and builds up strategies that deal specifically with issues affecting the urban
poor, strengthening of municipal governments, their financial accounting,

budgeting systems and procedures, creation of structures for bringing in


accountability and transparency, and elimination of legal and other bottlenecks
that have stifled the land and housing markets. It provides a basis for cities to
undertake urban sector reforms that help direct investment into city-based
infrastructure using the Public Private Partnership (PPP) route.

1.2

Objectives & Goals

The objectives and Goals of the CDP are in line with that of the
JNNURM and form the basis of the Strategies and Action Plans being
drawn herein.

Specifically, the CDP aims at achieving the following objectives:

The prime strategic goals are

Promote focused, balanced and sustainable economic and infrastructure


development that will enable Guwahati to fulfill its role as the Gateway to
the North-East (N-E) India and possibly to the South East Asia under the
look east policy of the Government of India;

Provide for and build a natural environment that contributes to providing


a good quality of life for the residents and visitors;

Provide Basic Services to the Urban Poor through quality delivery of civic
amenities and provision of utilities with emphasis on universal access at
an affordable price

Planned development leading to dispersed urbanisation and reduction of


congestion;

Improving Inter and Intra regional accessibility;

Raise adequate funds for meeting the investment requirements in the


infrastructure sector;

Ensuring a mechanism for maintenance of assets created, so as to


ensure long term project sustainability;

1.3

Strategic Aims & Implementation Programme

The overall goals are in turn integrated into the strategic aims of what the City
seeks to achieve in the lifespan of the Mission and beyond. These aims also form
the basis for the identification of various schemes and programs besides
formulation of policies to be taken up over the Mission Period.

The plan includes strategic aims for each of the sectors as has been recognized
by the Mission and in order to achieve the same a number of schemes and
programmes have been identified.
It may be recognized that the CDP is a dynamic document and has been
designed to be responsive to ever-changing requirements of the citizens of
the city.

To the extent that the requirements change, the Plan will be

continuously reviewed and developed to ensure that it is in line with the


changing aspirations of the people.

1.4

Evolvement of CDP through a Consultative Process

In order to develop a shared vision of the area, views of stakeholders consisting of


- Citizens/Beneficiaries, Peoples Representatives, key member of local industries,
Academic & Research Institutions and members of the respective Urban Local
Bodies have been taken. Suggestions, issues, interventions, views, ideas,
proposals etc. emerging from consultation has been provided in the Vision as well
as taken into account while formulating the CDP.

DETAILS

OF

CONSULTATIVE

PROCESS

PROVIDED IN ANNEXURE-I

HAVE

BEEN

2. Introduction to the Region


2.1

Guwahati Metropolitan Area

The City Development Plan (CDP) focuses on the Guwahati Metropolitan


Development

Authority

jurisdiction,

comprising

of

Guwahati

Municipal

Corporation Area (GMCA), North Guwahati Town Committee area, Amingaon


and some revenue villages. The area is known as the Guwahati metropolitan
area (GMA) and covers an area of 264 kms.

The

Guwahati

Metropolitan

Area

covers a jurisdiction
of 264 sq km and
comprises

of

Guwahati Municipal
Corporation
North

Guwahati

Town

Committee,

Amingaon.

Guwahati is a part of Kamrup District and is situated between 25.43 and


26.51 North Latitude and between 90.36 and 92.12 East Longitude. Located
on the banks of the Brahamaputra River, it is the largest commercial, industrial
and educational center of the N-E region.

Guwahati is easily accessible by air, rail & road. Lokapriya Gopinath Bordoloi
International Airport is a modern airport and most airlines have daily flights from
all metros across India via Delhi and Kolkata. In addition, it also has regular
connectivity with the South East Asia with twice a week flights connecting
Bangkok with the region.

Area,

2.2

Population

As per Census 2001, the population of Kamrup district is 25,15,030,


contributing to 9.44% of the state population; Kamrup is the most populous
district of the state. Also among the districts of Assam, Kamrup shows the
maximum decadal growth rate (28.73%) during 1991-2001.
The total population covered under the Guwahati Metropolitan Area as per
2001 census is 8,90,773.

2.3

Geographical Location

Guwahati is situated on the banks of river Brahmaputra with its cardinal points as
0

26 10 north latitude and 92 49 east longitude. It is located towards the SouthEastern side of Kamrup district, which is surrounded by Nalbari district in the
North, Darrang and Marigaon districts in the East, Meghalaya State in the south
and Goalpara and Barpeta districts in the West.
The city is situated on an undulating plain with varying altitudes of 49.5 m to 55.5
m above Mean Sea Level (MSL). The Southern and Eastern sides of the city are
surrounded by hillocks. Apart from the hilly tracts, swamps, marshes, water
bodies like Deepor Beel, Silpukhuri, Dighali Pukhuri, Borsola Beel and Silsakoo
Beel etc also cover the city.

Map 1: Map of Guwahati

10

2.4

Climate of the Region

The climate of the state is characterized by a warm and humid feeling. As the
tropic of cancer runs through the state, the climate is temperate but pleasant.
The monsoon brings heavy rains to Guwahati. The average temperature is
31.5C to 24.7C in summers and 24.9C to 12.5C in winters.

The city has four well-defined seasons, summer, monsoon, winter and spring.
Winter season is from October to March and spring starts from April and this is
the best time to visit Guwahati. A mild and moderate climate never given to
extreme cold or heat is the main feature of Guwahatis climate.
Table 1: Climate of the Region
Mean Temperature oC

Mean Total Rainfall


(mm)

Mean Number of
Rainy Days

23.6

11.4

1.2

11.5

26.4

12.8

1.3

Mar

15.5

30.2

57.7

4.6

Apr

20.0

31.5

142.3

9.0

May

22.5

31.0

248.0

14.3

Jun

24.7

31.4

350.1

16.1

Jul

25.5

31.8

353.6

16.8

Aug

25.5

32.1

269.9

13.9

Sep

24.6

31.7

166.2

10.3

Oct

21.8

30.1

79.2

5.3

Nov

16.4

27.4

19.4

1.5

Dec

11.5

24.6

5.1

0.4

Month

Daily
Minimum

Daily
Maximum

Jan

9.8

Feb

Source: Regional Meteorological Centre Guwahati 1951 -1980

2.5

Soil Profile of the Region

The city is situated on an undulating plain with varying altitudes of 49.5 m to 55.5
m above mean sea level (MSL). The southern and eastern sides of the city are

The city is situated on


an

undulating

plain

with varying altitudes of

surrounded by hillocks. The central part of the city also has small hillocks like

49.5

Sarania hill (193 m), Nabagraha hill (217 m), Nilachal hill (193 m) and Chunsali

above mean sea level

Hill (293 m). Apart from the hilly tracts, swamps, marshes and small water bodies

(MSL).

like Deepar beel, Dighali Pukhuri and Silsakoo beel etc also cover the city.

11

m to

55.5 m

The construction activities on the hills in Guwahati have resulted in the removal

The Guwahati Municipal

of vegetation cover in the forest area thereby exposing the surface. It has been

Development

observed that the soil loss is more on theexposed slopes than the vegetation

(GMDA)

covered slopes. The problem of soil erosion is significant not only from the view

agency

point of loss of soil fertility but also with respect to from the several

development of the area.

environmental issues such as water logging, flashflood, siltation, decrease in the


ground water table and the dusty environment on sunny days.

2.6

region

however

Metropolitan Development Authority (GMDA). The area covered under GMDA


includes the GMC area of 216 sq kms and an additional 48 sq kms.
Table 2: Institutional Framework

Drainage
Storm water
drainage
Solid Waste
disposal
Municipal roads
(Including flyover)
Street lighting
Town Planning

Planning and
Design

Construction

Operation
and Maintenance

PHE/AUWSSD/GMC

PHE/AUWSSD/GMC

PHE/AUWSSD/GMC

PHE/AUWSSD/GMC/
FCD
PHE/AUWSSD/GMC/
FCD
GMDA/GMC/T&CP

PHE/AUWSSD/GMC/
FCD
PHE/AUWSSD/GMC/
FCD

PHE/AUWSSD/GMC/
FCD
PHE/AUWSSD/GMC/
FCD

GMDA/GMC

GMDA/GMC

GMC

GMC

GMC

PWD/GMDA/GMC

PWD/GMDA/GMC

PWD/GMDA/GMC

PWD/GMDA/GMC

PWD/GMDA/GMC

PWD/GMDA/GMC

GMDA & T& CP

GMDA

GMDA

AUWSSB- Assam Urban Water Supply and Sewerage Department


GMC- Guwahati Municipal Corporation
GMDA- Guwahati Metropolitan Development Authority
PHE- Public Health Engineering
PWD- Public Works Department
FCD- Flood Control Department
T&CP: Town and Country Planning
Note: The area responsibilities are provided in annexure 2

12

the

of

the
forms

apart of the GMC area

agencies, the Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC) and the Guwahati

Sewerage

nodal

for

portion

The primary development agenda of Guwahati city is carried out by two main

Water supply

the

Major

Institutional Responsibility

Infrastructure

is

Authority

The presence of multiple agencies while discharging similar duties has compounded the problem
of service delivery in the city of Guwahati. Though each of the agencies in question has a clear
demarcation with respect to service delivery in specific locations, for example, the PHE supplying
drinking water to State Government installations, many a time, there are duplications of effort.
The problem is compounded more so with respect to consumers, who have to deal with a number
of agencies for redressal and service delivery.

The need of the hour with respect to the functioning of the various agencies concerning the
discharge of civic functions is to bring about accountability of service delivery. In addition,
wherever possible, the functioning of the agencies need to be streamlined to bring it under one
agency, which will not only help in improving service delivery but also bring about accountability.

Further, some of the specific activities further streamlined with entrustment to individual agencies.
For example, the planning and design for drainage could be entrusted to the PHE department
and the construction could be with the PWD.

It is, however, apparent that each of the agencies operating in the city has predefined areas in
which they operate, and hence there is a broad clarity on their roles and responsibilities. But it is
recognized that the various agencies need to be brought under the ambit of the Guwahati
Municipal Corporation, which should have the overall responsibility of providing infrastructure
services in Guwahati and shall utilize the services of other agencies on a need basis.

2.7

Regional Linkages

Guwahati being the most important city of the Northeast has fairly well developed
road, rail and air connectivity with the rest of the country and other cities and
towns of the region. This is one of the major benefits of the Guwahati
Metropolitan Area, since it offers good connectivity and related privileges for the
development of the entire region.

The city has a


well-developed
connectivity
the

2.7.1

Roads

rest

of

with
the

country. The city


acts

as

Guwahati Metropolitan Area has been touched upon by National Highway 31,

gateway

National Highway 37, and National Highway 40. National Highways 31 and 37

North-East

connect GMA with the rest of the country, while National highway 40 and State
Highways connect the area with other north-eastern states of Tripura,
Meghalaya, Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh and other
cities and towns of Assam. National Highway 40 is a major link connecting

13

the
to

the

Guwahati City with Shillong, Mizoram and southern parts of Assam. Whereas
National Highway 31 connects the city with Bongaigaon, Dhuburi and enters
West Bengal in the west. All the census towns and other important areas are
located on or along the National Highways 31 and 37.

2.7.2

Railways

A broad gauge railway line connects Guwahati with other nearby major towns like
Rangia, Bongaigaon, Khetri, etc. and further with the rest of the country. The
Broad Gauge Railway Track also connects Guwahati with Dibrugarh Tinsukia
in the East.

2.7.3

Airways

Lokapriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport at Guwahati is the largest


besides being the busiest airport in the entire North Eastern region. It connects
the city with major cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata as well as with other cities in
Assam and the North-Eastern region like Agartala, Imphal, Silchar, Tezpur,
Jorhat, Dimapur, North Lakhimpur and Dibrugarh. Guwahati airport caters to both
private and national airlines and has been recently converted in to an
international airport with direct connectivity to South East Asia.

2.8

Seismic Zone

The Brahmaputra valley and its adjoining highlands


constitute a highly active seismic zone. Guwahati falls
in the Seismic Zone V, where earthquakes of
magnitude 8 or more can occur i.e. the zone with
highest intensity along with the entire north-eastern
region. Guwahati and its surrounding area are situated
on the fringe of hard rock formation. Its vulnerability to
the sesmic activity is excerbated due to congestion
brought on by topography, with poorly build housing
and narrow streets. Earthquakes measuring upto 8.7
on the Richter scale occurred here in 1897 and 1950.
Between 1920 and 1980 as many as 455 earthquakes

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of magnitude 5 on the Richter scale were recorded in the region, an average of 8


per year
Since, earthquakes are among the most dangerous and destructive natural
hazards and are also the least easy to predict, warnings against it or
preparations against physical destruction are difficult. Thus this calls for an
attention to such natural disasters so that necessary precautionary disaster
management steps can be undertaken.

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3. Demography
3.1

Overall Decadal Population & Growth Rate

The State of Assam has been consistently witnessing a balanced growth in


population. Assam accounts for over 70 % of the population of the Northeast
(census 2001). The District Kamrup is one of the most densely populated regions
of Assam.
Guwahati is a fast growing metropolis and the most important city of the region.
The city with a population of 8.9 Lakhs (Census 2001) is by far the largest
settlement, while Shillong and Imphal, with population size of only 2.7 and 2.5
lakhs respectively are second and third largest cities in the North Eastern region.
With substantial increase in population in the last few decades and poised to grow
further, the City needs a well-structured development plan in its infrastructure to
sustain this rapid growth.

Table 3: Population Growth


Population growth in Guwahati vis--vis India, Assam and Kamrup
1971
1991
2001
Average
Decadal
Name
Decadal
Population Population
Population Growth Rate
Growth Rate
in Percent
India
548.15
846.3
24.25
1,027.01
21.35
Assam
14.63
22.41
23.8
26.64
18.85
Kamrup
1.21
2
28.73
2.52
25.75
GMA
0.29
0.65
48.45
0.89
37.85
GMCA
0.12
0.58
117.27
0.81
38.6
Source: Various issues of the Census of India
No census was carried out during 1981

The population of Guwahati Metropolitan Area has grown almost 6.5 times
between 1971 and 2001. The municipal limit of the city during the period
increased from 43.82 sq.km in 1971 to 216.79 sq.km in 1991. The Decadal
Growth in the GMA is otherwise quite balanced. The following Graph shows the
population trend of the city over the decades.

16

Fig 1: Population breakup of the GMDA from 1921 to 2001

890,773
900,000
800,000

646,169

700,000
600,000
371,296

500,000
293,219

400,000
199,482

300,000

97,389

200,000
100,000
0
1951

1961

1951

1971

1961

1971

1981*

1981*

1991

2001

1991

2001

Source: Various Issues of Census of India

Table 4: Growth of population in Guwahati: 1921 to 2001

Decadal
GMA
Decadal
Population
Growth excluding Growth
in GMCA
(%)
GMCA
(%)
1921
16,480
-

Year

GMA

Decadal
Growth
(%)

1931

21,797

1941

29,594

1951

43,615

1961

100,707

130.9

98,775

83.69

199,482

104.83

1971

123,783

22.91

169,436

71.54

293,219

46.99

1981*

268,945

117.27

102,351

-39.6

371,296

48.45

1991

584,342

117.27

61,827

-39.6

646,169

48.45

2001

809,895

38.6

80,878

30.81

890,773

37.85

53,774

97,389

Source: Census Statistical Hand Book and Zoning Regulations for Guwahati

17

The decadal population growth in Guwahati Metropolitan Area is nearly, 37.85%,


which is substantially higher than that of the National decadal growth of 21.35%.
Table 5: Decadal Growth
Name

Decadal Growth Rate in


Percent (2001)

India
Assam
Kamrup
GMCA
GMDA

21.35
18.85
25.75
37.85
38.6

Source: Guwahati Master Plan

3.2

Population Density

The Population Density of Guwahati has been steadily increasing. The following
graph shows trends in Population Density since 1981

Fig 2: Decadal Growth

3741
2001
2705
1991
2558
1981
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

Population density Of Guwahati


Source: Various issues of the Census of India

The above density of 3741 is moderate. However the growth in density has been
on an increasing trend as can be observed in the table given above. Further, the
growth has been largely skewed resulting in congestion in certain pockets.
With such high increase in population coupled with inequitable growth in the city,
congestion has been the order of the day at present not only on the city roads but

18

with respect to living conditions as well. In addition, there has been unplanned
urbanization all across the city leading to skewed development and congestion.
Hence, a decongestion programme backed by a systematic development plan in
basic infrastructure is required.

3.3

Population Projections

The GMA region has been experiencing an above average growth in population
due to a mix of factors such as annexation, natural growth and migration. The
population of GMCA and GMA (excluding GMCA) has been computed from the
previous census 2001 and then the trend has been formulated on an exponential
series to forecast the future projections. This has been done in order to develop a
projection trend in line with the trend observed in the past. The last Decadal
growth rate is only considered for this projection i.e. 38.6 % for GMCA and nearly
30 % for the other region. Based on the above, the total population of the GMA
Area is expected to reach a total of 27 lacs by Year 2031.

Table 6: Population Trend and Projections

Year
1951
1961
1971
1981
1991
2001
2011
2021
2031

Population in GMCA GMA excluding GMCA


43,615
100,707
123,783
268,945
584,342
809,895
1,191,418
1,752,668
2,578,310

53,774
98,775
169,436
102,351
61,827
80,878
110062
149776
203821

GMA
97,389
199,482
293,219
371,296
646,169
890,773
1,301,480
1,902,444
2,782,131

Source: Various issues of the Census of India


*No Census could be conducted in Guwahati in 1981. The 1981 population figures have been
extrapolated on the basis of the 1971-1991 CAGR.
The figures from 2011 to 2031 are projected figures.

The table shows projection for i.e. GMCA and the GMA. The total projected
population of the GMA would stand at over 27 Lakhs by 2031.

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Fig 3: Population Trend & Projections

3,000,000

2,782,131

2,500,000
1,902,444

2,000,000
1,500,000
1,000,000
500,000
0

890,773
584,342
61,827

1,191,418

809,895
80,878

1991
2001
Population in GMCA

3.4

1,752,668

1,301,480
646,169

2,578,310

149776

110062

2011
2021
GMDA excluding GMCA

203821
2031
GMDA

Migrations

One of factors accounting for the rapid growth in population has been migration
from other areas to the GMA Region. The following table gives a vivid picture of
people migrating to the region and the composition of migrants for the last
decade.
Table 7: Change in pattern of Migration in Guwahati City

Proportion of migrants (%)


1971
1991
Proportion of migrants in resident population
58.79
47.38
(a) Males
63.46
48.19
(b) Females
51.86
46.34
Total Migrants (a+b)
100
100
Migrants

Source: Guwahati Master Plan

The below table demonstrates the reason of Migration. It has been observed that
a large section of people have migrated for reasons such as family connection,
marriage, employment, education and business.
Note: Migration has been computed at around 25% of the population

20

Table 8: Migrants by place of last Residence to Guwahati City by reasons for Migration

Total
A
Total
Rural
Urban
1
Total
Rural
Urban
1a
Total
Rural
Urban
1b.
Total
Rural
Urban
2
Total
Rural
Urban
B
Total

Family
Marriage
Total Employment Business Education
movement
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
100
22
8.8
6
22.5
17.3
Last Residence in India
100
22.4
8.8
6.3
22.3
17.5
100
24.3
9.6
6.6
20.6
17.1
100
19.9
7.8
5.9
24.8
18
Migrants from within Assam
100
24.7
6.4
7.5
20.8
18.6
100
26.1
6.6
7.9
19.5
18.1
100
22.5
6
7
23.1
19.6
Migrants from within District
100
23.8
5.8
7.1
18.4
21.2
100
24.6
5.6
7.4
18.4
20.3
100
20.2
6.6
5.4
17.9
25.6
Migration from other districts in Assam
100
24.9
6.6
7.6
21.5
17.9
100
26.7
7
8
19.9
17.2
100
22.7
6
7.1
23.6
18.9
Migrants from other states in India
100
17.2
14.4
3.5
25.8
14.8
100
19
18.6
2.8
24.1
14
100
15.8
10.6
4.1
27.6
15.5
Last residence outside India
100
13.2
8.8
1.2
27
14.1

Natural
Calamities

Source: Adopted from Table D-10, Census of India -1991, Series-4, Migration Tables

Fig 4: Profile of Migrants

Migrants from other


states in India
Migration from other
districts in Assam
Migrants from within
District
Migrants from within
Assam
0

Employment
Family movement
Others

10

15

Business
Marriage

20

25

Education
Natural Calamities

Source: Guwahati Master Plan

21

30

Others

(%)
0.4

22.9

(%)

0.4
0.4
0.4

22.3
21.4
23.2

0.3
0.4
0.3

21.7
21.5
21.6

0.4
0.4
0.6

23.3
23.2
23.6

0.3
0.3
0.2

21.2
20.8
21.4

0.5
0.4
0.5

23.8
21.1
25.9

35.7

3.5

Urbanization

Assam is one of the least urbanized states of the country. While the share of
urban population to total population of Assam in 1951 was only 4.29%, it has
increased to 12.1% in 2001, which is still lower than the national average of
27.78%. Even among the North Eastern states, Assam has the lowest
urbanization, with Mizoram at 49.5% being the most urbanized state in the NE
region. Among all the districts of Assam, Kamrup is the most urbanized with
35.81% urbanization.
Fig 5: Urbanization Trend For The Last Decade

94.3

100

100 100

94.34
80
60
40

27.78

35.81

26.73
12.72

20

32.76

11.1

0
India

Assam

Kam rup

2001

GMDA

GMCA

1991

Source: Various
issues of the
Census of India

Guwahati is the largest urban centre in Assam with 23.89% of the total urban
population of the state. Guwahati alone contributes 55% of the combined
population of the significant towns of Assam.

3.6

Age Mix and Sex Ratio

The composition of the Guwahati City population as per the 2001 census shows
that nearly 46% of the total population is Female.
Fig 6: Composition of Population 1991/2001
Com position of P opulation:-1991

Composition of Population -2001

Female
46%

Fem ale
44%
M ale:
56%

M ale:

Male:

F em ale

Source: Various issues of the Census of India

22

Male:
54%

Female

The composition of Population as per the 2001 census reveals that there has
been a small growth in female population vis-a-vis male population. At present
46% of the Guwahati Population is Female with the rest being male. The age
wise composition of the population is given below:
Age
0-9
10--14
15-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-49
50-59
60-69
70-79
80+
All ages

Table 9: Age-Sex Distribution in GMCA: 2001


Total
% Total Male % Male Female % Female
137,506
16.98 71,124 16.15 66,382 17.96
84,481
10.43 42,947 9.75 41,534 11.24
75,811
9.36 40,398 9.18 35,413
9.58
84,677
10.46 45,456 10.32 39,211 10.61
89,565
11.06 46,409 10.54 43,156 11.68
76,081
9.39 41,341 9.39 34,740
9.4
72,976
9.01 40,497 9.2 32,479
8.79
95,061
11.74 56,525 12.84 38,536 10.43
52,763
6.51 32,349 7.35 20,414
5.52
26,865
3.32 15,391 3.5 11,474
3.1
10,197
1.26
5,840 1.33 4,357
1.18
3,912
0.48
2,011 0.46 1,901
0.51
809,895
100 440,288 100 369,597
100

Source: Census of India

Moreover the age mix of the total population is also explained in the adjoining
table. It is observed that the child population i.e. the population between the age
group 0-9 is the majority in the city followed by the age group of 25-29.This
indicates that a large segment of the population in the city is young.
Fig 7: Population Distribution
140,000

137,506

120,000
100,000
80,000

95,061
89,565
84,481
84,677
75,811
76,08172,976
52,763

60,000
40,000

26,865

20,000

10,197
3,912

0
0 - 9 10-14

1519

2024

2529

3034

GMDA-total population

3539

4049

5059

Male

6069

7079

80+

Female

Source: Various issues of the Census of India

The graph shows the categorical breakup of the Age and sex mix of the population.

23

3.7

Literacy Rate

The literacy rate of Assam was 53.78% in 2001, which is lower than the all India
average of 65.37%. The literacy rate in Kamrup district is 74.69% in 2001,
registering an increase of 9.65% over the 1991 figure of 65.04%. GMCA
registered around 9% growth in literacy rate between 1991 and 2001. This
increase in literacy rate may be attributed to the transformation of socio-cultural
importance of education in the society and the growing government emphasis on
education.

