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OrnaBneHMe

06UTOpe

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BBe~eHHe

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'IACTb I. 3KOHOMM'IECKASI TEOPMSI - HAYKA 0 TOM;

KAK nlOAM PEWAIOT npO&nEMY AECSMUMTA


DIaaa 1. nO'IeMY CJIe):Q'eT H3yw1aTb 3KOHOMft1leCK)'IO TOOPHIO
ThaBa 2. IIapo:lKHoe HJIH M~poJKeHoe? H3yw1eHHe noope6HTeJlbCKoro Bbl60pa
ThaBa 3. BblIlYCK npUIlJlltHO Bbl6paHHbIX TOaapoB ,lI,JUI MaKCHMllJIbHoro

Y~OBJIeTBOpeHHJI"eJlOBe'lecKHX n0Tpe6HOCTeit

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'IACTb II. MAKP03KOHOMMKA - HAYKA 0& 3KOHOMM'IECKOM

POCTE MCTA&MnbHOCTM
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DIua 4. MaKpo3KOHOMft1leCKHe nOKa3aTeJIII: KaK 3KOHOMHCTbI CJIe,IUlT 38 aceM


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ThaBa 5. lIHeJwm;tuI: noqeMY MHoro ~eHer He BCer.na xopomo


89

DIua 6. IIo'leMY npoHCXO,IUlT peneCCBB


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ThaBa 7. lioph6a C KpH3HCaMH C nOMO~ MOHeTapHOH H clJHCKllJIbHOH: nOJIHTHK 133

'IACTb III. MMKP03KOHOMMKA - HAYKA 0 nOBEAEHMM

nOTPE&MTEnEM M nPEAnPMSlTMM
DIaaa 8. IIpe.lUIoJKeHHe H cnpoc
_. DIaaa 9. 3HaKOMltTeC..: n0'I'pe6HTeJ1", MaKCHMH3HpYIODJ;Hii nOJle3HOCTh
DIua 10. OCHoaa KaIIJITIlJIII3Ma: npe~pH.RTHe, MaKCHMH3HpYIOInee npH6b1J1b
DIaaa 11. IIo'leMY 3KOHOMHCTbI mo6JIT cB060~e PbIHKH H KOHKYPeHUHIO
Thaaa 12. MOHonOJlHH: KaK IIJIOXO Be.lJYf Ce6R Te, Y KOro HeT KOHKypeIITOB
Thaaa 13. OJIHfOnOJlHR H MOHOnOJIHCTII'IecKaR KOHKypeIlllHR
Thaaa 14. IIpaaa Co6cTBeHHOCTH H ax OTCyrcTBRe
DIaaa 15. HecOCTOJlTeJlbHOCTh pblHKa: aCHMMeTPaqau HHcItoPManu

R 06m.ecTBeHHble TOaapbl

'IACTb IV. BEnMKOnEnHblE AECSlTKM


DIaaa 16. .IJ;ecJlTb (HJIH noUR ~ecRTh) H3BeCTHbIX 3KOHOMHCTOB
ThaBa 17 .IJ;ecJITb oqapoaaT~HbIX 3KOHOMft1leCKHX 386JIY1K,lleHHit
DiaBa 18. .IJ;ecJITb CaMbIX neHHbIX 3KOHOMft1leCKHX H,lJ,eii

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DIQCcapd

347

IIpe,nMeTHbIii y u 3 a T e J I b '

353

Do 8lITope

13

llOCBJllIleHHe

13

B~aro~PHOCTH

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BBe,ll,eHHe

15

o KHHre

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YCJIOBHbIe 0603HaqeHlliI H TepMHHbl, HCrrOJIb3yeMble B 3TOH KHHre


lITO qHTaTb He HYXHO
KTOBbI,MOHqHTareJIb
KaK rrOCTPoeHa 3Ta'KHHra
IIHKTOTPaMMbl, HCrrOJIb3yeMbIe B nOR KHHre
KY,lla ,llBHraTbCH ,llaJIbIlle
:JKn:eM BaIllHX OT3bIBOB!

"IACTb I.
ThaBa

3KOHOM~"IECKAR TEOP~R

- HAYKA 0 TOM,

KAK lIIOA~ PEWAIOT npO&/IEMY AECI)~""'~TA

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1. llolfeMY c~e)J.yeT H3yqaTh 3KOHOMll'leCK)'IO TeOpmo

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KpaTKHR 3KCKypC B HCTOpHlO pa3BHTlliI 3KOHOMHKH


IIo,llyMaTb TOJIbKO, HaCKOJIbKO OTBpaTHTeHbHOH, TPy60R H KOPOTKOH

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6blJIa qeJIOBeqeCKaH :lKH3Hb!


<l>aKTOpbI, crroco6cTBYJOIUHe rrOBbIIlleHHlO YPOBlUI :lKH3HH
CMOTPHM B 6YJlYIUee
Pa3BOMM MaKpo- H MHKpO-3KOHOMHKy rro pa3HbIM yrJIaM
3KOHOMR'IeCKaH reopllil KaK HaYKa

,llecPH:Qure

MaKpo3KOHOMHKa: 06111all KapT8Ha


MaKpo3KOHOMR'IeCKHe rrOKaJaTeJIH
IIPR'IHHbl 3KOHOMR'IeCKpro crra,lla
MOHeTapHalI H cPHCKaJIbHaH rrOJIHTHKH)lJIj{ rrpeO,llOJIeHHH crra,lla
MHKp03KOHOMHKa: rrOBe,lleHHe HImHBJmYYMOB H cPHpM
OaJIaHCHpOBaHHe crrpoca It' rrpe)J)loxeHlffi
IIoqeMY KOHKypeHUlliI -

3TO 3)lOpOBO

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IIpo6JIeMbI, B03HHKaIOlllHe H3-3a OTCYTCTBHH KOHKypeHUHH

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npe06pa30BaHHe rrpaB C06CTBeHHOCTH


,ll,pyrne H3'bHHbI pbIHKa
KaK 3KOHOMHCTbI HCrrOJIb3YJOT MO,lleJIH H rpacPHKH
OT peaJIbHOCTH K a6CTPaKIJ;HH
IIpe,llcTaIDIHeM MO,lleJIb

NQ 1: KpHBalI crrpoca

CTPOHM C06CTBeHHYIO KpHBYJO crrpoca

ThaBa 2. llapo)KHoe HJIH MOp01KeHoe? IhyqeHHe DmpeOHTeJlhCKOro Bw60pa


MO,lleJIb IIOBe,lleHlliI qeJIOBeKa
ll,eJIb -

MaKCHMaJIbHOe y,llOIDleTBopeHHe rroTPe6HOCTeH

HCrrOJIb3yeM rrOJIe3HOCTb)lJljJ H3MepeHiffi y,llOIDleTBOpeHIffi

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COAepJlCaHMe

YlIHTbIBaeM aJIbTPYH3M H :w;e,npocTb


KaK 3roH3M MO)l(eT co,neitCTBOBaTb 06:w;eCTBeHHOMy 6JIary
KpacHbIit CBeT: HCCJIe.nyeM orpaHHlIeHlliI

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OrpaHHlIeHHOCTb pecypcoB
TeXHOJIOrHlleCKHe OrpaHHlIeHlliI
OrpaHHlIeHHOcTb BpeMeHH
CroHMOCTb B03MO)I(HOCTH: HeH36e)I(Hoe orpaHHlIeHHe
)l,eJIaeM OKOHllaTeJIbHbIit BbI60p
HCCJIe.nyeM orpaHHlIeHlliI H npOTHBOpelllliI Mo,neJIH nOTPe6HTeJIbCKoro BbI60pa
KaK npOHcxo,nHT npHIUITHe peweHHit npH HenOJIHoit HH<popMaIIHH
PaIIHOHaJIbHOe B HppaIIHOHaJIbHOM

ThaDa

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3. BhlnycK npaDHJIbHO Bhl6paHHbIX TOBapoB JUJI MaKC~MaJlbHOro

y)l,OBJUITBOpeHWllleJIOBelleCKHX Dmpe6HOCnA

Onpe,neJIHeM. 'ITO MO)I(HO npOH3BeCTH


KJIaccH<pHKaIIlliI npOH3Bo,nCTBeHHbIX pecypCOB
Xopowero -

nOHeMHO)l(J{y: YMeHbweHHe OT,nallH

HeMHo.JicKo 3.LJ;ecb. HeMHO)I(KO TaM: pacnpe,neJIeHHe pecypcoB

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rpa<pHK npe,neJIbHbIX npOH3Bo,nCTBeHHbIX B03MO)I(HOCTeH

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IIonp06yeM H3MeHHTb rpa<pHK C nOMO:W;bIO YJIY'!WeHHOH TeXHOJIOfHn

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Onpe,neJIHeM. lIro ,nOJDKHO 6bITb npOH3Be,neHO


B3BeWHBaeM "3a" H "npoTHB": PblHOK H BMeWaTeJIbCTBO rocy,napCTBa
BbI6HpaeM CMewaHHYIO 3KOHOMHKY
Cp,neHCTBHe pa3BHTHIO HOBbIX TeXHOJIOfHH

"IACTb II. MAKP03KOHOMM KA - HAYKA 0& 3KOHOMM"IECKOM

POCTE M CTA&MnbHOCTM
Thasa 4. MaKp03KOHOMHIJ:eCKHe nOKll3aTeJIH: UK 3KOHOMHCThI CJIe~ 3a DceM
BBII )l)UI OTCJIe)I(HBaHlliI 3KOHOMHlIecKHX npoIIeccoB
qro He yqHTbIBaeTCH a BBII
qro yqHTbIBaeTcH B BBII

HcnOJIb3yeM

YlIHTbIBaeM nOTOKH ,nOXO,nOB H HMYWecTBo


CJIe.nyeM 3a <pOH.LJ;aMH. Be3,ne H BCIO.ny
YlIHTbIBaeM TOBap. Kor,na OH npOH3Be,neH. a He ror,na. Kor,na OH npo,naH
Xopowo. llJIOXO H cKBepHo: Bce BJIlliIeT Ha yaeJIHlIeHHe
IIpe,ncTaBJIHeM ypaBHeHHe
C -

I-

BBII

BBII

nOTPe6HTeJIbCKHe pacxo,nbI
HHBeCTHIIHH B OCHOBHOit KanHTaJI

G - rocy,napCTBeHHbIe pacxo,nbI
NX - lIHCTbIit ofu.eM 3KcnoPTa

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YlIHTbIBaeM Bce HMYIIIeCTBO, a He TOJIbKO HaJIHlIHbIe

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OTHOCHTeJIbHOe npeHMyrnecTBo

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KaK Me)I(.LJ;yHapo,nHaH TOproBJIH BJIlliIeT Ha 3KOHOMHKY


BHewHeroproBbIH ,ne<pHIIHT MoxeT 6bITb nOJIe3HbIM!

ThaDa

5. HHcIlJIJI~:

DOlleMY MHOro )l,eHer He DCer)l,a xopomo

IIoKyITaeM HH<pJIHIIHIO: pHCKH OT 60JIbworo KOJIHlIeCTBa ,neHer


)l,eHbfH: 6aJIaHC cnpoca H n p e . L J ; J I O ) l ( e H l l i I

C~ep.aHHe

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C03HaTeJIbHoe CTHMYJIHpOBaHHe HH<PJtilQHH


Pe3YJIbTaTbI HH<pJUlQHH
113MepHeM HH<pJIHQHIO: HHll.eKCbI QeH
C03AaeM Co6cTBeHHYIO rrOTpe6HTeJIbCKYIO KOP3HHy
BWIHCJIHeM TeMrr HH<pJUlQHH
YCTaHOBJIeHHe HHll.eKCa QeH
OrrpeAeJUleM AeHCTBHTeJIbHbIH ypoBeHb XH3HH C rrOMOmbIO HH,!J;eKCa QeH
IIpo6JIeMbI HH,!J;eKca QeH
CTOHMOCTb 6y.uym:ero: HOMHHaJIbHaH H peaJIbHaH rrpoQeHTHbIe CTaBKH
YpaBHeHHe C1>Hmepa
HeTOqHOCTh rrpomo30B

Thaaa 6. UO'IeMY npoHCXO,lUlT pe:u,eCCHH

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I1CCJIe.u;yeM 3KoHoM~ecKHH QHKJI

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C'rpeMJIeHHe K rrOJIHOH JaHHTOCTH


B03Bpaw;eHHe K

Y": eCTeCTBeHHbIH pe3YJIbTaT rrpHcrroc06JIeHHH QeH

PeaKQHH Ha 3KOHOM~eCKHemOKH: KpaTKocpoqHbIe H AOJITOCpoqHbIe pe3YJlbTllThI


OrrpeAeJUleM HeKOTopbIe BIDKHeHIIIHe rrOHHTHH
IIpHcrroco6JIeHHe QeH B AOJITOCpoqHOM rrepHoAe

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IIIoKH B CHCTeMe: peaKQHH Ha H3MeHeHHe COBOKyrrHOro crrpoca

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)l(eCTKHe QeHbI B KpaTKOcpoqHOM rrepHoAe


COBMemaeM KpaTKocpo~HH )J;OJIrocpotIHbIH rrepHoAbI
Kypc Ha peQeccHIO: CrrOThlKaeMCH 0 :lKecTKHe QeHbI
YMeHbIIIeHHe 3apruIaT HJIH YBOJIbHeHHe pa6oTHHKoB
CyMMHpyeM pacxoAbI Ha 3apa60THYJO IIJIaT}' H rronyqeHHYIO rrpH6hIJ1b
B03Bpaw;eHHe K

r: AeifcTBHH rrpaBHTenbCTBa

)],oCTHraeM paBHOBeCHH rrpH :lKeCTKHX QeHax: MOAenb KeHHca


KOppeKTHpoBaHHe 3arraCOB Ma~pHaJIbHbIX 060POTHbIX CpeACTB BMecTO QeH
POCT BBII H MOAeJIb KeHHca

Thaaa 7. Bopb6a C KPH3HCUtH C nOMOIllbIO MOHeTapHOH H c1JHCK8JIhHOH nOJIHTHK

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CTHMyJIHpoBaHHe cnpoca C QenbIO rrpeoAoneHHH crra,LJ;a

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ll,enb -

rrpoH3BoACTBO rrpo.n;yKTa rrpH rrOJIHOH 3aHHTOCTH

IIepe)J;BHraeM KpHByIO AD BrrpaBO -

HJIH B03Bpaw;aeM JIIOAHM pa6oT}'

B03HHKHOBeHHe HH<pJUlQHH B pe3ynbTaTe cnHIIIKOM 6onbIIIoH CTHMYJUlQHH


[ocYAapcTBO He MO:lKeT YAepXHBaTh 06'beM BbInyCKa Ha ypoBHe, rrpeBbIIIIaIOmeM
IIoBeAeHHe peaJIbHOH 3apa60THoH IIJIaThI
HeAOCTllTKH CTHMYnHPOBaHHH: qro npoHcXO.n;HT, KorAa Bce O:lKHAaIOT cTHMYna'
C1>HCKaJlbHaH nOJIHTHKa

YBen~eHHe rocYAapCTBeHHbIX pacxoAoB rrOMoraeT rrpeoAMeTb cna,LJ;

lITO AeJIaTh C Ae<PHQHTOM


MOHeTapHaH rrOJIHTHKa
ApryMeHTbI B rronb3Y 6YMIDKHbIX AeHer
Y BaC MO:lKeT OKaJaTbCH CJlHiliKOM MHOro AeHer
lITO TaKoe 06JIHraI.lHH
CBH3b Mexmy CTOHMOCThIO o6nHraQHH H rrpoQeHTHOH CTaBKOH
113MeHeHHe rrpeMO:lKeHHH AeHer MH H3MeHeHHH rrpoQeHTHbIX CTaBOK
CHH:lKeHHe rrpoQeHTHbIX CTaBOK)J;JIH CTHMYJIHpoBaHHH 3KOHOMHKH
KaK paQHOHaJIbHble O:lKHAaHHH MOryT OrpaH~bMOHeTllpHYIO rrOnHTHKY

Co.llepJKBHHe

'tACTb III.

