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# CHAPTER 1

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
1.1 We use the first three steps of Eq. 1.11

y z
E
E
E

y = x + y z
E
E
E

z = x y + z
E
E
E

x =

## Adding the above, we get

x + y + z =

1 2
( x + y + z )
E

x
from the first equation,
E

1+

x ( x + y + z )
E
E
Similar expressions can be obtained for y, and z.
x =

## From the relationship for yz and Eq. 1.12,

E
yz etc.
2(1 + )
Above relations can be written in the form
= D
where D is the material property matrix defined in Eq. 1.15.
yz =

1.2

Note that u2(x) satisfies the zero slope boundary condition at the support.

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
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1.3

## Plane strain condition implies that

y z

z = 0 = x
+
E
E
E
which gives
z = ( x + y )
We have, x = 20000 psi y = 10000 psi E = 30 10 6 psi = 0.3 .
On substituting the values,
z = 3000 psi

1.4

Displacement field

(
)
(3x + 6 y y )

u = 10 4 x 2 + 2 y 2 + 6 xy
4

2
v = 10
u
= 10 4 ( 2 x + 6 y )
x
v
= 3 10 4
x

u
= 10 4 (4 y + 6 x )
y
v
= 10 4 (6 + 2 y )
y

x
v
=

y
u + v
y x

at x = 1, y = 0
2

= 10 6
9

4

## 1.5 On inspection, we note that the displacements u and v are given by

u = 0.1 y + 4
v=0
It is then easy to see that

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
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u
=0
x
v
y =
=0
y
u v
xy =
+
= 0.1
y x
x =

1.6

## The displacement field is given as

u = 1 + 3x + 4x3 + 6xy2
v = xy 7x2
(a) The strains are then given by
u
x =
= 3 + 12 x 2 + 6 y 2
x
v
y =
=x
y
u v
xy =
+
= 12 xy + y 14 x
y x
(b) In order to draw the contours of the strain field using MATLAB, we need to create a
script file, which may be edited as a text file and save with .m extension. The file
for plotting x is given below
file prob1p5b.m
[X,Y] = meshgrid(-1:.1:1,-1:.1:1);
Z = 3.+12.*X.^2+6.*Y.^2;
[C,h] = contour(X,Y,Z);
clabel(C,h);

## On running the program, the contour map is shown as follows:

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval
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1
14
18

10
8

12

16

16

10
14

14

4
10

10
12

14
16

12

18

-1
-1

-0.8
-0.8

-0.6

14
16

-0.4

10

-0.4

-0.2

0.2

10
0.4

12

0.6

18

-0.2

12

-0.6

12

0.4
0.2

6
8

0.6

18

14

0.8

0.8

Contours of x
Contours of y and xy are obtained by changing Z in the script file. The numbers on
the contours show the function values.
(c) The maximum value of x is at any of the corners of the square region. The
maximum value is 21.

1.7

(x, y)

a)

=
u

b)

x =

0.2
y =
u 0.2 y
1

(u, v)

=
v 0

u
v
u v
= 0 y =
= 0 xy =
+
= 0.2
x
y
y x

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval
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1.8

## x = 40 MPa y = 20 MPa z = 30 MPa

yz = 30 MPa xz = 15 MPa xy = 10 MPa
T

1 1 1
n=

2
2 2
From Eq. 1.8 we get
Tx = x n x + xy n y + xz n z
.

= 35.607 MPa
T y = xy n x + y n y + yz n z
= 6.213 MPa
Tz = xz n x + yz n y + z n z
= 13.713 MPa
n = Tx n x + T y n y + Tz n z
= 24.393 MPa

1.9

## From the derivation made in P1.1, we have

E
(1 ) x + y + z
(1 + )(1 2 )
which can be written in the form
E
[(1 2 ) x + v ]
x =
(1 + )(1 2 )
and
E
yz =
yz
2(1 + )
Lames constants and are defined in the expressions
x =

x = v + 2 x
yz = yz
On inspection,
E
=
(1 + )(1 2 )
E
=
2(1 + )

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
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## is same as the shear modulus G.