Fig 8: Literacy Rates

77%

GMDA

70.60%

74.69%

Kamrup

65.04%

53.78%

Assam
1991

52.89%

2001

0.00%

20.00%

40.00%

60.00%

80.00%

Source: Various issues of the Census of India

3.8

Work force Variance

The economy of the city is essentially based on the tertiary sector. Majority of the
workforce in Guwahati is dependent on the government and public sector jobs
indicating lack of development of Industries and enterprise. The work
participation rate in Guwahati in 1991 was 32.2%. The corresponding male and
female figures were 52.4% & 8.7% respectively. Guwahati has considerable low
female worker participation. The following table gives a detail worker participation
in the different sectors.
Table 10:Workers Participation

Particulars
Male
Female

% Of total male or female worker


52.4%
8.7%

24

3.8.1 Workforce Breakup


The major contribution in employment of Guwahati is mostly from the wholesale
and retail markets and least being electricity, gas and water. The breakup of work
force is given below in tabular form.
Table 16: Workforce Breakup
Activity
Code

Employment in
Reference Area
(Assam)

Major Industry Group

Employment
in
Local Area
(GMA)

Raising Of Live Stock

37,785

2,059

Agricultural Services (Hunting, Forestry & Fishing)

16,756

232

All Agricultural Activities (Sr. 1 + Sr. 2)

54,541

2,291

Mining & Quarrying

24,309

1,021

Manufacturing

390,007

16,747

Electricity, Gas & Water

6,141

36

Construction

55,467

1,622

Wholesale Trade

30,711

7,034

Retail Trade

163,791

40,211

10

Restaurants & Hotels

68,112

11,097

11

Transport

15,487

5,099

12

Storage & Warehousing

5,658

1,128

13

Communications

13,088

2,005

14

Financial,

50,738

14,648

735,232

95,145

1,613,282

198,084

Insurance,

Real

Estate

Business Services
15

Community, Social and Personal Services


Total

Source: Fourth Economic Census of India, 1998

25

and

Below is the Graphical presentation of workforce Breakup in Guwahati

Distribution of workers in Primary Sector

Distributionof workerssector wise(1991)

5%

9%
24%

12%

47%

20%

Cultivation

83%

Agriculture Labour

PrimarySector

Animal Husbandry
Mining

SecondarySector
TertiarySector

Distribution of w orkers in Tertiary Sector

Distribution of workers in Secondary Sector

7%

5%

31%

45%

95%

17%

Household Industry

Non-Household Industry

Const ruction

Trade & Commerce

Transport & Storage

Other Services

From the above graphs, it has been observed that maximum employment is
generated from the tertiary sector. In primary sector, maximum employment is

26

provided by the animal husbandry segment. Non-household industry segment


generates the maximum employment in the secondary sector and in the tertiary
sector, maximum contribution is from other services.

3.8.2

Income Variance

The poverty level figures have been incorporated and compared both on Indian
Poverty Line and also on Millennium Development goals to understand the
additional share of the population in the city to be targeted for poverty reduction
measures under this renewal programme. 31.1% of the total population of
Guwahati is under BPL
Table 11 : Poverty Levels
Poverty Levels
Based on Indian Poverty Line
Based on Millennium Development Goals
(INR386/Capital/month)
City
Above
Less than
BPL (%) Above Poverty Line (%)
US$1/Capita/Day
US$1/Capita/Day (%)
(%)
Guwahati
31.1
68.9
77.6
22.4
Agartala
24.8
75.2
76.2
23.5
Itanagar
8.2
91.8
44.2
55.8
Kohima
14.5
85.5
56
44
Gangtok
17.6
82.4
57.7
42.3
Imphal
26.7
73.3
65.1
34.9
Source : Various issues of the Census of India

The table gives a comparative analysis of the earning variance in comparison to


the other important capital cities of Northeast. Guwahati has a high-income
variance with the highest number of people living under the poverty line.

It is quite evident that Guwahati has been experiencing a stable population


growth and a decent population density, which is not very high in comparison to
the other urban capital cities of India and the Northeast region. The city marks a
high literacy rate of nearly 77%, which is higher than that of the country average.
However in terms of income variance, it is observed that more than 30% people
are residing below the poverty line. Besides, women participation as worker in
Guwahati is least as compared to the other northeastern capital cities.

27

4. Economic Base
4.1

Background
th

Guwahati is the largest city in the entire North Eastern Region. It ranks 44

among 5230 urban centres in India (as per 1991). It is the regional hub and all

Guwahati

other states in the region depend on the city for connectivity to not just the rest of

largest city in the

the country but also the North Eastern region as well. The city is not just a tourist

entire North Eastern

destination but is also the gateway to the rest of the North Eastern Region.

Region. It ranks 44

is

the

th

among 5230 urban

Guwahati is the major hub of economic activity in the entire northeastern region.
The establishment of Guwahati Refinery in 1962 marked the beginning of

centres in India (as


per 1991).

industrialization in the city. The construction of bridge over River Brahmaputra at


Saraighat and the shifting of capital from Shillong to Guwahati in 1972 made
tremendous economic impact on the city and turned Guwahati into one of the
most important cities in the Northeast.

4.2

Industry

The economic activity of Assam is based on Agriculture and Oil. More than half
of India's petroleum is produced in Assam. It also produces significant part of

The

total world's tea production. Though it is an agriculturally based State,

activity of Assam is

industrialization of Assam dates back to the beginning of the nineteenth century,

based on Agriculture

when the Country's first petroleum refinery was setup by the British at Digboi in

and Oil. More than

Upper Assam. The central projects like Oil India Ltd., ONGC Ltd., HFC Ltd.,
Petro-chemical project and more recently Numaligarh Refinery have been
established in the state.

half

economic

of

India's

petroleum

is

produced in Assam.
It

also

significant

Guwahati is one of the major industrial centres of Assam and the North Eastern
Region. The location of the Head quarter of NF railway, Guwahati Oil Refinery at
Noonmati and other heavy and medium size petro-chemical industries have
added industrial impetus to the city.
Ever since the major industrial development through the establishment of the
Guwahati refinery in 1961 the city has seen a steady growth in the industrial
sector. During the 1990s, the major focus of industrial development in Guwahati
has been light and medium industries. Till 1980 there were 19 large and medium
industries in Guwahati. There were 669 units of industries located in Guwahati in

28

total

produces
part

world's

production

of
tea

the year 1981. There are around 4055 small-scale industries in Kamrup district
out of which 2647 are located in Guwahati as per data available with Directorate
of Industries.
The major types of industries in Guwahati include Chemicals and Fertilizers,
Engineering Industries, Petroleum and Refineries, and Agro Based Industries.
There are six Industrial estates located in GMA. The first Industrial Estate in
Assam was established in the early 2

nd

five year Plan (1957-62) at

Bamunimaidam, Guwahati. Industrial estates were developed to check the


haphazard growth of industries. Besides these estates tabulated as under,
industrial estates are being developed at Rani and Amingaon. In addition to
these industrial estates, there are numerous small-scale estates as well.
Table 12 : Industrial Estates in GMA
Name of the

Total land

Industrial

of the area

Estate/Industrial area

(ha)

Industrial

Estate,

Vacant

Total nos.

Total no of

of shed

open spaces

Shed

7.6

62

43

area,

1.4

13

13

Mini industrial Estate,

1.2

29

Plot 22

21

22 plots

Plot 27

41

27 plots

Nil

27.55

38 plots

Nil

27,932

Open
Space

Bamunimaidam
Industrial
Kalapahar

Kalapahar
Industrial area, Bonda
Industrial

area,

Bamunimaidam
EPIP, Amingaon

sq.m.
Source : Master Plan Guwahati

29

Table 13 : Development of Industrial estates in Guwahati (2001-02)

Particulars

Number

Total number of sheds constructed

60

Total number of sheds allotted

60

Number of unit

45

Total sheds occupied

60

Total sheds functioning

45

Source: Statistical Handbook Assam 2002, Directorate of


Economics and Statistics, Govt., of Assam

Table 14 : Commercial Estates in GMA

Sl
No
1
2
3

Name
Commercial Estate
(North Guwahati)
Commercial Estate
North Guwahati
Industrial
Area,
CITI
Complex,
Kalapahar

Total
area
(Acre)
3.3

Total
no of
sheds
10

Open
space
allotted
5 nos

Sheds
under
occupation
10

Open space
under
occupation
5

1.4

14

Nil

14

Nil

3.3

Source : Master Plan Guwahati

4.3

Key Industries

Petroleum and Refineries

Assam is the third largest producer of petroleum (crude) and natural gas in India.
Petroleum and natural gas productions are nearly 16% and 8% respectively of
the total production in the country. In 1999, production of crude oil was 5001
thousand MT, and of natural gas was 1333 million cubic meters. The first
commercial discovery of crude oil in the country was made in 1889 at Digboi near
Brahmaputra valley in Assam. At present the following refineries and company's

engaged in Petroleum and Petro- Chemicals in Guwahati are:




Indian Oil Corporation, Noonmati Refinery

India Carbon (CPC Plant)

30

Tea Industry

Assam is the world's single largest tea growing region, producing more than
1,500,000 pounds of tea annually. Assam has a first flush and a second flush

Guwahati

tea. The first flush tea has a rich and fresh aroma, while the second flush

major Tea Auction

produces the famous tippy tea (with a golden colour leaf). The golden tip present

House

in Assam tea makes it sweet and smooth and is very popular throughout the

transaction

World. Due to the rainfall of 100-150 inches per year in this region tea plantation

place

Forest and Wood Industry

Plywood, pulp and paper, safety match box making etc are the main forest based
industries in the state. Plywood industry is the third largest industry in the state
after tea and petroleum. The state forest is the source of raw material for above
industries

Handloom and Handicraft Industries.

The State of Assam is traditionally known for its rich Handloom and Handicraft
products and their promotion is undertaken by the State Government

through

various schemes. The state government has also provided various financial and
technical assistance to assist in the growth of this industry.

Type

of

Number

Number

of

units

of units

Household

29,816

97,363

544

3,119

30,360

1,00,482

28,103

92,665

2,257

7,817

Non
Household
Total
Rural
areas
Urban
areas

and

artisans

31

major
takes
through

auction houses

is said to be favourable.

has

Information Technology

Information Technology (IT) occupies a key position in our modern age and is
one of the fastest growing sectors in the world economy. Applications of IT have
become pervasive, covering all spheres of life. Keeping the importance of
Information Technology in mind Government of Assam has taken some
initiatives, which are listed below:

To accord primacy for the growth of I.T industry for the purpose of
socio-economic development of the State.

To accelerate the use of Information Technology industry at the


governmental level with the view to provide better services to the
citizens of the state;

To improve productivity and efficiency of the Government services to


the citizens of the state.

To serve as an important tool to enhance employability as well


absorb a major portion of the educated employed in the state;

To enable the state to reach an eminent position in the IT sector.

To encourage and accelerate the growth of both the domestic and


the export oriented I.T units in the state and make the state an
attractive destination for I.T investment within India and abroad.

To encourage and accelerate the use of Information Technology in


schools, colleges and educational institutions in the state to enable
the youth to acquire necessary skills and knowledge in this sector
making them highly employable.

To set up training institutes in the private sector and the joint sector
in order to prepare skilled manpower within the existing system;

To organize Manpower Development Training in the field of


Computer Applications for the successful implementation of the
Information Technology Policy of Assam.

To develop appropriate networks between various departments and


different spatially spread out administrative hierarchies through welldesigned database management systems.

To encourage the spread of IT in the private sector

Given the high literacy rate of the city and also being the center of education and
excellence for the entire North Eastern region, Guwahati can be developed as a
center for ITES sector for the region.

32

Trade & Commerce

The Commercial establishment of Guwahati is divided into four categories


namely Wholesale, Wholesale Cum Retail, Retail Shop and Service Shops.
There is an absence of centralized market complex due to which, shops have
been established in an unplanned manner across the city. The main wholesale
market of Guwahati is situated at located at Machkhowa and Fancy Bazaar
areas. These areas being in the heart of the city, occupy valuable space, which
otherwise could have been more productively used. Importantly, these markets
lack basic amenities like water supply and solid waste management, leading to
unhealthy atmosphere for trading. However, the single most important fall out of
the presence of these markets relates to traffic congestion on the main interior
roads of the city, which passes through these areas. Commercial vehicles
involved in loading and unloading of goods, occupy a major portion of these
roads leading to tremendous traffic congestion throughout the day. The markets
lack adequate infrastructure facilities. The description of the markets situated in
Guwahati is given in the table below.
Table 15: Description of the markets Situated in Guwahati.
Sl
No
1

Name & type

Location

Wholesale markets of food-grains and


perishable items
Hardware and Building materials
(Wholesale and retail)

Fancy Bazaar & Machkhowa areas




Fancy Bazaar and Athgaon

A.T. Road from Fire Station in


ASTC to Athgaon Railway crossing


3

Motor Parts

A.T. Road (from Paltan Bazaar


to Bharalumukh);

(Wholesale-cum-retail)

Beltola (from Khanapara junction


to Tetelia junction)

Coal Market

Timber market

Wholesale fish market

Wholesale Cloth Market

Along NH-37 from Khanapara


junction to Biharibari junction

Mainly in Maligaon and Rehabari


areas

Near Paltan Bazaar area on the


backside of Meghdoot cinema

33

Fancy Bazaar Area

4.4

Informal Sector Activities

The major informal sector trade and services are scattered in the major work and
commercial centres along the GS Road, Kamrup Chamber Road, M S Road, J N
Road, Kamar Patty, Fancy bazaar, Dewan road, SRCB Road, T R Phukan Road,
and can be found in almost all areas of the city.
The informal sector units locate themselves strategically near work centres,
commercial areas, outside the boundaries of schools, colleges and hospitals,
transport modes and near large housing clusters. In view of this, it is proposed to
incorporate the informal sector in trade in the planned development of various
zones:
Norms for the provision of the informal sector activities:

Retail Trade:
Central Business District
Sub-Central Business District
Zonal Commercial Centre
Community Centre
Convenience Shopping Centre

Government and Commercial offices

Wholesale trade and freight complexes

4
5

Hospital
Bus terminal

Schools:
Primary
Secondary/ Senior Secondary/Integrated

Parks:
Regional / District Parks
Neighborhood Parks

8
9

Residential
Industrial

10

Railway terminus

3 to 4 units per 10 formal


shops as specified in the
norms separately

5 to 6 units per 1000


employees
3 to 4 units per 10 formal
shops
3 to 4 units per 100 beds
1 units per two bus bays
3-4 units
5-6 units

8 to 10 units at each major


entry
2-3 units
1 unit/1000 population
5-6 units/1000 employees
To be based on surveys at the
time of preparation of the
project

The above norms are taken from the UDPFI guidelines:


The areas where informal sector is located should have suitable public
conveniences and solid waste disposal system. In all land development projects
certain minimum area should be reserved for informal sector activities.

34

5. Profile of Urban Local Bodies


5.1

Background
th

The constitution (74

Amendment) Act 1992 has redefined the role,

power, function and finances of the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) wherein
the Twelfth Schedule of the constitution lists additional function to be
carried out by ULBs. This would result in a substantial increase in the
responsibilities of the Urban Local Bodies, which would in turn lead to a
significant increase in expenditure incurred by the ULBs with a
corresponding increase in requirement of funds.

Over a period of time, the ULBs will have to be self-sufficient and


therefore generate additional revenues from own sources to meet the
above additional requirements. At present, the expenditure on services
provided exceeds that of revenues earned and with growing urbanization
and subsequent increase in demand, the gap will only be widened
further.

The rapid growth of urban population has led to ever increasing demand
on urban service. This will necessitate substantial investment in
infrastructure and extensive capacity building of the local bodies.

Traditional public funding of projects need replacement by governance


through creditworthiness to access capital market and leverage private
finance. This will need the balance sheet of the corporation to be healthy.

Urban Reform Incentive Fund (URIF) has laid down levy of reasonable
user charges by ULBs with the objective of recovering full cost of
th

operation and maintenance by the end of 10 Five Year Plan. Further 85


% collection efficiency needs to be achieved as a Property Tax Reform
Measure.

5.2

Introduction to Guwahati Municipal Corporation

The Guwahati Municipal Corporation was constituted in 1974 under the


provisions of the Guwahati Municipal Corporation Act, 1971. The Corporation
covers an area of 216 sq k.m. The Corporation has a council of 60 elected ward

35

councilors. The council is headed by a Mayor and the Commissioner is the


executive head of the corporation.

The corporations activities are as follows:

Conservancy

Veterinary

Water works tax division

Enforcement

Public Works

Property Tax

Building Permission

Mutation Branch

Streetlight and Electrical Section

Trade License

Municipal Markets

Advertisement

Sanitation &Health

Slow Moving Vehicle

Dead body and night soil removal Branch

Poverty alleviation

Birth and death registration

Garage Branch

Accounts Branch
Table 17 : Basic Data related to Guwahati Municipal Corporation
GMC area

216 sq Kms

Wards

60

Employees

2750

Revenue zones

Public works division

Public work zones

23

Primary schools

High schools

Parks

12

Municipal markets

11

Holdings

1,00,000

GMC roads

1919 (511.5Kms)

Water treatment plants

Production of water

80 MLD

Water pipe length

425 Km(approx)

36

5.3

Particulars

Revenue
Receipts:
Own source:
Govt & other
revenue
grants:
Revenue
Expenditure
Revenue
surplus/def
Revenue
surplus/def
excl grants **

* Based

Financial Profile Guwahati Municipal Corporation


Table 18: Financial Position of GMC for the last three years
*
Rs lacs
2001 02
2002 03
2003 04
Amount %of
Amount %growth Amount %growth
total
2859.16

100

3793.00

32.66

3067.96

(19.12)

2160.19

75.55

2682.36

24.17

2111.63

(21.28)

698.97

24.45

1110.64

58.90

956.33

(13.90)

2490.58

100

2697.55

8.31

2967.89

10.02

368.58

100

1095.45

197.21

100.07

(90.86)

(330.39)

(15.19)

(856.26)

on actual accounts. ** Deficit excludes grant and is financed by Govt. grant

Figures for 2004-05 has been provided under Financial Operating Plan
Break up of revenue receipt of 2004-05
Actual for 2004-05
Property tax
908.51
Urban immovable property tax
84.82
Fixed deposit with bank
0
Taxes on drought animal & non-mech Vehicle
31.14
Other taxes
458.13
Discretionary tax u/s 144(2)
48.69
Assign taxes from govt u/s 184
702
Sub Total I
2233.29
Grant in aid from govt
853.36
Duty on transfer of property u/s 170
266.78
Realisation of fees under special act & rules
55.04
Sale of water
26.15
Application fees
54.89
Interest on loan & advance
0
Market & slaughter house
116.53
Other fees
127.58
Sub Total II
1500.33
Grand Total
3733.62

37

Fig 9 : Gap between Revenue Income and Expenditure

Income & expenditure

Graph showing the gap between Revenue income


& Revenue expenditure
5000
4000
3000

Revenue income

2000

Revenue Expenditure

1000
0
2001-02 2002 - 03 2003 - 04 2004 - 05
Year

Table 19 : Financial Profile of Guwahati Metropolitan Development Authority


Particulars

Revenue
Receipts:
Own source:
Govt & other
revenue
grants:
Revenue
Expenditure
Establishment
expenses:
Operation &
Maintenance
Others
Revenue
surplus /
deficit
Revenue
surplus /
deficit
excluding
grants

2001 02
%of
Amount
total

2002 03

2003 04

2004 - 05

Amount

%growth

Amount

%growth

Amount

%growth

275.00

36.78%

293.50

6.73%

36.78%

293.50
0

6.73%

956.00

100

201.05

(79%)

516

53.97

201.05

(61%)
(100%)

440

46.03

2173.87

100

148.91

(93.15%)

210.97

41.68%

249.47

18.25%

2156.6

99.20

135.78

(93.70%)

81.87

(39.70%)

97.98

19.68%

10.63

0.49

6.21

(41.58%)

114.69

1746%

61.42

(46.45%)

6.64

0.31

6.92

4.22%
104.28%

14.41
64.03

108.24%
22.80%

0
44.02

(100%)
(31.25%)

(1217.87)

52.14

(1657.87)

Nil

275.00
0

NIL

38

5.4

Summary of Key Observations

It maybe noted from the table 19 that GMC has been suffering heavy losses and
over the years has primarily been dependent on Government Grant for its
survival.

As can be observed from the above Graph, the major financial setback and
consequent revenue gap for GMC was in the year 2003-04, when the revenue
receipts went down sharply. This was primarily due to withdrawal of toll tax,
which contributed as much as 33% of the revenue earnings of the corporation.

A simple analysis of the expenditure would reveal that the establishment


expenditure for 2004-05 itself is 1.3 times the revenue.

Sources of Revenue
The major revenue income for GMC is Property Tax, which comprises of general
tax, water tax, scavenging tax, light tax and urban tax. At present there are over
1,00,000 assessed holdings and 40,000 water connections to different holdings.
Other revenue sources are as follows:

Trade license fee


Entry toll
Parking fees
Toll and rent from municipal markets
Tax on advertisements
Tax on slow moving vehicles
Animal tax
Building permission fees and penalties
Water connection charge
Fines
Share of motor vehicle tax
Share of entertainment tax
Share of land revenue and surcharge on stamp duty

One of the key factors affecting the financial health of GMC is the extremely low
recovery of the cost of services being rendered by the corporation. For example,
as per GOI Report in 2003, the average cost per connection on account of water
generation and distribution is Rs 9 against a cost recovery of only Rs. 3 per
connection reflecting a collection level of only 33%.

39

The position on the various taxes collected by GMC is as given below :


S. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

Taxes
Taxes on Land and Buildings
Octroi
Stamp duty
Tax on Professions
Tax on Vehicle
Tax on Animals
Tax on Dogs
Show Tax
Toll Tax
Tax on Boats/ Ferries
Tax on Electricity
Pilgrimage Fee
Drainage Fee
Lighting Fee
Scavenging Fee
Latrine Fee
Fee on service
Tax on Servants
Tax on Building Applications
Tax on Advertisement
Fee on License
Parking Fee
Water tax
Tax on Private markets
Fee on Fire Brigade
Fee on Health Services
Betterment tax

Status

D
M
D
D
D
D

Source: Primary Analysis of Municipal Taxes and Account;


D= Discretionary/M= Mandatory/
= Taxes are levied by local bodies

5.5

Action Plans

GMC fully recognizes the importance of the above developments and is


committed to take urgent steps in this regard.
GMC shall strive to bring about efficiency in its services and implement
time bound programmes and initiatives for increasing its revenue base.
Additionally, a package of measures shall be implemented to make the
Corporations self-sustainable. It may however be mentioned that while
these packages will improve the future financial position of the
corporations substantially, introduction of a one time bail out package is

40

required to wipe out the legacies of the past. In view of the same, a onetime funding to the tune of Rupees 30 Crores is proposed to strengthen the
capability of the corporation to operate projects in a sustainable manner.

In order to strengthen the revenue streams, a package of measures are


proposed to be implemented. The key interventions are as follows:

E- Governance to be implemented and computerisation of entire systems


and records;

Levy of Surcharge on holdings totally/ partially used for commercial


purpose;

Initiation of detailed survey to identify un assessed and under assessed


properties;

Strengthening of Assessment Department with adequate staffing;

Lobbying with the State Government and Central Government (through


the State Government) for settlement and subsequent regular payment
of Tax dues by Central and State Government agencies;

Leverage on Idle Assets;

Restructuring and Revaluation of Balance Sheet;

Valuation of assets under the corporation

Levy of reasonable tariffs and Intense Recovery;

Increase Water Connections;

A graded approach to revisions may have to be worked out so that cost


recoveries increase over time

Change over the basis of property tax from annual rental value to Area
based system.

A system of tax assessment, reassessment, systems for serving demand


notice, collection, developing information base to be developed

Valuation of assets under the corporation and also strengthening of


Balance Sheet

Encouraging public private partnerships with part/full cost recovery


principle, project structuring support for parking, terminals and solid
waste management needed to be provided

Reforming property tax system to firstly ensure total coverage of


properties in the city

Shift from single entry system to double entry accrual based system

Training and capacity building measures in area of debt financing.

41

Periodic monitoring of funds, their sanctions and disbursement.

Institutional reforms

Establish clarity of roles and responsibilities

Collective action, specially in programmes for solid waste management,


water resource management and slum up-gradation

5.6

Funding for Capacity Building & Clearing past legacies

In order to make the Financials of GMC viable in the long run, there is a
requirement of Financial & Operating Restructuring. While the Municipality is
taking steps to improve on the operating parameters, there is a need for an
integrated programme comprising of Capacity Building Measures and clearing
past legacies.
This is a critical step to ensure that one of the long-term goals of JNURM viz
ensuring financial sustainability is met. In view of this the following programme is
proposed for implementation under this plan.

Capacity Building Programme scheme


Projects

Cost (Rs crore)

Capacity Building Programme & Clearing


Past Legacies

30

Total

30

42

6. Situation Appraisal
In order to develop an overall vision for the region as well as to develop sector
wise vision it is necessary to carry out a broad appraisal of the existing situation.
Accordingly a situation appraisal is carried out and broad results are as follows.

Sectors:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Environment
Tourism
Water
Housing
Transportation
Drainage & Storm Water
Sanitation
Basic Services to Poor
Solid Waste Management
Water front Development
Urban Renewal Program

6.1

Environment

River Brahmaputra generally has low pollution level. However, the River has
been contaminated with bacterial pollution due to the discharge of raw sewage
directly into the river without any treatment. Additionally,
there is a backflow from the river during the flooding
season in Guwahati. Within the city, the Bharalu
Channel, cris-crossing a vast expanse of the GMA,
discharges flow of rain water to River Brahmaputra.
A major portion of the municipal waste, refinery waste
water flowing from the Indian Oil Corporation Refinery at
Noonmati, flows through the drain directly to River
Bharalu. The waste water from the households, commercial and business
establishments, small and medium industries within the city also flow into the
Bharalu through the system of mutually interdependent drains.