M~KP03KOHOM~KA-

HAYKA 0

nOBEAEH~~

nOTPE6~TEnEA ~ nPEAnp~SlT~A

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Thaaa 8. TIpe,ll,JlOlKeHBe H cnpoc


qTO TaKOe phIHKH
Crrpoc H KPHBWI crrpoca
llpH.llep:lKHBaeMCH TOqHOii TepMHHOJIonrn
rpa<l>HK KPHBOii crrpoca
CTOHMOCTb B03MOlICHOCTH: orrpe~eJIHeM KPYfH3HY KpHBOH crrpoca
3JIacrnquocTb crrpoca
llpeMoxeHHe H KPHBWI rrpeMoxeHIDI
IPa<l>HK KPHBOii rrpeMoxeHIDI
3JIacrnquocTb rrpe,nlloxeHHH

B3aHMO~eHCTBHerrpeMoxeHHH H crrpoca ~ Haxo~eHHHPhIHOquOro paBHOBeCHH


PhIHoquoe paBHOBeCHe
.LI:eMOHCTpaU;HH CTa6HJ1bHOCTH PhIHOqHOro paBHOBeCHH
HOBOe PhIHOqHoe paBHOBeCHe rrpH H3MeHeHHH crrpoca HJIH rrpeMoxeirnH
PeaKI.J;HH Ha YBeJI~eHHe crrpoca
PeaKI.J;HH Ha YMeHbIueHHe rrpeMoxeHHH
Co~aeM rrpeIUITCTBHH ~ PhIHOquOro paBHOBeCHH
llOTOJIOK u;eH
lloMepXHBaeM MHHHMaJIbHhIe u;eHhI

Thaaa 9. 3H8KOMbTeC..: nOTpe611TeJ1h, M8KCHMH3HPYIOnndi nOJIe3HOCTh


YCJIOBHWI OrrTHMH3au;HH
nOJIe3HOCTb - Mepa Y~OBJIeTBOpeHHHrrOTpe6HOCTeH
OT 60JIbIUero K MeHbIUeMY: YMeHbIUeHHe rrpe~eJIbHOii rrOJIe3HOCTH
.LI:eJIaeM BhI60p C yqeTOM orpaH~eHHbIX cpe~CTB
CTapaeMcH KYITHTb CTOJIbKO (rrpe~eJIbHoii) rrOJIe3HOCTH, CKOJIbKO CMoxeM
Pacrrpe~eJIeHHe~eHer Me~y ~BYMH BH.IlaMH TOBapa MH MaKCHMH3au;HH
COBOKYITHOii rrOJIe3HOCTH
BblpaBHHBaHHe rrpe~eJIbHOH rrOJIe3HOCTH B pacqeTe Ha ~OJIJIap CTOHMOCTH
Bcex TOBapOB H yCJIYr
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KpHBhIe crrpoca H YMeHbIUeHHe rrpe~eJIbHOii rrOJIe3HOCTH
KaK H3MeHeHHe u;eHhI BJIHHeT Ha BeJI~HHY crrpoca
rpa<l>~ecKoeH306paxeHHe H3MeHeHIDI u;eHhI H KOJI~eCTBa -

KPHBaH crrpoca

Thua 10. OCHoaa KallHTaJIH3M8: npe,llIIJJlUlTHe, MaKCHMH3HpYIOmee npH6hIJIh


IJ;eJIb BCHKOro rrpe~rrpHHTHH -

MaKCHMH3aU;HH hpH6hiJIH

KO~HU;HH

YCJIOBHH a6cOJIIO'fHOH KOHKYPeHI.J;HH


COrJIaIUaeMCH C u;eHoii, HO rrpoH3BO~HM KOJI~eCTBO
P~e Me~ 6yxraJITepCKOH H 3KOHo~eCKOH rrpH6hIJIbIO
AuaJIH3 CTpYKTYPhI H3~epxeK rrl?eMPIDlTlUI
CTOHMOCTb e~HHHU;hI rrpoH3Be~eHHoro rrpo~a
Cpe~HHe rrepeMeHHhIe H~epXKH
Cpe~HHe <l>HKcHpOBaHHJ;.le H~epXKH
Cpe~HHe COBOKyI1HhIe H~epXKH

CQAepJIC8HHe

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IIpe,I(eJIbHbIe H3,I(ep:>KKH
ToqKa nepeCeqeHIDI: KPHBbIX MC, AVC H ATC
CpaBHeHHe npe,I(eJIbHOrO ,I(OXO,I(a C npe,I(eJIbHbIMH H3,I(ep)l(lQlMH
BOJIwe6HaH cPopMyJIa: KOr,I(a MR:= MC
BH3YaJIH3aUHH npH6hmH
BH3YaJIH3aUIDI: y6bITKOB
Kor,I(a nyqme HHqero He npOH3BO,I(HTb
YCJIOBIDI: KPaTKOCpOqHOrO 3aKphITHH npe,I(npIDI:THH: nepeMeHHbIe H3,I(ep)KI(H

224

npeBbIwalOT COBOK)'IIHbIH ,I(OXO,I(


YCJIOBHe ,I(OJIroCpOqHOro 3aKphITHH: COBOKYIIHbIe H3,I(ep)KI(H npeBhImalOT

225
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COBOKYIIHhIH ,I(OXO,I(
3aBHCHMOCTb OT pbIHOqHbIX ueH

Thaua

11. nO'leMY 3KOHOMHCTbI JII06HT cDo6o,llHbIe pbIHKH H KOHKYPemUlio

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fJIaBHOe npeHMYillecTBO KOHKYPeHTHhIX CBo6o,I(HhIX PhIHKOB: rapaHTIDI, qTO BbIrO,I(hI


npeBbIwalOT 3aTPaTbI
IIpe,I(IIocbIJIKH ,I(JIH cPYHKIIHOHHpoBaHIDI CBo6o,I(HbIX PbIHKOB
AHaJIH3 3cPcPeKTHBHOCTH CBo6o,I(HhIX PhIHKOB
MCnOJIh30BaHHe COBOKYIIHoro H3JIHmKa ,lI)UI H3MepeHIDI Bhlro,I(
Kor,I(a cBo6o,I(Hhle PbIHKH repHIOT CBOIO cBo60):(y: Heo6paTHMbIe norepH
He06paril:MbIe nOTepH, BhI3BaHHhIe yCTaHOBJIeHHeM nOTOJIKa ueH
AHaJIH3 Heo6paTHMhIX nOTeph OT HaJIOroB
IIpH3HaKH H,I(eaJIhHOH KOHKYPeHuHH: HyJIeBaH npH6hillh H caMbIe HH3KHe H3,I(ep:>KKH

IIP~HHbI H CJIe,I(CTBIDI: H,I(eaJIbHOH KOHKYPeHuHH


MCC,fIe,I(OBaHHe npouecca H,I(eaJIhHOH KOHK)'peHUHH

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HaqaJIo HJIH npeKpaIIIeHHe ,I(eHTeJIhHOCTH cPHpM B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT nonyqeHHH

247

npH6hillH

12. MOHOnOJIHH: UK DJlOXO BeJJYf ce6a Te, y KOro HeT KOHKypeHTOD

PeryJIHpOBaHHe MOHOnOJIhHOro ueHoo6pa30BaHIDI

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Pa3,I(eJIeHHe MOHOnOJIHH Ha HeCKOJIhKO KOHKYPHPYlOIIIHX cPHpM

272

ThaDa

MOHonoJIHH, MaKcHMH3HpYlOIIlHe npH6bIJIh


IIpo6JIeMhI, BbI3BaHHbIe MOHOnOJIIDlMH
MCTOqHHK np06JIeM: YMeHhweHHe npe,I(eJIbHOrO ,I(OXO,I(a
Bhl60p o6beMa npoH3BO,I(CTBa ,I(JIH MaKCHMH3aUHH npH6hmH
CpaBHeHHe MOHOnOJIHH C KOHKYPHpYlOIIIHMH cPHpMaMH
AHaJIH3 ypoBHeH npo):(yKTa H ueH
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16

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KaX. HarrpHMep:

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"
I

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26

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27

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28

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10

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CHHOBblit COK. DOJIee BblCOKHe ueHbl no-npe:lKHeMY 03HaqaIOT 60JIee HH3KHit cnpoc, H Hama
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34

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BHHX.

36

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I. 3KOHOMH'IecKafl TeOpHfI.

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ECJIH JIIO,lJ;H OCHOBbIBaIOT CBOH BhI60p Ha TOM, 'ITO HMeHHO rrpHHeceT HM CaMoe 60JThillOe
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JIeTBOpeHHH rrpHHeceT HM KIDK,ll,bIH OT,lJ;eJIbHbIH rrpO,lJ;yKT HJIH yCJIyra. BMecre C reM 3KOHO
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KaKHX-TO peaJIbHbIX BerneH. 3aKaT COJIHua H3YMHTeJIeH. MopoxeHbIM MOXHO OTJIHqHO rro
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COOTBeTCTBHH CO CBOHMH. npe,lJ;rrO'ITeHHHMH. CJIe,lJ;OBareJThHO, 3KOHOMH'IeCKaH HayKa npOCTO
He paCCMaTpHBaeT MOPaJIbHbIH acrreKT.

,..... 2. H3yt1eHHe nOTpe6HTen"cKoro sw60pa

37

TeM He MeHee 3KOHOMHCThI -

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rrpO,!J,YKUHH, KOTOPIDI, 6JIarO,ll,apR yJIyqlIIeHHotl: TeXUOJIOrHH, MO)ICeT 6bITb Terrepb rrOJIyqeHa


rrpH HCrrOJIb30BaHHH TaKOro )ICe KOJIHqeCTBa pecypcOB, qro H paHblIIe.

nOB Bce eme HMeeT

BH,lI, KPHBOtl:, rrOCKOJIbKY yJIyqWeHHhIe TeXUOJIOrHH He H36aBJIHIOT OT 3cPPeKTa YMeHblIIeHHR


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qHM rrOCJIe,ll,osaTeJIbHOe YMeHbWeHHe rrpHPOCTa om.eMOB rrpOH3BO,ll,CTBa.
Ha pHC.

3.2

rrOKaJauo, qTO HOBhIH TeXUOJIOrHqeCKHH rrO,ll,'beM C6aAaHCUp06aH TaK, qTO OH

yseJI~HBaeT BaillY crroC06HOCTb rroJIyqHTb 60JIblIIe TOBapa o6oHX BH,lI,OB. npHMepoM C6aJIaH
CHpoBaHHoro TeXHOJIOr~ecKoroH3MeHeHHR Morno 6hI 6bITb ycoBepWeHCTBOBaHHe y,ll,06pe
HHH HJIH rreCTHUH,lI,OB, KOTophIe yseJI~aT YPO~HOCTb KaK R6JIOK, TaK H arreJIbCHHOB.
Ho reXHOJIOrHqeCKHe HHHOBaUHH B 60JIbWHHCrne CBoeM pacrrpe,ll,eJIeHhI Hepa8HOMepHO.
npe,ll,rrOJIOJKHM, ~o BbI paCCM:aTPHBaere nnB.. F,lI,e ,lI,BYMH BH,lI,aMH rrpoH:)Be,ll,eHHhIX TOBapOB ..
RBJIRIOTCR CTaJIb H rrlIIeHHua. YcoBepWeHCTBOBaHHe rrpouecca H3roTOBJIeHHR CTaJIH 06R3a
reJIbHO rr03BOJIHT BaM BhIpa60TaTb 60JIbWe CTaJIH H3 BaIIIHX orpaH~eHHbIXpecypcoB, HO HH
KaK He Ol'paJHTCR Ha BblpamHBaHHH rrlIIeHHUhI.

54

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0;:

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PHC. 3.2. C6ansHcHpoB8HHblH nQAb6M


KaK BH,ZJ;HO H3 pHC.

3.3,

nne B pe3ynbTBre yn~weHHR rexHonorHH

KpHBaH nnB B 3TOM c.rryqae rrO)J.HHMaeTCH HepaBHOMepHO. OHa

rrO)J.HHMaeTCH Ha TOM KOHQe, r)J.e BeCb BallI OT)J.eJIbHbllt pecypc (CKIDKeM, TPY)J.) H8IIpaBJIeH Ha
rrpoH3BO,lI.CTBO CTaJIH, HO OCTaeTCH Ha rrpe)l(J{eM Mecre Ha TOM KOHQe, r,ll.e 3TOT pecypc HaIIpaB
JIeH Ha rrpOH3BO,lI.CTBO IIIlleHHQhI.

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PHC. 3.3. HepaBHoMepHblH nO,QbeM nns B pe3ynbr8re yn~weHHR reXHonorHH

Onjte'l~' 'tJJio '1tUJleJtO ObtJlib npoU3A'e'lelttJ


nOCJIe TOro KaK 06IUeCTBO orrpe)J.eJIHT rrpe,ll.eJIbHhle B03MO)l(J{OCrn 3!P<PeKTHBHOro rrpoH3
BO,lI.CTBa, CJIe.ll.YlOIUHM waroM ,lI.OJDKeH 6h1Tb Bhl60p TOtIKH Ha KpHBOiI: nnB, KOTOpaH 0TP8)fGi
eT

TY KOM6HHaQHIO TOBapOB H

ycJIyr, KOTOphle MaKCHMaJIbHO y)J.oBJIeTBOpJlIOT 38IIpoChI JIIO,lI.eH.

BbI60p, c,lI.eJIaHHhIiI: Ha ypoBHe rrpe,ll.eJIbHhIX B03MO)l(J{OCTeil:, rapaHTHpyeT 3rjxJJeKmu8Hocmb

U38oi}cm8a.

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BbI60p e,ll.HHCTBeHHoil: KOM6HHaQRH H3 rrpe,ll.eJIbHbIX B03MO)l(J{OCTeil:, KOTOpaH MaK

CHMH3HPyeT Y,lI.OBJIeTBOpeHHe rrDTPe6Hocreil:, 06eCrretIHBaeT

rnasa 3. SwnyCK npaSHII"HO sw6paHHwx Tosapas.. .

:xjxpeKmu8Hocmb pacnpeOeJleHUR.