1.10
= 1.2 10 5
T = 30 0 C
E = 200 GPa
= 12 10 -6 / 0 C
0 = T = 3.6 10 4

= E ( 0 ) = 69.6 MPa

1.11
du
= 1 + 2x 2
dx
L du
2

dx = x + x 3
=
0 dx
3

x =

L
0

2
= L1 + L2
3

## 1.12 Following the steps of Example 1.1, we have

(80 + 40 + 50 ) 80 q1 60
=

80
80 q 2 50

## Above matrix form is same as the set of equations:

170 q1 80 q2 = 60
80 q1 + 80 q2 = 50
Solving for q1 and q2, we get
q1 = 1.222 mm
q2 = 1.847 mm

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
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1.13

## When the wall is smooth, x = 0 . T is the temperature rise.

a) When the block is thin in the z direction, it corresponds to plane stress condition. The
rigid walls in the y direction require y = 0 . The generalized Hookes law yields the
equations

x =
y=

y
E

+ T

+ T
E
From the second equation, setting y = 0 , we get y =
ET . x is then calculated
using the first equation as (1 ) T .
b) When the block is very thick in the z direction, plain strain condition prevails. Now we
have z = 0 , in addition to y = 0 . z is not zero.

x =
y=

y
E

z =

y
E

+ T= 0

+ T

+ T =0
E
E
From the last two equations, we get
ET
1 + 2

y = z =
ET
1 +
1 +
+

## x is now obtained from the first equation.

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
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1.14 For thin block, it is plane stress condition. Treating the nominal size as 1, we may set the
0.1
in part (a) of problem 1.13. Thus y = 0.1E .
initial strain 0 = T =
1
1.15
The potential energy is given by
x=0
2

1
du

2 0 dx
0
2

## Consider the polynomial from Example 1.2,

u = a3 2 x + x 2

g=1
E=1
A=1

du
= ( 2 + 2 x )a3 = 2( 1 + x )a3
dx

x=2

On substituting the above expressions and integrating, the first term of becomes
2 2
2a 3
3
and the second term

2 x3

=
udx
=
a
3 x +
0
0
3

4
= a3
3
2

Thus
=

4 2
a3 + a3
3

=0
a3
this gives

u x =1 =

a3 =

1
2

1
( 2 + 1) = 0.5
2

1.16
E=1
A=1
x=0

f = x3

x=1

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval
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## We use the displacement field defined by u = a0 + a1x + a2x2.

u = 0 at x = 0 a0 = 0
u = 0 at x = 1 a1 + a2 = 0 a2 = a1
We then have u = a1x(1 x), and du/dx = a1(1 x).
The potential energy is now written as
2

1 du
dx fudx
2 0 dx
0
1

1
2
2
= a1 (1 2 x ) dx x 3 a1 x(1 x )dx
20
0
1

1
2
a1 1 4 x + 4 x 2 dx a1 x 4 x 5 dx

20
0

1 2 4 4
1 1
a1 1 + a1
2 2 3
5 6
2

a
a
= 1 1
6 30

=0
a1

a1 1

=0
3 30

## This yields, a1 = 0.1

Displacemen u = 0.1x(1 x)
Stress =E du/dx = 0.1(1 x)
1.17

## Let u1 be the displacement at x = 200 mm. Piecewise linear displacement that is

continuous in the interval 0 x 500 is represented as shown in the figure.

u = a3 + a4x

u = a1 + a2x
u1

200

500

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
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0 x 200
u = 0 at x = 0 a1 = 0
u = u1 at x = 200 a2 = u1/200
du/dx = u1/200
u = (u1/200)x
200 x 500
u = 0 at x = 500 a3 + 500 a4 = 0
u = u1 at x = 200 a3 + 200 a4 = u1
a4 = u1/300
a3 = (5/3)u1
u = (5/3)u1 (u1/300)x du/dx = u1/200
1
=
2