43

High turbidity of water also indicates transportation of soil and other particulate
refuse from the municipal drains. Bacteriologically the Bharalu Channel water is
found to be extremely unsuitable having serious faecal contamination primarily
due to improper sanitary systems and habits, unscientific and unplanned sewage
disposal and utterly unhygenic way of effluent disposal through septic-tanks.
The down stream of Bharalu is not wide enough to handle large flow of water.
Land cutting and soil erosion have also created heavy siltation on the riverbed
thereby aggravating the already precarious situation. Deepar Beel, an important
water body of the region, receives a fair amount of waste water from different
parts of the city. The inflow of the Bharalu river is the main controlling factor of
the water quality of this water body. Pressure of urbanisation and pollution have
had the negative impact on its stability.
Overall wetland degeneration has emerged as a major problem in the region
caused by encroachment, natural siltation, earth filling and garbage dumping.
The list of major waterbodies are enclosed below:
Bharalu Basin: Bharalu River being the most flood prone area and it is the
core of the drainage system with a catchment area of 42 sq.km. During
heavy rainfall there is a black flow of water.
Deepar Basin: Single largest drainage basin, covering an area of 20135
hectares and is divided into two sub-basins: Bijubari and Dipur sub-basin
Borsola Basin: This is another major natural drainage system of the city.
The Basin is located towards the Southern part of the City.
Silsako Basin: Silsako basin covers 6534 hectares in the east of Guwahati
and is connected with Brahmaputra through a stream called Bonda Jan.
Foreshore Basin: The catchment areas of this basin include certain
residential, commercial, institutional and business areas in Guwahati.
North Guwahati Basin: It has mostly hill ranges comprising north and
western boundary of the city covering a total area of 32.3 sq km
Kalmoni Basin: The total area occupied by the basin is 66.5 sq km. River
Kalmoni finds its way into the River Brahmaputra through Dipar Beel and the
Khona Jan and partly through Thengbhanga and the Khalbhog river.

44

6.1.1 Disaster

Management

River Brahamaputra is the main cause of floods due to heavy rainfall to high
intensity rainfall in Guwahati Metropolitan Area. Highly flowing and meandering
course of Brahamaputra obstruct the normal charge of water and thus the
velocity is reduced which delays the passage of water resulting in stagnation of
water.
The flood water from Brahamaputra, into the region was naturally accommodated
in the low lying areas on both sides of the main channel before the construction
of Town Protection Embankments and extensive encroachments of human
settlements but the appearance of these activities has aggravated the dimension
of flood because of marked reduction in the water accommodating capacity of the
channel. A glaring example of such embankment is the siltation of riverbed and
its consequences in creating flood during the rainy season leaving major
damages to the adjoining areas of the river.
However, the other extreme events causing the disaster are rare except the
earthquake, which visits the zone frequently with low intensity and rarely causes
disasters except the disastrous earthquake of 1950. The entire state of Assam
has been identified as Seismic Zone V by the Government of India.

45

NATURAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AND REDUCTION


With regard to Guwahati, it can be stressed that floods and landslides cause
colossal loss to human life and property and its management takes the centerstage in this part of the country. In fact, flood is an attribute of physical
environment but it is important to note that floods are also aggravated by human
activity like deforestation in the catchments areas. Since the floods of rivers are
the responses of both natural and anthropogenic factors, the causes of floods of
the alluvial rivers become highly complexed and their relative importance varies
from place to place. Anthropogenic activities such as building activity and
eventual urbanization, channel manipulation through diversion of river course,
construction of bridges, barrages and reservoirs, agricultural practices,
deforestation, land use changes invite hazards in the river system viz. disastrous
floods, landslides and slumping along the banks, massive erosion along the river
banks, siltation of riverbed, deposition of sands and clays in flood plains etc.
which pose a serious threat to human society and necessitate river regulation
and flood control.

This is applicable to the Brahamaputra river system although, heavy rainfall is the
root cause of floods due to immense volume of water through high intensity
rainfall. Highly sinuous and meandering course of Brahamaputra obstruct the
normal charge of water and thus the velocity is reduced which delays the
passage of water resulting in stagnation of water. Large-scale deforestation in
upper catchments is perhaps the most important anthropogenic factor of the
cause of flood and landslides in the Guwahati. Large scale deforestation effected
by man for various purposes such as for expansion of agricultural lands, for
supply of raw materials to the factories, for domestic uses as firewood, timber
wood, for commercial purposes etc. has decreased the infiltration capacity of the
forestland and consequently increased surface runoff which is helping
tremendously in increasing the magnitude of recurrent floods in the plains and
landslides in the hilly terrains of Guwahati. It may be pointed out that dense
vegetation allows maximum infiltration of rainwater into the ground because
raindrops are intercepted by forest canopy and thus reach the ground slowly in
the form of Aerial Streamlets through the leaves, branches and stems of trees
and hence infiltrates easily into the spongy soil layer formed by the leaf litters. On
the other hand, in the absence of forest and other vegetation covers, raindrops

46

strike the ground surface directly and in case of heavy downpour the rainfall
exceeds the limits of infiltration soon and thus maximum runoff is generated
which reaches the rivers through rills, rivulets and streams and causes the
floods.
Increased surface runoff also accelerates the rate of soil erosion and landslides
thus increasing the sediment load of the river. This processes result in gradual
rise in the riverbed and reduce the water accommodating capacity of the river. All
these chain effects of deforestation and related increased surface runoff,
increased soil erosion and landslides and decreased cross sectional areas of the
valley has not only caused floods but also has increased the magnitude and
dimension of floods in the North-East.
Increasing urbanization has also helped in increasing the surface runoff and
therefore dimensions and magnitude of floods because extension in the pucca
ground cover through the constructions of building, courtyards, roads, pavements
etc. reduces infiltration of rainwater significantly and increases surface runoff,
increase the volume and discharge of urban drains to the river.

Flood control measures include a series of steps to tame the menacing river such
as to delay the return of runoff resulting from torrential rainfall to the river to
hasten the discharge of water as sinuous and meandering river retard the quick
disposal of water to divert the flow of water to low-lying areas or artificially
constructed channels bordered by artificial dykes to reduce the volume of water
through a series of engineering devices such as construction of flood control
storage reservoirs to reduce the impact of floods through the embankments,
flood walls etc. to forewarn the occurrence of floods through the central flood
control boards and state flood control boards .

47

6.2

Tourism

Guwahati has several places of historical interest with the biggest attraction
being the Kamakhya Temple. The city is donned with several places of religious
and tourist attractions such as Umananda Temple situated on an island in the
middle of the river Brahmaputra, which incidentally is also the smallest inhabited
river island in the world. In addition to the religious sites, there are splendid water
fronts and water bodies, which could be developed as places of tourist attraction.

Guwahatis positioning in the tourism map of Assam and perhaps the NE region
is due to the fact that the city is well connected to the places of tourist interest by
road, rail and air. Most of the tourist routes in the region touches upon Guwahati
and hence is considered to be a hub for tourist movement within the region.
Different action plans facilitating package touring of Guwahati and the
neighboring Capital cities like Shillong, Imphal, Kohima and other places in
Arunachal Pradesh etc would also enhance the Touring culture. River cruises to
Kaziranga sanctuary, Majuli Island and other places of tourist interest can be
developed to encourage tourism in this region.

From a long-term perspective, to encourage tourism, there is a need to prepare


an Integrated Tourism Plan and will include measures to develop tourist spots
holistically coupled with enhanced connectivity. Steps need to be taken to market
Tourist Destinations besides developing and publicizing Tourism Products.

Despite donning an important place in the tourism map of the region, the citys
infrastructure relating to tourist amenities is at best far less than adequate and at
worst appalling. There is an absence of quality accommodation in the city and
there is a general lack of enthusiasm to cater to this growing tourism segment.
Some of the observations in this regard are as follows:

Gateway to the northeast but no 5-star hotel facility

Tremendous demand for quality accommodations and facilities

Look east policy of the centre forging stronger business ties with
ASEAN countries bringing a boom in corporate traffic.

Northeast being positioned as paradise unexplored would promote


tourism.

Paucity of high-end accommodations

48

6.3

Water

6.3.1 Sources of water & Sustainability


Main source of Raw Water for the region is surface water drawn from the River
Brahmaputra and its tributary Bahini, coming down from K&J hills. The water
level of the river Brahmaputra varies around 10 meter between winter and
monsoon period. During monsoon, the water level of the river goes higher than
G.L of the city and stays so for more than

30 days. The average discharge of

the River at Saraighat Bridge is 4500 m3/sec and flows nearly full for most part of
the year.

Main source of Raw


Water for the region is
surface water drawn from
the River Brahmaputra
and its tributary Bahini,
coming down from K&J
hills. The water level of
the river Brahmaputra
varies around 10 meter
between
winter
and
monsoon period.

A limited amount of water is also drawn from open water bodies like Deepar Beel
and other beels. There has been very little exploitation of ground water over the
years and the possibility of availability of ground water is uncertain because of
substantial presence of hard rock in the region. However, a comprehensive study
on ground water availability and potential is called for. The Brahmaputra has low
organic pollution, and mineral contents are more or less optimum along the
stretch covering the city of Guwahati.
 Water Treatment Facilities
The city of Guwahati has witnessed a rapid growth in population particularly
during the last one and half decades. As a result, there is tremendous pressure
on natural sources like groundwater.
It is striking that in spite of being water-rich, access to water is restricted to only
30% of population. The total installed capacity of potable water generation under
GMC area is around 20 MGD, considering the capacities of treatment plants
located at Panbazar, Satpukhuri, Kamakhya and Hengerabari although the total
water treated is far less
It may be mentioned that many of the above facilities are running well blow
capacity and requires urgent investments. The Panbazar water treatment plant in
particular has expired its design life, is in a poor state and requires renovation
and augmentation. Overall it is estimated that these plants are running at a
capacity of around 50%. The transmission loss is also estimated to be very high
at around 40% by the authorities.

49

The water supply to the city is


provided
by
multiple
organizations viz. Assam
Urban Water Supply &
Sewerage Board (AUWSSB),
Guwahati
Municipal
Corporation
(GMC) and
Public Health Engineering.
Railways, Refineries, Defence
Authorities
and
Other
Government agencies

The water supply to the city is provided by multiple organizations viz. Assam
Urban Water Supply & Sewerage Board (AUWSSB), Guwahati Municipal
Corporation (GMC) and Public Health Engineering. Railways, Refineries,
Defence Authorities and Other Government agencies maintain there own plants
but these plants do not cater to the requirements of the general public. In North
Guwahati, there exists independent water treatment facilities at E.P.I.P
Amingaon complex and also another one plant recently constructed inside I.I.T,
Guwahati. A private agency has constructed a small water treatment plant behind
Brahmaputra Hotel, having a small compact plant capacity of 2 lakh ltrs/hr and
running for 18 hr per day (capacity 3.6 MLD). It is supplied through specially built
3-wheeler water tankers. This water has become very popular in Guwahati
nowadays.
Table 24 : Present status of water treatment plant

Name

Installed Year of
Capacity Installation Area Covered

Hengerabari Water
Treatment Plant

2.77

Ward no 5 (100%), Ward


1996 no. 4 (Partly)

Panbazar Water
Treatment Plant

9.89

1960 20 Ward (100%),

Satpukhri Water
Treatment Plant

4.99

1985 3 Ward (75%),

Kamakhya Water
Treatment Plant
Panbazar Water
Treatment
Plant(PHED)

2.5

Ward no. 7 and


Kamakhya Temple
1992 campus,
Maligaon, Nambari, and
Pandu (only Railway staff
1996 quarter)

Some factors that have contributed to this unsatisfactory situation are as follows:

Rapid growth in population and water demand (and in some areas,


shortage of water)

Inadequate water charges and billing/collection mechanisms, leading to


insufficient revenues to repair, maintain, and replace infrastructure

Intermittent and poor quality of electricity supply

50

Inadequate human resource development, including training in modern


utility operations; and

Inadequate demand-responsiveness and customer-orientation among


service providers.

With the projected growth in population, water is expected to become


substantially scarce, unless adequate investment is made in building up of
capacity. Based on the projected growth of population the following graph
indicates the growing requirement of drinking water supply in the city.

mgd

Fig 13 : Projected Demand For Household Consumption

180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

demand

1991 2001 2005 2011 2021 2031 2041

year

It may be noted from the above is that the water requirement in 2021 for catering
to the population is to the tune of 80 MGD which has been calculated, based on
the average requirement @ 135 lpcd as per CPHEEO norms and it also taken
into account the substantial floating population which will call for additional
requirement of water. It is also important to note that as per present norms, water
treatment plants are required to cater to 20 years. Considering that virtually the
entire present capacity shall expire the design life in the near future, adequate
planning needs to be done to build up new capacity.
It may be mentioned here that the water supplied to the general public is much
lower than the 150 lpcd recommended by the Ministry of Urban Development,
Government of India. Moreover the duration of daily supply is as low as 3 hours
from 6am to 9am. Irregular supply is prevalent even though the city has sufficient

51

water resources to provide a continuously pressurized system, operated 24


hours a day.
Table 25: Service Level Indicator for Water Supply
Service Levels

Status

Supply/Capita (lpcd)-Norm

150

Supply/Capita (lpcd)-Existing

41.23

Supply Hours

hrs
Storage Capacity to % Total supplied

36.4

% Of Treatment Capacity Available

88

Source: ADB Report for the North East


 Cost Recovery
Effectiveness of recovery mechanism may be assessed on cost of production
and cost recovery. Revenue from water supply comprises of receipts in the form
of water tax collected as a part of property tax and additional water charges are
collected where individual water connection is provided.
The cost for production and distribution Per kilolitre of water is one of the key
indicator in assessing the efficiency of services and tariff levels. As per available
statistics, the recovery in the form of tariff is far lower than the running cost
leading to a situation, where there is hardly any fund available for conducting
routine operation. Hence, assets created have been left to go through a slow
degradation process. As per data available, total cost incurred by GMC for water
supply is to the tune of Rs 90 lakhs per month translating to an average annual
expenditure of approximately Rs 10.8 crore. As against this, the recovery is to
the tune of 80 lakhs annually. It is clear that unless this gap is met availability of
funds for O&M will always be uncertain.
 Distribution Network
The distribution of water is not sufficient to meet the demand of the region.
Moreover there is a huge transmission loss caused by leakages in the pipelines.
There are number of areas where the network of pipelines are not sufficient to
reach the destination.

52

In the western part, leaving aside the Kamakhya and University Complex, the
growing population in large area is completely deprived of water facility. North
Guwahati virtually has no water distribution lines. Substantial areas in the eastern
part of the city are also not covered under the distribution system. As per city
records and LASA Household survey, only 33% of the population is connected by
distribution lines.

The ratio of distribution network to road network is

phenomenally low at 0.2

6.4

Housing

The total increase in population in the city from 1991 to 2001 is 37 %, whereas
the household increase for the same period is 46 % and Persons per household
has decreased by 0.27 persons. This can be observed by the following table:
Table 26: Growth of Population and households in GMA
2001
Jurisdiction

No Of

1991
Persons per

Population
Households

GMC area

No Of

Persons per

Households

household

Population
household

809,895

184,454

4.39

584,342

125,906

4.64

80878

15,804

5.12

64,307

11,553

5.57

890,773

200,258

4.45

648,649

137,459

4.72

GMA
excluding
GMCA
Total GMA

Source: The Census of India, 2001

53

The total number of households in the city are 2,00,258 as per the census
of India, 2001, of which 178738 is used for residential purposes only. The
distribution of houses as per their use is shown by the following pie chart.
Fig 15 : Distribution of house by use

Residences
Residential cum other use
Shop, Office
Factory workshop, work-shed etc.
Other non-residential use
Vacant houses
School, College etc.
Hotel, Lodge, Guest house etc.
Hospital, Dispensary etc
Place of Worship

Source: Census of India, 2001

It has been observed that mostly the households in the GMC area are
owned and rented. As per the 2001 census, the own houses account for
48.4%, while rented ones account for 46.4%. The ownership status of
houses in GMC area is presented below in the pie chart.
Fig 16: Distribution according to ownership status.

5%

49%
46%

Owned

Rented

Any Other

54

Table 27: Distribution of households by number of dwelling units, 2001

Type

No. of D.Us

% of D.Us

No exclusive room

1,932

1.0

One Room

57,354

30.7

Two Room

49,113

26.3

Three Room

34,438

18.4

Four Room

20,854

11.2

Five Room

11632

6.2

Six Room & above

11,678

6.2

Total

187,001

100.0

Source : Census of India 2001

It can be seen from the above table that out of the total of
187001 dwelling units, the major portion consist of one room
D.U.s accounting for 30.70%, while the lowest portion being
six rooms & above at 6.2%.

A study conducted by the Comprehensive Master Plan


preparation team for GMA 2025, has revealed that the
shortage for housing facilities within the Guwahati city in the
year 2001 was to the tune of 3.1%, which has subsequently
increased to 6.9% in the year 2005. It has been estimated that
there will be a need for 3,04,437 dwellings by the year 2025, accounting for over 40% increase
over the requirement in 2001. From the same study it has been observed that the demand for
housing will continue to increase in the coming years thereby necessitating a comprehensive
action plan to deal with the problem of housing deficiencies in future.

6.5

Transportation

The population of GMA is growing at a high rate and between 1991 and 2001;
the city registered a decadal growth rate of 37.85%. The region also experiences

55

flow of large volume of goods pertaining not only to the state of Assam but also
to the other parts of the northeastern region. Additionally, substantial number of
students and workers from the rest of the state as also from the rest of the NE
region come to Guwahati on regular basis. The substantial growth in the region is
characterised by densification of the center core, ribbon development along the
main transportation corridor and inadequacy of internal link road. The situation
has further deteriorated due to a limited road network and carriageway resulting
in perpetual congestion on the main as well as arterial roads within the city.
Table 28: Number of Vehicles on Roads in Assam
Year

Number of Vehicles
1981

87,644

1991

249, 323

1998-99

373,962

1999-2000

401289

2000-2001

534885

2001-2002

588259

2003-2004

670580

Source: Office of the Commissioner of Transport, Assam


* 2002-2003 not available

A rapid increase of the numbers of Motor Vehicles on road in Assam has been
observed over the years. The density of Motor Vehicles in Assam was 7 (seven)
per sq. km. during 2001-2002, which has gone up to 9 per sq km in 2003-04. The
number of registration of new vehicles has also gone up every year. The situation
is no different in the Kamrup district as well. The following table shows the
increasing number of vehicles in the Kamrup district.
Table 29: increase in the number of vehicles in Kamrup district.
Year
2001-2002
2002-2003
2003-2004
2004-2005
2005-2006 up to
31/12/05

Trucks & Buses


1463
1402
1811
3015
2113

Car & Jeep Two Wheelers


3382
2819
4002
9924
4458
10876
8542
17237
7766

56

14733

Others
6767
1343
1654
870

Total
14431
16671
18799
29664

844

25456

Source: Statement of Motor Vehicles Registration, Kamrup, Guwahati, Assam

Fig 17: Newly Registered Vehicles

35000

Numbers

30000

trucks &
Buses
Car & Jeep

25000
20000
15000

Two
Wheelers
others

10000
5000

Total

0
2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005

Year

The most important means of transportation for movement of goods and


passenger traffic in the State of Assam is road transport. The movement of
goods within the state is primarily in the hands of the private operators while both
private as well as state owned transport company (Assam State Transport
Corporation) carry passenger traffic. With respect to transportation of goods into
the state from the rest of the country, both the road and rail networks are used.
As a step towards improvement of passenger amenities and provide efficient
connectivity, the State Government has already taken up the task of construction of
an Inter-State Bus Terminus at Gorchuk on the outskirts of the city to facilitate inter-

The

state transportation of passenger traffic.

growth

substantial
in

the

region

is

The Bramaputra and Barak are the two most important navigable rivers of Assam.

characterised

by

There area also numerous tributaries of these two rivers, which are navigable by

densification

of

country boats. Brahmaputra has already been declared as No.2 National Waterways.

the center core,

At present, two public sector organisations, viz., the State Directorate of Inland Water

ribbon

Transport (IWT) and Central Inland Water Transport Corporation (CIWTC) are

development

operating water transport services between Guwahati and Kolkata exclusively for

along

movement of goods. The Department of Inland Water Transport, Assam is operating

transportation

61 numbers of Ferry Services for the purpose of public utility connecting the South
Bank of the river with North Bank.

57

of
main

There is an absence of a well-networked bus or rail system in the city. At present,


the intra-city traveling needs of the residents are met through State owned ASTC
operated city buses, private buses operating under ASTC, private trekker
services and personalized vehicles. In fact, the growth of vehicles within the city
has been so rapid in the last decade or so that the density of vehicular population
in Guwahati is considered to be one of the highest in the country. The North East
Frontier Railway used to operate a shuttle services between Pandu on the west
periphery of the city and Narengi on the east for passenger movement, which,
however, has been discontinued about a few years ago.
A mass transportation or an integrated transportation system would go a long
way towards alleviating the transportation problems of the city. In addition, the
congestion on the roads is compounded due to the absence of an integrated
transportation management system, with most of the congested points being
manned by traffic personnel leading to stressed manpower and ill organized
traffic on the roads.

Some of the key issues observed in the transportation sector are as follows:

 Congestion along the main roads


Guwahati apart from being the gateway to the North-East India, is also the most
important commercial hub of the state and the region. So most vehicles going to
other parts of the northeast India and the state have to pass through the city. Due
to the movement of vehicles inside the city, most of the roads remain congested
during the peak hours.
Guwahatis main road network is linear in character with a rather straight road
length connecting airport with Noonmati from west to east and from Paltan Bazar
to Khanapara connected by another linear road from north to south. The notable
roads servicing a major portion of the city are the G.S Road, GNB Road, A T
Road and M. G. Road, which incidentally are also the most congested roads of
the city that need immediate attention. Apart from these roads, there are pockets
of congestion at places such as the Guwahati Club police point up to Silpukhuri,
Paltan Bazar, Pan Bazar, Fancy Bazar, Ambari, Maligaon Chariali police point,
Adabari city bus stand, Bamunimaidam, the B Borooah Road up to Ulubari,
Rehabari, Bhangagarh, The VIP road and G S Road police point amongst others.

58

The congestion is also due to the fact that there is no adequate parking at any of
the above mentioned roads leading to usage of a part of the roads width as
parking by vehicle owners. Some of the major reasons for such congestion on
these roads stems from the following:

Inadequate width of the roads

Retail Trade and Commerce activities and at some places these


spilling onto the roads

Wholesale trade (Storage facilities, loading / unloading, Truck


Parking)

Inter-Region and Intra-Region Bus Terminus as is typically seen at


the Paltan Bazar, Adabari and Machkhowa area

City bus terminals on the roads as is seen at Judges Field, Noonmati


etc

Auto-Rickshaw and Taxi Terminal facilities

On-Street parking

Presence of slow moving non motorized vehicles such as cycle


rickshaws, hand carts etc

Absence of scientific traffic management system leading to nonregulated traffic movement

No separate lanes for pedestrian traffic

Manned rail crossings at several important junctions

Un-coordinated construction activities on the roads

Digging up of roads by civic agencies without paying attention to


planned traffic diversion

 Inadequacy and poor condition of internal roads


The traffic volume of the major roads of the Guwahati is substantially high
resulting in low travel speed, poor level of service and increase in congestion.
The mean speed and running speed of the traffic stream on different roads varies
from 10 km ph to 41 km ph during different periods of the day (IIT, Guwahati
report of the year 2005). At most of the sections, the running speed was found to
be 20 km ph, which calls for urgent steps to improve road availability and quality.
Considering the rapid growth of the population in coming years, the pressure on
existing roads will increase causing congestion in the city.

59

Internal Roads inside the township area do not have adequate capacity to cater
to the present demand. Additionally the surface condition in some of the links is
appalling due to lack of adequate maintenance. The quality of riding surface in
some areas is extremely poor and calls for immediate intervention.

 Increasing number of accidents


Due to the weak traffic management measures in the city, the number of
accidents in the city has increased every year. The following table shows the
increasing number of accidents in the Kamrup district.
Table 30 : Accident Vehicles Examine by M.V.I.

Year

Numbers

2001-02

385

2002-03

396

2003-04

419

2004-05

1450

2005-06 up to

784

31/12/05
Source: Statement of Motor Vehicles Registration, Kamrup, Guwahati, Assam

 Railway Barriers
One of the major barriers for free flow of traffic within the Guwahati city is the
presence of railway crossings. Though in the recent years a few RoBs and
underpasses have been built to ensure smooth movement of traffic, some of
the important junctions particularly parallel to the GNB Road and the AT Road
require intervention by the authorities. In addition, some of the existing RoBs
and underpasses are very narrow resulting in congestion at most times of the
day. Some of these points are the RoB at Maligaon, Panbazar amongst others.
These RoBs will have to be widened and strengthened in order to enable them
to cater to the growing traffic movement within the city.

 Markets in heart of the city

60

Currently the wholesale markets are situated within the city resulting in major
congestions on the roads passing through these areas. Such markets can be
found at Fancy Bazar, Machkhowa, the A T Road stretches among others. The
roads in these areas are also very narrow and this coupled with parking of goods
traffic along the roads hinder free movement of traffic.

 Absence of centralized warehousing facilities


Linked to the earlier point is the fact that apart from the New Guwahati area,
which is a major Railway goods loading and unloading centre, the city has no
centralized warehousing facility. In the absence of such a facility, some internal
roads in the main business district are occupied by trucks and other goods
vehicles leading to not only congestion but also unhygienic conditions due to
unauthorized dumping of perishable products.

 Absence of parking areas


With the growth in trade and commerce in the region, the number of vehicles has
grown sharply. The city attracts substantial amount of cars and two wheelers.
Though there is a parking lot in the riverfront at Bharalumukh, the capacity of the
parking lot is not sufficient to cater to the present demand and at the same time
the location of the parking lot is questionable. In the absence of adequate parking
facilities, the vehicles are parked on the side of the street leading to a major
bottleneck in the smooth flow of traffic. In addition, high population density, large
number of pavement hawkers as can be observed at Fancy Bazar and Paltan
Bazar area, sidewalk encroachments, heterogeneous nature of traffic and
commercial area development along all the major roads have compounded the
problem of congestion on the main as well as internal roads of the city. Since
there is no planned parking space available within the city, currently, the ULB
and the city traffic police allow parking of passenger vehicles on the side of the
road thereby eating away a sizeable portion of motorable road.