55

IIOCKOJIbKY npe.lleJIbHbIe npOH3BO.llCTBeHHbIe B03MO}l{}fOCTH B OCHOBHOM 3aBHCHT OT pa3


pa60TKH H npHMeHeHHH TeXHOJIOrHH K HMeIOmHMCH pecypCaM, no nOBO.ny HHX He B03HHKaeT
60JIbIIlHX pa3HOrJIacHit. 'Ho npOIIecc npHHHTHH peIIleHHH 0 TOM, KaKYIO HMeHHO KOM6HHaIIHIO
BH.llOB npoH3BO.llCTBa 06mecTBo .llOJI}l{}fO BbI6paTb, HaMHoro 60JIee CJIOlKeH. JIIO.llH no-pa3HOM}'
BbIpIDKaIOT CBOH npe.llnO'ITeHHH; KIDK.llbIH no OT.lleJIbHOCTH H BMeCTe, rpynnaMH, OHH no-pa3
HOM}' BbI6HpaIOT npO.nyKTbI, Y.llOBJIeTBOpHIOmHe HX B MaKCHMaJIbHOH CTeneHH. HH.llHBH.nyYM
npH BbI60pe TO'IKH Ha C06CTBeHHOH IIIIB, He CTaJIKHBaeTCH C npOTHBOpe'IHHMH. OH BCero
JIHIIIb onpe.lleJIHeT, KaKaH KOM6HHaIIHH npOH3Be.lleHHOrO npO.nyKTa MaKCHMaJIbHO Y.llOBJIeTBO
pHT ero nOTpe6HOCTH, a 3aTeM npoH3BO.llHT H nOTpe6JuJ:eT ero.
IIpOIIecc npHHHTHH peIIleHHH CTaHOBHTCH KpaitHe CJIOJKHbIM, KOr.lla BbI yqHTbIBae
Te IIIIB 06meCTBa B IIeJIOM, -

B 3TOM cJIY'Iae BbI 06H3aTeJIbHO BCTPeTHTe peIIlH

TeJIbHOe HecomaCHe C TeM, KaKHe KOM6HHau.HH npo.nyKIIHH ~ O npOH3BeCTH,


nOJIb3YHCb orpaHH'IeHHbIMH pecypCaMH, npHHlI.llJIe)l(amHMH 06meCTBY. HanpHMep,

BallI Coce.ll MO)l(eT He .nyMaTb 06 06meM KOJIH'IeCTBe BbIpa6aTbIBaeMbIX Bpe.llHbIX Be


meCTB, nOCKOJIbKY OH JII06HT BO.llHTb CBOit aBTOM06H.JIb .llHeM H HO'IbIO. ECJIH 6bI OH
)I(HJI

B C06CTBeHHOM MHpe, 3arpH3HeHHe 6bI He HMeJIO 3Ha'IeHHH. Ho nOCKOJIbKY BbI

)l(HBeTe PH.llOM C HHM, 3arpH3HeHHe Ha Bac BJIHHeT, H BbI npOTHB Hero npOTecTYeTe.
B03MO}l{}fO, B .llaHHOM eJIy'Iae BaM nOHa.n06HTCH nOMOmb BJIaCTeH, KOTopbIe CMOIYI
OrpaHH'IHTb 6ypHYIO .lleHTeJIbHOCTb BaIIIero Coce.lla. IIOXO)I(HM 06Pa30M BJIaCTH 06
Cy)I(.llaIOT TO, 'ITO .llOJI}l{}fO 6bITb npoH3Be.lleHO npH cymecTBYIOmHX orpaHH'IeHHbIX
pecypcax. HeKOTopbIM XO'IeTCH cy6CJt.llHPOBaTb 4>epMepcKHe X03HHCTBa, TOr.lla KaK
.llPyrHe npe.llnO'IHTaIOT TPaTHTb .lleHbrH Ha 060POHY H.JIH nporpaMM}' nOAlIep)I(KH
6e.llHbIX CJIOeB HaCeJIeHHH.
IIo npH'IHHe cymecTBOBaHHH TaKHX KOHKypHpYIOmHX npHopHTeTOB .llOJI}l{}fbI 6bITb YC
TaHOBJIeHbI 'IeTKHe npOIIeCCbI npHHHTHH pemeHHit B HHTepecax 60JIbIIlHHCTBa HaCeJIeHHH.
B 60JIbIIlHHCTBe CTPaH peIIleHIDI no nOBO.ny npOH3BO.llCTBa Tex HJIH HHbIX BH.llOB TOBapOB H

ycJIyr npHHHMaIOTCH C yqeToM HHTepeCOB KaK 'IaCTHoro, TaK H rocY.llapcTBeHHoro ceKTOpOB.


IIPH 3TOM aHaJIH3HpyIOTCH B03MO}l{}fOCTH CBOOO.llHbIX PbIHKOB H IIeJIeco06pa3HOCTb rocY.llap
CTBeHHoro BMemaTeJIbCTBa.

B3BeWMBaeM "3a" M "npOTMB":

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npOH3BO.llCTBO TOBapOB HJIH HCnOJIb30BaTb rOCY.llapCTBeHHYIO BJIaCTb .llJUI BMeIIlaTeJIbCTBa B
.lleHTeJIbHOCTb pbIHKOB.
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BMeIIlaTeJIbCTBa, nOMHHTe 0 TaKHX TpeX 4>aKTOpax.
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COBpeMeHHbIe 3KOHOMHKH BeCbMa CJIOxalO yCTpoeHbI, OHH npOH3BO.llHT B 6y


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CH C 3TOH "CJIO}l{}fOCTbIO", a BMemareJIbCTBa CO CTOpOHbI rocY.llapcTBa 06b1'lHO
OKa3bIBaIOTCH HeY.lla'IHbIMH -

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3Ha'IHTeJIbHO CHH3HTb 3txt>eKTHBHOCTb npOH3BO.llCTBa H pacnpe.lleJIeHHH.

56

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THBHbIMH nOCJIe,nCTBHHMH .D;ID.l 06~eCTBa.

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HeraTHBHbIe nOCJIe,nCTBHH 003

,naIOT npeKpacHYIO B03MOXHOCTb .D;JIH pe3YJIbTaTHBHoro BMeIIIaTeJIbCTBa npa


BHTeJIbCTBa B 3KOHOMHKy, nOCKOJIbKy pbIHKH HMeHHO 3THX TOBapOB H ycnyr,
eCJIH HX OCTaBHThB nOKOe, 6y.nyT HenOMepHO paJpaCTaTbCH.
./

HeKOTOpbIe JIIO,nH HaqHHaIOT no-rpe6JIHTh OqeHb 60JIbIIIOe KOJIHqeCTBO TOBa


POB H ycnyr, TOr,na KaK ,npyrne ,nOBOJIbCTByIOTCH MaJIbIM. TaKaH HepaBHOMep
HOCTb B pacnpe,neJIeHHH CnOC06cTByeT BMeIIIaTeJIbCTBY npaBHTeJIbCTBa B 3KO
HOMHKY; B ,naHHOM cnyqae BJIaCTH HCnOJIb3yIOT CBoe BJIHHHHe.D;ID.l TOro, 'IT06bI
BbIPOBHHTb paJHbIe ypOBHH XH3HH.

B COBpeMeHHbIX

3KO~~~qeCKHXCHCTeMaX HCnOJIb3yIOTCH KaK B03MO:lKHOCTH CB060,nHbIX

pbIHKOB, TaK H rocy,napcTBeHHOe BMeIIIaTeJIbCTBO. qTO HMeHHO npOH3BO,nHTb, B KaKOM 060


eMe npOH3Bo,nHTh H KTO nOJIyqHT 3aKaJ Ha npOH3Bo,nCTBO -

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KOTOpbIe He Ha6JIIO,naJIHCb 6bI, eCJIH 6bI HH,lUIBH.D;yyMbI H 6H3HeC-C1pYKTYPbI ,neHCTBOBaJIH no
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TYIO),

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TaTKH cB060,nHoro pbIHKa H rocy,napcTBeHHOrO BMeIIIaTeJIbCTBa.

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<peKTHBHbIMH, eCJIH eCTh MHOro ToproBueB, rOTOBbIX npo,naTh HJIH KynHTh TOBap HJIH YCJIYTY.

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57

B TepMHHax llllB (CM. Pa3,ll.e.n: "fPacPHK npe,neJIbHhIX npoH3BO,nCTBeHHhIX B03MO)lQfOCTeD")


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HMeeT reH,neHIlHIO rapaHTHPOBaTb He TOJIbKO TO, 'ITO 3KOHOMHKa 6y,neT ,neilcTBoBaTb Ha ypOB
He npe,ne.n:bHblX B03MO)KHOCTeD, HO TaIOKe TO, 'ITO ee npe,ne.n:bHbIe B03MO)lQfOCTH 6y.nYT nOCTO
HHHO paCTH BCJIe)l.CTBHe ycoBepmeHCTBOBaHIDI <pHPMaMH CBoeH 3CP<PeKTHBHOCTH.
PbIHKH TaIOKe HMeIOT npeHMYilleCTBO B onpe,ne.n:eHHH (::no npOHcxo,nHT aBTOMaTHlJeCKH)
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IIIJIO BpeMH)I,JIH BaC n0.llPYXHTbCH C BBI1, qTQ6bI Bbl MOrJIH nOHHTb Bce MaJIeHbKHe ceKpeTbI
3TOro nOKaJaTeJIH -

B qaCTHocm, ero COCTaBJIHIOllJ;He qacm H TO, KaK OHH pa6oTaIOT. AHaJIH3,

npe,llCTaBJIeH~B 3TOM pa3,lleJIe, HHTepeCeH H caM no ce6e, HO OH B,llBoitHe nOJIe3eH, nOTOMy

qTQ ,IleJIaeT CTaH,llapTH)'IO KeliHCHaHCKYIO MO,lleJIb MaJq>03KOHOMHKH (0 KOTOPOH H paCCKa3bI


HalO B rJIaDe

6)

nOIDITRee, K TOMy xe BbI HayqHTeCb C Heli npaBHJIbHO 06pamaTbCH.

KeHHCHaHCKaH MO,lleJIb 6bma pa3pa60TaHa B

1936

ro,lly 3KOHOMHCTOM H3 KeM6pH.llXa

)lxOHOM MeHHap)l,OM KeHHcoM, KOTOPYIO OH npe,llCTaBHJI B CBOeli KHHre

mocmu, npol{eHma u oeHet!. 3Ta KHHI'a HMeJIa OrpoMHoe BJIHHHHe -

06w,Q.H meopUR 3aHR

HaCTOJIbKO orpoMHoe, ~O

c.n:eJIaJIa MaKp03KOHOMHKY OT,IleJIbHOA 06JIaCTblO HCCJIe,llOBaHHH.

76

&facrb

II.

MalCp03KOHOMMK8 - H8yK8

06 3KOHOMM'I8CKOM pocre M CTa6MRbHOCTJt

KHHra Ket%.Hca 6h1JIa peaKI.J;Het%. Ha BenHKyIO ,nenpeCCHIO 1930-x rO,nOB. llOCKOJIbKY OH


qyBCTBOBaJI, 'ITO nOJIHTHKa npaBHTeJIbCTBa, HanpaBJIeHHlUI Ha npeO,nOJIeHHe noro 3KOHOMH
'1ecKOro cna.n;a, ,nOJDKHa 6hITb HaueJIeHa Ha YBeJIH'leHHe paCXO,nOB Ha TOBaP~ H YCJIYfH. Ket%.Hc
Ha'IaJI C03,lJ;aBaTb CBOIO MO,neJIb, HCnOJIMYJI ypaBHeHHe, KOTOpOe n03BOJUlJIO paCC'IHTaTb BBll
nyreM CJIOXeHIDl paCXO,nOB.
B pa3,lJ;eJIe "qTO yqHTbIBaeTCH B BBll" BbIllie B 3TOt%. maBe, H 06'bHCHHIO, 'ITO BbI MOXe
re paCC'IHTaTb BBll KaK nyTeM CJIOXeHHH BCeX paCXO,nOB, nOTPa'IeHHbIX a npH06pereHHe
TOBapOB H

ycnyr,

YaK H CJIOXeHHeM BCeX ,nOXO,nOB, KOTOpble nOJIyqaIOTCH B pe3YJIbTare npO

H3BO,nCTBa TOBapoB H ycnyr. 06a pe3YJIbTaYa ,nOJIXHbI 6bITb paBHbIMH. TaKHM 06paJOM, 3TO
nepeKJIIO'IeHHe Ha MeTO,n no,nC'IeTa paCXO,nOB ,ZJ;JIH BbI'IHCJIeHHH BBll nOJIHOCTbIO onpaB,ZJ;aHo.

(3To

TaKXe OTJIH'lHlUI B03MOXHOCTb,ll)lH BaC nOHHTb 3KOHOMHKY C n03HUHt%. TOro, KTO TPaTHT

,neHbrH, a He TOro, KTO HX 3apa6aTbIBaeT.)


QT06bI nocTpoHTb ypaBHeHHe BBll C TO'IKH 3peHHH paCXO,nOB, He06xo,nHMO CJIOXHTb '1e
Tblpe TPa.n;HUHOHHbIe rpynnbI pacxo,nOB HbIe pacxo,nbI

(G)

noopeMeHHe

H 'IHCTbItt 06'beM 3KcnOPTa

(NX) -

(C),

HHBeCTHIJ;HH

(1),

rocy,napCTBeH

H npHpaBHHTb nOJIyqeHHYIO CYMMY K

CTOHMOCm(B TOH BaJIIOre, KOTOplUl,neHCTByeT B onpe,neJIeHHOH CTPaHe) BCex TOBapoB H


Ore'leCTBeHHoro npoH3Bo,nCTBa B ,naHHbIH nepHO,n, HJIH BBll

(Y).

ycnyr

B aJIre6paH'leCKOt%. lPopMe

paBeHCTBO BbIrJIH,ZJ;HT CJIe.nyIOIIJ;HM 06PaJOM;

Y=C+I+G+NX
XOTH CJIe.nyIOIIJ;He pa3,neJIbI co,nepxaT 60JIee ,neTaJIbHOe onHcaHHe, H npe,nOCTaBJIlO BaM
B03MOXHOCTb KOpoTKO 03HaKOMHTbCH C 'IeTbIpbMH BH,naMH pacxo,nOB, KOTOpble CYMMHpyIOTCH
BBBn.

./ C

OlBa..aeT pacxo~ Ba narpeC)JleHHe, npOH3Be,neHHbIe ,nOMOx03HHCTBaMH Ha

TOaapbI H

./ I

YCJIYI'H KaK ore'leCTBeHHoro,

T~ H~Py6eXHOronpoH3BO,LlCTBa

Olaa..aeT IIIIBeC'I'ImHOllIlhle pacxo~, c,nenaHHbIe qmpMaMH C IJ;eJIbIO npH06

pereHHH HOBbIX 06'beKTOB KanH1'aJIa, BKJIIO'IlUI nOCTpoHKH, 3aBO,nbI H 060py


,nOBaHHe.

TaIOKe BKJIIO'IaeT H3MeHeHHe 3anaCOB MaTepHaJIbHhIX 060POTHbIX

cpe,nCTB, nOCKOJlbKY BCHKHH npoH3Be,neHHbIH, HO He npo,naHHbIt%. B re'IeHHe


onpe,neneHHoro BpeMeHH TOBap ,nOJDKeH BOHTH B COCTaB MarepHaJIbHbIX JaIIa
COB lPHpM H C'IHTaTbCH BJIOXeHHeM KanHTaJIa B 3anaCbI MarepHaJIbHbIX 060
poTHbIX cpe,nCTB. \

./ G 03B.".eT I'OC)'AllpcTBellllWe 3axynn TOBapoB H ycJIYI'


./ NX OlHaUeT 'IIICTYit OOLeM 3K:CnopTa,

KOTOPblt%. onpe,neneH KaK Bce BH.LlI>I TO

(EX) MHHYC Bce ToaapbI, KOTOpbIe


1M. EX - 3TO CTOHMOCTb OTe'Ie
HHOCTPaHIJ;aMH. 1M - 3TO CTOHMOCTb HHO

aapOB, nOCbIJIaeMbIX Ha 3KCnOPT CTPaHot%.


OHa HMnopmpyeT "(1M), HJIH

NX

CTBeHHbIX TOBapOB, KYIIDeHHbIX

= EX -

CTPaHHbIX TOBapOB, KYIIJIeHHbIX BHYTPH CTPaHbI.

3TH

'IeTbIpe BH,na pacxo,nOB COCTaBJIHIOT BBn, nOTOMY'ITO Bce BMecre OHH OruIa'lHBaIOT

BCe -,no nOCJIe,nHero KYCO'IKa! -

npoH3Be,neHHble B ,naHHOt%. CTPaHe TOBapbI 3a onpe,LleJIeH

HbIt%. nepHO,n BpeMeHH.

C-

nOTpe6MTenbCKMe paCXOAbi

PaCXO,LlbI Ha nOTPe6JIeHHe ,n0r-tOX03Ht%.CTB COCTaBJIHIOT npHMepHO 70% OT 06meH CYMMbI


BBn -

HaMHoro 60JIbllle, 'IeM OCTaBlllHeCH TPH COCTaBJIHIOIIJ;He, B3HTbIe BMecre. MHorHe

rnasa 4. MaKP03KOHo.....,eclCtfe nOlCu8Ten.....

77

laKTOphl BJIIDIIOT Ha TO, KaKYIO 'IaCTb CBOHX .rlOXO,D;OB ,D;OMOX03JIitCTBa peWalOT nOTpaTHTb Ha
nOTpe6JIeHHe H CKOJIbKO OHH peWaT COXPaHHTb Ha 6Y.lJYIIl:ee.
CneU;HaJIHCThI no MHKp03KOHOMHKe npOBOMT Maccy BpeMeHH, }J3yqasI pa3Ho06pa3Hhle
laKTOphl, BJIIDIlOwHe Ha nO,D;06Hhle peweHIDI. Cpe,nH TaKHX laKTOpOB eCTb, HanpHMep, OXCH
,D;aHIDI OTHOCHTeJIbHO 6Y.lJYIIl:ero COCTOHHIDI 3KOHOMHKH HJIH HOpMhI ,D;OXO.rlHciCTH c6epexeHHit

III

(CM. tIaCTb

,D;aHHoit KHHrH, TaM BhI H~eTe Bce, 'ITO HYXHO 3HaTb 0 MHKp03KOHOMHKe).

