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CHAPTER 1

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
1.1 We use the first three steps of Eq. 1.11

y z
E
E
E

y = x + y z
E
E
E

z = x y + z
E
E
E

x =

Adding the above, we get

x + y + z =
Adding and subtracting

1 2
( x + y + z )
E

x
from the first equation,
E

1+

x ( x + y + z )
E
E
Similar expressions can be obtained for y, and z.
x =

From the relationship for yz and Eq. 1.12,


E
yz etc.
2(1 + )
Above relations can be written in the form
= D
where D is the material property matrix defined in Eq. 1.15.
yz =

1.2

Note that u2(x) satisfies the zero slope boundary condition at the support.

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright
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1.3

Plane strain condition implies that


y z

z = 0 = x
+
E
E
E
which gives
z = ( x + y )
We have, x = 20000 psi y = 10000 psi E = 30 10 6 psi = 0.3 .
On substituting the values,
z = 3000 psi

1.4

Displacement field

(
)
(3x + 6 y y )

u = 10 4 x 2 + 2 y 2 + 6 xy
4

2
v = 10
u
= 10 4 ( 2 x + 6 y )
x
v
= 3 10 4
x

u
= 10 4 (4 y + 6 x )
y
v
= 10 4 (6 + 2 y )
y

x
v
=

y
u + v
y x

at x = 1, y = 0
2

= 10 6
9

4

1.5 On inspection, we note that the displacements u and v are given by


u = 0.1 y + 4
v=0
It is then easy to see that

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright
and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval
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u
=0
x
v
y =
=0
y
u v
xy =
+
= 0.1
y x
x =

1.6

The displacement field is given as


u = 1 + 3x + 4x3 + 6xy2
v = xy 7x2
(a) The strains are then given by
u
x =
= 3 + 12 x 2 + 6 y 2
x
v
y =
=x
y
u v
xy =
+
= 12 xy + y 14 x
y x
(b) In order to draw the contours of the strain field using MATLAB, we need to create a
script file, which may be edited as a text file and save with .m extension. The file
for plotting x is given below
file prob1p5b.m
[X,Y] = meshgrid(-1:.1:1,-1:.1:1);
Z = 3.+12.*X.^2+6.*Y.^2;
[C,h] = contour(X,Y,Z);
clabel(C,h);

On running the program, the contour map is shown as follows:

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright
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1
14
18

10
8

12

16

16

10
14

14

4
10

10
12

14
16

12

18

-1
-1

-0.8
-0.8

-0.6

14
16

-0.4

10

-0.4

-0.2

0.2

10
0.4

12

0.6

18

-0.2

12

-0.6

12

0.4
0.2

6
8

0.6

18

14

0.8

0.8

Contours of x
Contours of y and xy are obtained by changing Z in the script file. The numbers on
the contours show the function values.
(c) The maximum value of x is at any of the corners of the square region. The
maximum value is 21.

1.7

(x, y)

a)

=
u

b)

x =

0.2
y =
u 0.2 y
1

(u, v)

=
v 0

u
v
u v
= 0 y =
= 0 xy =
+
= 0.2
x
y
y x

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright
and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval
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1.8

x = 40 MPa y = 20 MPa z = 30 MPa


yz = 30 MPa xz = 15 MPa xy = 10 MPa
T

1 1 1
n=

2
2 2
From Eq. 1.8 we get
Tx = x n x + xy n y + xz n z
.

= 35.607 MPa
T y = xy n x + y n y + yz n z
= 6.213 MPa
Tz = xz n x + yz n y + z n z
= 13.713 MPa
n = Tx n x + T y n y + Tz n z
= 24.393 MPa

1.9

From the derivation made in P1.1, we have

E
(1 ) x + y + z
(1 + )(1 2 )
which can be written in the form
E
[(1 2 ) x + v ]
x =
(1 + )(1 2 )
and
E
yz =
yz
2(1 + )
Lames constants and are defined in the expressions
x =

x = v + 2 x
yz = yz
On inspection,
E
=
(1 + )(1 2 )
E
=
2(1 + )

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright
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is same as the shear modulus G.