 Bus Terminus at heart of the city


The city at present has an inter state bus terminus at Paltan Bazar and intra city
bus terminus at Adabari near Jalukbari and at Machkhowa. While the Inter State
Bus Terminus is being moved to a location on the National Highway bypassing
the city, there is no provision for the intra city bus terminus to be improved or

61

moved out to the periphery of the city in the near future. The city ideally requires
intra city bus terminus at all the terminal points of city bus movements such as
Khanapara in the South, Noonmati/Narengi in the East and Jalukbari in the west.
While Adabari is the only intra city bus stand catering to a large number of city
buses ferrying passengers across the city, at other terminal points, the buses are
parked haphazardly leading to congestion and creating accident prone areas.
Apart from that the existing bus terminuses do not provide proper amenities to
the travelers, bus drivers and conductors.

 Absence of Integrated Mass Rapid Transportation System


Heavy concentrations of residential units coupled with required movement to
work places or to market places demand transportation of people. Roads are
ideally designed to cater for the same. However, the road network across cities
have a limitation the area available remains constant once the development is
completed, and old cities in particular throw up the problems of mismatch of
designed capacity versus the increasing pressure of populations. Guwahati as a
city has similar characteristics to any city, which has grown steadily over the
years in terms of population, trade & commerce and other indicators of rapid
urbanization. However, adequate attention has not been paid to transportation of
people in a manner, which would take the pressure off the already stressed road
network in the city. To cater to the requirement of the Guwahati city in the near
future, it needs an integrated mass rapid transportation system that will also
facilitate integration of different modes of transport in the city.
The increase in the vehicular population in the city together with the increase in
movement of vehicular traffic through the city have put tremendous pressure on
the existing traffic management system. In fact, it will not be inappropriate to
state that the concept of traffic management system is absent in the city leading
to prolonged queues of vehicles on the city roads at most of the time during the
day. Given the state of affairs at present and the fact that increase in vehicular
traffic has not been supported by commensurate improvement in infrastructure, it
is absolutely necessary to put in place a comprehensive integrated traffic
management system in the city in order to streamline the movement of vehicles
and pedestrians in future.


Inland Waterways

62

The Brahmaputra provides the perfect backdrop for developing an efficient inland
waterways system for smooth connectivity with the rest of the country. While the
river has been declared National Waterways 2 by the Ministry of Shipping, the
waterway has not been utilized properly for effecting movement of goods and
people. At present, ferry services are operated by the state run organizations
between the south and the north banks of the river Brahmaputra primarily
catering to movement of people. However, the ferries used for carrying
passengers are old and do not have the capacity to carry vehicles thereby
reducing the effectiveness of the entire system. The apparent lack of connectivity
via this mode has contributed towards lack of development of North Guwahati in
the past.
In addition, no efforts have been made in the past to check the utility of
converting the Bharalu channel as an inland waterway for transportation of goods
across the city. This channel, which cris-crosses the city of Guwahati can be
utilized in an effective way for carriage of goods and can go a long way in
decongesting the already stressed city roads.

 Rural connectivity
The rural connectivity of the region is rather poor as most of the roads linking
rural areas to the cities are inadequate in terms of capacity or condition. Even the
exiting road connectivity with the rural segments is based on LTM (Light
Transport Modal) construction thereby not providing the base for rural population
to transport their produce in mass quantity to the city markets for selling.

Guwahati being the gateway to the other States of the North Eastern Region of
the Country, the need for development of transport and communication sector in
the city and hence the connectivity with the rest of the region is of vital
importance for speedy economic development of the region. Due to its
geographical isolation and difficult terrain, transport has been a major bottleneck
in the process of economic progress of the region. The existing infrastructures
and facilities of transport and communication in the city are hardly adequate to
meet the requirements. The city is of course served by all the modern means of
transport viz., roads, railways, waterways and airways but there is enough scope
for further improvement of the facilities.

63

6.6

Drainage & Storm Water

The city of Guwahati has no comprehensive drainage system available at


present barring a small area within the city where Town and Country Planning,
Government of Assam through GMDA has implemented minor drainage
schemes. The small drains alongside the roads in the city are not efficient
enough to provide relief for the localities. The problem is compounded by the fact
that there is severe encroachment alongside the drains, low-lying ditches and
other related factors, which, have resulted in flooding/overflowing as the normal
flow of the drains is affected.

The city receives substantial rainfall during the monsoon, and in the absence of a
planned drainage system, outlet for the water is limited. In addition, the existing
natural drainage channels, which have played a major role in the discharging of
water including waste and storm water in the past have been made ineffective
today by unscientific development process and subsequent encroachments.
There has been continuous top soil erosion on the surrounding hillocks resulting
in larger flow of water down to the plains. To add to the woes of the city, large
amount of water also flows down from the hills of adjoining Meghalaya resulting
in massive water logging in the wards neighboring the hill state. Further,
increasing concretization of the city in the recent years has also blocked the exit
of the water to the water bodies, which have traditionally been acting as the
absorber of the citys excess water. This coupled with the fact that the city does
not have a comprehensive sewerage and sanitation system, has affected the
living environment for its citizens.

6.6.1 Available Drainage Basins


The entire Guwahati Metropolitan Area is divided into seven drainage basins,
through which all the waste and disposal of the city is drained into the river
Brahmaputra either directly or through various drainage channels and reservoirs
indirectly. These basins are
Bharalu Basin: Bharalu Basin is probably the most important drainage
system within the city with a catchment area of 42 sq.km. This river flows

64

through the heart of the city into the river Brahmaputra and many small
industries are located on its banks. During monsoon and heavy rainfall, there
is a back flow of water leading to overflow on to the catchment areas.
It is the most flood prone area in the GMA. Over the years, siltation has
caused the river bed to rise leading to overflowing and backflow in the river.
In addition, there has also been encroachment in the natural drainage
system putting the citys drainage system under pressure. So, it would not be
an exaggeration to state that if the Bharalu basin fails, the citys drainage
system collapses.
Deepar Basin: It is the single largest drainage basin of the region, covering
an area of 20135 hectares. The basin is subdivided into two sub-basins:
Bijubari sub-basin and Dipur sub-basin
Silsako Basin: Silsako basin covers 6534 hectares in the east of Guwahati;
Silsako basin is connected with Brahmaputra River through Bonda River.
Borsola Basin: Borsola basin also covers a large area and is responsible for
absorbing a large amount of discharge flowing out of the southern part of the
city
Foreshore Basin: The areas include main residential, commercial,
institutional and business area in Guwahati.
North Guwahati Basin: It has mostly hill ranges comprising north and
western boundary of the GMA. This covers a total area of 32.3 Km
Kalmoni Basin: The total area occupied by the basin is 66.5 Km. River
Kalmoni finds its way into the River Brahmaputra through Deepar Beel and
the Khona River and partly through Thengbhanga and the Khalbhog river.

The current natural drainage of Guwahati Metropolitan Area on the south bank of
river Brahmaputra is mainly through the river Bharalu, river Basistha flowing into
Deepar Beel, Khona River and through Silsako-Tapar Beel System. The Deepar
Beel also receives discharge from a large part of the Metropolitan area and
ultimately disposes such discharges into the Brahmaputra River through Khona

65

River. In the northern bank area, the discharge is either directly to the River
Brahmaputra or through the Ghorajan River into the River Brahmaputra

Within the city, man made underground drains carry wastewater from the
residences and commercial complexes. These drains are meant for the storm
water of the plots and lanes and by lanes abutting on the roads.

But due to deposition of silt over the years and their lack of maintenance, the
capacity of the drains to carry waste water have been reduced resulting in
overflowing/artificial flooding in adjoining areas. The major areas where the
underground drains are found have been mentioned below.

Col.J.Ali Road

AT Road

Lachitnagar Road

Ambari Road

Hidayetpur Road

G.S.Road

G.N.Bordoloi Road

Guwahati suffers from chronic water logging which is primarily due to non
availability of integrated and scientific drainage systems. It needs to be
recognized that due to the topographical features of the region and the fact that
the level of the river Brahmaputra is higher than the rest of the city at most
places, an integrated drainage system is absolutely necessary. Some of the key
issues in this regard are as follows:

6.6.2 Major Problems in Drainage

Lack of proper maintenance of the existing drainage system, whether


natural or man made in the region. Due to dumping of solid waste and
siltation, the natural flow of the drainage system has been affected; the
capacity of drains to discharge the storm water to main arteries has been
reduced. .

The drainage system in the region comprising of natural and artificial


drainage is not adequate to cope with the growing population in the
region.

66

Construction of buildings and roads over the man made drains is also
responsible for affecting the flow of the drainage system.

Encroachment on the natural drainage system of the city.

Filling up of original swamps and natural water reservoirs for the purpose
of development.

Affluent generated from the refineries in the city is also a major


bottleneck for the development of the drainage system in the region.

Most of the existing artificial drains within the GMA are below the level of
River Bharalu resulting in overflowing at most places along the river.

Areas which faces acute problem of water logging are usually low-lying
residential and commercial areas which are as follows:

Geeta Nagar/ Hatigaon Chariali upto Narengi

G.N.B. Road from Guwahati club to Noonmati ( except the New


Guwahati Area)

R G Boruah Road

Maligaon

Guwahati College Approach road

Nabagraha road and its nearby areas

Along the Kanwachal road, particularly the southern part.

Naveen Nagar/Ambikagiri Nagar/tarun Nagar up to Bhangagarh

Sundarpur

Rukmini Gaon, Mathura Nagar and some low lying areas in Beltola

Fatasil Ambari

Some areas on the A T Road

Lamb Road

This is only an indicative list of the places, which face severe water logging
problems. This in fact is a pointer to the fact that water logging is one of the more
serious problems plaguing the city and needs to be addressed through a
comprehensive drainage and sewerage system.

67

Storm Water
The Brahmaputra riverbank in Guwahati is higher than most of the city areas.
The average ground level of the riverbank is 51.3m whereas the average
ground level in the rest of the city, except the hillocks and wetlands, is
around 49m. But the HFL of the Brahmaputra at the D.C. court point is
51.37m, as recorded in 1988. The flood level of the river remains above 49m
every year for a number of days during the season of heavy rains. Therefore,
gravity flow of storm water of the city into the river cannot take place.

To prevent the reverse flow from Brahmaputra into Guwahati, Sluice gates
had to been installed at the down stream ends of the Bharalu channel, Bonda
Jan and Khona Jan, and pumps had to be installed at Bharalu sluice gate to
discharge Guwahati drainage water into Brahmaputra.
In Guwahati, drainage is a serious problem. The covered drains are actually the
pedestrian walkways whose covers are removed for maintenance purpose but is
not replaced immediately leading to overflow of drains even if during light rainfall.
This is also a safety hazard for pedestrians and to the vehicular traffic. Choking
of drains (Siltage) is a regular occurrence forcing drains to overflow most of the
times.
Two rivulets Bharalu (the upstream part of which is called Bahini) and Basistha,
originating from the southern hill range, which is an extension of the hills of
Meghalaya, run through the city of Guwahati. Both Bharalu and Basistha are the
natural drainage channels for the Guwahati Metropolitan Area. The Bahini Bharalu
channel has its outfall in Brahmaputra and the Basistha channel flows into Deeper
Beel, which again is connected to Brahmaputra through a stream known as Khona
Jan. Similarly, another stream called Bonda Jan in the east connects Silsako Beel
with river Brahmaputra. But the capacity of these channels have eroded in the recent
times thereby proving to be inadequate to handle the storm water flows.

Storm Water Drainage of Metropolitan Guwahati is now solely dependent on


pumping during high floods in Brahmaputra. The Bharalu channel to which most
of the storm water has been diverted does not have adequate capacity to cope
with the discharge. As a result, there is frequent rain water floods, which
submerge roads, streets and lanes as well as houses and establishments.

68

6.6.3 Key Issues in storm water


Storm water runoff causes pollution, erosion and flooding problems. These
problems occur because of the man made alteration in the natural drainage flow
through unscientific construction activities and the way water flows through the
altered landscape.


Flooding problem

As city grows, there will be more housing and construction activities leading to
more rooftops, driveways, streets and other hard or impervious surfaces thereby
decreasing the capacity of the land to soak up and carry excess water. In
addition, the top soil erosion on the hill surfaces surrounding the city, has led to
greater discharge of rain water down to the plains within the city, thereby choking
the channels of discharge. This has resulted in more artificial flooding as has
been experienced by the city in the last few years.


Pollution problem

As water from rain runs across these hard surfaces, roads, lawns and gardens,
they pick up pollutants such as sediments, pet waste, oil, grease, pesticides, and
fertilizers amongst others. Storm water carries these contaminants to the
streams, rivers, lakes, wetlands and the natural aquifer. Such pollutants
ultimately destroy the health of the waterways and thereby impact the
environment and the health of the residents.

6.7

Sanitation & Sewerage

The city of Guwahati doesnt have any integrated sewerage system at present
except for certain residential areas such as the Railway Colonies, the I.O.C
Refinery colonies and residential areas under defense establishments. All the
mentioned areas have their own separate sewerage facilities.

For the rest of the residents of the city, most of the individual houses have septic
tanks without any collective disposal system for effluents. The sewage from
septic tanks goes directly into the open drain. Also the garbage generated in the
city is dumped just by the side of the drainage system, which leads to loss of
flowing capacity of the drains. This ultimately makes the surroundings unclean,
unhygienic and conducive for growth of disease carrying organisms. The soak

69

pits connected to septic tanks are becoming non-functional due to high sub soil
water table within a short span of time.

Population serviced by sanitary facilities in


Guwahati

Septic Tanks

18.27%
0.12%
0

Public Conveniences
Low Cost Sanitation
Units
Open defecation
81.61%

The unplanned urban development of Guwahati city has created stagnant pools
of waste water, which has become breeding place for mosquito and other
disease carrying organisms and has become a source of public health hazards.
Therefore, immediate steps have to be taken to provide a comprehensive
sewerage system for collection, treatment and disposal of all spent wastewater of
the city in a scientific manner.

Key issues pertaining to sanitation are similar to that of drainage. Hence, it is


imperative to have an integrated sewerage and drainage scheme, which also
takes into account sewerage, sewage treatment and storm water drainage.

6.8

Basic Services to the Poor

There are number of slums in the Guwahati city. It is understood that there are
26 slum pockets in the GMC area covering 1.6 lakh people. It is proposed that a
comprehensive Slum Improvement Programme be undertaken. The programme
must have the following components:

Provision of Shelter & other Physical Infrastructure at affordable price so as to improve


the sanitation and living condition in the existing slums and other squatter settlements;

Provision of adequate health care including family welfare; immunization, child health
care, etc;

Development of facilities for community development and recreation

70

Programme for basic education and training;

Ensuring maintenance and up-gradation of the existing housing stock of


the poorer sections;

6.9

Solid Waste Management

Overall the present solid waste management process covering the entire
Guwahati Region is found to be highly inadequate. The drains on either side of
existing roads are overflowing and also are open, plastic materials has created a
nuisance blocking the natural flow of drains, which eventually leads to overflowing
of the drains.
Presently, the wastes are simply thrown either on the roadside heap or close to
near by waste bin and the roads end up being storage of enormous amounts of
waste. There is virtually no Solid Waste Management System in almost the whole
of the Guwahati City.

The major shortfalls in the present systems are as illustrated below:

Functional element
Segregation &
Storage at source
Primary collection
Waste storage
depot
Transportation
Frequency of
removal
Processing
Disposal

Details
Generally absent. Waste is deposited in community
bins /thrown on the streets/drains / rivers
No organized system. Large percentage of waste is
deposited on the streets and picked up through street
sweeping. Throwing in open drains is also common.
Very unscientific.
Waste is stored on open
sites/masonry enclosures/metallic drums
Manual loading in open trucks
Regular along major roads. In by-lanes and other
areas-Irregular
No processing is carried out except a small private
initiative of Vermi Composting outside city limits.
Crude unsafe dumping at Sachhal

No segregation of Waste:

Concept of segregation of waste is largely absent and people are totally ignorant
about the significance and necessity of segregation of Solid waste

Bio-medical Waste:

Though the region contains a good number of hospitals, however they do not
have updated and sophisticated solid waste management facilities. The Biomedical wastes are also getting dumped along with domestic wastes.

71

The
waste

bulk

of
is

the
not

collected on a daily
basis and left to
decay on the roads,
streets and drains,
etc.

6.9.1

Present

Institutional

Structure

of

Solid

Waste

Management at Guwahati

The responsibility of managing solid waste generated within the city is vested on
the five engineering division of GMC. No separate solid waste management

Responsibility

department exist in the city, the whole process is controlled and supervised by

Managing

the engineering division directly. For operational purposes the entire area of the

waste

Corporation is divided into 21 zones (23 Engineering zones out of which 21

within the city is

zones have SWM responsibilities) consisting of 60 wards, comprising of 3 to 5

vested on the five

wards in each. The Map (Annexure-I) containing the roads and the limits of the

engineering

Engineer (Assistance Engineer). Inspectors and supervisors who oversee the


daily activities assist the zonal engineers. The Zonal Engineers work under
Divisional engineers, each division having 4-5 zones. The engineering
department

address

major

programmes

such

as

Construction

and

maintenance, Building licensing, and SWM activities including drain cleaning.


A table has been provided below showing existing infrastructure of the corporation for collection
of Solid waste management.
Table 32: Composition of Garbage in GMC

Composition

of

Percentage

Garbage

(%)

Organic waste

78
39%

Paper

14

Glass

1.8

Plastic

6.2

Total

100

Organic waste
Paper

50%

Glass
Plastic
Total

3%1%

7%

Source: white Paper on Pollution, PCB and SRDC

72

Solid

generated

division of GMC

municipal wards of GMC is enclosed with report. Each zone is headed by a Zonal

of

Service Level Indicators for Solid Waste Management in North Eastern States:
Indicators

Agartala

Aizawal

Gangtok

Guwahati

Imphal

Itanagar

Kohima

Shillong

137

104

59

373

100

38

33

65

350

400

250

460

450

457

414

528

114

40

16

314

73

10

60

52

NA

65

220

55

90

65

70

75

136

81

169

50

55

84

60

Service level indicators


Total waste
Generated
per day
(Tons)
Waste
Generated
per capita
(Gms)
Waste
collected
(Tons)
No of
Collection
Bins
Vehicle
adequacy
ratio

Coverage Indicators
% of waste
collected
Number of
vehicles
Number of
Trips/ Day
Dust bin
spacing (m)
Disposal
sites

80

40

30

80

70

20

30

90

29

15

75

14

13

133

NA

2240

190

290

900

650

490

One
(7Kms)

One
(20Kms)

One
(15Kms)

One
(15Kms)

One
(2Kms)

One
(10Kms)

Two
(8-10Kms)

One
(6 Kms)

Type of
Disposal

Open
dumping &
composting
203

Open
dumping

Open
dumping

Open
dumping

Open
dumping

Open
dumping

Open
dumping

Open
dumping

209

50

1100

Na

Na

38

528

Daily

Twice a
week

Twice a
week

Twice a
week

Daily

Twice a
week

Once in 2
3 days

Municipality
& NGOs

LAD

Once in
23
days
UDHD

GMC

Municipality
& NGOs

UDHD

Town
committee

Municipal
cantonment
Boards.

Conservancy
staff
Frequency of
collection
Agencies
involved

73

Composition of Garbage in selected residential and market areas of GMC


Residential
Areas
Hengerabari
Professor
Colony
Mathura
Nagar
Beltola
Chenikuthi
Hill side
Kamakhya
Gate
Kannachal
Pension
Para
Source: Ibid
Market Areas
Uzanbazar
Fancy Bazar
Paltanbazar

Organic

Paper

Plastic

Glass

77%
75%

16%
18%

6%
5%

0.6%
2%

Metal &
others
0.4%
0%

85%

9%

3%

2%

1%

90%
73%

5%
10%

5%
14%

0%
3%

0%
0%

67%

26%

5%

2%

0%

76%
63%

13%
17%

11%
20%

0%
0%

0%
0%

76%
57%
66%

10.5%
10%
10%

6.6%
8.5%
6.0%

2.0%
10%
0%

4.9%
14.5%
18%

Source: comprehensive Master Plan GMA


Details of Solid waste Generated in Guwahati:
Year

Actual/ Projected Population


(lakhs)
6.46
8.9
12.5
22.15

1991
2001
2010
2025

Estimated Generation
Kg/day/person
0.3
0.35
0.6
0.8

Estimated
Generation (MT/day)
193.8
311.5
750.0
1772

Solid Waste Generation-with estimated Population


2000

25
1772
22.15

1800
1600

20

MT/Day

1200

15

1000

12.5

800
600

750

8.9

10

6.46

400

311.5
193.8

200
0

0
1991

2001

2010
Year

Estimated Generation (MT/day)

Actual/ Projected Population

74

2025

Projected Population

1400

6.10 Waterfront Development


Guwahati is endowed with bountiful natural resources, rich heritage and
culture. But population explosion and accelerated economic development,
have led to over use and abuse of the natural resources thereby threatening
the life support systems. The Guwahati Waterfront on the banks of the
Brahmaputra is, arguably, one of the most spectacular waterfronts in the
country, but its existence is threatened with the increase in the growth of
squalid, unhygienic squatter settlements, unorganized and unsafe river transport
facilities. In addition, the waterfront areas are extensively used by bamboo
traders and as bathing ghats, creating unhygienic conditions.

The drainage of Guwahati Metropolitan area is primarily on the south bank of


river Brahmaputra and is serviced through the river Bharalu, river Basistha,
Deepar Beel, Khona River and through Silsako-Tapar Beel System amongst
others. The Deepar Beel receives discharge from the major part of Metropolitan
area, which finally flows into Brahmaputra through the Khona river. In the
northern bank area the discharge is effected either directly into Brahmaputra or
indirectly through the Ghorajan river. Due to the absence of systematic and
scientific drainage system, the pollution levels of waterfront areas have
experienced significant increase in the recent years.

6.11

Urban Renewal Programme

Guwahati Metropolitan Area is the gateway to the northeastern region. Due to its
excellent connectivity and unique geographical location, this region is
experiencing rapid growth of trade and commerce and it has the potential to
become the hinterland for the entire northeastern region. As a result lots of
people migrate from different parts of the region to the city increasing pressure
on the available infrastructural facilities.

Presence of Wholesale Markets and Industries in Busy


Areas

The major problem of the GMA pertains to presence of different types and sizes
of industries at different busy areas of the city. Apart from creating congestion
due to loading and unloading of goods at these places, their presence also lead
to a polluted environment thereby affecting the inhabitants of the city. In addition,

75

the solid waste generated by these industries are not managed in a scientific
manner adding to the pollution levels in the city.

Presence of Wholesale Markets

In the GMA, presence of wholesale markets in the heart of the city cause
tremendous congestion as roads besides these markets are used for commercial
activities are causing huge congestion. Most of the markets are situated besides
busy roads. So most of the wholesale activities take place in the footpaths of the
nearby roads of the markets. That encroaches the footpath of the busy market
area. As a result of this most of the pedestrians can not use the footpaths of the
market areas. This causes a large number of accidents in the area. Areas like
Fancy Bazaar, Paltan Bazaar and Pan Bazaar create a lot of congestion while
transshipment of goods.

Again huge amount of garbage is dumped everyday in the markets that causes
pollution and makes roads dirty. Again as the markets are situated in the busy
areas of the cities it also causes noise pollution, which is not according to the
norms of the modern cities.

Scarcity of Housing due to rise in Migration

As industries, are situated in the area and new industries are growing, the region
generates large number of employment opportunities. So migration takes place
from different cities and villages of the neighborhood areas. Most of these people
live in the slums of the cities in the region. As a result number of slum dwellers is
increasing in the area.
In any urban area slums are considered as visible manifestation of urban
poverty. These slum pockets develop on their own either near a huge
employment source like an industry or near a well-established residential area.
Slums are likely source of public health hazard because of the presence of
unsanitary living conditions and lack of civic infrastructure facilities.

Presence of the JAIL In the Central City Area:

The city jail is right in the central area of the city. The jail should be shifted to the
outskirts of the city in isolation to ensure rehabilitation of the prisoners along with
better security for the citizens.

76

7. Environment
7.1

Introduction

The Guwahati Metropolitan Area has been experiencing rapid growth in


population, development process, urbanization and congestion. One of the major
issues that needs to be addressed relates to the resultant adverse impact on
Environment.

7.2

Background

Rapid urbanization creates enormous stresses on natural environment. Guwahati


being the most critical centre in North- East has been experiencing steady growth
of population, increase in trade & commerce activities, growth in vehicular
population, rapid urbanization and hence the resultant increase in the levels of
pollution.

7.3

Action Plan
7.3.1

Water Pollution

 Wastewater Treatment
Raw sewage includes waste from sinks, toilets, and industrial processes.
Treatment of the sewage is required before it can be safely buried, used, or
released back into local water systems. In a treatment plant, the waste are
required to pass through a series of screens, chambers, and chemical processes
to reduce its bulk and toxicity. A program for Wastewater Treatment shall be
developed.
The following steps need to be undertaken for protection of
Water Bodies:

No garbage dumping should be permitted.

Technique of improvement of water quality using aquatic


plants and fishes can be introduced where necessary, in
order to avoid mosquito breeding.

Grass plantation should be carried out along the perimeter of


water bodies in the immediate sloping catchments.

Existing water bodies are to be widened and deepened to


the extent possible and nearby storm water drainage is to be
used to fill up the additional capacity thus created.