C ,D;pyroit CTOpOHhI, 3KOHOMHCThI, CneU;HaJIH3pYlOWJJeCH Ha MaIqJ03KOHOMHKe, "OTCTYITaIOT"


OT 3THX laKTOpOB, noTOMY 'ITO npH H3yqeHHH 3KOHOMHKH B u;eJIOM HMeeT 3HatIeHHe 06wasI
CYMMa nOTpe6JIeHIDI, a He OTBeT Ha Bonpoc, nO'IeMY .rlOMOx03HitCTBa Bhl6paJIH HMeHHO 3TOT
ypOBeHb.
CneU;HaJIHCThI no MaKp03KOHOMHKe npe.rlCTaBJIHIOT nOTpe6JIeHHe O'IeHb npOCTO, KaK
lYHKijHIO pacnOJIaraeMoro (HMelOwerOCH B pacnopHXeHHH nOCJIe ynJIaThl HaJIOroB) ,D;OXO.rla.
BhI MoxeTe paCC'IHTaTb pacnOJIaraeMhlit ,D;OXO,D; C nOMOWblO aJIre6paH'IeCKHX BhI'IHCJIeHHit,
n0JIb3YHCb CJIe.rlYlOwHM Y.rl06HbIM TpeXCTYITeH'IaThlM cnoc060M.

@j
IlT

l.HaQHHTe C

Y,

06~ero ,D;OXOAA B 3KOBOMHe. B ypaBHeHHH KeitHca

Y paBHH~TCH

CYMMe paCXO.rlOB, HO nOCKOJIbKY .rlOXO,D;hI paBHhI paCXO.rlaM, BhI MoxeTe HCnOJIbJO


BaTb ero H .nIDI .rlOXO.rlOB. IIoMHHTe, 'ITO Bce ,D;eHbrH, KOTophle nOTpatIeHhI BaMH,
HBJIHIOTCH ,D;OXO,D;OM .nIDI KorO-TO ,D;pyroro.

2. BIII'IHCJlHTe,

CKOJIbKO H8JlOroB ,D;OJDKIIW 3aIlJlaTHTb JIIO,IUI.

nOJIOXCHM, tITO e,D;HHCTBeHHhlH cyw:ecTBYIOInHit HaJIOr -

no nO,D;OXO.rlHhlH H 'ITO

t = 0,25, tITO 3Ha'IHT:


25% OT BCei%: CYMMbI ,D;OXO.rlOB. CJIe,D;OBareJIbHO, 06W;asI
CYMMa ynJIa'IeHHbIX HaJIOroB, T, 6y,D;eT npe,D;CTaBJIeHa KaK T = t '" Y.
3. BlII'ITHTe HaJIOra (1), ynJIaQeHHWe rp~8MH, H3 ax ,D;OXOJl,OB (l') ,lI,IUI BbI'IIICJIeBBJI
ax pacOOJIaraeMOro Jl,OXOAA. 3KOHOMHCThI 0603HatIalOT pacnoAazaeMblU ooxoi) B aJI
CTaBKa nO.rlOXO,D;HOrO fIaJIOra BhlpaxeHa 'Iepe3

t.

,n;m ynpoweHHH npe,D;

Hl).IIpHMep,

CTaBKa HaJIOra cocTawrneT

re6paHtIeCKOH l0PMYJIe

YD'

BbPIHTaHHe HaJIOroB H3 ,D;OXO,D;OB BhITJIH,D;HT TaK:

YD = Y - T= Y - t"'Y= (1 - t)"'Y.
nOCJIe ~ro KaK nOJIyqHJIH pacnOJIaraeMhlH ,D;OXO.rl, BbI HCnOJIb3yere O'IeHb npocTYIO MO,D;eJIb
)J,IDI BbI'IHCJIeHIDI nOTPe6HTeJIbCKHX paCXO.rlOB ,D;OMOX03Hi%:CTB. MO,D;eJIb nOKa3bIBaeT, 'ITO nOTpe6

JIeHHe,

C, -

no lYHKUIDI pacnOJIaraeMoro ,D;OXO,D;a H naphl ,lJ;pyrHX nepeMeHHbIX,

Co H

c:

C =Co + c"'YD ,
r.rle c -

3TO

npeOeJlbHaR CK./lOHHOCmb" nompe6.lleHulO, HJIH MPC (marginal ptopensity to consume).

OHa BCer,D;a paBHHeTcH 'IHCJIY, HaxoMweMYCH MeX<,lly

0 H 1,

H OTPaxaeT npou;eHT ,D;oxp,D;a, KO

TOPbIH BhI C06paJIHCb nOTpaTHTb, a He coxpaHHTb. HanpHMep, eCJIH c =

0,9,

3TO 3Ha'IHT, 'ITO

H3 Kax.nO~ .rlOJIJIapa 'IHCTOro ,D;OXO,D;a, KOTOPblit y Bac OCTaeTCH nOCJIe ynJIaThI HaJIOrOB, BbI
TpaTHTe

90 IIeHTOB.

(OCTaJIbHhle ,D;eCHTb IIeHTOB BhI OTKJIa,llhlBaeTe Ha 6Y.lJYIIl:ee.)

.neitcTBHTeJIbHasI BeJIH'IHHa npe.rleJIbHOH CKJIOHHOCTH K nOTpe6JIeHHIO, c, onpe,D;eJIHeTCH


HH,[l}JBJJ,D;yaJIbHO, y pa3HbIX JIIO,D;eH OHa pa3HasI, H HaxO,D;HTCH B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT TOro, CKOJIbKO
'IHCTOro ,D;OXO,D;a HM HPaBHTCH OTKJIa,llbIBaTb Ha 6Y.lJYIIl:ee. Ho 'ITO 03Ha'iaeT

Co? 3To

roBOpHT 0

TOM, CKOJIbKO JIIO,D;H nOTpe6JIHIOT, ,D;axe eCJIH B 3TOM ro,D;y OHH HMelOT HYJIeBOH pacnOJIarae

~ ,D;OXO.ll. (ECJIH BhI npe,D;nOJIOXHTe, tITO


CTBO COKpawaeTCH.110

C = Co.)

YD = 0 B

ypaBHeHHH

C = Co + c"'YD ,

TO 3TO paBeH

Ho oTKY,D;a nocTYIUJT .lleHbrH.nIDI TOro, 'lT06bI ITJIaTHTb 3a

Co>

eCJIH y Bac HYJIeBoi%: pacnOJIaraeMbIit .llOXO.ll? OHH nocTYITHT H3 BawHX JIHtIHbIX c6epexeHHit,
KOTophle BhI C06paJIH B TeqeHHe npe,D;bI,D;yw:HX JIeT.

78

'ISCT" II. MsKposKoHoMHKs -

HSyKS

06 SKOHOMHtfeCICOM poeTe H CTs6HR"HOCTH

/I
\

C = Co C*YD 03HaqaeT, 'ITO o6maH CYMMa BaUIHX paCXO,IIOB B


3KOHOMHKe 6Y,lIeT 03HaqaTb BaW xpHmecJOdt ypOBeHb norpe6JIeHHH CO(COOTBeT

B :QeJIOM paBeHCTBO

cTByIDmHA HYJIeBOMy ,lIOXO,IIy) nJIIOC qaCTb BaWerO qHCTOrO ,IIOXO,IIa, BbIpaxeHHYJO


B BH,lIe C*YD.

B OCTaBWeAcR qaCTH 3ToA KHHrH $I npe,IInOJIaraIO, 'ITO paBeHCTBO C = Co


C*YD - ,lIOC
TaTOqHO XOpOWaH MO,IIeJJb TOro, KaK B 3KOHOMlfKe Onpe,IIeJIRIOTCH paCXO,IIbI Ha norpe6JIeHHe
.OHa He TO~O OTPaJKaeT ,lIeACTBHTeJIbHOCTb, HO nOKa3bIBaeT, 'ITO nOTPe6JIeHHe coxpamaeTCH
H3-3a BbICOIOfX HaJIOrOBbIX CTaBOK H H3-3a TOro, 'ITO JIIO,lIH npHHHMaIOT pa3HbIe peweHHH 0
TOM, CKOJIbKO pacnOJIaraeMOro ,lIOXO,IIa COXpaHHTb HJIH nOTPaTHTb. 31'0 paBeHCTBO n03BOJIR
eT MHe aHaJIH3HpOBaTb pe3YJIbTaTbI nOJIHTHKH, MeHHIOmeA HaJIOrOBbIe CTaBIOf, H pe3YJIbTa
TbI ,lIpyrHX nOJIHTHK, noompHIOmHX JIIO,lIeA TPaTlfTb 60JIbWyIO HJIH MeHbWYIO qaCTb CBOHX
,lIOXO,IIOB.

1- MHBeCTMI.4MM B OCHOBHOM KanMTan


I1HBecTH:QHH XH3HeHHO He06xo,IIHMbI, nOTOMY 'ITO cnoc06HOCTb 3KOHOMHKH npOH3BO
,lIHTb 3aBHCHT OT TOro, KaKHM KanHTaJIOM pacnOJIaraIOT npOMbIWJIeHHHKH ,IIJIR TOro, qT06bI
npOH3BeCTH npO.IIYKUHIO. 3anac KanHTaJIa YBeJIlfqHBaeTCH, Kor,IIa <pHPMbI nOKYnaioT HOBbIe
HHCTPYMeHTbI, 3,IIaHHH, MaIIIHHbI, KOMnbIOTepbI H T.,II., ,IIJIR TOro qT06bI nOMOqb npOH3BO,IIHTb
nOTPe6HTeJIbCKHe TOBapbI. I1HBecTH:QHH -

3T0 nOTOK,

KOTOP~ YBeJIHqHBaeT

OCHOBHOH Ka

nHTaJI 3KOHOMHKH.
Ho, 6e3YCJIOBHO, Cpe,IICTBa npOH3BO,IICTBa H3HaWHBaIOTCH BO BpeMR HCnOJIb30BaHHH. qaCTb
HX nopTHTCH. qacTb JIOMaeTCH. qacTb BbI6paCbIBaeTCH 3a HeHa,lI06HOCTbIO, nOCKOJIbKY HeH3
6e)KH0 yCTapeBaeT. Bce 3TH npO:QeCCbI, KOTopble YMeHbwaIOT OCHOBHOit KanlITaJI, 3KOHOMH
CTbI Ha3b1BaIOT U3HOCOM OCH06HOZO KanUmaAa.
ECTeCTBeHHO, <pHPMbI ,lIOJDKHbl ,lIeJIaTb HeKOTopbIe HHBecm:QHH ,IIJIR Toro, qro6b1 33MeHHTb
H3HoweHHble cpe,IICTBa npOH3BO,IICTBa. Ho KaX,lIaH HHBecm:QHH CBepx H3Hoca npHBO,IIHT K 06
meMy YBeJIlfqeHHIO OCHOBHOro KanHTaJIa, C03,IIaBaH nOTeH:QHaJIbHyro B03MO)KHOCTb npoH3BO,II
CTBa 60JIbWerO KOJIlfqeCTBa nOTPe6HTeJIbCKHX TOBapOB.

ITOTOK HHBecTH:QHit, H3pacx<5,IIOBaHHbIx B onpe,IIeJIeHHbIH npOMe:lKYTOK BpeMe- .


HH, 3aBHCHT OT COnOCTaBJIeHHH, KOTopoe <pHPMbI ,lIeJIaIOT Me:lK,lIy nOTeHUHaJIbHOH
BbIrO,IIOH H CTOHMOCTbIO npH06peTeHHOrO OCHOBHoro KanHTaJIa. IToTeH:QHaJIbHaH
BbIrO,IIa H3MepHeTcH B e,IIHHH:Qax nOTeHUHaJIbHOH npH6bIJ1H, a CTOHMOCTb npH06
peTeHHH H3MepHeTCH npOueHTHOH cTaBKoA, 6e3OTHOCHTeJIbHO Toro, 6paJIa HJIH He
6paJIa <PHPMa CCY.IIY ,IIJIR npH06peTeHHH KanHTaJIa.

IToqeMy npOueHTHaH CTaBKa TaK MHoro 3HaqHT? ECTeCTBeHHO, eCJIH q>HpMa Hy:lKLlaeTCH B
cCY,IIe ,IIJIR npH06peTeHHH KanHTaJIa, 60JIee BblCOKHe np0:QeHTHble CTaBKH ,lIeJIaIOT npouecc 33
HMCTBOBaHHH ,lIeHer MeHee npHBJIeKaTeJIbHblM, nOToMy 'ITO BbIllJIaTbI no cCy,IIe 6y.IIYT O'leHb
BbICOKHMH. TeM He MeHee, ,lIaJKe eCJIH <pHpMa HMeeT Ha PYKax ,lIOCTaTOqHO HaJIHqHbIX ,lIJIH
nOKYllKH ,lIaHHOro cpe,IICTBa npOlf3BO,IICTBa, 60JIee BblCOKHe np0:QeHTHbIe CTaBIOf 33CTaBJIHIOT
<pHpMy BbI6HpaTb Me:lK,lIy HCnOJIb30BaHHeM 3THX HaJIHqHbIX ,lIJIH nOKYllKH 060pY,IIOBaHHH H
B03MO)KHOCTbIO HX O,IIOJlXHTb KOMy-TO. Cne,IIOBaTeJIbHO, 60JIee BbICOKHe np0:QeHTHbIe CTaB
KH npenHTCTByIDT HHBeCmUHRM, 6e30THOCHTeJIbHO TOro, ,lIOJI)KHbI <PHPMbI 33HHMaTb cpe,IICTBa

,IIJIR ,lIaHHbIX BJIO:lKeHHil: KanHTaJIa HJIH HeT. (eM. rnaBy

2,

OHa nOMoraeT nOHHTb, noqeMy 60JIee

BbICOIOfe np0:QeHTHbIe CTaBKH YBeJIlfqHBaIOT CTOHMOCTb B03MO)KHOCTH HHBecmpOBaHHH.)

rnasa 4. MaKp03KOHOltfH'IecKHe nOKa3arenH...

79

3KOHOMHCTbI npe,l(CTaBJUlIOT 06'beM HHBeCrnUHOHHbIX pacXO.n.OB, KOTOpbIe l>HpMbI cTPe


MHTClI c.n.eJIaTb,

I,

r,

KaK l>YHKUHIO npOueHTHOH cTaBKH,

KOTOPlUl BblpaJKeHa B npoueHTax.

PaBeHcTBo, KOTopoe H npHBoxy 3.n.eCb, 06menpHHHTo B yqe6HHKax. no MaKp03KoHoMHKe


(XOTlI 0603HaqeHHH B pa3HbIX KHHrax BaPbHPyJOTCH):

1= 10 - I,""r.
3To

paBeHCTBO, no cynt:, nOXO:lKe Ha paBeHCTBO nOTPe6JIeHHH, npHBe.n.eHHoe B npe.zu,my

meM pa3,ll.eJIe, 3a HCKJIlOqeHHeM 3HaKa "MHHYC", KOTOPbIH 03HaqaeT, 'ITO Kor.n.a npoueHTHlUI

I na.n.aeT.
I, nOKa3bIBaeT,

CTaBKa nOBbIwaeTCH,
Ko3l>l>HUHeHT

HaCKOJIbKO na.n.aeT

B cYIIIeCTByJOmeH 3KOHOMHKe B KaJK

.n.OM OT.n.eJIbHOM CJIyqae nOBbIweHHH npOueHTHOH CTaBKH. npe.n.nOJIO:lKHM, 'ITO


Ha O.n.HH "YHKT. eJIH

I"

CKaJKeM, paBeH

10 MJIP.n. .n.0JIJI.,

r nOBbICHJIaCb

BbI 3HaeTe, 'ITO KIDK,lI.bIH

"YHKT YBe

JIH'IeHHH npoueHTHbIX CTaBOK npHBe.n.eT K YMeHbweHHIO HHBeCTH:QHH Ha lOMJIP.n. .n.0JIJI.


napaMeTP

10 nOKa3bIBaeT,

CKOJIbKO HHBecrnUHH 6y.n.eT HMeTb MeCTO, eCJIH npoueHTHlUI

CTaBKa paBHa HYJIIO. no npaB.n.e roBOpH, npoueHTHble CTaBKH HHKor.n.a He OnycKalOTCH .n.o HY':'
JIeBOH OTMeTKH, HO npe.n.nOJIO:lKHM, 'ITO TaK npoH30illJIO. Tor.n.a BTOpoe 3HaqeHHe B ypaBHeHHH
6Y.n.eT paBHO HYJIIO, H Y BaC nOJIyqHTCH

1= I{)o

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XO~bI, HO BhI MOrJIH CTaTh HaCTOHIUHM 6aHKpoTOM.