200

500

=
=

1
du
du
E al A1 dx + E st A2 dx 10000u1
2 200
dx
dx
2

1
1
u
u
E al A1 1 200 + E st A2 1 300 10000u1
2
2
300
200

1 E al A1 E st A2 2
+

u1 10000u1
2 200
300

E A E A
= 0 al 1 + st 2 u1 10000 = 0
u1
300
200
Note that using the units MPa (N/mm2) for modulus of elasticity and mm2 for area and
mm for length will result in displacement in mm, and stress in MPa.
Thus, Eal = 70000 MPa, Est = 200000, and A1 = 900 mm2, A2 = 1200 mm2. On
substituting these values into the above equation, we get
u1 = 0.009 mm
This is precisely the solution obtained from strength of materials approach

1.18
In the Galerkin method, we start from the equilibrium equation
d
du
EA
+g =0
dx
dx
Following the steps of Example 1.3, we get
2

EA
0

du d
dx + gdx
dx dx
0
2

Introducing
Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
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(
)
= (2 x x )

u = 2 x x 2 u1 , and
2

## where u1 and 1 are the values of u and at x = 1 respectively,

2
2

2
1 u1 (1 2 x ) dx + 2 x x 2 dx = 0
0
0

On integrating, we get
8
1 u1 +
3

4
=0
3

## This is to be satisfied for every 1, which gives the solution

u1 = 0.5
1.19

We use

u = a1 + a 2 x + a3 x 2 + a 4 x 3
u = 0 at x = 0
u = 0 at x = 2
This implies that
0 = a1
0 = a1 + 2a 2 + 4 3 + 8a 4
and

(
du
= 2a (x 1) + a (3 x
dx

)
4)

u = a3 x 2 2 x + a 4 x 3 4 x
3

## a3 and a4 are considered as independent variables in

2

)]

2
1
= 2a3 ( x 1) + a 4 3 x 2 4 dx 2( a3 3a 4 )
20
on expanding and integrating the terms, we get

2

## We differentiate with respect to the variables and equate to zero.

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
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= 2.667 a3 + 8a 4 + 2 = 0
a3

= 8a3 + 25.6a 4 + 6 = 0
a 4
On solving, we get
a3 = 0.74856 and a4 = 0.00045.
On substituting in the expression for u, at x = 1,
u1= 0.749
This approximation is close to the value obtained in the example problem.

1.20
L

(a)

1
= T Adx T ( x )udx
20
0
= E and =

du
dx

On substitution,
2

1
du
= EA dx T udx T udx
2 0 dx
0
30
60

1
60 10 6
2

30

60

) du
dx 10 xudx 300udx
dx
60

30

60

30

(b)
Since u = 0 at x = 0 and x = 60, and u = a0 + a1x + a2x2, we have
u = a 2 x( x 60 )
du
= a 2 (2 x 60 )
dx
On substituting and integrating,
= 216 1010 a 2 + 8775000a 2
2

## Setting d/da2 = 0 gives

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
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a 2 = 2.03125 10 6
du
= 60.935(2 x 60 )
dx
Plots of displacement and stress are given below:
=E

-3

x 10

1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Displacement u

4000
3000
2000
1000
0
-1000
-2000
-3000
-4000

30

20

10

40

60

50

Stress
.
1.21

y = 20 at x = 60 implies that
20 = a 0 + 60a1 + 3600a 2 , which yields
a 0 = 20(1 3a1 180a 2 )

## Substituting for k, h, L, and a0 in I, we get

60

I = 10(a1 + 2a 2 x ) dx +
2

60

1
(25)[20(1 3a1 180a 2 ) 800]2
2

2

## I = 45600a1 + 612000a1 a 2 + 45 10 5 a 2 + 117 10 4 a1 + 702 10 4 a 2 + 7605000

2

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
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dI
= 912000a1 + 612000a 2 + 117 10 4 = 0
da1
dI
= 612000a1 + 90 10 5 a 2 + 702 10 4 = 0
da 2
On solving,
a2 = 0.1699
a1 = 13.969
Substituting into the expression for a0, we get
a0 = 246.538
.