Water bodies will have to be desilted and deepened

77

No sewage should be diverted to water bodies in order to


maintain their water quality

7.3.2

Drainage and Dredging

The city of Guwahati needs a comprehensive drainage system that will discharge
water from higher levels to lower levels. Additionally, dredging needs to be
carried out on Brahmaputra and Bharalu to control siltation.
 Organized Discharge of Industrial Effluent
In case of industrial units, effluent in most of the cases are discharged into pits,
open ground, or open unlined drains near the factories, thus allowing it to move
to low lying depressions resulting in ground water pollution. Hence, adequate
sewage treatment plant needs to be installed properly.
 Public Participation
The problems associated with water pollution have the capability to disrupt life to
a great extent. The people in the region need to be responsible and they require
to get pro-actively involved to reduce the level of pollution in ground water.
There is a need to develop community awareness schemes for participation by
the populace in these measures.

7.3.3 Air Pollution


Air pollution needs to be controlled through a mix of direct and indirect measures.
One of the most important measures that needs to be taken up immediately is
strict compliance to regulatory measure. Violation would result into punitive
action including financial levies. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution)
Act provides for the control and abatement of air pollution. It entrusts the power
of enforcing this act to the CPCB. The Atomic Energy Act deals with the
radioactive waste. The Motor Vehicles Act stipulates that all hazardous waste
will have to be properly packaged, labeled, and transported. The Local Bodies
shall have to step up strict enforcement for compliance to these laws. Additionally
the region needs to actively promote use of Clean Fuels through support for
Alternate fuels.
Note: Analysis of Report on Air Samples in Annexure 3

7.3.4 Forest, Soil Erosion and Hill Cutting

78

To deal with the alarming situation, forest areas need to be conserved and
marked for no further development; cutting of trees and encroachment on hills
will have to be stopped. This should help in the protection of topsoil from erosion,
which is the main cause for siltation on the riverbeds and consequent damage to
the drainage system. Massive aforestation programme should be undertaken.

7.3.5 Rejuvenation & Beautification of Water Bodies


Apart from the hilly tracts, swamps, marshes, water bodies like Deepar Beel,
Silpukhuri, Dighali Pukhuri, Borsola Beel and Silsakoo Beel etc also cover the
city. The rejuvenation and beautification process of the above water bodies will
have many advantages such as;

The water qualities of the bodies are extremely polluted and


effect the environment adversely. The process will clean up
the environment in and around the water body

The beels have been identified as tourist spots by Tourism


Department. For example Sola beel was identified as a
tourist attraction and Deepar beel was identified as a spot
for botanical cum city forest. The cleaning up of water bodies
will allow the residents of the city to use the water bodies for
recreational activities.

The wet lands are source of ground water. However with


dumping, siltation and encroachment, it adversely effect the
water availability. A program for development of the
identified wet land need to be drawn up and

recharging

capacity of the water bodies need to be augmented

7.3.6 Disaster Management




To

create

scientific

seismographs,

strong

infrastructure
motion

in

the

form

accelerographs,

of

Global

Positioning Systems;


To

generate

knowledge-based

products

such

as

microzonation maps to help in Flood and Earthquake Disaster


Mitigation and Management;

79

To create awareness about flood & earthquakes by


organizing workshops and other relevant programmes;

To support disaster management training programmes for


officials to form Disaster Management Team

To encourage social response to disasters is largely


determined by the communications of media like newspaper
and TV reports. Thus, communications are of crucial
importance in the assessments, management and reduction of
disasters.

To take following mitigation measures:

 Earthquake-proof building codes and by-laws;


 Incentives, control and enforcement mechanisms;

 Earthquake-proof

lifeline

systems

(including

hospitals, etc);

Hazards mapping the vulnerability assessment of buildings

Strengthening of information technologies

Monitoring and impact assessment of natural hazards using


space technology

Disaster Warning System (DWS)

Human resource development where various role players in


disaster management are included.

Programme on Enhancing Emergency Response (PEER)

Schemes for Water Bodies Restoration, Preservation & Beautification


Projects

Cost (Rs crore)

Restoration & Beautification of Deepar Beel


Restoration & Beautification of Silsako Beel
Restoration & Beautification of Borsola Beel
Restoration & Beautification of Dighali Pukhuri
Restoration & Beautification of Silpukhuri
Total

8. Vision & Perspective

80

50
20
15
10
5
100.00

8.1

Background

Developing a vision for the city is central to the preparation of a CDP. A vision is
a statement concerning what the city wishes to achieve within a given timeframe,
and is often expressed in terms of clear expectations. It defines the potential of
the city besides reflecting

its unique attributes in terms of comparative and

competitive advantages, values and preferences of the citys residents,


relationship of the city to the state, national and global economies, and of course,
the history and physical characteristics of the city.

While preparation of a vision is a critical element in JNNURM process, the city of


Guwahati has already recognized the importance of having a vision statement.
The comprehensive Master Plan for Guwahati Metropolitan Area 2025 has
already envisioned the following vision for the region:

Guwahati is visualised to be one of the most admired state


capitals of India with a unique image. To this end, Guwahati shall
Promote and focus on balanced and sustainable economic and
infrastructure growth that will enable the city to fulfil its role as
the Gateway to the North-East India and South East Asia.
The Goals identified under for achieving the vision are as follows:

Goal I:
Objectives

Goal II:

Creation of quality infrastructure


To have a smooth drainage system
free from clogging
Municipal water supply & sewerage
connection
to
100
percent
households
A thorough solid waste management
system for all type of wastes.
Integrated Modern Transportation
System
including
Traffic
Management and Mass Rapid
Transit System

Creation of spaces for economic activities

81

Objectives

Goal III:

Goal IV:

Development of a wholesale markets


with quality infrastructure
Development of a state-of-the-art
business center
Development of organised shopping
areas in all parts of the city
To bring in a system in the land development process
Objectives
Development of large areas for
integrated urban development in a
planned manner and accordingly the
impact of each component to the
total development of the region.
Creation of an image befitting that of a State Capital
Objectives
To create a city image by
development
of:
(a)
Capital
Complex,
(b) State Level
Exhibition and Business area (c)
Cultural complex
(d) Sports
Complexes
To achieve an environment of
knowledge base and research
To achieve an environment of safety
& health
To create visually inspiring and
culturally vibrant public places

Goal V:
Objectives

Create a City Without Slums


To provide basic services to urban poor and
upgrade the living standard.

Goal VI:
Objectives

To rehabilitate the existing slum and prevent


further encroachment through enforcement.

Respect the Natural Environment


Protect and enhance biodiversity
through natural reserves and large
open spaces
Conserve
wetlands
and
environmentally vulnerable areas
Maintain high air and water quality

The city would strive to provide essential infrastructure and universal


access to civic amenities to its people and redefine the image of GMA into
a diverse multifaceted region with sector focus.

To this end, the Area

would concentrate on building up appropriate social and physical


infrastructure development, carry out Institutional reform, capacity building

82

and Social Welfare with a focus on Gender equality, Poverty alleviation and
Tribal affairs. The city recognizes that the growth and development of the
GMA are critical to the development of entire North Eastern region and
shall strive to be an efficient Gateway to the entire North East.

83

9. Land use and Availability


9.1

Background

The city is situated on the southern bank of river Brahmaputra with its cardinal
points as 26* 10 north latitude and 92*49 east longitude. It is located towards the
south eastern side of Kamrup district, which is surrounded, by Nalbari district in
North, Darrang and Mariagaon districts in the East, Meghalaya state in the south
and Goalpara and Barpeta districts in the west.

The city is situated on an undulating plain with varying altitudes of 49.5m to 55.5
m above mean sea level. The southern and the eastern sides of the city are
surrounded by hillocks. The central part of the city also has some hillocks like
Sarania hill (193m), Nabagraha hill (217m), Nilachal hill (193m) and Chunsali Hill
(293m). Apart from the hilly tracts, swamps, marshes and small water bodies like
Deepar beel, Dighali Pukhuri and Silsakoo beel etc also cover the city.

9.2

Present Scenario

The Land Use Pattern for Guwahati as per the Town and Country Planning
Department of the State in 2001 is provided in the following break-up:
Table 22 : Land use pattern for Guwahati in 2001
Land Use
Percentage

Residential
Commercial
Industry
Special category Government
Recreational and Parks
Public and Semi Public
Transport
Green Belt
Water bodies, hills

25.10
2.50
5.20
6.20
5.40
9.40
12.90
15.40
17.70
Total

100.00

The Land Use is predominantly residential and substantial portion of the Land
Use is for Circulation. Industry and Commercial do not form a major part of the
Land Use.

84

85

Fig 11 : Broad Break up of Land Use 2001


Land usage as per 2001

Residential
Commercial
Industry

18%

26%
Special category
Government

15%

3%
5%
6%
13%
9%

5%

Recreational and Parks


Public and Semi
Public
Transport
Green Belt

9.3

Land Use 2025

A Master Plan for the city had been prepared, shows the overall land use breakup for 2025. It is understood that the Master Plan is under further revision. It has
been estimated that approximately 5000 hectare of land is required by GMA for
various urban activities by 2025.

However, based on the existing Master Plan, the proposed Land Use is as under:
Table 23 : Land Use of GMA - 2025
Land Use
Percentage

Residential
Commercial
Public/semi public
Industries
Area under Spl. Govt. Use
Transportation
Recreation
Hills and Water bodies

27.24
5.85
14.15
5.85
4.83
4.05
15.52
22.49
Total

100.00

86

Fig 12 : Land Usage in 2025

Land usage in 2025

Residential
Commercial
Public/semi public

22%

27%
Industries
Area under Spl. Govt.
Use

6%

16%
4%
5%

Transportation

14%

Recreation

6%

Hills and Water bodies

87

88

10.

Tourism
10.1

Background

The State of Assam has a unique natural beauty with Flora and Fauna, Historical
Monuments, Pilgrim Centers, Tea Gardens and its colorful cultural festivals.
However, Tourism has been given a very limited attention with concentration
being primarily on Wildlife, Tea-tourism and Historical Monuments.

10.2

Vision

Tourism to be positioned and developed as an Engine of Economic Growth


through development of an Integrated Tourism Development Plan based on the
unique cultural and natural heritage of the area.

10.3

Waterfront Attraction

Some of the waterfronts in Guwahati are as follows:

10.3.1 Dighalipukhuri
It is a beautiful water body located in the heart of the city. At present, this water
body is used for boating facilities and is maintained by Assam Tourism
Development Corporation.

10.3.2 Deepar Beel


The Deepar Beel is a large water body located on the western periphery of the
GMA and is visited by large varieties of migratory birds every year.

10.3.3 Chandubi Lake


A natural lagoon and fine picnic spot located 64 kms from Guwahati. The lake
and its surroundings is an ideal holiday resort with the added attraction of fishing
and rowing. The place is easily accessible by road from Guwahati. The best
season to visit is from November to April.

89

10.3.4 Brahmaputra Riverfront


Guwahati is located on the banks of the might river Brahmaputra, locally known
as the Luit. The riverfront itself is over 1o kms in length within the main city area
and offers a splendid view. The riverfront is also dotted with many hillocks
An indicative list of some of the potential places in and around Guwahati, which
are of tourist interests:

10.4

Religious Places
10.4.1 Kamakhya Temple

Kamakhya temple is situated atop the Nilachal hill, at a distance of 10 km from


the railway station, where the Goddess Kamakhya is worshipped and which
commands a majestic view of the city and the river. Noted to be the most sacred
among the tantrik shrines of Shakti worship in the world, Kamakhya, was built in
the 10th century by the Koch king, Naranarayan.
10.4.2 Bhubaneshwari Temple

Above Kamakhya is another small temple, Bhubaneshwari, from where one can
have a bird's eye view of the city

10.4.3 Umananda Temple


Another place of attraction is the Umanada Island.

The Shiva temple of

Umananda, reached by motorboats and public ferries from Umananda Ghat,


stands on an island in the middle of the Brahmaputra, believed to be the smallest
inhabited river island in the world.

10.4.4 Nabagraha Temple


Atop another hill in east Guwahati is the Nabagraha temple the "temple of the
nine planets" an ancient seat of astrology and astronomy. Housed in a red
beehive-shaped dome, the central lingam is encircled by nine others
representing the planets (grahas) Sun (Surya, Ravi),Moon (Chandra, Soma),
Mercury (Buddh), Venus (Sukra), Mars (Mangal), Jupiter (Brihaspati) and Saturn

90

(Sani). Two others were added later Rahu and Ketu, the dragon's head and
the dragon's tail, or the ascending and descending nodes of the moon;

10.4.5 Vashistha Ashram


Within the city, there is also the Vashistha Ashram, an interesting old shrine, with
plenty of verdure and three beautiful streams, Lalita, Kanta and Sandhya. It is at
a distance of 12 km from the railway station and is said to have been the abode
of sage Vashistha. Several other temples like the Ugratara temple, famous for its
golden idol and buffalo sacrifices, are also strewn across the city.

10.4.6 Mahabhairab Temple


An ancient temple, where King Bana worshipped Mahabhairab, another
incarnation of Lord Shiva. It is another place of pilgrimage.

10.4.7 Madan Kamdev


It is nearly 40 kms from Guwahati and is a great Historical Splendor.

10.5

Other Places (Outside GMA)

The Manas wildlife sanctuary, 176 km from the city, is situated on


the banks of river Manas. It is the only tiger project of its kind in
Assam.

Pabitora, a small wildlife sanctuary, 60 km from Guwahati is also


worth a visit. Rhino and various species of deer abound here.

Hajo, 25 km west of Guwahati, is a sacred place for Hindus, Muslims


and Buddhists. The town also boasts the Hayagriba Madhava
Temple, accessible via a long stone stairway. At the foot of the
stairway is a large pond inhabited by one of Hajo's oldest residents:
a giant turtle. Hajo is also renowned for its bell metal work.

Sualkuchi, 32 km from Guwahati, is a village where almost all the


inhabitants are weavers, involved in the traditional art of silk
weaving.

Tezpur is 181 km east of Guwahati, and is a town of both historic


importance and adventure sports.

91

Barpeta, 185 km from Guwahati, is notable for the monastery and


shrine dedicated to the Vaishnavite saint, Sankardeva.

10.6

Action Plans

It has been proposed to develop a inter and Intra district tourist circuits based on
the unique cultural and natural heritage of the area. This can be achieved
through formation of an Integrated Tourism Development Plan. The plan needs
to include identification of various packages, schemes and tourism Circuits. A
State Level Tourism Policy could go a long way in developing tourism in the
region. Proper structuring of Tourism Projects is critical and the same would
enable Public Private Partnership Projects.

Critical to the development of tourism is Infrastructure Development. These


include development of Connectivity, Tourism Spots, Waterfront Development
and provision of Basic Amenities.

Steps need to be taken to encourage diversified nature based recreational


activities along Brahmaputra riverfront. Area with greater ethnic tribal groups
concentration will be promoted and developed for tourism interest.

Considering that there has been limited exploitation of the tourism sector, it
would be necessary to carry out a detailed study and identification of specific
steps and plans to make the region a preferred Tourist Destination

Analysis

of

the

Socio-Cultural

relevance,

religious

importance,

architectural uniqueness, heritage value and existing supportive facilities


for different scales of tourism activities.

Evaluation of various approaches by different modes of transport for the


convenience of local and regional users.

Identification of emerging threats and possible causes of decay for the


existing tourist sites

92

Exploring new areas for nature based tourism like picnicking or weekend
tourism along riverfront.

Development of river cruises connecting the nearby islands and other


areas

Encouraging diversified nature based recreational activities along


Brahmaputra riverfront. In addition to revenue generation, these activities
will help in maintaining the riverfronts.

93

11.

Water
11.1

Background

Water Supply is directly related to the main themes in the development agenda
poverty alleviation, environment protection, private sector-led growth,
participatory development and good governance. The growth process and
expansion of economic activities inevitably lead to increasing demands for
water for diverse purposes out of which drinking and domestic need are of
paramount importance. However, this essential commodity for sustenance of
life is not adequately available to a large number of people in the region.

It is striking to note that in Guwahati, only around 30% of people has direct
access to piped water supply. Water has already become a scarce resource and
is certainly going to become scarcer in future. The water supply system utilities
are locked in a vicious spiral of weak performance, insufficient funding for
maintenance leading to deterioration of assets.

It is striking to note that in


Guwahati only, around 30%
of people has direct access

Provision of continuous and safe water supply service calls for ample and reliable

to piped water supply. Thus

water sources and adequate capacity for treatment, transmission, and

water has already become

distribution, as well as properly functioning pumps, reservoirs, and networks. The

way these facilities are operated and maintained can greatly affect the health of

certainly going to become

the population, the quality of the environment, the benefits to the poor, and the

scarcer in future

resources available for investment in expansion.

11.2

Vision

To provide safe and sustainable water to its citizens at an appropriate pricing


with the ultimate goal of providing 24 hours water across the city.

11.3 Action Plans


Water supply is one of the most essential services, which needs to be made
available to every cross section of the people. The demand can only be satisfied
by substantial capacity expansion of the water treatment plants, setting up of a
well planned distribution channel and creation of a robust mechanism to ensure
an adequate operation and maintenance.
It will thus be the endeavor of the City to ensure that the people residing in the
GMA have access to efficient, responsive, and sustainable water and sanitation

94

scarce

resource

is

services. In order to achieve these objectives, the City shall provide resources
and support to encourage and implement approaches that are people-centered,
market-based, and environment-friendly. Emphasis will be put on creating
facilities that are self-sustaining. The plan would essentially cover the following
points;


Sustainability of Source

The main water source is the River Brahmaputra. Virtually all the users, public
and private utilize the River as an intake. The source is presently highly
dependable. However, it needs to be recognized that sporadic and uncontrolled
exploitation of water will be harmful in the long run and hence, there is a need for
regulation of intake.
The city also uses water from Tube Wells and Water Bodies. However, these
are in very limited quantities. There is virtually no exploitation of ground water,
which due to presence of hard rock appears to be difficult. However, there is a
need to explore conclusively the possibilities of developing alternate sources of
water such as ground water as it remains the most reliable option. And moreover
in the areas where there is difficulty in covering and in spreading the distribution
network ground water source may be explored. To ensure that water quality
remains within acceptable norms, infrastructure for developing mechanism for
water quality monitoring need to be installed.

 Creation of Water Treatment Plants


The available capacity is grossly inadequate to meet the basic drinking water
demand and there is a serious gap between demand and supply. Keeping in
mind the future increase in population, the gap between demand and supply of
water is expected to sharply widen. These plants are in poor shape and need
immediate investment for augmentation of capacity utilization from current poor
levels.
It may be noted that the water requirement in 2021 for catering to the
population is to the tune of 80 MGD. Guwahati also has substantial floating
population, which will require additional requirement of water. It is also
important to note that as per present norms, water treatment plants are
required to cater to a minimum of 20 years. Considering that virtually the
entire present capacity shall expire the design life in the near future,

95

planning needs to be carried out to build new capacity for the entire
projected requirement of water.
Based on the population growth, transmission efficiency and taking into account
floating population, which is 25%, the requirement of Water Treatment Capacity
is to the tune of 100 MGD.

 New Water Supply Schemes for pipelines and taps


As mentioned above, the coverage of the distribution network within the city is
extremely low. In view of the same, there is a requirement for building up a
comprehensive Water Supply Network comprising of Construction of Collector
wells, Reservoirs, Overhauling and Addition of new pipelines to the areas, which
are presently not being served. The network of water distribution needs to be
increased to cover all the areas under GMA.

 Operation and Maintenance


Operation and maintenance of water supply pipes and water treatment plant is
necessary to ensure that the facilities created cater to the future demand of
water. All the above strategies and action plans will fail, if there is no proper
operation and maintenance.

Pipelines Leakages need to be identified and adequate measures undertaken to


prevent loss of water. While the ULBs shall enhance the tariff base over a period
time to ensure that O&M is payable from the revenues, there is an immediate
requirement of O&M funds so as to ensure that the assets created under this
scheme are properly maintained.

 Augmentation of Water Availability


Rainwater harvesting measures will be implemented to preserve and conserve
water from other sources.

 Capacity Building & Workshop


A program and a series of definite measures would be drawn up to improve the
overall management performance of the existing agencies through capacity
building, induction of professional expertise, introduction of IT enabled tools, and
induction of HR techniques. In a nutshell, approach has to be more scientifically
and technically oriented.

96

 Reduction of Losses in Water Supply by Public


Awareness
A series of workshops should be organized across the region to create public
awareness on the importance of water as a national resource and the severe
consequences of waste & pollution of water.

Scope of recycle and reuse of water in industrial and urban settlements will have
to be properly understood and affected. The treated water can be suitably used
for domestic purposes like cleaning, washing, gardening etc.

 Sustainability
In order to ensure the availability of adequate funds for operation and
maintenance, the project needs to be structured to make it sustainable. In the
first few years, a revolving fund will be created to take care of initial operation
and maintenance requirement, but in the long run project will have to be made
self-sustainable. This can be achieved through the following points:

Reduce O&M Cost through a program of renovation and modernization

Design a tariff structure that meets simplicity and equity criteria in


addition to financial objectives;

Implement specific projects for supplying affordable water to the urban


poor. Poverty targeted projects shall be given due attention.

 Improvement in Performance and Reliability


Guwahati city recognizes that it is essential to improve the reliability of the Water
Services to its citizens. To meet this objective, the following steps are proposed
to be taken:

Structured Public Private Participation

Private Sector Participation is desirable in the PPP format in the sector so that
there is a balance between the risks and responsibilities between the
Government Agencies and the Private Sector. This aspect was also been
discussed in the various consultative meeting and which was also been accepted
by the participant.

97

In view of the same, Private Sector Participants shall be invited to leverage on


the following possible benefits:

Reduction of involvements of Public finance or redirecting such funds


to the poor;

Induction of greater technical and management expertise;

Provision of a more responsive service to the customers;

Sourcing of additional funds if required;

Initially outsourcing of Operation & Maintenances and some of the commercial


activities through Management Contracts to professional and reliable operators
shall be undertaken. This would greatly facilitate induction of technical and
system knowledge and pave the way for larger Private Sector Involvement in
future. At the same time, it is recognized that while private investment and
management shall play a growing role, the same must be coupled with a strong
legal, contractual and regulatory framework to be carried out simultaneously.

11.4 Schemes

Projects
Study for alternative water sources
1. Upgradation of existing plants
2. Source augmentation
3. Treatment Plants
4. Transmission & Distribution
Operation & Maintenance Fund
Capacity Building
Water Harvesting
Total

98

Cost (Rs crore)


2
30
20
300
650
60
10
5
1077

12. Housing
12.1

Aims and Objectives

The Urban Local Bodies shall strive to provide appropriate housing to all its
citizens. In particular, it shall continuously carry out the following actions:

Identify adequate sites to facilitate and encourage housing for


households of all economic levels, including persons with disabilities;

Remove, as legally feasible and appropriate, governmental constraints to


housing production, maintenance, and improvement;

Assist in the development of adequate housing for low and moderateincome households;

Conserve and improve the condition of housing, including existing


affordable housing; and

Promote housing opportunities for all persons.

12.2

Background

Provision of Housing to its Citizen is one of the most important tasks for any
Urban Body. Housing also comprises one of the key elements of the civic plan.
One of the key elements of a housing plan is provision of housing for the poor.

In any urban center with growing demand and consequent spiraling prices, the
urban poor are deprived of adequate housing. It is thus left to the State to provide
housing to Low Income Group. Slums Improvement needs to be given its due
importance through a programme of Slum Eradication, Slum Clearance and
Rehabilitation.

It is acknowledged that Good housing is intrinsically linked to good health and


nutrition, better employment opportunity, better living and, consequently, better
quality of life.

99

13.

Transportation
13.1

Background

Guwahati city is well connected with other parts of the country by air, roads and
railways. There are daily flights to LGB International Airport at Borjhar, Guwahati,
from Delhi and Kolkata. Flights from Agartala, Dibrugarh, Imphal and Silchar also
arrive in Guwahati on a daily basis. Taxis and coaches operate between the city
and the airport, which is about 25 km away. Guwahati is the nodal point for road
transport in North East India with two national highways meeting on the periphery
of the city. There are several trains connecting Guwahati with various Indian
cities including direct connectivity with the metros.

It is recognized that an efficient transport system is a pre- requisite for


sustainable economic development. It is not only the key infrastructural input for
the growth process but also plays a significant role in promoting social and
economic integration with the rest of the country, which is particularly important in
a large country like India. The transport system plays an important role of
promoting the development of the backward regions and integrating them with
the mainstream economy by opening them to trade and investment. This is
particularly important for Guwahati, which provides connectivity to the entire
northeastern region.

13.2

Vision

The City aims to provide a Modern Integrated Transportation System, which will
provide all its citizens efficient and cost effective travel options and integrate with
the other areas of North East.

13.3

Major Action Points

In order to tackle the problems plaguing the transportation sector in the city, it is
suggested to take an integrated approach involving improvement and
introduction wherever necessary of an integrated traffic management system and
an integrated modern transportation system.

100

13.3.1 Traffic Management System


In the immediate term, improvement of traffic management system includes
traffic engineering and management schemes, together with application of
Transportation System management (TSM) principles. These measures are low
cost solutions for immediate and short-term improvement.

To achieve this, the following measures will have to be acted upon:

 Intersection improvements
It is observed that most intersections in Guwahati city do not have road markings
or dividers to direct merging, crossing and diverging flows into specific channels.
At these locations considerable delays are occurring due to undisciplined
behavior of vehicular traffic not obeying the yield principle. However based on the
available information and observation, the delays at major intersections will be
identified for immediate attentions.