1000 ~OJIJI.

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B nepBhIt!: ro~ BbmaHHbltl: BaMH Kpe~HT B


10 roJIOBaM CBHHet!:. Ho nOCJIe TOm, KaK pa3BHJIaCb HH<pJIHUHH,

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6 rOJIOBaM

CBHHet!:. BhI nOJIyqHJIH

40%

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HaMHoro 60JIee Pa3YMHaH npH'IHHa, no KOTOPOt!:

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7,

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95

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If Bonwe6HlfK orpaHbI 03

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96

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97

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10

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Bbl Mo.lKtIT BHL\eTh, 'ITO q,aKTIl'iecKaH HHlPJIHUIDI MeJKL\Y HHBapeM 1980 rOLla H HHBapeM
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CHTeTa.

1981

roLla COCTaBJIHJIa OKOJIO

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106

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6e3pa6OTHQbI, B03HHKalOlI.(eit BO BpeMH cna.na npOH3BO.llHTeJIbHOCTH.

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r.lla 6Y.lleT He60JIblUoit npOQeHT 6e3pa60THhIX, nOCKOJIbKY mO.llH no c06cTBeHHoit BOJIe MOryT
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paCTaeT, nOTOMY 'ITO yJIyqlUeHHlUI TeXHOJIOrHH 3HatIHT, 'ITO nOJIHOCThIO 3aHHTble TpY.llOBble pe
CYPCbI MOryT npoH3BeCTH 60JIblUe TOBapoB. Ho .llJIH ynpomeHIDI CBOHX HCCJIe.llOBaHHit 3KOHO
MHCTbI 06bl'1HO He yqHTbIBaIOT .llOJIroBpeMeHHyro TeHJleHQHIO pacTa H paCCMaTpHBalOT TOJIbKO
TO, HaxO.llHTCH JIH <paKTHtIecKHit 06'beM BbJrrycKa

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Ha

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rnasa 6.

nOlle"" npoffCXOAIIT P8146CCHH

109

B OCTaBilleAcH qaCTH

fJIaBhI BhI 03HllKOMHTeCb C reM, KllK 3KOHOMHKa rrpHCrrOCaMHBaeTCH

K CHTYaUHHM, B KOTOphIX 061>eM BbIrryCKa HaxO.n;HTCH KllK BhIille, TaK H HmKe OueHKH

.n;aHHhIA MOMeHT BpeMeHH.

JiI3

061>HCHeHHA, .n;aHHbIX B 3TOA fJIaBe, BhI rrOAMere, qTO 3KOHOMHKa ecreCTBeHHhlM 06

pa30M )I{eJIaeT BepHYTbcH K

BCHKHA pa3, Kor.n;a 061>eM BhlrryCKa OTKJIOHHeTCH OT

r. ECJIH

6bl rrpouecc rrpHcrroc06JIeHHH ueH 6bIJ1 .n;OCTaTOqHO 6bICTPhIM, HaM He H}')I{HO 6bIJ10 6h1 6ec
rrOKOHTbCH 06 3KOHOMHqeCKHX UHKJIax, KPH3HCax H 6e3pa6oTHue. ECJIH 6bI 3KOHOMHKa B03
BpalI.J;aJIaCb 06paTHo K

r .n;OCTaTOqHO 6hICTPO, B03HHKillHA crra.n; 6bIJ1 6h1 CJIHillKOM KpaTKHM

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eCTecTBeHHhI1t rrpouecc rrpHcrroc06JIeHHH MO)l{eT 6bITb OqeHb Me.LlJleHHhIM, R rroceMY rrepHo.n;hI
peueCCHH MOryT 6bITb .n;OCTaTOqHO 3aTH)I{HhIMH.

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fte3/f.J.blJialJi "'/tUCII.OCOt!.J.e/UlJl IIt
lloCJIe 3KOHOM~ecKoro illOKa, KllK TO rrpHpo.n;HbIA KaTaKJIH3M HJIH pe3Koe rrOBhlilleHHe
CTOHMOCTH rrpHpo.n;HbIX pecypCOB, rrpHcrroc06JIeHHe ueH "CTapaeTCH" BepHYI'b 3KOHOMHKY K'
ypOBHIO BhlrryCKa rrpH rroJIHoA 3alUITOCTH

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llpe.n;cTaBHM ce6e CHTYaUHIO, Kor.n;a c0801,ynH~ii (061I.J;HH) crrpoc Ha TOBapbI H yCJIyrH B
3KOHOMHKe YMeHbillaeTCH: HH.n;HBH.LlYYMhI, qmpMhI H rocy.n;apcTBo TPe6YIOT H rrpH06peTaIOT
Memillee KOJ1~eCTBO TOBapOB",qeM rrpOH3Bo.n;HT 3KOHOMHKa.

pe3YJIbTRre B03HHKaeT H36h1

TOK rrpe.LlJlO)l{eHHH TOBapOB, KOTOPbIH, B CBOIO Oqepe.n;b, rrpHBO.n;HT K 'CHmKeHHIO ueH.


KOHUOB,

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MO)l{eT c.n;eJIaTb TO HJIH HHoe ToproBoe rrpe.n;rrpHHTHe, eCJIH OHO He MO)l{eT rrpo

.n;aTb Bce, qTO HM rrpOH3Be.n;eHO, rro Ha3HaqeHHbIM HM ueHaM? llpOH3Be.n;eHHbIA TOBap rrpo
.n;aBaTb Hy)l{HO.

qmpMa CHIDKaeT ueHbI. CHH)I{eHHe ueH rrpHBJIeKaeT 60JIbillee KOJIHqeCTBO

rrOKYIIaTeJIelt, H BCKope qmpMa rronyqaeT B03MO)I{HOCTb rrpo.n;aTb BeCb OCTaBillHHCH TOBap.

Il,."',,Ell, r.,

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ccPepbI. Kor.n;a H3-3a

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pbB. 3TOT rrpouecc CO BpeMeHeM rrpHBO.n;HT K .n;BYM rrOCJIe.n;CTBHHM.

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3alUITOCTH,

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OHH 06JIa.n;aIOT 3TOlt B03MO)I{HOCTbIO, TO 3KOHOMHKa OqeHb 6bICTPO B03BpalI.J;aeTCH K

r.

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eCJIH rrpHcrroc06JIeHHe ueH rrpOHCXO.n;HT Me.LlJleHHO, 3KOHOMHKa MO)l{eT rrpOH3Bo.n;HTb MeHb


llIHH o61>eM BbIIIYCKa, qeM

r, Ha rrpOTH)I{eHHH .LlJlHreJIbHOrO BpeMeHH. )];pyrHMH CJIOBaMH,

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51

TOJIbKO qTO .n;aJI BaM CaMbIH 061I.J;Hit 0630P B03MO)I{HbIX peaKUHA 3KOHOMHKH Ha 3KOHO

MHqeCKHe illOKH. CJIe.LlYIOlI.J;HH pa3.n;eJI rrpe.n;OCTaBHT 3HaqHTeJIbHO 60JIbIiIe .n;eTaJIeH, rr03ToMY


BbI CMO)l{ere rroHSlTb, KllK H rroqeMY 3KOHOMHKa CO BpeMeHeM B03BpalI.J;aeTCH K

110

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MJIlIeCKoro mOKa, Ha,llDa rrepHO,lla, KOTOpLle OHH HaJLlBaIOT KpamKOCpO'lHbIM H iJoAZOCPO'lHblM.

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KpamKOCpOltHbIM Ha3L1BaeTCjI TOT ~epHO,ll BpeMeHH, 3a KOTOPLl:A: qlHpMLI eme

He H3MeHHJIH QeHLI B OTBeT Ha 3KOHOMHtlecKH:A: mOK.

y/ ,l(OJlZOCPO'lHbIM HaJLlBaeTCjI rrepHO,ll BpeMeHH, 3a KOTOPLlit <pHpMLI BLlrrOllHHJIH

Bce Heo6xo,llHMLle H3MeHeHHJI QeH B OTBeT Ha 3KOHoMWIecKHit WOK.

3TH rroHJlTHjl HecYT B ce6e HeOrrpe,llelleHHOCTL, rrOTOMY 'ITO CKOpOCTb, C KOTOpoit <pMpMbI
KoppeKTIq>YJOT QeHLI, BapbMpyeTCjI OT WOKa K WOKY. B 3TOM pULJ:eJIe jI

YKIDKY BaM Ha rJIaDHLle

Pa3JIWIHJI Me)l{,lly reM, 'ITO rrpOHCXO,llHT B KIDK.lI;OM H3 BLlweYKaJaHHLIX nepHO,llOB.

OnpeAenHeM HeKOTopble B8)1(HeMWMe nOHHTMH


.l];mI

TOro 'ITo6L1

YBH.lIeTb pa3HHQY Me)l{,lly TeM,

KaK 3KOHOMHKa pearnpyeT Ha WOK B KPaT

KOopoqHOM H ,llOJIroCpO'IHOM rrepHO,llax, Ha'IHeM C paCCMOTpeHHJI pHC.

6.2,

Ha KOTOPOM BallIe

MY BHHMaHHIO rrpe,lI,1l0xeHa MO,lleJlb MaIq>03KOHOMHKH. fOPH30HTaJIbHaR OCb OTMeqaeT CTOH


MOCTb B ,llOJlJlapax npo,llaHHbIX oreqeCTBeHHLIX TOBapOB H

YCJIYT (Y). 3To qHCllO paBHO BaJIOBO


4. BeprnKaJIbHaJI OCb

MY BHYTPeHHeMY rrpo.IIYKTY (BBn), 0 KOTOPOM paCCKa3bIBaeTCjI B rJIaDe


CJIY)KHT MepHJlOM o6:mero ypoBHjI QeH B 3KOHOMHKe,

P.

LRAS

PBblCOKKH

,,,
,,
,,

p. 1- ------------ ~ -----------
,,
,,,
,,,
,,
ptiKSKKH --;---------~------------,
,,
,,
,,
,,
,,
'l'I'KSKKH

Puc. 6.2.

Y'

AD
Yl'blCOKKH

MO,lenb M8KP03KOHOMUKU

rna.a 6. nOCleAfY npOMCXCJ,qfIT peqeccHH

111

,lLrnI roro qro6h1 nOHSITb 3HaqeHHe P,

paCCMOTPHM CJIe,lJ;YI<>Iuee. llPH roM, qro KIDK,lI,bIH OT

.n:eJIbHhIH roBap H YCJIYfa HMeeT C06CTBeHHYIO ueHY H HeKOTOphie H3 3THX ueH MOryr rrO.n:HH
MaThCSI, KOr.n:a .n:pyme 6y.n:yr CHmKaThCSI,
UHSl H3MeHeHHSI ueH.
B ueJIOM. ECJIH

P-

.n:rur 3KOHOMHKH B ueJIOM cymeCTByeT 06maH TeH.ll:eH

3m npocro Mepa roro, KaK Be.n:yr ce6S1 ueHhI Ha TOBaphi H YCJIyrH

nO.n:HHMaeTCSI, 3HaqHT, Cpe.n:HHe ueHhI nO.n:HHMaJOTCSI; eCJIH

3HaqHT, Cpe.n:HHe ueHhI na.n:aIOT.

eCJIH ueHhI OCTaIOTCSI npe:lKHHMH, 3Ha~T,

CHIDKaeTCSI,

(6e3YCJIOBHO)

5, B HeH BhI HaH,neTe no.n:po6HOCTH 0 TOM, KaK 3KOHOMHCThI


P.
Ha pHC. 6.2 BhI Moxere BH.lI:eTh CHMBOJI p., 3ToT CHMBOJI 0603HaqaeT p(UIH08eCHblu ypoBeHb
ueH. qro 3TO 3Ha~T? p. - 3ro ypOBeHb ueH, no KOTOphiM nmpe6HTeJIH XOTSIT KYUHTh BeCb
npo.n:yKT, npoH3Be.n:eHHhlH npH YCJIOBHH nOJIHOH JaHSITOCTH (r).
OCTaeTCSI npe:lKHHM. eM. maBy

H3MepSlIOT

KaK 3KOHOMHCThI

onpe.n:eJISlIOT P~? 3'I'OT ypOBeHb ueH onpe.n:eJISleTCSI nepeCeqeHHeM TOro,

KpU80U OoIUOCpOo,HOZO c0801cynHozo npeOIlOJICeHUJI (long-run aggregate supply,


LRAS) C KPU80U c08oKynHozo cnpoca (aggregate demand, AD). llepe.n: TeM KaK BhI HaqHeTe

qro HaJhlBaeTCSI

yqameHHo .n:bIIIIaTh, n03BOJIbTe MHe 061l:CHHTb, qTO 03HaqaIOT 3TH TepMHHbI.

" KpU8aJ1 c08oKynHozo cnpoca npe.n:CTaBJUIeT 06mee KOJIHqeCTBO TOBapoB H YCJIYr,


KOTopble XOTSIT KYfiHTb JIIO.n:H.
3aMeThTe, qTO Ha pHC.

6.2 KpHBWI AD onyCKaeTCSI BHH3.

3'1'0 noTOMY, qro eCTh

06paTHo nponopUHOHaJIbHaH 3aBHCHMOCTh Me:::.n:Y ypoBHeM ueH H KOJIHqeCT-

BOM TOBapoB, KOTOpoe JIIO,ZUI XOTSIT KYUHTh. 06pamHo nponopu,UOHatlbHaJI 3a8U


CUMocmb npoCTO 3HaqHT, qro npH 60JIee BhlCOKOM ypoBHe ueH (P"blCDlCMii) JIIO.n:H
XOTSIT nOKYOaTb MeHbIlIe,e KOJIHqeCTBO npO.n:yKTa (YHU3ICUii). Ho eCJIH ueHbI
na.n:aIOT .n:o p'U3KUii, JIIO.n:H TPe6yx>T HaMHoro 60JIbIlIee KOJIHqeCTBO npo.n:YK
Ta (yblCDKuii). HanpaBJIeHHWI BHH3 KpHBaH

AD 03HaQaeT

4>aKT,

qTQ

npH 60JIee

HH3KHX ueHax JIIO,ZUI nOKYUaIOT 6oJIbIlIe.

"

KpU8aJ1 OOIlZOCpOo,HOZO c08oKynHozo npeOIlOJICeHUJI npe.n:CTaBJISleT KOJIHqeCTBO


TOBapOB H YCJIYr, KOTOpoe 3KOHOMHKa npOH3Be.n:eT, Kor.n:a ueHhl 6y.n:yr CKOp
peKTHPOBaHhl nOCJIe
Ha pHC.

6.2

3KOHOM~ecKoro I1IOKa.

BbI MoxeTe BH.LleTb, qTO

LRAS -

3TO BepTHKaJIbHWI JIHHHSI H

OHa Bo06me HHKaKaH He KpHBWI! (He qyBCTByeTe JIH BhI ce6S1' 06MaHYThIMH?)