1.10
= 1.2 10 5
T = 30 0 C
E = 200 GPa
= 12 10 -6 / 0 C
0 = T = 3.6 10 4

= E ( 0 ) = 69.6 MPa

1.11
du
= 1 + 2x 2
dx
L du
2

dx = x + x 3
=
0 dx
3

x =

L
0

2
= L1 + L2
3

1.12 Following the steps of Example 1.1, we have


(80 + 40 + 50 ) 80 q1 60
=

80
80 q 2 50

Above matrix form is same as the set of equations:


170 q1 80 q2 = 60
80 q1 + 80 q2 = 50
Solving for q1 and q2, we get
q1 = 1.222 mm
q2 = 1.847 mm

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright
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1.13

When the wall is smooth, x = 0 . T is the temperature rise.


a) When the block is thin in the z direction, it corresponds to plane stress condition. The
rigid walls in the y direction require y = 0 . The generalized Hookes law yields the
equations

x =
y=

y
E

+ T

+ T
E
From the second equation, setting y = 0 , we get y =
ET . x is then calculated
using the first equation as (1 ) T .
b) When the block is very thick in the z direction, plain strain condition prevails. Now we
have z = 0 , in addition to y = 0 . z is not zero.

x =
y=

y
E

z =

y
E

+ T= 0

+ T

+ T =0
E
E
From the last two equations, we get
ET
1 + 2

y = z =
ET
1 +
1 +
+

x is now obtained from the first equation.

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright
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1.14 For thin block, it is plane stress condition. Treating the nominal size as 1, we may set the
0.1
in part (a) of problem 1.13. Thus y = 0.1E .
initial strain 0 = T =
1
1.15
The potential energy is given by
x=0
2

1
du
EA dx ugAdx

2 0 dx
0
2

Consider the polynomial from Example 1.2,

u = a3 2 x + x 2

g=1
E=1
A=1

du
= ( 2 + 2 x )a3 = 2( 1 + x )a3
dx

x=2

On substituting the above expressions and integrating, the first term of becomes
2 2
2a 3
3
and the second term

2 x3

ugAdx
=
udx
=
a
3 x +
0
0
3

4
= a3
3
2

Thus
=

4 2
a3 + a3
3

=0
a3
this gives

u x =1 =

a3 =

1
2

1
( 2 + 1) = 0.5
2

1.16
E=1
A=1
x=0

f = x3

x=1

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright
and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval
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We use the displacement field defined by u = a0 + a1x + a2x2.


u = 0 at x = 0 a0 = 0
u = 0 at x = 1 a1 + a2 = 0 a2 = a1
We then have u = a1x(1 x), and du/dx = a1(1 x).
The potential energy is now written as
2

1 du
dx fudx
2 0 dx
0
1

1
2
2
= a1 (1 2 x ) dx x 3 a1 x(1 x )dx
20
0
1

1
2
a1 1 4 x + 4 x 2 dx a1 x 4 x 5 dx

20
0

1 2 4 4
1 1
a1 1 + a1
2 2 3
5 6
2

a
a
= 1 1
6 30

=0
a1

a1 1

=0
3 30

This yields, a1 = 0.1


Displacemen u = 0.1x(1 x)
Stress =E du/dx = 0.1(1 x)
1.17

Let u1 be the displacement at x = 200 mm. Piecewise linear displacement that is


continuous in the interval 0 x 500 is represented as shown in the figure.

u = a3 + a4x

u = a1 + a2x
u1

200

500

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright
and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval
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0 x 200
u = 0 at x = 0 a1 = 0
u = u1 at x = 200 a2 = u1/200
du/dx = u1/200
u = (u1/200)x
200 x 500
u = 0 at x = 500 a3 + 500 a4 = 0
u = u1 at x = 200 a3 + 200 a4 = u1
a4 = u1/300
a3 = (5/3)u1
u = (5/3)u1 (u1/300)x du/dx = u1/200
1
=
2