 Street Lights
The number of streetlights in the city is not found to be sufficient and almost 50%
of them use tube lights or bulbs, which not only consume enormous amount of
power but also obsolete. The following table shows the street lighting situation in
the Guwahati city.
Table 31: Street Lighting Situation In Guwahati
Aspects
Numbers
High Mast Lamps

Mercury Vapour Lamps

30

Sodium Vapour Lamps

6000

Tube Lights

6500

Others

15

Total

12550

Source: North Eastern Region Urban Sector Profile Project, Asian Development Bank.

Measures will be taken to convert all the streetlights into sodium vapor so that
the quality of light improves and cost of maintenance is reduced. Efforts will also

101

be made to introduce street lighting system using non-conventional energy


sources such as solar power, which are not only cost effective in the long term
but also durable and environment friendly.

 Isolated Traffic Signals


While channelization of approaches to intersections reduces the conflict area,
they function only when the volume are low in nature and has large time and
space headways in the cross traffic, sufficient for merging. These gaps decrease
the volumes of flows thereby necessitating physical stoppage of one of the
conflicting flows to facilitate the movement of the other. At present, within the city
there are a number of fixed time signalized intersections which need to be
replaced by traffic actuated signalized.

 Signal system optimization and Area traffic control


Even if the number of signalized intersections is increased, the overall delays
may not be optimized unless all these signals are interconnected. If the signals
are not integrated, management of traffic will become increasingly difficult within
the city.

 Traffic signs and markings


The traffic in the region being mixed in nature and the carriageway being of a
nonstandard format, all the carriageways need adequate traffic signs and road
markings to provide guidance for disciplined and safe driving.

It is observed in the city that on many important corridors, traffic guidance in the
form of traffic signs and lane markings are not up to the standards. It is
necessary to standardize the lane markings, edge markings, median markings,
pedestrian crossings, parking zones, traffic delineators, and traffic signs and
implemented on all important travel corridors.

 Bus Bays
Frequent weaving movements of buses in busy corridors have a significant effect
on the running speed of traffic. Further, stopping buses in the middle of traffic

102

lanes tends to block the traffic moving on the left lane. Since most of the roads in
the city are two lanes with an un-mountable central divider, the problem of traffic
blockade becomes even more acute. Hence, considering the fact that the
number of buses will increase every year, important and congested bus bays will
be identified to make provision for convenient stoppages for buses without
inconveniencing the traffic following them.

 Pedestrian Crossings & Sub-Ways


As a significant proportion of the trips are performed on foot and only 72% of the
road length in the city have footpaths (Source: Comprehensive Master Plan
for GMA 2025), pedestrians are more vulnerable in being involved in accidents,
it is necessary to protect them through provision of Guard Rails, Zebra
Crossings, Pelican Signals or through Grade separations.

13.3.2 Integrated Transportation System


Along with the improvement in traffic management system, care will have to be
taken to introduce a modern integrated transportation system involving various
modes of mass transport. The system will require following improvement:

Creation of an Integrated Intelligent Transport System with Multi-modal


Access

Improvement of existing roads & Construction of ROBs

Establishment of a Logistic Hub on the periphery of the city

Development of Parking facilities & Modern intra-city bus terminus

New alignment parallel to the GNB road along the railway tracks from
Guwahati club intersection to Narengi

Study to ascertain techno-economic feasibility for a mass rapid system


and its integration with the main transport system

On an overall basis, all plans would necessarily integrate land use and transport
planning and also give priority to non-motorized transport to the extent possible.

103

 Improvement of Existing Roads


Roads need to be improved so that traffic can move smoothly and the number of
accidents are reduced. To achieve this, the quality of roads need to be improved
and given that the percentage area covered by roads in the city is not sufficient,
road widening programme needs to undertaken to improve the channel capacity
by adding more area to the circulation channels. For the purpose, busy and
congested roads will be identified. Based on the present conditions of the internal
roads, a total length of 638.972 kms has been identified in the GMC area for
strengthening and widening. The break up of these roads are as follows:

Similarly, a total length of approximately 200 kms have been identified by the
Public Works Department for improvement.

The alignment on the Railway Tracks from the Guwahati Station to Noonmati can
be converted into a dedicated Road Transport Corridor to ease the traffic on the
GNB Road. A study for the same needs to be conducted for finalizing the project
cost and implementation structure. It may be mentioned that projects to be
implement4ed under the scheme shall focus on providing adequate pedestrian
facilities and encourage decongestion in the city. An important component of the
plan is to develop cycling tracks & pedestrian ways in the city. Also focus will be
made on development of road accessing city schools and hospitals.
In addition to roads, it is proposed that a Ropeway be constructed between
Kamakhya Mandir and Umananda Mandir. Both the places are important
religious centres and attract substantial pilgrims. In addition to providing to the
convenience to the large number of visitors, the Ropeway will also be attractive
for tourists.

 Construction of ROBs
Since the presence of railway crossings at some parts of the roads reduces the
speed of the vehicles, it is proposed to construct Rail Over Bridges (ROBs) at
various locations, which will provide easy and smooth connectivity. Again existing
ROBs like Maligaon, Panbazar, B Borooah Road need to be strengthened in
order to improve the flow of vehicles. There are at present 16 major railway
crossings, out of which ROBs have been constructed at five crossings. Of these

104

five ROBs, three over bridges at Maligaon, Panbazar and over B Borooah road
require immediate strengthening. It is proposed to construct four new ROBs at
the congested points. The exacted locations will be identified through a joint
study with the Indian Railways.

 Construction of logistic hubs outside the city


The major problem of the region is the mixing of inter and intra city vehicles
which cause tremendous traffic congestions in the GMA. Constructing a new
logistic hub on the periphery of the city can go a long way in solving the
congestion problem within the city.

The logistic hub will include a comprehensive truck terminal for inter city vehicles.
This will ensure that the inter city commercial vehicles do not enter the city
creating congestions on the roads. If a logistic hub is constructed outside the city
and the wholesale market is relocated to the hub or nearby the hub on the
outskirts of the city the congestion created due to loading and unloading of
vehicles can be addressed. The hub can act as a transshipment centre for not
only carrying of goods to other cities/towns of the region in smaller vehicles, but
also for goods meant for the city as well.

For that purpose the logistic hub will also include a wholesale trade and storage
center. This center will have modern storage facilities for different types of
products like building materials, auto components, food grains etc. In addition,
the hub will cater to certain commercial activities related to wholesale trading and
will provide basic amenities/facilities to truck drivers and helpers.

This logistic hub will be taken up on PPP basis. The objective of Logistic Hub will
be to provide decongestion to the heavily congested city roads, particularly the
central business area and shall also provide adequate amenities for the Truck
Drivers and Helpers to encourage them to utilize the facility. The project will be
implemented on integrated framework and shall comprise of warehousing
facilities, marketing centre and centre for wholesale trading along with supporting
infrastructure.

It is recognized that the project with viability gap funding is

amenable to PPP participants.

Hence it is proposed that funds to be drawn

under the JNNURM Scheme be used as viability gap funding to attract private
developers.

105

 Parking Facilities
Parking lots needs to be constructed in the city to facilitate better utilization of the
existing roads. Off-street parking facilities shall also be identified and constructed
in major nodes in the regions thereafter. An appropriate parking pricing
methodology need to be developed so as to enable the parking projects to be
implemented with Private Sector Participation. It is suggested that exclusive
pedestrian areas be created around the Parking Lots which car movement will be
restricted.

However, to ensure that the facilities are adequate and also

proposed charges are acceptable to the users. It is proposed to bid it out with a
Viability Gap Funding. Funds under JNNURM shall be used for Viability Gap
Funding.

For the development of such parking facilities, 13 locations have been identified
across the city. Under NURM, six parking facilities at the most congested areas
will be taken up for development.

 Long Term Approach


Guwahati city is expected to reach a phenomenal 27 Lakh population by 2031.
Such an increase would restrict movement of people within the city to a large
extent unless a comprehensive integrated mass rapid transit system is
introduced. With this background, it is proposed to introduce a mass rapid transit
system in the city to be integrated with the overall transportation system, which
will also be designed keeping in mind the impending population and vehicular
growth in the city.

In order to introduce such a system, it is required to undertake a detailed study


for determining the techno-economical feasibility and its integration with the main
transportation system.

Given the complexity of the transportation problems of the city, it is evident that
isolated solutions directed at one or two facets such as building flyovers, road
widening etc., will at best assuage the problem temporarily but will not be able to
tackle the problem comprehensively. Only a multifaceted approach duly
integrating land use with transportation at the planning stage as a long-term
measure to structurally integrate this sector with the overall growth of the urban

106

area will be able to give best benefits at least possible cost. It is felt that a
concerted and sustained campaign duly addressing issues as mentioned above
will be able to address transportation related problems comprehensively.

 Mass Rapid Transport System (MRTS)


In order to provide a long-term solution, it is proposed that a MRTS be
implemented.

The new transportation system would be in line with the

National Urban Transport Policy. However, finalization of the


configuration, technical structure, project structuring and cost would
require substantial project development activities.

These development

activities are critical and need to be urgently carried out to provide a longterm solution. In view of this, project development activities comprising of
pre-feasibility, detailed project report, project structuring and modeling
shall be carried under the JNNURM scheme. Along with this study,
feasibility of setting up an elevated road shall also be explored while
project development activities have been included under the CDP. The final
project shall be incorporated in the CDP after the detailed study has been
carried out. .
Schemes

Projects

Cost (Rs crore)

Integrated Traffic Management System


Integrated Transportation System:
Road Improvement
New ROBs/ Strengthening of existing
ROBs
Logistic Hubs
Parking Facilities
Intra city Bus terminus
New Alignment Parallel GNB Road
Ropeway Project
Project Development of MRTS
(Project Pre-feasibility, Detailed project
report, Project Structuring and
Modeling

200

Total

841

319
100
50
60
32
40
30
10

Cost for MRTS has been estimated at Rs 3000 crore. However, the
same has not been included pending preparation of Detailed Project
Report.

107

14.

Drainage & Storm Water Drainage


14.1

Background - Drainage

Drainage plays a major role in the development of any city. There has to be a
systematic outflow for the rainwater and other wastewater generated in a city in
any given day in order to avoid the problem of water logging. For the purpose, a
city requires a comprehensive integrated drainage and sanitation system so that
there are no artificial blockages thereby affecting health and environment.

14.2

Action Plans

Considering that there is virtually no systematic drainage system in the city, it is


imperative for the Guwahati city to plan and implement an integrated drainage
and sewerage system in a phase manner. The drainage system will have to be
designed on the basis of the Master Plan, which is under revision at present,
GIS, Land Use patterns & Control Plan and the existing Drainage Channels.
Generally, drains shall be provided along the existing roads, existing railway
tracks and the proposed transportation network. The cost of the Integrated
Drainage System shall be worked out through Detailed Studies and will be taken
up for implementation thereafter. However, since the present situation merits
urgent attention and requires implementation of immediate improvement
schemes. In view of the same, immediate action plans have been worked out for
implementation

It is proposed to run a major drainage improvement program across the


Guwahati city. All the natural drainage systems barring the Deepar Beel and the
basin covering North Guwahati will have to be strengthened through an
immediate action plan. The capacity of all major artificial drains connected with
Bharalu basin will have to be augmented. The Borsola Beel and the Silkaso Beel
area can be strengthened for storing of storm water besides being developed as
a recreational area. In addition, the schemes suggested by the One Man enquiry
Committee appointed by GMDA can be taken up for implementation after detail
studies. These schemes with modifications have been outlined in the heading
under Storm Water Drainage.

108

Additional activities to be undertaken as per the Action Plan are mentioned


below:

An effective Solid Waste Management should be in place so that the


garbage do not block the drainage channels.

Encroachments on natural drainage system should be immediately


stopped.

Proper maintenance of the existing drainage facility should be there.


Periodical cleaning should be done so that the silt deposits do not block
the drainage system.

Drainage Schemes:
Projects

Cost (Rs crore)

Integrated Drainage System

200

Total

14.3

200

Background Storm Water Drainage

Storm water is generally rain and melting snow that run off surfaces that cannot
readily absorb water. These surfaces include rooftops, pavement, compacted
gravel lots, and even frozen ground. As it flows towards larger water bodies such
as streams, lakes, rivers or infiltrates down into the aquifer, it picks up
pollutants. These pollutants include elements such as sediments, airborne
dust, pet waste, oil, grease, fertilizers, chemicals, litter and whatever that are
left on the ground or poured down to drains and grates that can be carried
along or dissolved in water.
Usually, roadside storm water drains carry the storm water. In the absence of a
proper sewerage system, they also carry domestic sewage. Absence of
efficient Storm Water Drainage network will invariably lead to water stagnation
on roads, which in turn pose the problem of water borne diseases,
inconvenience to traffic and pedestrian movement besides damages to the
condition of roads. In effect, without an outlet and if delivered in large quantities,
such storm water can cause artificial flooding.

Activities to be undertaken for flooding and pollution problems

Manage storm water to control flooding and erosion;

109

Plan and construct storm water systems so contaminants are removed


before they pollute the surface waters or the groundwater sources

Acquire and protect the existing natural waterways through a detail


rehabilitation plan

To look for opportunities to build "soft" structures such as ponds, swales


or wetlands to work with existing or "hard" structures, such as pipes and
concrete channels;

Revision of current storm water regulations to address the


comprehensive storm water needs;

Enhance and enforce existing rules and regulations to ensure


compliance by property owners;

A community awareness programme needs to be launched involving all


localities to educate residents of dos and donts.

Adequate planning and review of status periodically

14.4

Action plan

As per the report on Storm Water Drainage System by the one-man enquiry committee for
Guwahati Metropolitan Area, the following measures need to be adopted:
 Augmentation of discharge and retention capacity of the existing
drainage system.
 Reduction of flow through Bharalu and Basistha channels by flow
diversion from their upstream portions.
 Utilization of natural wetlands for storm water retention
 Control of silting in drains and channels and their desilting.

Watershed Planning

Out of the seven natural drainage systems within the GMA, four are situated
within the densely inhabited areas. Watershed planning is required with respect
to these four basins primarily to handle storm water. Such planning will enable
the authorities to construct and maintain other man made drainage system within
the city.

110

Maintenance

Maintenance of existing or new ponds, swales, catch basins, drywells, ditches


and culverts is required in a planned manner. Such storm water facilities will
need to be mapped to its exact location and the process of maintenance need to
be monitored through regular stock-taking so that the performance of each facility
can be measured.


Public Involvement and Awareness

Informing the public about drainage systems, their functioning and the necessity
to maintain them in a planned manner will go a long way to reduce threats to
water quality and prevent flooding problems.


Integrated Drainage System

Remedial Measures suggested by one man enquiry committee:


The remedial measures suggested by the one man enquiry committee appointed
by GMDA is submitted for consideration under NURM. A detail techno-economic
study for these measures will have to be undertaken to arrive at the detail cost
parameters. These schemes are:

Drainage channel from Silsako Beel to Bonda Sluice

Desiltation of Silsako Beel

Construction of a trunk drain connecting Bharalu with Silsako basin


drainage system from Beltola bazaar to reduce storm water flow through
Bharalu channel

Prevention of storm water flow from Silsako to Bharalu channel along


OIL pipeline corridor

Construction of a trunk drain along the Hengerabari Narengi road for


diversion of storm water from Japorigog Hengerabari area to Silsako
basin

Embankment of Bahini stream after removal of encroachment

Hume pipe culvert on G S road at Rukmini Gaon bus stop to be replaced


by a bridge

Augmentation of waterway under Zoo road bridge and removal of all


encroachments under other bridges on Bharalu

111

Shifting of water pipes and telephone cable obstructing flow under


bridges and culverts at various locations

Underground drain along S R Bora path to be connected to Bharalu


channel

A trunk drain along the abandoned railway track from Ambari-Uzan


Bazar area for diversion of storm water of Silpukhuri-Chenikuthi area
directly into Brahmaputra

Augmentation of the capacity of the drain from Guwahati Railway station


to Sola Beel via the culvert near Nandan Hotel at Paltan Bazar

Desiltation of Sola Beel

Resectioning of Mora Bharalu upto Deepar Beel

Construction of a canal along the NH By-pass for diversion of storm


water flowing from Meghalaya hills through Basistha river and
Koinadhara-Bakrapara area into Deepar Beel

Improvement of Hatigaon channel upto Basistha channel

Downstream portion of Basistha channel beyond Jyotikuchi Dhopolia to


be constructed upto Deepar Beel via Mora Bharalu

Improvement of Khona Jan from Deepar Beel to Brahmaputra

Augmentation of Sluice at Khona Mukh with installation of pumping


facility

Desiltation of Deepar Beel and removal of encroachment

Soil conservation and silt trapping measures

Control with respect to inflow and outflow of Bharalu river

Acquisition of dredging machines, dumpers and other equipments for


ready use

A separate drainage channel for diversion of rain water from Meghalaya


hills to the Deepar bill

Storm Water Drainage Schemes:


Projects

Cost (Rs crore)

Storm Water Drainage System

200

Total

200

112

Principles to Strive for in Storm Water Management

These four principles provide a helpful framework for looking at storm water plans:
Control. Control measures can be broken down into two categories: source control and runoff control. Source control measures
focus on pollution prevention. Their objective is to avoid or limit the generation of pollutants. Typical source control

Measures include proper containment measures; spill prevention and cleanup, waste reduction, public education, illicit connection
control, and reduced use of fertilizers and pesticides.
Runoff control measures focus on minimizing runoff from new developments, and siting infrastructure to discourage development in
environmentally sensitive areas. These controls are cost-effective if implemented in the site-planning phase of new development
projects. Examples of these controls at the municipal planning level include zoning ordinances, subdivision regulations, buffers, and
setback requirements. Runoff control measures also include techniques for slowing down runoff.
Collection. Capture and storage of runoff for more timely release is a vital component of most storm water management systems.
Retention basins are areas designed to hold the storm water permanently until it infiltrates into the ground. Detention basins are
meant to slow and hold storm water before releasing it.
Conveyance. Conveyance systems are used to drain and direct the flow of runoff generated on a site. This is often done with catch
basins feeding into storm sewers. More natural systems, using vegetated depressions and swales which look and function much like
the natural drainage system, should be used whenever possible.
Cleansing. Control, conveyance, and collection of runoff mean little without provisions for cleansing. Cleansing is commonly
accomplished through techniques that promote filtration and settling of pollutants and their natural processing by vegetation and soil.
Filtering devices include engineered structures like sediment basins and porous pavement, but also include natural systems like
stream buffers and vegetated filter strips. Depending on their design, many collection systems like ponds and constructed wetlands
also serve to clean water.

113

15.

Sanitation & Sewerage


15.1

Background

Sanitation has a close and direct link with the environment, water supply, health
and hygiene. The importance of drainage has been recognized by the
Government of India through the National Master Plan of India (1983), which has
suggested standards for physical level of sanitation services according to
population of urban and rural centers. For sanitation, it is envisaged to achieve
100% of population coverage for Class I urban areas (population 1 lac and
above), 80% of population coverage in other urban centers with provision for
sewerage, sewage treatment facilities and low cost sanitation methods. However
the shortfall in achieving the target is glaring. According to the projection of
Census of India 2001, only 73.7% of the urban population has access to latrine
facilities of any type. It is estimated that by the year 2025, more than 50% of the
countrys population will settle in urban areas whereby issues related to
sanitation in urban areas will assume a very serious dimension. Needless to
mention, sanitation has a close and direct link with environment, water supply
and its cleanliness, health and hygiene. The problem of sanitation, associated
with steep influx of population in urban areas, therefore needs to be addressed
forth with, debated and deliberated at length, by the policy planners for the
development of urban/city areas. The capital-intensive nature of sewerage
system has put many roadblocks in urban planning primarily due to weak
financial positions of most of the ULBs.

15.2

Action Plan

Considering the topographical and hydrological features of the area, it is


proposed to develop a separate Sewerage System. The storm and surface water
along with the treated effluents from the industries within the disposal norms of
the Pollution Control Board shall be carried out through Underground
Pipes/Surface Drains and Canals and disposed into the river. The domestic
sewage from the residential and industrial units shall be carried through
underground pipe sewers and shall be pumped to the Sewerage Treatment
Plants. After treatment, final effluent shall be disposed into the river. The action
plan has been tabulated below

114

S.
No
1.

Strategy

Short Term
(1-2) Yrs

Medium Term
(2-5 Yrs)

Long Term
(5-10 Yrs)

Upgrade sewerage

Sewage

Collection:

Sewerage

Tertiary

collection

Improve

collection

Coverage: Extend

Treatment:
Recycle sewerage

and

treatment and use

efficiency of sewage so

Coverage

of

that

areas

reclaimed

sewage for recycle

water

resources

to

all

with

are available.

appropriate

technology
considering

end

uses.
New STPS: construct

Upgrade Existing

Ground

new sewage treatment

STPs:

Improve

Recharge:

plant

quality

treated

appropriate

for

sewage

of

sewage from

treatment

existing
treatment

the

sewage
plants,

the output of which


can go as input for
tertiary
required

treatment
for

recycling

Schemes for Sanitation:


Projects

Cost (Rs crore)

Integrated Sanitation & Sewerage System


Awareness Programme

300.98
5.00

Total

115

305.98

technology
ground
recharge

Water
use

for
water
by

reclaimed sewage.

16.

Basic Services to the Urban Poor


16.1

Background

As per 2001 population Census, 283.35 million people reside in Urban Area.

It

constitutes 27.8% of the total population of the country. In post independence era,
while population of India has grown three times, the urban population grown five
times. The rising urban population has also given rise to increase in the number of
urban poor. As per 2001 census the slum population is estimated to be 61.8 million
the ever increasing number of slum dwellers causes tremendous pressure on urban
basic services and infrastructure.
The Government of India has defined slum areas as those areas where buildings
are unfit for human habitation (Slum Area Act, 1956). Physically, slums consist of
clusters of hutment comprising several rooms constructed with building materials
where each room is inhabited by a family sharing a common latrine without
arrangement for water supply, drains, disposal of solid waste and garbage within
the slum boundaries. Apart from degrading environmental conditions, slums in
the urban settlements are also characterized by almost total absence of
community and recreational facilities.

In any urban area, slums are visible manifestation of urban poverty. These slum
pockets develop on their own either near a major employment source like an industry
or near a well-established residential area. Most peri-urban slum areas are not legally
part of the cities they encircle and thus not commonly viewed as the responsibility of
municipal officials. Many of these areas lack in infrastructure for water supply,
sanitation, and solid waste disposal. The resulting environmental pollution creates a
situation inimical to the maintenance of good health. Children living in these
communities are most at risk. They suffer the highest rates of mortality and
morbidity from diarrhea disease as is observed in most developing countries.
Inadequate solid waste collection has also led to contamination of surface water
and groundwater resources and of the ambient air from waste burning.

16.2

Vision

To create a city without slums through rehabilitation of the existing slum and prevent further
encroachment through enforcement and to provide basic services to urban poor and upgrade
the living standard.

116

16.3

Key Interventions

It may be recognized that in order to bring about a meaningful and effective slum
development programme, an all round effort will have to be made by all the
stakeholders of city development and to bring about this change, a specific
programme is being developed under this City Development Plan.

GMDA and

GMC is committed to bringing about this change, which would contribute to the
development of the city and hence, its citizens. It is proposed that a
comprehensive Slum Improvement Programme be undertaken. The programme
must have the following components:

Provision of Shelter & other Physical Infrastructure at affordable price so


as to improve the sanitation and living condition in the existing slums and
other squatter settlements;

Provision of adequate health care including family welfare; immunization,


child health care, etc;

Development of facilities for community development and recreation

Programme for basic education and training;


Ensuring maintenance and up-gradation of the existing housing stock of
the poorer sections;

16.4

Key Actions

To achieve the above objectives, the following key issues and challenges related
to poverty alleviation need to be considered.

 Land, Housing and Infrastructure


To provide shelter or upgrade the existing shelter for people living below poverty
line in urban slums, which will help in making cities slum free. Land ownership
and housing are critical for poverty alleviation and slum development. One of the
reasons identified for the growth of slums is the non-availability of developed land
for weaker sections.

For this purpose, GMDA will be taking steps for development of housing facilities
for the poor in the fringe areas and the unused lands, with central agencies such
as Railways which are lying waste or are being used for illegal encroachment, of
the city or other vacant lands outside the cities where land price is affordable for

117

the poor section. Also provide basic housing to the identified

areas with a

scheme, where there is partial recovery from the users. Night Shelters for
pavement dwellers shall also be provided to improve the living conditions of the
homeless.

 Community Institutions and Structures


Again the growth of the community institutions and structures, particularly
community development societies and self-help groups, is weak in the area
compared to other cities in the country. Therefore it will be necessary to create
self-help groups in order to educate people and create awareness among them
so that they can take help of various government programmes for their economic
and social development. Community infrastructure: provision of community
centres to be used for pre-school education, non-formal education, adult
education, recreational activities etc.

 Livelihoods, Employment and Informal Sector


It was observed that a number of programmes are currently under
implementation by various agencies for supporting employment and livelihoods
but there is no convergence and coordination across them. There are several
programmes for promoting livelihood but the people are not aware of these
programmes. So a communication strategy should be devised for increasing the
awareness among the public. Social amenities like pre-school education, adult
education,

maternity,

child

health,

and

primary

health

care

including

immunization etc.

 Relocation of Slums Outside the City


Slums need to be relocated outside the cities to improve the sanitary condition of
the cities. Necessary steps need to be taken to build proper housing facilities for
increasing number of people in the cities. Having a secure place to live is central
to life with dignity. A safe and adequate living environment is essential to quality
of life and it fosters physical and mental health as it enables participation in the
community and the exercise of many social and cultural rights. Adequate housing
not only meets the need for shelter from the elements, but also for physical
security and personal privacy. Housing contributes to community life as a place
for social events and for nurturing family and community relationships. Housing

118

may also be essential to a familys income as income-generation activities are


sometimes based in the home.