LRAS

no.n:HHMaeTCSI BepTHKaJIbHO BBepx, HaqHHaHCb B TOqKe, JIexameit Ha

ropH30HTaJIbHoit OCH,
H3MeHeHHSI B ueHax

r.

lloqeMY? llOTOMy, qTO B .n:OJIrocpOqHOM nepHo.n:e

8cema B03BpamaIOT 3KOHOMHKY K ypoBHIO BblnyCKa, co-

OTBeTCTByIOmeMY nOJIHoit JaHSITOCTH.


Bce eme He BepHTe MHe?

BbI, OKa3b1BaeTCSI, ynPSlMbI! Ho npo.n:oJIXaitTe qHTaTb -

H SI

nocTapaIOcb yGe,!UlTh Bac!

npMcnoco6neHMe qeH BAonrOCpO'4HOM nepMOAe


J],aBaHTe HCCJIe.n:yeM, qTO npOHCXO.n:HT, Kor.n:a 3KOHOMHKa HaqHHaeT C YPOBHSI ueH, OTJI~
HOro OT

po.

HanpHMep, .n:aBlurre CHOBa paccMOTPHM ypoBeHb ueH p"bICOKuii H COOTBeTCTByIOmHH

eMY ypoBeHb COBOKYUHOro cnpoca, J"HU3Kuii. OqeBH.LlHO, qTO yHU3ICMii MeHbIlIe, qeM ypoBeHb BbI
nyCKa, npoH3Be.n:eHHoro npH nOJIHOH 3aHSlTOCTH
npe.ztnOqHTaIOT pa60TaTh Ha ypOBHe BhmycKa

(r). 3To

r.

Ba:lKH0, noTOMY qTO npe.n::npHSlTHSI

Be.n:b OHH BJIOXHJIH .n:eHbrH B 4>a6pHKH H

060py.n:OBaHHe, KOTopoe 6y.n:eT npocTaHBaTb, eCJIH OHH cTaHYT npoH3Bo.n:HTb MeHbIlIe npo
Jl:YKUHH. CJIe.n:OBaTeJIbHO, HX peaKUHeH 6y.n:et CHHXeHHe ueHbI C ueJIbIO YBeJI~eHHSI npo.n:ax.

OHH 6y.LlYT npo.n:OJIXaTh CHHXaTh ueHbI .n:o Tex nop, nOKa nOBCeMeCTHO YP0BeHb ueH B 3KO

112

'facTb II.

MaKP03KOHOIlIfKa - H8YK8

06 SlCOHOMIf'feclCOIl pocTe If cTa6lflftlHOCTIf

HOMHKe CHH3HTCH .0;0

p.,

rrOTOMY 'ITO 3TO TOT ypoBem. ueH, rrpH KOTOPOM rr0'l'pe6HTeJIH XOTm'

K}'IlHTb KOJlHllecTBO rrpo,nyKTa, IIpoH3Be.o;eHHoro rrpH rrOJIHoA 3aJUlTOCTH,

r.

BhI 6eCrrOKOHTeCb, 'ITO BCe 3TH CHH)I{eHHH ueH rrpHBe.o;yT I>HpMy K rrOTepe ,n;eHer?
My)l{aHTeCb: I>HPMhI He 06H33TeJIbHO rrorepHIOT rrpH6hIJIb B 3TOit CHTyauHH, rroTOMY 'ITO o,n;
HOBpeMeHHO rra,n;aIOT H HX pacxo,n;hI.
BO.ZJ;HT MeHbwe, qeM

r"

3To rrpoHCXO.ZJ;HT

rrOTOMY, '!TO Kor,n;a 3KOHOMHKa rrpOH3

rrOHBJUleTCH Macca 6e3pa60THhIX JIIO,n;eA H MHoxeCTBO HeHCrrOJIb30

BaHHhIX rrpOH3BO,n;CTBeHHhIX pecypCOB, KaK TO XeJIe30 H Hel>Tb. Be3pa60THua rrpeIIm'CTByeT


IIOBhIweHHIO 3apIIJIaT, Be.o;b HaJIHqHe 6oJIbworo KOJIHqeCTBa CB06o,n;HhIX TPy,n;OBhIX pecypCOB
3HaqHT, 'ITO BhI MOXeTe HaHm'b JIIO,n;eH 33 60JIee HH3KYIO 3apIlJIaTY. H qeM 60JIbille eCTb HeHC
IIOJIb30BaHHhIX Cpe,n;CTB IIpoH3BO.o;CTBa, reM 60JIbwe rra,n;aeT HX ueHa.
HTaK, MhI rerrepb 3HaeM, 'lT0 60JIee HH3KHe ueHhI rrpHBJIeKaIOT 60JIbwee KOJIHqeCTBO rro
TPe6HTeJIeA, CTHMYJIHPyIOT poeT rrpo.o;8}K H crroco6cTByIOT TOM}', ~O I>HPMbI CHOBa HaHHMaIOT
YBOJIeHHhIX pa60THHKOB.

3ToT rrpouecc

IIpo,n;OJI:lK8eTCH,n;o rex rrop, rrOKa ueHhI yrra,n;YT,n;o

r.

Ha 3TOH TOqKe 3KOHOMHKa CHOBa HaqHHaeT I>YHKUHOHHpOBaTb rrpH rrOJIHoA 3aHm'OCTH, a 3m


3HaqHT, 'ITO Bce pa6oTHHKH, )l{eJIaIOmHe rroJIY'IHTb pa60Ty, MOfyT ee rroJIY'IHTb.
TaKHM xe 06pa30M ueHhI He MOfYT ,n;OJII'Oe BpeMH OCTaBaTbCH HH)l{e ypOBHH

p .

Ha ypoBHe

ueH p"U3KUU JIIO,n;H XOTm' rroKyrraTb rrpo.nyrcr .t',"COKUU. Ho 3TO 6oJIbwe, qeM I>HPMhI MOfyT rrpo
H3BO,n;HTb rrpH rrOJIHOH 38ID1TOCTH. E,nHHCTBeHHhIA crroc06 rrpOH3BeCTH TaKoA 60JIbilioA rrpo

.nyKT -

3TO yBeJIHqRTb rrpd,n;OJI:lKHTeJIbHOCTb pa60qeA He,n;eJIH 33 rrpe,n;eJIhI

CTBeHHhIA crroc06 CXJIOHHTb pa6oTHHKoB COrJIaCHTbCH Ha 3TO rrpH'leM e,n;HHcTBeHHbIA crroc06 rrOBhICHTb 33pa60TuyIO IIJIaTY -

40

qaCOB.

e,n;HH

3aIIJIaTHTb HM 60JIbWe ,n;eHer,


3Ha'lHT rrOBbICHTb ueHbI Ha

IIpoH3Bo,n;HMhIe I>HpMOA TOBaphI. HTaK, eCJIH crrpoc rrpeBhIWaeT rrpe)J)IoXeHHe, ueHhI rrOBhI
WaIOTCH ,n;o rex rrop, rrOKa ou,I ,n;QCTHfHYT

p.,

Kor,n;a KOJIHqeCTBO TOBapa, TPe6yeMoe rr<>TI>e6H

TeJUlMH, TOqHO palJHO o61.eM)' IIpoH3BO,n;CTBa rrpH rrOJIHOH 33ID1TOCTH,

r.

KaK BhI MoxeTe BH.o;eTb, eCJIH ueHhI paCrrOJIafaIOT ,n;OCTaTOqHhIM KOJIHqeCTBOM BpeMeHH

,lVUI rrpHcrroc06JIeHIDl, 3KOHOMHKa Bcer,n;a-B03BpamaeTCH Ha ypoBem. BhIIIYCKa

r. llOCKOJIhKY

MhI Ha3hIBaeM BpeMH, He06xo,n;HMoe )J;JlH KOppeKTHpOBaHHH ueH, OOJlZOCPOltHbIM nepuoooM,


HMeeT CMhICJI Ha3BaTb BepTHKaJIbuyIO JIHHHIO Ha,n;

KPU80U OOJlZOCPOltHOZO C0801cynHOZO npeiJ

JlOJICeHUR, rrOCKOJIbKY oHa rrOKa3b1BaeT, KaKOH o61.eM BbIIIYCKa 6y,n;eT rrpOH3Be,n;eH B 3KOHOMHKe

rrOCJIe TOro, KaK rrpoii.neT ,n;OCTaTOtIHoe KOJIHqeCTBO BpeMeHH, ~06hI ueHbI rrpHcrroc06HJIHch,
BhIPOBHHB rrpe)J)IO)l{eHHe H crrpoc Ha TOBaphI H ycnyrH. (llo,n;p06HOCTH 0 rrpe)J)IO)l{eHHH H
crrpoce BhI Hait.n;ere B fJlaBe

8.)

WOKM BCMCTeMe: peaKL\MR Ha M3MeHeHMe cOBoKynHoro cnpoca


B rrpe.zu,myw,eM rro.ZJ;pa3.ZJ;eJIe o6'bHcHHeTCH, 'ITO rrpoHcxo,n;HT, eCJIH ueHhI Ha TOBaphI H yCJIy
fH 6y.ZJ;YT, B ueJIOM CJIHWKOM BhICOKHMH HJIH CJIHWKOM HH3KHMH: OHH co peMeHeM rrpHcrro

Ca6JIHBalOTCH K paBHOBeCHOMY YPOBHIO

(p.),

TaK 'ITO 3KOHOMHKa MoxeT BePHYTbCH K 06'heMY

IIpoH3Bo,n;CTBa Ha ypOBHe rrOJIHOH ~HHTOCTH

(n. Ho 'ITO H3Ha'IaTIbHO C03.ZJ;aeT YCJIOBHH

)I.JLII

Toro, 'IT06hI ueHhI 6hIJIH CJIHWKOM BhICOKHMH HJIH CJIHWKOM HH3KHMH? IIIoK c08oKynHozo
cnpoca -

06mero KOJIHqeCTBa TOBapoB H ycJIYf, KOTOphIe JIIO.ZJ;H XOTHT KyrrHTb.

Bo-rrepBhIX, ,n;aBaATe rrocMOTPHM, 'ITO rrpe,n;CTaBJIHeT C060H WOK COBOKyrrHOro crrpoca.


Ha pHC.

6.3

nOKa3aHa KPHBaH COBOKyrrHoro cnpoca, CMeCTHBWlUICH BJIeBO OT

ADo,n;o AD].

JIeBOCTopoHHee CMemeHHe KPHBOA COBOKYIIHoro crrpoca Ha3hIBaeTCH ompUl(ameJlbHbIM UlOKOM


cnpoca, Hero MO)l{eT BhI3BaTb, HarrpHMep, COKPameHHe ,n;OBepHH K rrpoueCCaM, npOHCXOllH

IlIHM B 3KOHOMHKe, rrpH HaTIH'lHH KOTOPOro JIIO.ZJ;H XOTm' 60JIbWe OTKJIa.ZJ;hIBaTh H Mem.we rro
we6AATb. (llpaBOCTOpoHHee CMemeHHe

AD Ha3b1BaIOT nOllOJICUmeJlbHbIM UlOKOM

rn8B8 6. ntJll8MY npOHcxo,q_T peqeccHH

cnpoca.)

113

LRAS

ADo

AD,
y

Y"

PHC.

6.3.

OrPHI..l8TeflbHblH WOK COBOKYnHOrO CnpOC8

113HatIaJIbHhIH ypoBeHb ueH,


cnpoca

ADo nepeceKaeTC:

Po,

COOTBeTCTByeT TOtIKe, B KOTOpoA nepBOHatIaJIbHllSI KPHBllSI

C BeprHKaJIbHOA KPHBoA npe.UJIOXeHIDI

LRAS.

B ));OJlroBpeMeHHoM

nepHO));e, nocne TOro, KaK <pHPMhI npHcnoc06:TC: K HapymeHHIO cnpoca, HOBhIA ypoBeHb ueH,

Ph

6YJleT HaxO));HTbC: B TOtIKe nepecetIeHIDI HOBOA KPHBOA


HOBhIA ypoBeHb ueH

(p])

AD] H

BeprHKaJIbHOH KPHBOA

HHXe H3HatIaJIbHOfO ypOBH: ueH

(PO)'

LRAS.

nOtIeMY?

Cnpoc Ha TOBaphI H YCJIYfH YMeHbWaeTClI nOCJIe 0TPHuaTeJIbHoro WOKa cnpoca.


E,nHHCTBeHHbIH cnoc06 3aHHTepeCOBaTb nQTPe6HTeJIeH CHOBa npH06peTaTb 061>
eM npO));YKTa, npOH3Be));eHHhIA npH nOJIHOH 3aHm'OCTH,

(Y} -

3TO CHH3HTb CTOH-

MOCTb nOKYllKH TaKOro 6oJIbworo KOJIHtIeCTBa TOBapa, T.e. CHH3HTb ypOBeHb ueH.
.BbInOJIHeHHe He06xo));HMoro CHuxeHIDI ueH MoxeT 3aHllTb Y npe));npHllTHA HeKO
Topoe BpeMll, HO KOf));a OHH C));eJIaIOT 3TO, 3KOHOMHKa CHOM 6y));eT npOH3BO));HTb
TOBaphI Ha ypOBHe

yo B ));OJIroCpOtIHOM nepHO));e.

Ha)l;eIOCb, 'ITO BhI yxe y6e));HJIHCb, tITO B ));OJIroCpOtIHOM nepHO));e, nOCJIe TOro, KaK ueHhI

CMOTJIH npHcnoc06HTbC: no)); yCJIOBIDI, BhI3BaHHhIe KaKHM 6hI TO HH 6hIJIO WOKOM, 3KOHO
MHKa 6y));eT CHOBa npOH3BO));HTb npoJlYKT, COOTBeTCTBYIOIUHA nOJIHoA 3aHllTOCTH,

YO.

3ro BO

MHOfOM OTJIHtIaeTC: OT rex npoueCCOB, KoropbIe npOHCXOMT B KPaTKOCpOtIHOM nepHO));e,


));0 TOro, KaK u.eHhI npoA)l;yT 3Tan KOppeKTHpoBKH.

KPaTKocpotIHOM nepHO));e : paCCKaxy

BaM B cne,nyIOIUeM nO));pa3));eJIe.

)l(ecTKMe ~eHbl B KpaTKOCpO"lHOM nepMOAe


Kate: yxe 061>>>:CHAA Bhlwe, nOCJIe TOfO, KaK B 3KOHOMHKe npOHCXO));HT KaKOH
JIH60 WOK, u.eHhI C retIeHHeM BpeMeHH KOPpeKTHpYIOTC:, B03BPaIlUUl 3KOHOMHKY K
ypoBHIO BhInyCKa npH nOJIHOH 3aJU1TOCTH

(Y}.

O)l;HaKO 3TOT npouecc MoxeT 3aHllTb

HeKOTOpoe BpeMll, nOTOMY tITO B KPaTKOCpOtIHOM nepHO));e ueHhI B BhIcweA CTe

114

"Iacr" II.

M8KP03KOHOMHK8 - H8YK8

06 3KOHOMH'IeCKOMpoc:re H cr86Hn"HOCTH

neHH XeCTICHe. J];axe MeHe,IOKepaM CaMhIX 6bICTPO npHcnoca6J1HBaIOIUHXCH pHPM


Heo6xo,lUiMO onpe,lJ;eJleHHOe BpeMSl )J)UI TOro, ':ITOObI peWHTb, HaCKOJlbKO CHH3HTb
QeHbI.