200

500

=
=

1
du
du
E al A1 dx + E st A2 dx 10000u1
2 200
dx
dx
2

1
1
u
u
E al A1 1 200 + E st A2 1 300 10000u1
2
2
300
200

1 E al A1 E st A2 2
+

u1 10000u1
2 200
300

E A E A
= 0 al 1 + st 2 u1 10000 = 0
u1
300
200
Note that using the units MPa (N/mm2) for modulus of elasticity and mm2 for area and
mm for length will result in displacement in mm, and stress in MPa.
Thus, Eal = 70000 MPa, Est = 200000, and A1 = 900 mm2, A2 = 1200 mm2. On
substituting these values into the above equation, we get
u1 = 0.009 mm
This is precisely the solution obtained from strength of materials approach

1.18
In the Galerkin method, we start from the equilibrium equation
d
du
EA
+g =0
dx
dx
Following the steps of Example 1.3, we get
2

EA
0

du d
dx + gdx
dx dx
0
2

Introducing
Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright
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(
)
= (2 x x )

u = 2 x x 2 u1 , and
2

where u1 and 1 are the values of u and at x = 1 respectively,


2
2

2
1 u1 (1 2 x ) dx + 2 x x 2 dx = 0
0
0

On integrating, we get
8
1 u1 +
3

4
=0
3

This is to be satisfied for every 1, which gives the solution

u1 = 0.5
1.19

We use

u = a1 + a 2 x + a3 x 2 + a 4 x 3
u = 0 at x = 0
u = 0 at x = 2
This implies that
0 = a1
0 = a1 + 2a 2 + 4 3 + 8a 4
and

(
du
= 2a (x 1) + a (3 x
dx

)
4)

u = a3 x 2 2 x + a 4 x 3 4 x
3

a3 and a4 are considered as independent variables in


2

)]

2
1
= 2a3 ( x 1) + a 4 3 x 2 4 dx 2( a3 3a 4 )
20
on expanding and integrating the terms, we get

= 1.333a3 + 12.8a 4 + 8a3 a 4 + 2a3 + 6a 4


2

We differentiate with respect to the variables and equate to zero.

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright
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= 2.667 a3 + 8a 4 + 2 = 0
a3

= 8a3 + 25.6a 4 + 6 = 0
a 4
On solving, we get
a3 = 0.74856 and a4 = 0.00045.
On substituting in the expression for u, at x = 1,
u1= 0.749
This approximation is close to the value obtained in the example problem.

1.20
L

(a)

1
= T Adx T ( x )udx
20
0
= E and =

du
dx

On substitution,
2

1
du
= EA dx T udx T udx
2 0 dx
0
30
60

1
60 10 6
2

30

60

) du
dx 10 xudx 300udx
dx
60

30

60

30

(b)
Since u = 0 at x = 0 and x = 60, and u = a0 + a1x + a2x2, we have
u = a 2 x( x 60 )
du
= a 2 (2 x 60 )
dx
On substituting and integrating,
= 216 1010 a 2 + 8775000a 2
2

Setting d/da2 = 0 gives

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright
and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval
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a 2 = 2.03125 10 6
du
= 60.935(2 x 60 )
dx
Plots of displacement and stress are given below:
=E

-3

x 10

1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Displacement u

4000
3000
2000
1000
0
-1000
-2000
-3000
-4000

30

20

10

40

60

50

Stress
.
1.21

y = 20 at x = 60 implies that
20 = a 0 + 60a1 + 3600a 2 , which yields
a 0 = 20(1 3a1 180a 2 )

Substituting for k, h, L, and a0 in I, we get


60

I = 10(a1 + 2a 2 x ) dx +
2

60

1
(25)[20(1 3a1 180a 2 ) 800]2
2

I = 10 a1 + 4 xa1 a 2 + 4 x 2 a 2 dx + 5000(3a1 + 18a 2 + 39 )


2

I = 45600a1 + 612000a1 a 2 + 45 10 5 a 2 + 117 10 4 a1 + 702 10 4 a 2 + 7605000


2

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright
and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval
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dI
= 912000a1 + 612000a 2 + 117 10 4 = 0
da1
dI
= 612000a1 + 90 10 5 a 2 + 702 10 4 = 0
da 2
On solving,
a2 = 0.1699
a1 = 13.969
Substituting into the expression for a0, we get
a0 = 246.538
.