Again proper actions need to be taken to stop migration from different areas.
Improving road network with the rural areas, increasing transportation facilities,
can do it and the cost of such transportation must be affordable for rural people.
In this way it will be possible to ensure that labors can come to the city and go
back at the end of the day. This help to reduce the pressure of increasing
demand for housing facilities.

 Construction of community toilet


Number of people using open space (including the banks of River Brahmaputra)
for the purpose of defecation in the region is a major environmental concern
apart from being a health hazard. A major initiative like construction of
Community Toilet in different areas should be taken so that slum dwellers do not
use open space as toilets. Programme for Integrated Low Cost Sanitation for
conversion of dry latrine system into water borne low cost sanitation system shall
be implemented. Also reduction of the solid waste stream, use of innovative
technologies, and health education and social marketing to change communityand house hold level behaviors.

 Construction of Child Care Centres


Again health is a prime concern for people living in slum areas. Poverty and
ignorance of the people and their less nutritional status aggravate the situation.
Ignorance and superstitions continue to hamper scientific approach to health and
related problems.

There is no doubt that the public health and medical facilities increased and
improved over the years in both rural and urban areas covering a large number
of populations, but this has not been able to cover the entire population. Primary
Health Centres located in rural areas failed to give proper services due to lack of
manpower, transportation,

medicine and modern equipments. On the other

hand, modern scientific treatments available are concentrated in urban areas


and these are beyond the reach of most of rural and urban lower middle class
population. Therefore, until the Governments through its institutions provide

119

subsidized medical facilities, the available health care facilities will remain
beyond the reach of large part of the population.

The children living in the slums are one of the worst affected due to the lack of
availability of basic facilities including access to proper and immediate health
care. This has resulted in the mortality rate among the children being very high
in the slum areas. So it is necessary to construct child care centres in different
areas of the region so that people from the weaker section of the society can
have proper care for their children at lowest possible cost.

Schemes for Urban Poor


Projects

Cost (Rs crore)

Community Hall
Health Care & Education
Slum relocation and rehabilitation
Slum Development Programmes (provision for
community baths & toilets, night shelters, old age &
destitute children homes.)
Operation & Maintenance
Total

120

10
40
30
20

10
110

17. Solid Waste Management


17.1

Background

Solid waste can be defined as material that no longer has any value to the
person who is responsible for it, and is not intended to be discharged through a
pipe. It is generated by domestic, commercial, industrial, healthcare, agricultural
and mineral extraction activities and accumulates in streets and public places.

With rapid industrialization and urbanization, waste generation has become


inevitable. The tremendous increase in population and sustained drive for
economic progress and development has resulted in a remarkable increase in
the quantity of solid wastes from different processes for example domestic waste,
industrial waste etc. Solid waste generated from domestic and commercial
activities has become a major concern causing extensive environmental
problems and threat to human health. Municipal authorities are now confronted
with the important task of management of municipal solid waste.

At present, the wastes generated are disposed in an indiscriminate manner due


to lack of systematic collection, proper transportation system and unavailability of
adequate disposal facilities. The local authorities of urban centers find it difficult
to arrange sufficient area of land for municipal waste disposal.

In India, municipal wastes have to be managed as per the provisions of Municipal


Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000 promulgated under
Environment Protection Act, 1986. As per these rules, all the biodegradable
municipal solid wastes shall be required to be processed by appropriate
biological processing method. Municipal Solid Waste (Management and
Handling) Rules 2000 has made MSWM the Litigation responsibility of urban
local bodies (city corporations and municipal corporations), which asks for source
segregation of waste for cleaner composting and recycling. Further, the Supreme
Court of India, acting on Public interest Litigation directed all urban local
governments to install scientific solid waste treatment plants before a set
deadline. Thus the installation of a scientific solid waste management system,
though a costly proposition for most of the urban bodies, has become a
necessity. Also the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MOEF), Government of
India, has issued the Municipal Solid Wastes (management and handling) Rules

121

in the year 2000, which identify the CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) as
the agency to monitor the implementation of these rules.

Another serious concern pertaining to solid waste in an urban area relates to the
generation of bio-medical waste. These wastes, though are generated in small
quantities, pose a great risk to the community due to their potential biohazard.

The disposal of non hazardous industrial waste is also another problem area
and is taken care of through the Hazardous waste (Management and Handling)
Rules. Though these wastes have low components of hazardous components,
the environment is threatened due to the volume of such waste generated in a
city. With rapid industrialization and urbanization, waste generation has become
inevitable. The tremendous increase in population and sustained drive for
economic progress and development has resulted in a remarkable increase in
the quantity of solid wastes from different processes for example domestic waste,
industrial waste etc.

17.2

Action Plans

The total generation of solid waste by 2010 is expected to touch 750 MT per day.
Keeping in mind that as of now, there is virtually no solid waste management
system capable of handling the overall generation, it is necessary to design a
system capable of handling the entire SWM generated by the area. The
components of the strategy to handle the Solid Waste shall thus comprise of the
following:
Integrated Solid
Waste

Awareness
Campaign

Solid Waste

Strengthening of
Institutions

122

Common
Landfill facility

 Integrated Solid Waste Management


Since there is no preferred method, every community must
create its own best approach to dealing with its waste.
However, all communities have the same alternatives.

The strategy identified by the region is the development of an


integrated waste management system to identify the level or
levels at which the highest values of individual and collective
materials can be recovered. For this reason, the list starts with
reduction using less and reusing more, thereby saving
material production, resource

cost, and energy. At the bottom of

the list is ultimate disposal the final resting place for

Figure12.7: Hierarchy of
integrated SWM

waste. Integrated solid waste management includes all the process shown
in the diagram
 Managing Municipal Solid Waste
Existing municipal solid waste management system needs to follow the following
strategies for efficient management in the future.
1. Collection of waste. Increasing the coverage and efficiency
of collection mechanism. Would help in better management and
in reducing the formation of unhygienic and open dumpsites.
Segregation of waste into biodegradable and non-biodegradable
Components are also required at source or at primary collection
centers.

2. Treatment and disposal. On the basis of availability of land


and financial resources with the service provider, either of the
methods aerobic composting, anaerobic Digestion or sanitary
land filling could be adopted for treatment and disposal of waste.
However, since it appears that land filling would continue to be
the most widely Adopted practice in India in the coming few
years, in which case certain Improvements need to be done to
ensure sanitary land filling and not mere dumping of Waste.

123

Managing the industrial waste

To ensure scientific management of hazardous waste generated in the country,


the strategy should encompass all the aspects of waste management cycle
starting from the generation of waste to its handling, segregation, transportation,
treatment

and

disposal,

in

addition

to

primary

focus

on

waste

minimization/reduction. Efforts are required to quantify and characterize the


volume of waste generated by industries and constantly upgrade this waste
inventory so that appropriate management strategies could be incorporated in
waste management plans.

In light of the newly amended hazardous waste rules introduced in India in


January 2000,it is important to focus capacity building and training of the officials
of the SPCB (State Pollution Control Boards) and critical industrial sectors
generating hazardous waste. The focus of this learning exposure should be to
address responsibilities related to handling, storage, transportation, treatment
and disposal of hazardous waste.

It is required to set up standards not only for disposal of waste on land but also
for Cleanup of contaminated soils and groundwater. Issues like the willingness to
pay of the participating industries, the type of ownership, financial mechanisms
for such ventures and the extent of private sector participation need to be
addressed/explored to ensure that they come into existence.

 Awareness Campaign
 Awareness Campaign shall be carried out in order to educate the
general public about the disposal of solid waste at the right place.
Awareness campaign shall also be carried out to show and illustrate
the segregation of solid waste. Benefits about cleanliness and
hygienic environment should be taught.

 Common Landfill facility


 Common landfill facility with adequate facility shall be made available
to the entire Guwahati Metropolitan Area. This will help in disposal of
solid waste at one land.

124

 Institutional and regulatory reforms


1. Strengthening urban local bodies to perform efficiently in
managing the waste and Ensuring strict enforcement of the
recently introduced municipal solid waste (Management and
handling) rules.

2. It is also imperative to harness and integrate the role of three


emerging actors in this Field the private sector, NGOs, and
rag pickers into the overall institutional Framework.
Schemes for Solid Waste Management
Projects

Cost (Rs crore)

Integrated Solid Waste Management


Awareness campaign

60
6

Total

66

125

Summary of Activities of an Integrated Waste Management

Establishment of facilities for effective management of hazardous waste, biomedical waste management and municipal solid waste management in compliance
with the respective rules as promulgated under the aegis of the Environment
(protection) Act 1986, with appropriate clearances from the State Pollution Control
Board.

Collection at source and Transportation of Hazardous Wastes from industries to


the common facility.

Collection and Transportation of source-segregated bio-medical wastes from


health care establishments to the common facility.

Collection and Transportation of municipal solid wastes from various collection


points and from door-to-door collection in the municipal area of GMA.

Treatment, Storage and Disposal of Hazardous wastes in accordance with


Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules 1989 and subsequent
amendments thereof.

Treatment and Disposal of Bio-Medical Wastes in accordance with Bio-Medical


Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules 1998 and subsequent amendments
thereof.

Recovery, Processing and Disposal of Municipal Solid Wastes in accordance with


the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules 2000 and
amendments thereof.

Comprehensive analysis of Wastes and determination of waste treatment, storage


and disposal pathways.

Training in Segregation of wastes and Occupational Safety.

Organizing workshops and seminars to provide platform for identification and


implementation of waste reuse/recycle/recovery options and thereby conservation
of natural resources.

Overall effective solid waste management.

126

PPP in Solid Waste Management


PPP in form of a Joint Venture Company can undertake waste management services to
various Industries, health care establishments and residents both present and prospective
including levying and collection of the service charges on User-Pay-Principle by the
individual units, in a professional manner. Each user compensates for the cost of waste
management.

127

18.

Waterfront Development
18.1

Background

As a vital resource, water can shape the cultural characteristics of any


community. Waterfront area, where land and water meet, constitutes the
unique place and important area in the formation of many cities in the world.
The growth of urban waterfront areas indicates the characteristics pertaining to
the dynamic growth of those areas. In the last three decades, there have been
profound changes of urban waterfronts in the world.

However, the tendency to copy the successful examples of water front


development without the local community flavor may result in only
concretization of the precious space, unsuitable to local conditions. The
significant role of water in the cultural life of society should convey the local
spirit in preserving the water resources and reflect the local identity.

18.2

Action Plan

To create an economically viable, state of art, waterfront green belt and


plaza in Guwahati that will be a major recreational, cultural, historical and
architectural landmark of Northeast India. The emphasis will be on the
following

Emphasis on natural settings that blend with the surrounding


greenery and waterfront

 River Cruise and introduction of modern ferry system between the


South and the North Banks for transportation of passengers and
vehicles
 Beautification of water bodies that dot the city area by developing
jogging & walking tracks along the waterfronts and other

128

The growth of urban


waterfront areas indicates
the
characteristic
of
dynamic growth of those
areas. In the last three
decades, there have been
profound changes of urban
waterfronts in the world.

environmentally feasible recreational activities,




Creation of space for recreation activities through development of parks


etc

Provision for showcasing the traditions and culture of Northeast India

 Preservation and upgrade of sites of historical significance


 Provision of commercial and business hubs to ensure self-sustenance
 Creation of a landmark that will be the envy of India

18.3

Major action points


 Fortification of the river bank

The riverfront of Guwahati is currently in extreme state of neglect thereby not


only increasing the pollution level on the river but is also depriving the citizens of
enjoying a magnificent gift of nature. Under the Water Front Development
programme, it is proposed to develop the river front stretch from the foothills of
Kamakhya temple to near Raj Bhawan. For this, the banks of the river will need
to be fortified through construction of embankments over a stretch of over 6 kms.
Creation of such embankment will also provide additional benefits to the city in
the following manner:
 Would prevent back flow of river water into the city
during monsoon
 Will prevent encroachments on the banks
 Give a fillip to urban development within the city

 Creation of basic infrastructure for showcasing


NE culture
North Eastern region has a rich cultural heritage, which has gained prominence
in the recent times. The development of the riverfront would also include
components through which the varied culture of North East will be depicted.

 Provision of basic amenities


The riverfront to be frequented by visitors will also require substantial provision of
basic amenities through creation of basic infrastructure. This would range from
construction of public conveniences to maintaining gardens.

129

 Relocation of existing facilities/offices


The riverfront is currently dotted with numerous Government offices and
residential buildings. Under the programme envisaged, these will have to be
relocated to other areas, while some heritage buildings will have to be
maintained.

 Modernisation/consolidation of existing Ferry


jetties
The riverfront also contains a number of ferry ghats, which is used by commuters
for traveling to the other side of the river. Under the programme, it is proposed to
consolidate such ghats and modernize them in such a way so as to maintain the
beauty of the riverfront and at the same time providing access to the general
public of the city to the riverfront.

 Creation of basic infrastructure for water sports


facilities
The Brahmaputra River can be developed into a significant recreation zone by
providing facilities for water sports. For this, it is proposed to create the basic
infrastructure to facilitate such activities on the riverfront.
Schemes For Water Front Development
Particulars

Amount

Fortification of river bank

120 Cr

Creation of basic infrastructure

30 Cr

for showcasing NE culture


Provision of basic amenities

10 Cr

Relocation of existing

20 Cr

facilities/maintaining heritage
buildings
Creation of basic infrastructure

10 Cr

for recreation facilities


Relocation/consolidation of

10 Cr

ferry ghats
Total

200cr

130

19.

Urban Renewal Programme


19.1

Vision

The programme is aimed at creating an integrated development of urban


infrastructure with special emphasis on providing basic services to the poor.

19.2

Background

Urban renewal is a combination of the process of rehabilitation, conservation and


redevelopment. It is the nature and stage of decay that determines the strategy
to be adopted: rehabilitation, conservation or redevelopment or a combination of
them. It strives to provide its citizens a better place to live in and attract visitors to
the city.
However, be it rehabilitation, redevelopment, conservation or a combination of
one or two or all of them, a comprehensive urban renewal exercise involves
technological interventions, planning and partnership / networking between
various agencies and authorities. Urban renewal implies both investment in
new physical infrastructure and policy reform to ensure new ways of governing
our cities.

19.3

Major Action Points


19.3.1 Construction of Industrial Parks

To solve the problems regarding congestion of industries in busy areas of the


cities, there is an urgent need to develop a industrial park in the city. An industrial
park is a community of manufacturing and service businesses located together
on a common property. Member businesses seek enhanced environmental,
economic,

and

social

performance

through

collaboration

in

managing

environmental and resource issues. By working together, the community of


businesses seeks a collective benefit that is greater than the sum of individual
benefits each company would realize by only optimizing its individual
performance.

The goal of an industrial park is to improve the economic performance of the


participating

companies

while

minimizing

their

131

environmental

impacts.

Components of this approach include green design of park infrastructure and


plants (new or retrofitted); cleaner production, pollution prevention; energy
efficiency; and inter-company partnering. It also seeks benefits for neighboring
communities to assure that the net impact of its development is positive.

In an industrial park 55-60% of the total area is used for the purpose of
construction industrial plants, 13-15% of the area is used for internal roads (40%
of it includes metallic roads and footpaths and 60% includes various utility
corridors like sewerage line, telecom cable, power cable, storm water drainage
etc.), 10% is used for green space like space for plantation, water bodies, open
space etc and rest of the areas for common infrastructure like electric substation,
sewerage treatment plant, pollution treatment plant, telephone exchange etc.. So
an industrial park provides common infrastructure for all industries in the park.
This helps in reducing environmental pollution in a very cost effective manner.

19.3.2 Shifting Wholesale Markets outside the City


Currently the wholesale markets are spread over the cities causing congestion in
the roads inside the cities. So it will be better to relocate all the wholesale
markets outside the cities at the logistic hubs. It will ensure that all the wholesale
activities (loading, unloading, storage and sale) take place at the logistic hub
outside the city only.

For that purpose the logistic hub will also include a wholesale trade and storage
center. This center will have modern storage facilities for different types of
products like building materials, auto components, food grains etc. All the inter
city trucks will unload products at the logistic hub and small trucks will be used to
move those products inside the city.

This will help in decongesting the city areas and reducing pressure on the intra
city roads. Again the condition of the roads along the existing market area can be
improved reducing the number of accidents in the city.

19.3.4 City Beautification Measures


A number of city beautification measures need to be taken to ensure that the city
looks clean and beautiful. The city beautification measures may include

132

plantation along the footpath or median of roads, building parks, beautification of


water bodies, developing and implementing maintenance norms for buildings
along the important roads of the cities etc. Another important measure could be
water front development and beautification to tap the growing tourist attraction
and also to bring out the beautiful riverfronts to the world citizens.
Schemes For Urban Renewal Development
Particulars

Amount

Wholesale Market Shifting, City


Beautification etc
Total

70cr

133

70cr

20.

Reform Program
20.1

Background and Reform Goals

The thrust of the JNNURM is to ensure improvement in urban governance and


service delivery so that ULBs become financially sound and sustainable for
undertaking new programmes. It is also envisaged that, with the charter of
reforms that are followed by the State governments and ULBs, a stage will be set
for PPPs.

The agenda of reforms is given in the section below. The National Steering
Group (NSG) may add additional reforms to identified reforms. A Memorandum
of Agreement (MoA) between States/ULBs/Parastatal agencies and the
Government of India, a prerequisite for accessing the Central assistance, would
spell out specific milestones to be achieved for each item of reform. All
mandatory and optional reforms shall be completed within the Mission period.

All mandatory and optional reforms shall be completed within the Mission period.

20.2

Reform Agenda

1.
Mandatory Reforms at the Level of ULBs, and Parastatal
Agencies
a. Adoption of modern accrual-based double entry system of
accounting in ULBs and parastatal agencies.

b. Introduction of a system of e-governance using IT


applications, such GIS and MIS for various services
provided by ULBs and parastatal agencies.

c.

Reform of property tax with GIS. It becomes a major


source of revenue for ULBs an arrangement for its
effective implementation so that collection efficiency
reaches at least 85 per cent within next seven years.

d. Levy

of

reasonable

user

charges

by

ULBs

and

Parastatals with the objective that the full cost of O&M or


recurring cost is collected within the next seven years.
However, cities and towns in the North East and other

134

special category States may recover only 50 percent of


O&M charges initially. These cities and towns should
graduate to full O&M cost recovery in a phased manner.

e. Internal earmarking, within local bodies, budgets for basic


services to the urban poor.

f.

Provision of basic services to the urban poor including


security of tenure at affordable prices, improved housing,
water supply and sanitation. Delivery of other existing
universal services of the government for education, health
and social security is ensured.

2.

Optional Reforms (common to States, ULBs and Parastatal


Agencies)
a. Revision of byelaws to streamline the approval process
for construction of buildings, development of site etc.

b. Simplification of legal and procedural frameworks for


conversion of land from agricultural to non-agricultural
purposes.

c.

Introduction of Property Title Certification System in


ULBs.

d. Earmarking at least 20-25 per cent of developed land in


all housing projects (both public and private agencies)
for EWS and LIG category with a system of cross
subsidisation.

e. Introduction of computerised process of registration of


land and property.

f.

Revision of byelaws to make rainwater harvesting


mandatory in all buildings and adoption of water
conservation measures.

g. Byelaws for reuse of recycled water.

135

h. Administrative reforms i.e. reduction in establishment


costs by adopting the Voluntary Retirement Scheme
(VRS), not filling posts falling vacant due to retirement
etc., and achieving specified milestones in this regard.
i.

Structural reforms.

j.

Encouraging PPP.

136

Optional Reforms Adopted by The State Government of Assam


S. No.

Reforms


Current Status/Plan

Revision of bye-laws to streamline the

First year

First year

First Year

Third year

Third year

First Year

approval process for construction of


buildings, development of site etc.

2.

Simplification of legal and procedural


frameworks for conversion of agricultural
land for non-agricultural purposes

Introduction of Property Title


Certification System in GMC/GMDA

Earmarking at least 20-25 per cent of


developed land in all housing projects
(both public and private agencies) for
EWS and LIG category with a system of
cross subsidisation.

Introduction of computerised process


of registration of land and property

Revision of byelaws to make


rainwater harvesting mandatory in all
buildings and adoption of water
conservation measures.

Byelaws for reuse of recycled water

First Year

Administrative reforms i.e. reduction

Already laws have been enacted

in establishment costs by adopting the

for not filling up of posts falling

Voluntary Retirement Scheme (VRS),

vacant due to retirement.

not filling posts falling vacant due to


retirement etc., and achieving specified
milestones in this regard.

Structural reforms.

Second Year

Encouraging PPP.

First Year

137

Mandatory Reforms Adopted by State Government, Assam


Sr. No. Reforms

Current Status/Plan

Implementation of decentralisation measures as envisaged

First year

in 74th constitutional Amendment Act. The State should ensure


meaningful association and engagement of ULBs in planning
the function of parastatal agencies as well as the delivery of
services to the citizens.

2
3

Repeal of ULCRA

First Year

Reform of Rent Control Laws balancing the interests of

Third year

Third year

Regarding

landlords and tenants.

Rationalisation of Stamp Duty to bring it down to no more


than 5 per cent within next seven years.

Enactment of the Public Disclosure Law to ensure


preparation of medium-term fiscal plan of ULBs and parastatal

enactment of Public

agencies and release of quarterly performance information to all

Disclosure Law, GOI

stakeholders.

is requested to draft
a Model law in that
regard

which

the

state government will


adopt.

Enactment of the Community Participation Law to


institutionalise citizens participation and introduce the concept
of the Area Sabha in urban areas.

Assigning or associating elected ULBs with city planning


function. Over a period of seven years, transferring all special
agencies that deliver civic services in urban areas to ULBs and
creating accountability platforms for all urban civic service
providers in transition.

138

Concept of ward
Committee already
exist, model law for
introducing
the
concept
of
Area
Sabha, as envisaged
in
the
NURM
guidelines may be
drafted by GOI for
adoption
by
the
State Government.

Third year


Mandatory Reforms adopted by GMDA


S. No.

Reforms

Current Status/Plan

 Adoption of modern accrual-based

 Second year

double entry system of accounting

 Introduction of a system of e-governance

Third year

using IT applications, such GIS and MIS


for various services provided by GMC

 Reform of property tax with GIS. It

 Not applicable

becomes a major source of revenue for


ULBs and arrangements for its effective
implementation so that collection
efficiency reaches at least 85 per cent
within next seven years.

 Levy of reasonable user charges by

Not Applicable

GMC with the objective that the full cost


of O&M or recurring cost is collected
within the next seven years.

 Internal earmarking, within local bodies,

 Not applicable

budgets for basic services to the urban


poor.

 Provision of basic services to the urban


poor including security of tenure at
affordable prices, improved housing,
water supply and sanitation. Delivery of
other existing universal services of the
government for education, health and
social security is ensured.

139

 Not applicable

Optional Reforms Adopted by Guwahati Metropolitan Development Authority


(GMDA)
S. No.

Reforms


Current Status/Plan

Revision of bye-laws to streamline the

First Year

First year

Not Applicable

Third year

Third year

approval process for construction of


buildings, development of site etc.

2.

Simplification of legal and procedural


frameworks for conversion of agricultural
land for non-agricultural purposes

Introduction of Property Title


Certification System in GMC/GMDA

Earmarking at least 20-25 per cent of


developed land in all housing projects
(both public and private agencies) for
EWS and LIG category with a system of
cross subsidisation.

Introduction of computerised process


of registration of land and property

Revision of byelaws to make

First Year

rainwater harvesting mandatory in all


buildings and adoption of water
conservation measures.

Byelaws for reuse of recycled water

First Year

Administrative reforms i.e. reduction

Already laws have been enacted

in establishment costs by adopting the

for not filling up of posts falling

Voluntary Retirement Scheme (VRS),

vacant due to retirement.

not filling posts falling vacant due to


retirement etc., and achieving specified
milestones in this regard.

Structural reforms.

Second Year

Encouraging PPP.

First Year

140

Mandatory Reforms adopted by Guwahati Municipal Corporation


S. No.

Reforms

Current Status/Plan

 Adoption of modern accrual-based

 GMC has initiated the process of

double entry system of accounting

identifying consultants for the


purpose. Will be completed in the
third year

 Introduction of a system of e-governance

Fourth year

using IT applications, such GIS and MIS


for various services provided by GMC

 Reform of property tax with GIS. It

 Third year

becomes a major source of revenue for


ULBs and arrangements for its effective
implementation so that collection
efficiency reaches at least 85 per cent
within next seven years.

 Levy of reasonable user charges by

Third year

GMC with the objective that the full cost


of O&M or recurring cost is collected
within the next seven years.

 Internal earmarking, within local bodies,

 First year

budgets for basic services to the urban


poor.

 Provision of basic services to the urban


poor including security of tenure at
affordable prices, improved housing,
water supply and sanitation. Delivery of
other existing universal services of the
government for education, health and
social security is ensured.

141

 First year

Optional Reforms Adopted by the Guwahati Municipal Corporation (GMC)


S. No.

Reforms


Current Status/Plan

Revision of bye-laws to streamline the

First year

First year

First Year

Third year

Third year

First year

approval process for construction of


buildings, development of site etc.

2.

Simplification of legal and procedural


frameworks for conversion of agricultural
land for non-agricultural purposes

Introduction of Property Title


Certification System in GMC/GMDA

Earmarking at least 20-25 per cent of


developed land in all housing projects
(both public and private agencies) for
EWS and LIG category with a system of
cross subsidisation.