A HeKOTOphle pHPMbI B006w;e npo.llBJUllOT He,lJ;OCTaTO':IHylO rn6KOCTb B 3TOM

Bonpoce.
llpe,lJ;nOJIO)({HM, ':ITO KalGUl-TO pHpMa BbInyCTHJIa KaTaJIOrH C nepe':lHeM QeH Ha TOBapbI,
KOTOpbIe OHa npO,lJ;aeT

.'3Ta

pHpMa pacnpOCTPaHHeT CBOH KaTaJIOrH TOJIbKO O,lJ;HH pa3 B ro.JJ;;

OTCIO,lJ;a CJle.nyeT, 'ITO OHa ,lJ;OJDKHa 6Y.JJ;eT np0,lJ;aBaTb nOTPe6HTeJUlM TOBaPbI no 3THM QeHaM ,lJ;O
rex nop, nOKa He 6Y,lJ;eT BbIny:w;eH CJIe.llYlOW;HiI KaTaJlOr.

nO,lJ;06HOil CHTYaQHH pHpMa KOP

peKTHpyeT CBoil 06'beM npoH3Bo,lJ;CTBa C 06'beMOM cnpoca, B03HHKalOIU;HiI no 3THM xeCTKHM


QeHaM. ECJIH 06Hapy)({HTCH, 'ITO eCTb MHOro XeJIaJOIU;HX npH06pecTH TOBapbl no 3THM QeHaM,
$HpMa YBeJIH':IHBaeT 06'beM npoH3BO,lJ;CTBa, 06bI':1HO HaHHMaH C 3TOiI QeJIblO 60JlbWe pa60':lHX.
ECJlH xe OKaXeTCH, 'ITO TOBapbI Y 3TOiI pHPMbI nOXeJIaeT npH06pecTH CJlHWKOM MaJIOe KOJIH
qeCTBO nOKynaTeJIeil, OHa COKPaIUaeT npoH3BO,lJ;CTBO, 06bI':1HO HaHHMlUI MeHbwee KOJIH':IeCTBO
pa60':lHX.
PHC.

6.4

0TP8XaeT CHTY8QHIO, npH KOTOpoil pHpMbI CBH3bIBalOT ce6H xeCTKHMH QeHaMH

H MOlYI' OTBe':laTb Ha H3MeHeHWI B cnpoce TOJIbKO KOppeKTMpOBaHHeM ypoBHH npoH3BO.JJ;CTBa.


Ha pHCYHKe BH.JJ;Ha rOpH30HTaJIbHaH 1CpU60J1 c06OfcynHoeo npeOJlOJICeHUR 6 1Cpam1CocpOliHOM ne
puoiJe SRAS (short-run aggregate supply), KOTOPlUl Ha CaMOM ,lJ;eJIe BOBCe He KPHBWI, a npHMWI
JIHHWI. 31'a "KPHBaH" COOTBeTCTByeT YPOBHIO QeH

POt

nOTOMY ':ITO pHpMbI B KPaTKOcpo':lHOM

nepHO,lJ;e He MOryI' CKOppeKTHpOBaTb CBOH QeHhI. llepeMew;eHWI BJleBO H BnpaBO B,lJ;OJlb KpH
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OHH no.rryqaIOT npH em npo,naxe, 6y,neT IIpeBhlIIlaTb 3aTPaTbI Ha npoH3BO,ncTBO ~H e,nHHHIlhI.


B nepHO,n peueCCHH 60JIee HH3KHit COBOKynHbIit cnpoc 03Ha'iaeT, qro IPHPMbI COKPamaIOT
npOH3BO,nCTBO H npo,nalOT MeHbIIlee KOJI~eCTBO TOBapa. KaK JI 06'bHcHSIIO BbIIIIe, 3apa60THaH
llJIaTa -

70%

3TO caMM 60JIbIIlaH 'IaCTb 3aTPaT 60JIbIIlHHCTBa IPHPM (IPaKTH'IeCKH OHa COCTaBJIHeT

OT 06meit CYMMhI 3aTPaT cpe.nHecraTHc~ecKoilIPHPMbI). ECJIH IPHpMa He MO:lKeT cOKpa

THTb 3apa6OTHyK> llJIaTY H3-3a 60H3HH CHIDKeHHH npO,nYKTHBHOCm, OHa TaKJKe He MO:lKeT B

rnasa 6. nOlfel/lY npOHCXQ,qRT peqeccHH

119

3HaqwrCJIbHOH MCpC COKpaTWfb CBOH 3aTpaTbI Ha npOH3BOJJ;CTBO CJJ;HHHIIbI npo,IIyKUltH. B CBOIO


OqepCJJ;b IPHpMa HC MOXCT HaMHOrO CHH3HTh IICHbI Ha CBOIO npOJJ;YKUltIO, nOTOMY 'ITO IICHbI
JJ;OJI)l{HbI OCTaBaThCR 60JIbIllHMH, qCM 3aTpaTbI Ha npOH3BOJJ;CTBO, qT06bI IPHpMa nOJIY'!!U'a
npH6billb H OCTaBaJIaCb B 6H3HCCC.
IA. EIj~

Ii .... /
~

..
;'

lITO BCC 3T0 03HaqaCT? KorJJ;a cnpoc CHJt)I{aCTCR, IICHbI 06bIqHO OCTaIOTCR B.bICO
KHMH, HCCMOTpR Ha TOT IPaKT, 'ITO cnpoc Ha 3KOHOMHqCCKHH npO.lJYKT CHlt3ltJICR.
3TO npmltHa TOro,

B Ha

pHC.

6.5

~O

3KOHOMHKa JJ;BJt)I{eTCR roPH30HTaJIbHO H3 TOqKH

B TOqtey

nOCJIC OTpHIIareJIbHoro 1II0Ka cnpoca. B PC3YJIbTIlTC nOJIyqaeTCR, 'ITO

H3-3a IICH, XCCTIrnx no npHqHHe Toro, ~o IPHPMbI HC MOryr COKpaTHTb 3apa6oT

HYIO ITJIaTY, OTpltllaTeJIbHblit 1II0K cnpoca npHBOJJ;wr K PCIICCCltH C OJJ;HOBPCMCHHbIM


CHJt)I{CHHCM om.CMa BbIIIYCKa H nOBbIIIICHltCM ypOBHR 6C3pa60TltIIbI, nOTOMY 'ITO B
3TO BpeMR npOXOMT MaCCOBbIC yaOJlbHCHltR.
EOJIbIllC TOro, ItO rex nop, nOKa IICHbI He MOryr XOTb KaK-TO HaqltHaTh naJJ;aTb, 3KOHOMltKa
HC MOXeT nCpCJJ;BHHyTbCR H3 TO'IKH
BeJJ;CHHOro npH nOJIHOH 3aHRTOCTH

B B TO'IK}' C, 'IT06bI BCPHYThCR Ha


(Y'). IJ,CHbI naJJ;aIOT co epe.Mefte.M,

ypoBCHb BblII)'CKa, npOH3


HO 3m npOIIecc JJ:JIHreJIb

HbIH, a ::ITO 3HaqHT, 'ITO OTpHIIaTeJlbHblH 1II0K cnpoca MoxeT npHBeCTH K 3aTRXHOH peIICCCltH.

B03Bpa~eHMeK Y*: AeMCTBMSI npaBMTenbCTBa


B maBC 7 o6bRCHReTCR, KaK rocYJJ;apCTBO MOXCT H'CnOJIb30BaTb MOHcTapHblit

H IPHCKaJIb

HbIH CTHMYJIbl JJ:JIR PCIIICHHR np06JICMbI XCCTKOCTH IICH nyreM nOBbllllCHHR COBOteynHoro
cnpoca. CCH'lac $I xoqy 06pHCOBaTb BKpamc, KaK 3T0 npOHCXOJJ;HT.
IIpeJJ;cTaBbTe, 'ITO nOCJIe TOro, KaK H306paxCHHbIH Ha pHC.
ca CMCCTHT KpHByIO COBOK}'ITHOro cnpoca BJIeBO
nOKa IICHbl CaMH co BpeMCHCM

yna.n:yT.

oTADo K AD},

6.5 OTpHIIareJIbHbIH 1II0K cnpo


roCYJJ;apCTBO HC CTIlHCT )KJJ:aTh,

BMecTO 3TOro OHO 6YJJ;CT CTHMYJlHpOBaTb COBOKynHbIH

cnpoc, TaKqTO KpltBaR COBOKynHOro cnpoca ncpeJJ;BltHeTCR Ha3aJJ; BnpaBO H BepHCTCR K JIH
HHH, C KOTOPOH OHa HaqHHaJIaCb,

ADo-

IIoJJ;06Hbrit 111M BCpHCT 3KOHOMHtey K npOH3BOJJ;CTBY

npH nOJIHOH 3aIDlTOCTH 6C3 TOro, qT06bI JK;LJ:aTh, nOKa

ynanyr

IIeHbI.

'ITO 6YJJ;CT, CCJIH npaBHTeJIbCTBO HC npCJJ;npHHltMaCT HltKaKltX lIIaroB, qT06bI nOJJ;06HbIM

06pa30M CTHMYJIHpOBaTh COBOKynHbIH cnpoc? lITO, CCJIH 3KOHOMHKa HaxOJJ;HTCR B TOqKe

npaBHTeJIbCTBO HC. BMcIIIHBaeTcR? B TaKHX CJIyqaRX IICHbI co BpeMCHCM naJJ;aIOT, nOToMy 'ITO
3aTpaTbI Ha npOH3BOJJ;CTBO TOxe CO BpeMCHCM CHJt)I{aIOTCR.

KaK

MbI YaHJJ:eJIH H3 npCJJ;bIm'lIIltX nOJJ;pa3JJ;eJIOB, ~aTpaTbI Ha OITJIaTY TpyJJ;a OqCHb MCJJ:JICH

HO COKpall(aIOTCR, nOTOMY 'ITO MeHCJJ:)KepbI He XOTRT pHCKOBaTb JIORJIbHOCThIO CBOltX pa60qltX


H3-3a COKpall(CHltR 3apa6OTHOH ITJIaTbI. Ho KorJJ;a 3KOHOMHKa HaxOJJ;ltTCR B TOqKC

B,

3apa6OT

HaR ITJIaTIl CO BpCMCHCM CHJt)I{aCTCR H3-3a 6oJIblllOro 'IHCJla 6c3pa60THbIX. HeKOTopble IPHPMbl
HaHHMaIOT 6c3pa6OTHblx Ha 60JICC HH3KyIO 3apnrraTY, 'ITO COKpamaCT paCXOJJ;bI IPHPMbI; 3TO
3HaqHT, 'ITO OHH MOryr npOJJ;aBaTb CBOH TOBapbIltJIH ycJIyrH JJ;cIIICBJIe JJ;PyrltX IPHpM, KOTOpbIC
yJJ;Cp)l{JtBaIOT ypoBCHb 3apa60THOH ITJIaTbI CBOHX pa60'lltx Ha npeXHeM ypOBHC. Co BpCMCHeM
nOJJ;06HaR CHTYaultR npHBOJJ;HT K TOMY, 'ITO BCC IPHPMbl cOKpaIIIaIOT 3apa60~ ITJIary.
,[(pyrltC paCXOJJ;bI TaKXC COKpamaIOTCR. 3'1'0 npOHCXOJJ;HT nOTOMY, ~O BO BpeMR KpH3HCa,
Kor.n:a 06beM npOH3BCJJ;CHHOro npo.lJYKTa OqCHb CltJIbHO YMCHblllaCTCR, MHorHe cpeJJ;CTBa npo
H3BOJJ;CTBa HC HCnOJIb3yIOTCR. IIpOCTIlHBaIOT 3aBOJJ;bI H rpY30BbIC aBToIPyproHbI, BarOHbI It KO
paMH. ECTh 60JIbllloe KOJImCCTBO HCHCnOJIb3YCMbIX JICCOMarepHaJIOB, XCJIe3HOH PYJJ;bI,

HCl1>~

TH H JJ;pyroro CbIPbR JJ:]lll npOMblIUJIeHHOCTH.


BJIaJJ;CJIbUbI TaKHX HeHCnOJIb3YCMbIX CPCJJ;CTB npOH3BOJJ;CTBa CHJt)I{aIOT UCHy Ha HltX

reM, qT06bl nOCTapaTbCR n06blCTpCC npoJJ;aTb HX. IIoCKOJIbtey UCHbl naJJ;aIOT, 3aTpaTbI IPHPM

120

Ifacrb II.

MaKp03KOHOMHKB - HayKa

06 3KOHOMH'IeCKOM pooTe H cTa6H1lbHOCTH

TO)Ke YMeHbllIaIOTCR, H TaKJfM 06pa30M <l>HpMbI CHIDKalOT npO)).a)KHbIe ueHbl Ha CBOI{ TOBap.

11,

nOCKOJIbKY npO)).IDKHble ueHbl na)].aJOT, 3KOH~MHKa )).BIDKeTCR H3 TOqKJf

B TOqKY

C,

rrOJCa3aHO Ha pHC. 6.5, BOCCTaHaBJIHBaR npOH3BO)).CTBO )).0 ypOBHR nOJIHOI{ 3aHRTOCTH

KaK

(r).

BH)l.HTe, KaK 'I)')).eCHO Bce HaJI~BaeTCR (co BpeMeHeM)?

j)ocHiuzae.,u ft.a6'Jtol'ectlJl, Itft.U .JIteCJh,ltUX


/ii!Jta.x: ~0'1e."tb KeuJtca
,[J;a)Ke eCJIH 3TO nepBaR KHHra no 3KOHOMJ1qeCKOI{ TeOpHH, KOTOpYJO BbI KOma-JIH60' )).ep
)KaJIH B CBOHX PYKaX, Bee-TaKJf R n03BOJIIO ce6e 3a)].aTb BaM Borrpoc: BaM HHqero He roBOpHT
HMR KeI{HC? KTO 3TO TaKOI{ H noqeMY 3KOHOMHCTbI TaK ero JII06RT?

Di

~.~
\,c'
...

~ if'

,1l;)KOH Mel{Hap)). Kel{HC CqHTaeTCR caMbIM BbmalO~HMCR 3KOHOMHCTOM

XX

BeKa.

IIoqeMY? OH 6bIJI nepBbIM 3KOHOMHCTOM, KOTOPbIH OC03HaJI, ~ HMeHHO :lKeCTKJfe

.ueHbI (Bbl3BaHHbIe K JKH3HH )KeCTKJfMH 3apnJIaTaMH) -

BHHOBHHKJf rrpOHCXO)l.SlIIIHX

peueCCHI{. Kor)).a BbI npOqJIH npe)).bI)l.ymHI{ pa3)).eJI, y Bac MOfJIO CJI9:lKH:rbCR Brre
qaTJIeHHe, qTO H)l.eH, H3JlO)KeHHble B HeM, He 6bIJIH, TaK CKa3aTb, peBOJIIOUHOHHbIMH, HO rrOBepbTe MHe: npOHHuaTeJIbHOCTb Kel{HCa COBepllIeHHO H3MeHHJIa no)l.Xo)).
K H3yqeHHIO 3KOHOMHKlf.

l:J:TO nO)).BHfJIO Kel{HCa Ha 3T0? IIpHqHHOI{ BceMY nOCJI~O TO j')KaCHoe cocroRHHe, B


KOTOpOM rrpe6bIBaJIa 3KOHOMHKa CllIA BO BpeMR BeJIHKOI{ )).enpeCCHH 1930-x ro)).OB. Y:lKe B
caMOM ee Ha3BaHHH -

BeAu/UlJl iJenpeccUJI -

KpoeTCR HeKOTopoe rrpe)).CTaBJIeHHe 0 TOM, Ha

CKOJIbKO nJIOXO IlIJIH Tor,n:a )).eJIa B 3KOHOMHKe. ,[J;aBal{Te cpaBHHM. HOPMaJIbHbIl{ 3KOHOMH
qeCKJf1:l: crra)]. Ha3bIBaeTCR pe~eccueu. DoJIee fJIy60KJfl{ H cepbe3HbII{ crra)]. Ha3bIBaeTCR

cueu.

iJenpec

Ho TO, qro npOHCXO)).HJIO B Coe)).HHeHHbIx IIITaTax B 30-e ro)).bI rrpoIIIJIoro BeKa, 6bIJIO

HaCTOJIbKO nJIOXHM, ~o JIIO)l.H CTaJIH Ha3bIBaTb 3TOT rrepHO)).

BeJ/uKou iJenpeccueu,

qT06bI caMO

Ha3BaHHe MOfJIO )).OHeCTH )).0 Hac aTMoc<l>epy rrOHCTHHe )KyTKHX c06bITHI{.