1.22 Since u = 0 at x = 0, the displacement satisfying the boundary condition is u = a1x. Also
the coordinates are x2 = 1, and x3 = 3.

The potential energy for the problem is


2

1 3 du
=
EA dx P2u2 P3u3

2 0
dx
We have u2 = a1, u3 = 3a1, E = 1, A = 1, and

du
= a1 . Thus
dx

1 3
3
2
( a1 ) dx a1 3a1= a12 4a1 .

0
2
2

d
= 0 , we get
da1
3a1 4 = 0, which gives a1 = 0.75.

For stationary value, setting

The approximate solution is u = 0.75x.

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright
and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval
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1.23 Use Galerkin approach with approximation u =a + bx + cx 2 to solve


du
+ 3=
u x 0 x 1
dx
u ( 0) = 1
The week form is obtained by multiplying by satisfying ( 0 ) = 0 .
1

du

0
dx + 3u x dx =
0

We now set u =1 + bx + cx 2 satisfying u ( 0 ) = 1 and =


a1 x + a2 x 2 . On introducing these
into the above integral,

( a x + a x )( b + 2cx + 3 + 3bx + 3cx x ) dx =0


a ( bx + 3 x x + 3bx + 2cx + 3cx ) dx + a ( bx
1

1 0

2 0

+ 3x 2 x 3 + 3bx 3 + 2cx 3 + 3cx 4 ) dx + =0

On integrating, we get
2c 3c
1 3b c 3c
b 3 1
b
a1 + + b + + + a2 + 1 + + + =
0
3 4
4 4 2 5
2 2 3
3
17
7
11
3
3
13
a1 b + c + + a2 b + c + =
0
12
6
10
4
2
12
This must be satisfied for every a1 and a2. Thus the equations to be solved are
3
17
7
b+ c+ =
0
2
12
6
13
11
3
0
b+ c+ =
12
10
4
The solution is b = 1.9157, c = 1.2048. Thus u =
1 1.9157 x + 1.2048 x 2 .

1.24

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright
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The deflection and slope at a due to P1 are

3
Pa
Pa 2
1
and 1 . Using this the deflection
3EI
2 EI

and slope at L due to load P1 are


2
Pa 3 Pa ( L a )
v1 =
1 1
3EI
2 EI
2
Pa
v1 = 1
2 EI

The deflection and slope due to load P2 are


P2 L3
v2 =
3EI
P L2
v2 = 2
2 EI
We then get
v= v1 + v2

v= v1 + v2

1.25

(0,1)

(0,0)

(1,1)

(1,0)

(a) The displacement of B is given by (0.1, 0.1) and A, C, and D remain in their original
position. Consider a displacement field of the type
u =a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 xy
v =b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 xy
The four constants can be evaluated using the known displacements

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright
and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval
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At A (0, 0)
At B (1, 0)
At C (1, 1)
At D (0, 1)

a1 = 0
b1 = 0
a1 + a2 =
0.1
b1 + b2 =
0.1
a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 =
0
b1 + b2 + b3 + b4 =
0
a1 + a3 =
0
b1 + b3 =
0

The solution is
a1 = 0, a2 = 0.1, a3 = 0, a4 = 0.1
b1 = 0, b2 = 0.1, b3 = 0, b4
u=
0.1x + 0.1xy
This gives
=
v 0.1x 0.1xy
(b) The shear strain at B is

u v
+ = 0.1x + 0.1 0.1 y
y x

=
0.1(1) + 0.1 0.1( 0=
) 0.2
B

Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Fourth Edition, by T. R. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu. ISBN 01-3-216274-1.
2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright
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