Introduction of computerised process


of registration of land and property

Revision of byelaws to make


rainwater harvesting mandatory in all
buildings and adoption of water
conservation measures.

Byelaws for reuse of recycled water

First year

Administrative reforms i.e. reduction

Already laws have been enacted

in establishment costs by adopting the

for not filling up of posts falling

Voluntary Retirement Scheme (VRS),

vacant due to retirement.

not filling posts falling vacant due to


retirement etc., and achieving specified
milestones in this regard.

Structural reforms.

Second Year

Encouraging PPP.

First year

142

21. City Investment Plan


21.1

Background

The city investment plan for Guwahati Metropolitan Area has been formed,
keeping in mind the following assumptions:
For Projects relating to Slum Development, the project cost is proposed to be
Funded in the following manner:

Central Government will be providing 90% of the project cost as grants.

The balance of the project cost will be funded by ULBs own source PPP
basis, issue of bonds & other Innovative funding

It is also pertinent to note that Guwahati Development Department has in


principle agreed to support ULB through financial assistance and appropriate
structure.

21.2

Sustainability & Financial Options

It is recognized that the JN NURM Mission is an important stepping stone to


make the Urban Local Bodies self- sufficient and financially independent. It is
also important to ensure that the assets being created are adequately maintained
and adequate resources are allocated for the same.

In order to ensure the above, the following steps are being taken:

Strengthening of Financial State of ULBs

As mentioned earlier, comprehensive steps are being taken to identify


opportunities to strengthen the financial health of the Urban Local Bodies. A
range of short term and medium term interventions are being taken up with the
objective of generating adequate resources within the ULBs so as to suitably
operate and maintain the projects. The measure includes levy of surcharge on
holding used for commercial purposes, conduct provisional assessment,
enforcing collection drives and gradually increase tariffs so as to ensure user
charges are adequate to recover at the least operation and maintenance costs of

143

individual projects. This is particularly relevant for water projects where present
collection is far below the cost.

Public Private Partnership Projects

The region recognizes the importance of PPP not only as funding mechanism but
also an important tool to bring in efficiencies as well as ensure proper operation
and maintenance of the assets being created herein. This was also agreed upon
as a priority during the consultative process as well as by the State Level
Steering Committee during finalization of the CDP.
A spectrum of PPP options ranging from agreeing frameworks (such as
community contracts) to full privatization has been thought about. The following
partnership options are generally used as PPP options:

Service Contracts

Build Operate Transfer (BOT)

Concessions

Joint Venture

Community Based Provisions

However the choice of option in a given situation will depend on factors such
as degree of control desired by the ULBs, legal framework for Private
Investment, regulatory mechanism and potential of attracting financial
resources form both the public and private sectors.

For example Service contract option of PPP has been considered for
improving solid waste management practices. PPP options in sectors such
as Water supply, Sewerage and drainage has been generally found difficult
because of large investment requirement; long gestation period and poor
cost recovery; However with the JNURM funding and proper structuring PPP
is possible.

One of the major goals of JNURM is to encourage PPP participation and


also to make the

ULBs self-sufficient. Also the ULBs may with the help of

JNURM fund look to restructure its balance sheet.

144

ULBs Fund Raising:


Presently it is difficult for the ULBs to raise resources independently, In view
of the following steps are required to be taken in a phase wise manner which
is expected to strengthen there financial structure.

Phase I:
 Balance Sheet Restructuring:
Balance sheet restructuring will involve activities, which will aim to
enhance the financial strength of the ULBs in the Guwahati
Metropolitan Area.

Revaluation of Assets- in municipalities what happens is


that usually the assets are not revalued for long time; they
are recorded in the books of accounts at the price in which it
was purchased or brought. So if the assets can be revalued
at a realistic price, this can have a sound impact on the
balance sheet of the ULBs.

Leveraging Idle Assets- The ULBs need to identify idle


assets that they can leverage out to private players and earn
sufficient revenues. Even the unutilized assets of DSP and
railways they can use for commercial purposes and earn
sufficient revenues.

Escrowable Receivables- Structured Financing against


Escrowing of receivables can also be a good procedure to
attract private players, since if the receivables are escrowed,
the private players can be convinced to invest.

Phase II:

Once the above-mentioned activities are implemented, the financial


strength of the Balance sheets of the ULBs in the Guwahati
Metropolitan Area will be enhanced.

145

After the strengthening of the Balance sheet the following activities can
be resorted to.
 Balance Sheet Funding- if the above mentioned factors can be
properly implemented, the balance sheet of ULBs will become stronger
which will help the ULBs to raise funds by means of its balance sheet
position.
 Stock & Bond issues: Only the larger municipalities raise loans in this
way. A municipality must be creditworthy to conclude deals of this
nature successfully. On completion of the restructuring, balance sheets
can be strong enough to raise resources.
Phase III:
 User Group Fund- ULBs can raise funds from the common user
group, by showing them what benefits they will derive if the project is
done, here the benefits can be expressed in monetary terms with the
help of cost benefit analysis.
 Creation of infrastructure fund
It is recognized that the above measures shall take some time for
development and implementation. In the meantime in order to ensure that
the assets are properly operated and maintained, a fund shall be created.
The fund shall be taken as a part of project cost.

The above principles shall be taken into account while preparing individual
project proposals and shall be reflected in the respective DPRs.

146

Keeping in mind the above factors financing pattern for every sector has
been provided below:
Sources of Finance
S.No

Mode of Financing

Source

1
2

Identified Investments
Grants
JNNURM
Loan / ULBs
Open
Market/
FIs/State Govt

Amount (Rs.
Crores)
3200.00
2880.00
320.00

% Of Total
Investment
100%
90%
10%

The City plans to give the highest priority to provision of Water Services to its
citizens, followed by provision of service to urban poor, provision of drainage
and sewerage. The following is the summary of the sectors identified for
implementation. While the individual projects will be prioritized according the
urgency of the requirements, the following also generally reflects the sector
prioritization.

147

21.3

Sl
No
1

Sector Wise Utilisation

Sector
Water

Basic
Services to
Urban Poor

Drainage &
Storm Water
Drainage
Sanitation &
Sewerage
Solid waste

Transportation

Project Details

Cost (Rs Crore)

1. Upgradation of existing
plants
2. Source augmentation
3. New Treatment Plants
4. Transmission &
Distribution
5. O & M Fund
6. Capacity Building
7. Water Harvesting
8. Study for alternate
sources
1. Community halls
2. Health Care &
Education
3. Slum relocation and
rehabilitation
4. Slum Development
Programmes
5. Operation &
Maintenance
1. Integrated Drainage
System
2. Storm water Drainage
System
1. Integrated Sanitation &
Sewerage System
2. Awareness Campaign
1. Integrated Solid Waste
Management System
2. Awareness Campaign
1. Integrated Traffic
Management System
2. Road Improvement
3. New RoBs /
Strengthening of
existing RoBs
4. Logistic Hubs

148

30
20
300
650
60
10
5
2
10

1077

40
30
20
10

110

200
200

400

301
5

306

60
6

66

200
319
100
50

9
10

Capacity
Building
(ULBs)

Environment
(Water
Bodies/Wet
Lands

Urban
Renewal
Water Front
Development

5. Parking Facilities
6. Intra City Bus
Terminus
7. New Alignment parallel
to GNB Road
8. Ropeway
9. Project Development of
MRTS
1. Capacity Building &
Clearing of past
legacies to strengthen
the ULBs
1. Restoration,
Preservation &
Beautification of Deepar
Beel
2. Restoration,
Preservation &
Beautification of Silsako
Beel
3. Restoration,
Preservation &
Beautification of Borsola
Beel
4. Restoration,
Preservation &
Beautification of Dighali
Pukhuri
5. Restoration,
Preservation &
Beautification of
Silpukhuri
1. Wholesale Market
Shifting
1. River Bank Fortification
2. Creation of Basic
Infrastructure for
showcasing NE Culture
3. Provision of Basic
Amenities
4. Relocation of existing
buildings/maintaining
heritage buildings
5. Creation of basic
infrastructure for

149

60
32
40
30
10

841

30

30

50

20

15

10

100

70
120

70

30
10
20

recreation facilities
6. Relocation/consolidation
of ferry ghats

10
10

Grand Total

Cost for MRTS has not been included in the above but is estimated at
approximately Rs 3000 Crore. The cost of MRTS shall be finalized
during the study to be conducted.

150

200
3200

21.4

Financial Operating Plan

 Background
The Financial Operating Plan is essentially a multi year forecast of the Urban Local Body in the
area. In order to assess the sustainability of the project and quantify the impact of the reform
process, an attempt has been made to develop a Financial Plan based on the information
available, analysis of the trend and the commitments received from the State Government. The
Financial Plan charts out the revenue income and expenditure so as to ensure that the cash flows
are sustainable.

 Fund Requirement
The overall Fund Requirement is proposed to be spent over a period of three
years and the Region is taking full efforts to expedite the project development. In
line with JNNURM Guidelines for the North Eastern region, the Projects are
proposed to be funded as per the following table:
Projection- Funding Pattern
Mode of Financing

Source

Identified Investments
Grants
Loan / ULBs

JNNURM
Open Market/ FIs

Amount (Rs.
Crs)
3200.00
2880.00
320.00

% Of Total
Investment
100%
90%
10%

 Fund Phasing
The phasing of the expenditure is proposed to be done over a period of three years in the
following phases:

Phasing (Rs Crs)

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

1280

960

960

 Key Assumptions:

The projections have been based on the past trends and has been suitably escalated
based on inflation and past trends as follows:

151

Property Tax: The projections have been drawn based on the present collection
which is proposed to be enhanced to 85% by the end of the Mission Period

Urban Immovable Tax and Taxes on Animals and Non Mechanized Vehicles
have been projected to be increased by 6% and 2% respectively. Similar
escalation rates have been applied to other income heads.

The ULB has been accessing grants for funding Plan and Non-Plan Expenditures. The
same is essentially need based and is for approved expenditure heads.

The average O&M Expenditures for new projects has been assumed at 3% of the project
cost.

The Operation and Maintenance expenditure of the Corporation shall show a sharp
increase from 2009-10 with the implementation of the JNNURM Projects. The
Corporation shall take strong measures for collection of the User Charges as described
above and which shall be further spelt out in the Memorandum of Agreement proposed to
be entered with the Government of India in due course. However complete cost recovery
considering the present abysmal rate of recovery can be achieved only over a length of
time and therefore there is a requirement of availability of funds in the interim period.

An Operation and Maintenance Fund is thus proposed to be created for funding the
deficit of O&M Recoveries so as to ensure that the assets created under the Mission is
maintained and operated as per best practices. The Fund will be operational by 2009-10
when the projects shall be operational.

The Cost Recovery of the Water, Sewage and Drainage schemes have been computed
under the following targets for cost recoveries which are accepted by the State
Government:

Year

2007-08

% Recovery

2008-09

15%

2009-10

20%

2010-11

30%

45%

2011-12

2012-13

60%

In order to leverage JNNURM Funding to attract Private Sector Resources and


Efficiencies, projects for creation of Logistic Hubs, Parking Terminals, Bus Terminals etc
shall be operated under PPP and shall bring in 100% cost recovery.

152

75%

On the basis of the above assumptions, a detailed Financial Operating Plan has been prepared
till year 2012-2013.

 Financial Operating Plan


Revenue Income (Rs lacs)

Revenue Income
2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

908
84
31
48
27
422
8
55
128
1711

1124
99
38
50
78
492
6
60
25
1972

1210
116
39
60
65
513
12
70
26
2111

1331
123
40
66
67
528
12
72
28
2267

1573
130
41
73
69
544
13
74
29
2546

1694
138
41
80
71
561
13
76
30
2705

1815
146
42
88
73
577
14
79
32
2866

1936
155
43
97
75
595
14
81
34
3030

2057
165
44
106
78
613
14
84
35
3195

Realisation of Fees under special acts/rules

55

40

60

66

73

80

88

97

106

Rent on Market & Slaughter House

116

172

186

205

225

248

272

300

330

Total (B)

171

212

246

271

298

327

360

396

436

702
1143
267
2112

702
2627
300
3629

1100
2965
400
4465

1166
2200
412
3778

1236
2000
424
3660

2112

3629

4465

3778

3660

1310
2000
437
3747
5000
8747

1389
2000
450
3839
4200
8039

1472
2000
464
3936
3300
7236

1560
2000
478
4038
2500
6538

26

85

114

125

138

26

85

114

125

138

1605
1605

2407
2407

3209
3209

4012
4012

198

208

218

229

910
2713
14492

956
3570
14836

1003
4431
15092

1053
5294
15463

Own Sources
Property Tax
Urban Immovable Tax
Taxes on Animal & Non mechanised vehicles
Discretionary Taxes us 144 (2)
Taxes( u/s 144 (1)(d)
Taxes in 144 (1)(b) & u/s 180
Tax on Factories/Workshop
Application Receipts
Others
Total (A)
Own Sources- Non Taxes

State Transfer & Grants


Assigned Taxes under Sec 184
State Grant
Duty on Transfer of Property
Deficit Funding (incl for new projects)
Total ( C)
Water & Sewarage Account
Sale of Water
O&M Recovery for new projects

Solid Waste Charges


Other User Charges (Logistic
Hub/Parking/Terminals etcs)
Total (D)
Total (A+B+C+D)

26
4020

85
5898

114
6936

153

125
6441

138
6641

Revenue Expenses (Rs lacs)

Revenue Expenses
Establishment Expenditure
Salaries, Wages etc.
Other Administrative Expenses
Material Purchase
Repairs & Maintenance
Other Development Expenses
Purchase of Assets
Construction & Development Works
TOTAL

2606
686
38
51
151
124
363
4019

3559
828
47
37
182
81
1164
5897

4105
1049
65
108
200
157
1200
6884

4000
600
66
110
200
160
1260
6396

Additional O&M for new Projects


4019

Surplus /(Deficit)

5897

6884

6396

53

154

45

3900
612
68
112
204
163
1260
6319

3500
624
69
114
208
167
210
4892

3570
637
70
116
212
170
221
4996

3641
649
72
119
216
173
232
5103

3714
662
73
121
221
177
243
5212

9600

9792

9988

10188

6319

14492

14788

15091

15399

322

48

64

ANNEXURE I
The Consultative Process
Under the City Development Plan for the city of Guwahati, it was imperative to align the
objectives, strategies, programmes and projects with that of the overall vision for the city. The
vision itself is a statement with respect to what the city wishes to achieve within a given time
frame with clear expectations. In order to arrive at the overall vision for the city of Guwahati, a
series of stakeholders workshops were organized in which prominent citizens of the city, officials
of the State involved in the sphere of urban development, elected representatives to the
Municipal Corporation, the State Assembly and the Parliament from the city, NGOs involved in
the development sphere and the media had participated. The details of the participants and their
views expressed at these workshops are given below:

Workshop 1:
rd

Date:

3 March 2006

Time:

9.30 A.M to 12.30 P.M.

Venue:

Administrative Staff College, Khanapara, and Guwahati

Participants:

Prominent citizens, planners, State Government officials, and members of the


Nine Member Committee sep up by the Guwahati High Court to act as a
watchdog for the development works in the city

Agenda:

Discussion on the JNNURM Process and its implications for Guwahati


Developing a vision for the city

Outcome:

The workshop started with a presentation on the JN NURM process and the
broad agenda for discussion. The representatives were critical of the way
the development process had taken place in the city in the past and were of
the opinion that the development agenda need to be futuristic based with
specific milestones. Some of the specific suggestions of the participants
are as under:

155

The vision should encompass development of the city with a


futuristic point of view;

The vision should clearly bring about the uniqueness of the city vis-vis other cities of the North East and how it can be developed into
a hub;

Supply of potable water for all the citizens of the city within a
realistic time frame;

A comprehensive drainage system linking all existing channels;

Urgent measures for checking artificial flooding of the city through


specific measures;

Improvement in the transportation system within the city and


removing encroachments from the roads;

Development of the North Guwahati areas;

Beautification of the city;

Preservation of wetlands and;

Waterfront development;

156

Workshop 2:
rd

Date:

3 March 2006

Time:

2.30 P.M to 5.30 P.M.

Venue:

Administrative Staff College, Khanapara, Guwahati

Participants:

Elected representatives to the Guwahati Municipal Corporation, Members of the


State Legislative Assembly from the city, representative of NGOs working for
upliftment of the living environment in the city and officials of Guwahati
Metropolitan Development Authority (GMDA).

Agenda:

Discussion on the JN NURM process and its implications for Guwahati


Developing a vision for the city

Outcome:

The workshop began with a detailed presentation on the JN NURM process,


the guidelines and the need for a consultative process in the evolution of a
common strategy for the development of Guwahati. The participants were
of the opinion that the implementation process should involve all the
stakeholders under the mission. Many participants pointed out the specific
problem areas plaguing the city for long and suggested certain measure for
mitigating such problems. These are:

Requirement of new water treatment plants preferably by setting


smaller treatment plants at different parts of the city

A comprehensive drainage system covering every nook and corner


of the city and linking the system with the existing natural channels
in order to stop artificial flooding of the city during monsoons.

Improved transportation systems

Check on the massive deforestation of the hillocks surrounding the city

Widening & Strengthening of the citys internal roads

Beautification of the city

Preservation of the wetlands

Reforms in the corporation

The sector wise strategy, vision and gap were also discussed and common areas
identified.

157

Workshop 3:
th

Date:

30 March 2006

Time:

9.30 A.M to 1.00 P.M.

Venue:

Conference hall of the New Secretariat, Dispur, Guwahati

Participants:

Secretary,

Guwahati

Development

Department,

Commissioner,

Guwahati

Municipal Corporation, Chief Executive Officer, GMDA, Town Planners of GMDA


and GMC, and other officials of GMDA and GMC.

Agenda:

Discussion on the Draft CDP


Finalisation of Project Schemes

Outcome:

A detailed consultative workshop on the Draft CDP was held at Guwahati to


think through the process adopted while preparing the CDP and the
schemes to be co-opted in the CDP. Overall Vision, Perspective, plans and
Strategies were discussed. The aspiration of the people as reflected in the
earlier workshops and individual discussion were taken into account. Each
scheme as identified and mentioned in the CDP was debated upon and
rationality was explained. The workshop identified the Strategies and
Action Plans to be adopted for fulfilling the Vision.

In addition to the above workshops, individual discussions were also held with key citizens,
agencies, representative of industries, different Government Department and the people at large.
The points raised in the various platforms were duly incorporated in the CDP.

158

Workshop 4:
th

Date:

19 May 2006

Time:

11 A.M to 1.00 P.M.

Venue:

Conference hall of the Administrative Staff College, Khanapara, Guwahati

Participants:

Eminent Citizens, Members of Nine-Member Committee, Representatives of


NGOs, Chambers of Commerce and Media and other Stakeholders,
Elected representative to the Guwahati Municipal Corporation, Secretary,
Guwahati Development Department, Commissioner, Guwahati Municipal
Corporation, Chief Executive Officer, GMDA, Director of Guwahati Town &
Country Planning, Town Planners and Engineers of GMDA & GMC, and other
officials of GMDA and GMC.

Agenda:

Discussion and Adoption of City Development Plan, Guwahati.

Outcome:

The Final Draft of City Development Plan was presented and discussed in
detail. Individual Schemes & Projects were discussed, suggestions were
initiated from the participants and detailed Strategies and Action Plan were
adopted for incorporation of the Final City Development Plan.

159

Workshop 5:
th

Date:

30 May 2006

Time:

6.00 PM to 8.00 P.M.

Venue:

Secretariat Building, Dispur

Participants:

Honourable Chief Minister, Government of Assam


Honourable Minister, Guwahati Development Department, Govt of Assam
Honourable Minister, Urban Development, Government of Assam
Chief Secretary, Government of Assam,
Additional Chief Secretary, Industry
Additional Chief Secretary, Revenue
Principal Secretary, Planning & Development Commission to the
Chief Minister
Commissioner, Finance
Secretary, Guwahati development Department,
Secretary, Urban Development
Commissioner, Guwahati Municipal Corporation
Chief Executive Officer, GMDA
Other Government officials

Agenda:

Adoption of City Development Plan, Guwahati.

Outcome:

The Final City Development Plan was presented; various schemes and action
plans were discussed in detail.
The City Development Plan was thereafter adopted and recommended for
approval of Ministry of Urban Development.

160

Annexure 2
Areas Covered by the Institutions (Except GMC & GMDA):

Water
Supply

Sewerage

Drainage

Storm
Water
Drainage
Solid Waste
Disposal
Municipal
Roads
(Including
Flyover)
Street
Lighting

Town
Planning

Note:

AUWSSB
Mainly in
East
Guwahati
along R G
Baruah Road
Primarily in
East
Guwahati
along R G
Baruah Road
In East
Guwahati
along R G
Baruah road

PHE
Primarily
Government
Buildings
and
installations
Planning &
Design and
Construction
(All over
Guwahati)
Planning &
Design and
construction
Supervision
(All Over
Guwahati)
NA

East
Guwahati
along R G
Baruah Road
NA
NA

PWD

FCD

T&CP
NA

NA

NA

NA

Mostly flood NA
prone areas

NA

Flood Prone
Low Lying
Areas

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

Planning &
Design (All
over
Guwahati)
NA

NA

NA

Construction NA
across
Guwahati

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

All roads
owned by
PWD across
Guwahati
NA

NA

Planning &
Design of
areas not
covered by
GMC &
GMDA

GMCs jurisdiction covers a total of 60 municipal wards across an area of 216 Sq


Km, while GMDAs jurisdiction covers areas not covered by GMDA out of total area
of 264 Sq Km.

161

Annexure 3
Analysis of Report of Air Samples collected in Guwahati
SO2 (Mg/m3)

NO2 (Mg/m3)

SPM (Mg/m3)

BDL

11.00

381.00

Amingaon (Industrial)
Ganeshguri (Commercial)

BDL
BDL

7.00
12.60

98.00
668.00

Tokobari (Industrial)
Fancybazar (Commercial)

BDL
BDL

18.00
25.90

798.00
567.00

Silpukhuri (Residential)

BDL

9.00

286.00

Chandmari (Residential)

BDL

9.50

240.00

Area
Kachari (Commercial)

Source : White Paper on Pollution in Guwahati with Action Points, prepared by PCBA and SRDC

Standards
SPM
NO2
SO2
3
3
Residential Area: 200 mg/m
Below 80 mg/m
Below Detectable Limit
Commercial and Industrial Area:
3
500 mg/m
Source: White Paper on Pollution in Guwahati with Action Points, prepared by PCBA and
SRDC
Analysis of Ambient air quality of certain selected stations in Guwahati
Area Station

SO2(Mg/m3)
Pre Monsoon

NO2(Mg/m3)

Monsoon

Pre
Monsoon

SPM(Mg/m3)

Monsoo Pre
n
Monsoon

Monso
on

Dispur

34

12

57

19

317

154

Khanpara

31

56

15

167

54

Noonmati

22

32

18

259

59

Adabari

13

20

16

441

223

Dharapur

30

26

13

65

552

120

Airport

10

12

19

28

914

81

Amingaon (I)

18

15

113

58

Beltola

21

16

22

238

151

Ulubari

17

23

290

82

Fatasil
Ambari

36

32

29

44

232

60

BDL

BDL

10

12

47

42

Digheswari
Temple

Source: White Paper on Pollution in Guwahati with Action Points, prepared by PCBA and
SRDC

- Residential, - Commercial, (I) Industrial

162

Annexure 4

Details on Receipt & Expenditure of GMC (2002-2004)


Receipts

(A)

SL
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

RECEIPTS THROUGH COLLECTION BY GMC (IN LAKHS)

Head
Property Tax
Trade License Fee
Market
Slow Moving Vehicle
Fine & Penalties
Water Tax
Check Gate & Parking
Others
Total

(B)

SL
No
1
2
3
Total
(C)

SL
No
1
2
3
4
5

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

608.32
247.96
77.52
11.36
25.17
24.11
1102.69
63.06
2160.19

684.33
268.80
95.27
13.36
32.57
32.22
1232.40
323.41
2682.36

1110.54
529.44
119.50
36.93
45.01
46.79
55.61
167.81
2111.63

OTHER GRANTS-IN-AID RECEIVED FROM GOVT. UNDER REVENUE NONPLAN (IN LAKHS)

Head
Share of Entertainment Tax
Motor Vehicle Tax
Surcharge on Stamp Duty

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

591.70
50.00
641.70

570.00
570.00

518.00
202.00
175.00
895.00

OTHER DEVELOPMENT GRANT RECEIVED FROM GOVT (IN LAKHS)

Head
Special Grant For F.D.R.
Grant Under N.S.D.P. (Slum)
Grant for Purchase of
Equipments for Silt Clearance
Grant For Kamakhya Water
Supply Scheme
Grant Under 11th Finance
Commission

Total

163

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

57.27
-

35.84
39.96
164.84

41.58
-

300.00

19.75

57.27

540.64

61.33

Expenditure
(A)

SL
No
1
2
3

REVENUE EXPENDITURE OF GMC (IN LAKHS)

Particular of Expenditure
Salaries
T.A.
Other Administrative
Expenditure
Material Purchase
Repairs & Maintenance
Total

4
5

(B)

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

1935.75
1.52
426.18

1950.76
1.11
636.93

2101.97
1.37
752.23

36.76
90.37
2490.58

24.52
84.23
2697.55

49.18
63.14
2967.89

EXPENDITURE OTHER THAN REVENUE EXPENDITURE (IN LAKHS)

SL
No

Particular of Expenditure

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

1
2
3
Total

Other Development Expenditure


Loans & Advances
Assets

160.51
13.00
31.58
205.09

233.56
157.98
391.54

432.76
45.30
478.06

164