1.22 Since u = 0 at x = 0, the displacement satisfying the boundary condition is u = a1x. Also
the coordinates are x2 = 1, and x3 = 3.

## The potential energy for the problem is

2

1 3 du
=
EA dx P2u2 P3u3

2 0
dx
We have u2 = a1, u3 = 3a1, E = 1, A = 1, and

du
= a1 . Thus
dx

1 3
3
2
( a1 ) dx a1 3a1= a12 4a1 .

0
2
2

d
= 0 , we get
da1
3a1 4 = 0, which gives a1 = 0.75.

## The approximate solution is u = 0.75x.

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval
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## 1.23 Use Galerkin approach with approximation u =a + bx + cx 2 to solve

du
+ 3=
u x 0 x 1
dx
u ( 0) = 1
The week form is obtained by multiplying by satisfying ( 0 ) = 0 .
1

du

0
dx + 3u x dx =
0

## We now set u =1 + bx + cx 2 satisfying u ( 0 ) = 1 and =

a1 x + a2 x 2 . On introducing these
into the above integral,

## ( a x + a x )( b + 2cx + 3 + 3bx + 3cx x ) dx =0

a ( bx + 3 x x + 3bx + 2cx + 3cx ) dx + a ( bx
1

1 0

2 0

## + 3x 2 x 3 + 3bx 3 + 2cx 3 + 3cx 4 ) dx + =0

On integrating, we get
2c 3c
1 3b c 3c
b 3 1
b
a1 + + b + + + a2 + 1 + + + =
0
3 4
4 4 2 5
2 2 3
3
17
7
11
3
3
13
a1 b + c + + a2 b + c + =
0
12
6
10
4
2
12
This must be satisfied for every a1 and a2. Thus the equations to be solved are
3
17
7
b+ c+ =
0
2
12
6
13
11
3
0
b+ c+ =
12
10
4
The solution is b = 1.9157, c = 1.2048. Thus u =
1 1.9157 x + 1.2048 x 2 .

1.24

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
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## The deflection and slope at a due to P1 are

3
Pa
Pa 2
1
and 1 . Using this the deflection
3EI
2 EI

2
Pa 3 Pa ( L a )
v1 =
1 1
3EI
2 EI
2
Pa
v1 = 1
2 EI

## The deflection and slope due to load P2 are

P2 L3
v2 =
3EI
P L2
v2 = 2
2 EI
We then get
v= v1 + v2

v= v1 + v2

1.25

(0,1)

(0,0)

(1,1)

(1,0)

(a) The displacement of B is given by (0.1, 0.1) and A, C, and D remain in their original
position. Consider a displacement field of the type
u =a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 xy
v =b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 xy
The four constants can be evaluated using the known displacements

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
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At A (0, 0)
At B (1, 0)
At C (1, 1)
At D (0, 1)

a1 = 0
b1 = 0
a1 + a2 =
0.1
b1 + b2 =
0.1
a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 =
0
b1 + b2 + b3 + b4 =
0
a1 + a3 =
0
b1 + b3 =
0

The solution is
a1 = 0, a2 = 0.1, a3 = 0, a4 = 0.1
b1 = 0, b2 = 0.1, b3 = 0, b4
u=
0.1x + 0.1xy
This gives
=
v 0.1x 0.1xy
(b) The shear strain at B is

u v
+ = 0.1x + 0.1 0.1 y
y x

=
0.1(1) + 0.1 0.1( 0=
) 0.2
B

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.