BeJIHKWI )).errpeCCHR HaqaJIaCb C 3aTR)KH01{ peueCCHH 1929-1933 rO)).OB. Coe)).HHeHHbIe
IIITaTbI He CMOfJIH BepHYTbCR Ha YP0BeHb rrpOH3BO)).CTBa 1929 ro)).a BITJIOTb )).0 BCTYITJIeHHR
BO BropYJO MHpOBYJO BOI{HY B 1941 ro)l.y.

,[(mI:

TOro qro6bl corrOCTaBHTb BeJIHKYIO )).errpeCCHIO

C )l.pyrHMH rrepHo)).aMH crra)].a, B3rJIRHHTe Ha Ta6JI. 6.1, KOropWl co)).ep:lKHT )).aHHble 0 KaX<:)l.OI{
H3 ceMH peueCCHI{, HcrrbITaHHbIX ~llIA HaqHHWI C 1960 ro)).a, a Ha rrepBOM MeCTe -

)).aHHbIe,

0TP~IOIII,He nepHO)). BeJIHKOI{ )).errpeCCHH.

TaCSnMqa 6.1. BenMKali AenpeCCMH M3KOHOMM'feCKMe cnaAbI B CWA C 1960 roAS

Ha... ano

KOHel.l

AnMTenbHQCTb
(B MecRI.I8X)

CaMbiA BblCOKMM ypoBeHb 6e3pa6oTMI.IbI

M3MeHeHMR
DpeanbHoM BBn (%)

ABrycr 1929

Mapr 1933

43

24,9

-28,8

Anpenb 1960

C1>eBpanb 1961

10

6,7

2,3

AeK86pb 1969

Hml6pb 1970

11

5,9

0,1

H01l6pb 1973

Mapr 1975

16

8,5

1,1

~HBaPb 1980

I1101lb 1980

7,6

-0,3

I1IOHb 1981

H01l6pb 1982

16

9,7

-2,1

I1IOHb 1990

Mapr 1991

7,5

-0,9

Mapr 2001

H01l6pb 2001

6,0

0,5

HCrO'lHUKu: NBER, 3KOHOMU'IeCKUU oT'ler npesu,aeHTY CiliA, elOpo rpy,aoBoU cr8rucrUKU.

rnasa 6. nOlfeMY npOHCXO,lUlT peLCeCCHH

121

'ITO ,qenSeT peqeccHIO peqeCcHej

B Ha'l8J1e

rnaBbi pel.{eCCHR OnpeA9nReTCR

WTaT MaCCa'lyceTc, Oc!>HIlH8J1bHO" 06bRBnR

KaK nepHOA BpeMeHH, BO BpeMR KOToporo

eT 0 Ha'l8J1e H OKOH'IaHI1I1 Bcex nepl10AOB pe

06beM npOl1aBOACTBa n8A8eT, a 6eapa60TML18

lleccHl1, npoxOAR~B CoBAHHeHHbIX WTaTax

paCTeT. Ho 3TO He eAI1HCTBeHHoe ee onpe

AMepl1KI1. 3Ta rpynna PYKOBOACTByeTcR A/lHH

AeneHHe. Hanpl1Mep, Bbi MOlKeTe npO'lI1TaTb

HbiM Cnl1CKOM KpI1TePl1eB, KOTOPbl~ Ha'lHHaeT

B KaKOM-nI160 Y'!e6HHKe I1nl1 raaeTHO~ CTa

CR C nllAE!HHR 06beMa BblnycKa 11 BoapaCTaHI1R

Tbe, 'ITO 3KOHOMI1Ka HaxOAI1TCR B pelleCCI1H,

ypoBHR 6eapaOOTl1l1bl, BKnIO'ISSI Macey APyrl1x

ecnl1 pe8J1bHbI~ BBn n8A8eT B Te'leHl1e AByx

c!>aKTOpOB: Hanpl1Mep, ASHHble 0 TOM, Ha

KBapT8J10B nOAPRA. Ho ecnl1 Bbi nOCMOTpl1Te

CKonbKO 6b1CTpO c!>a6pHKI1 nonY'!alOT HOBbie

Ha Ta6n.

6.1,

TO aaMeTI1Te, 'ITO BO BpeMR OT

AenbHbIX pelleCCI1~ (Hanpl1Mep, TO~, KOTopaR


Ha'l8J1aCb B anpene

1960),

peanbHbI~

BBn

aaKaabl. V1HOI",Q8 3TM APyrl1e c!>aKTOpbl npl1BO


ART 3KOHOMI1CTOB

NBER

K ow,yw,eHI1IO TOro,

'ITO 3KOHOMHKa npOWlla CBO~ nl1K 11 BCrynl1n8

nOAHI1M8J1CRj BMecTO TOro 'IT06b1 n8A8Tb. TaK

B nepl10A pelleCCI1H, ASlKe ecnl1 06beM npo

nO'leMy lKe 3TI1 nepl10Abi Bce paBHO Haablsa

I13BOACTsa He n8A8eT.

3a~AI1Te Ha Web-ca'1T

IOTCR pelleCCHRMI1?
MHorl1e c!>aKTOpbl BXOART B onpeAeneHl1e

www. nber. org,

NBER no SAPecy
TaM HaxOAI1TCR 60nbWe

TOro, 'ITO H83b1BaeTCSI pelleccl1e~. rpynna 3KO

HHc!>0pMaIlHH 06 3KOHOMI1'1eCKI1X I1I1Knax H 0

HOMHCTOB l1a HallHOH8J1bHoro SIOPO 3KOHOMI1

TOM, KaK I1MeHHO

'IeCKI1X I1ccne.o.osaHI1~

T1eHHH pelleCCI1I1.

(NBER) B KeM6PHAlKe,

NBER 06bRBnReT 0

Hacryn

KaK BhI MOXere BH,D;eTb, BeJIHKaJI .llenpeCCIDI 6h1JIa HaMHOro, HaMHOro xyxe mo6oA .llpyroA
06bNHOA peueCCHH. npHMepHO

25%

TPY.llOBhIX pecypCOB CTPaHhI 6h1JIH He Boc-rpe60BaHhI, a

Haqll.!lbHhlA cnll.ll npoH3BO.llCTBa .llJlHJICg npHMepHO B qeThIPe pa3B .llOJIbWe, qeM 1O,7-MecK<I
Hhle (B cpe.llHeM)peueCCHH, B03HHKaBWHe B

CllIA C HaqBJIB 60 ro.llOB npoWJIoro BeKa.

06lIJ,HA 06'beM 9KOHOMHlIeCKoro npOH3BO.llCTBB, KOTOPhlA H3MepgeTCSI peaJIbHhlM BBn


(pellb 0 HOMHHBJIbHbIX H peBJIbHhIX BeJIHlIHHaX H,D;eT B rJIBBe
DO

Bpe~

5)

06bNHoA peueccHH. HanoMHHM, 'ITO HOMUHaJlbHblU

nB.llBeT HaMHOro HHXe, HeXeJIH

BBll -

9TO COBOKYJIHag pJ>jHOll

Hag CTOHMOCTb KOHeqHhIX TOBapOB H YCJIYf, npoH3Be.lleHHhIX 9KOHOMHlIeCKHMH cy6'beKTaMH


(npe.llnpIDITHSlMH, opraHH3BUHSlMH, HH,llHBH,D;YBJIbHhlMH npe.llfipHHHMareJISlMH, .llOMBWHHMH .
X03gAcTBaMH) 3a TeKYIUHA nepHO.ll (KaK npaBHJIO, 3a ro.ll) Ha 9KOHOMHlIeCKoA TeppHTOpHH
.llaHHoA CTPaHhI; BBn, H3MepeHHhlA B ueHax 6a3HCHOro nepHO.lla, Ha3h1BBeTCg peaJIbHbIM
TepMHH peQ//bHblU 03HalJaeT, 'ITO CTOHMOCTh TOBBPOB H

BBll.

yc.rryr Onpe,lleJIeHB B nOCTOSlHHhIX ueHax.

nOCKOJIbKY pellJlbHhIA BBn KOppeKTHpyeTCg C y'leTOM HHmsIUHH, OH OXBBThlBBeT H3MeHeHIDI


B cPH3HlIeCKOM KOJIHlIeCTBe npOH3Be.lleHHoro
HhlA BBn nll.llllJl MaKCHMYM Ha

2-3%.

npo.!lYKTB.

Bo Bpe~ He.llBBHIIX peueccHA peaJIb

Bo BpeMJI BeJIHKoA .llenpeCCHH OH ynaJI Ha

KaK OqeBH,D;eu BeJIHKOA .llenpeCCHH,

28,8%!

KeAHC gBHO XOTeJI onpe.lleJIHTb npHllHHY TaKOrO pe3

KOro 9KOHOMHlIeCKoro Cnll.llB H Y3HaTh OTBeT Ha Bonpoc: 'ITO MOrJIO 6h1 npe.llYIlpe.llHTb no.ll06
Hoe onyCTOweHHe?

KoppeKTMpOBaHMe aanaCOB MaTepManbHblX


060POTHbiX cpeACTB BMeCTO L\eH
KeAHC He TOJIbKO onpe.lleJIHJI, 'ITO xeCTKHe ueHhI npHBO,lUIT K peueCCIDIM B 9KOHOMHKe;
OH TaIOKe pa3pa60TaJI BeCbMa y6e.llHTeJIbHyIO MO.lleJIb, KOTOpag .ll0 CHX nop npHcyrCTByeT BO
MHorHX yqe6HHKax no MaKp09KOHOMHKe. 31'a MO.lleJIb -

lIaCTh nO,llXO.lla K ynpBBJIeHHIO MaK

p03KOHOMHKoA, Ha3BaHHoro lCeUHCUQHCIn80M, npH KOTOpOM peKOMeH.llYlOTCSI cymecTBeH

122

. 'Iacn. II.

AfalCp03lCOHoMlflCa - HaylCs

06 31COHOMlflfecKOM poCTe "

cTa61U1ltHOCTH

Hble focy)J;apCTBeHHble BMeIIIaTeJIbCTBa B 3KOHOMHKY BMeCTO nOIlUmUKU He6MeWamellbCm6a.


(06C}')IC.lI;eHHe 3aTPaT H BblfO)J; OT BMeIIIaTeJIbCTBa focy)J;apcTBa B 3KOHOMHKY Bbl HaH.LleTe B
rnaBe

3,

pa3.LleJIe "Onpe)J;emJ:eM, 'ITO )J;OJDKHO 6blTb npOH3Be)J;eHo".)

ITo npaB,lle roBOpH, H )J;OJDKeH no,nqepKHYTb, qTO KeiiHCHaHCTBO Bbl3BaJIO MHOro KpHTHKH
H qTO OHO -

He CaMoe Ba)l(Hoe B MaKp03KOHOMHKe. Ho Ta ero qaCTb, KOTOpaJI npe)J;CTaBJIeHa

MHOIO B )J;aHHoii KHHre, cnopOB He Bbl3blBaeT. IT03HaKoMHBIIIHCb C HeIO, Bbl noiiMeTe, KaK
3KOHOMHKa npHXO,llHT Kpa6H06ecUiO -

nOJIOXeHHIO, npH KOTOpOM BbIpaBHHBaeTCH COBOK)'II

Hoe npeMoxeHHe H COBOKYITHbIH cnpoc -

B npe)J;eJIbHO KpaTKHe CpOKH nOCJIe 3KOHOM~e

CKOro IIIOKa, KOf)J;a ueHbI Boo6IUe He MOryT MeHHTbCH.


BepHeMCH Ha MHHyry K pHC.

6.4.

OT ypOBHH npOH3BO)J;CTBa npo)lyKTa

MO.lleJIb KeiiHca o6'bHcIDIeT, KaK 3KOflOMHKa )J;BH)I(eTCH

Yo)J;o

ypOBHH npoH3BO)J;CTBa

COBOKYIT~oro cnpoca, a ueHbl <pHKCHpOBllHbI Ha ypoBHe

Yj,

KOf)J;a' npOHCXO)J;HT IIIOK

Po-

MO)J;eJIb KeiiHca <POI{ycHpyeT HaIIIe BHHMllHHe Ha npOH3Be)J;eHHbIX <pHPMaMH BJIO


xeHIDIX B TOBapbI, KOTOpbIe 6bIJIH H3fOTOBJIeHbI, HO He 6bIJIH npo)J;aHbI. ITo KeiiHcy
H3MeHeHHR JanaCOB MarepHaJIbHbIX 060POTHbIX cpe)J;CTB npHBOilHT <pHpMbI K yae

JI~eHHIO HJIH YMeHbIIIeHHIO o6'beMa npOH3BO)J;CTBa B cHTYauHHX, KOf)J;a ueHbI xeCTKHe H He MOryT

CJIYXGITb CHrHaJIOM

K )J;eiiCTBHIO.

~ TOro qT06bI yaH,lleTb HOBH3HY H,lleH KeiiHca 0 3anacax MaTepHaJIbHbIX 060POTHbIX


cpe)J;cTB, HYXHo nOIDITb, 'ITO eCJIH ueHbI MOryT MeHHTbCH, 3HaqHT, ueHbI (a He MarepHaJIbHble
JanaCbl) 6y.llYT PYKOBO)J;HTb peIIIeHHHMH <pHPM 06 06'beMax npOH3BO.llCTBa
./

ECJIH 6bI ueHbl nO,llHHMaJIHCb, <pHpMa 3HaJIa 6bI, 'ITO ee llpo)J;YKUHH nonyJIHp
Ha H qTO HYXHO YBeJI~Tb 06'beM np0!'l3BO)J;CTBa

./

ECJIH 6bI ueHbI CHH)l(aJIHCb, <pHpMa 3HaJIa 6bI, qTO ee TOBap He nOJIb3yeTcH
CnpOCOM, n03TOMY HYXHO cOKpaTHTb 06'beM npOH3BO)J;CTBa (a MoxeT, H 0006
me nepeiiTH Ha )J;pyroii BH,ll )J;eHTeJIbHOCTH!).

O)J;HaKo B CHTYaUHH HaJI~HH B 3KOHOMHKe xeCTKHX ueH <pHpMaM H)')KeH KaKoii-TO )J;py
roii cnoc06 peIIIeHHH, yaeJIHqHBaTb HJIH COKpamaTb npoH3Bo)J;CTBO. KeiiHc nepBblM nOHHJI,

qro PYKOBOlUlIUHMH CHJIaMH B )J;aHHOM cnyqae 6y.llYT H3MeHeHHH 3anaCOB MarepHaJIbHbIX 060
pOTHbIX Cpe)J;CTB.

Cne,qHM 38 ypoBHeM 38n8COB M8TepH8nIJHIJIX 060POTHIJIX Cpe,qCTB


YpoBeHb 3anaCOB MarepHaJIbHbIX 060POTHbIX cpe)J;CTB nOCTOHHHO MeHHeTCH, Be)J;b TOBapbl
nOCTOHHHO nocTYITaIOT H nOCTORHHO npo)J;aIOTCH. HOBoe npoH3Bo)J;CTBO yaeJI~HBaeT 3anaCbI,
TOf)J;a KaK HOBbIe npO)J;axH HX YMeHbIIIaIOT. )l;Ba <paKTopa BJaHMo)J;eiicTBYIOT )lJIH onpe)J;eJIeHHH
TOro,

yaeJI~HBaJICHJIH

ypOBeHb MarepHaJIbHbIX 3anaCOB, CHH)I(aJICH HJIH OCTaBaJICH npeXHHM.

HanpHMep, eCJIH HOBbIii 061>eM npOH3BO.llCTBa paBeH ypoBHIO HOBbIX npO)J;ax, ypOBeHb 3ana
COB MarepHaJIbHbIX o60pOTHbIX cpe)J;cTB OCTaeTCH npeXHHM. ECJIH HOBbIii o6'beM npOH3BO)J;CT
Ba npeBbIIIIaeT ypoBeHb HOBbIX npO)J;ax, ypoBeHb MaTepHaJIbHbIX 3anaCOB nOBbIIIIaeTCH.
BJaHMO)J;eiicTBHe HOBOfO 06'beMa npoH3Bo)J;cTBa H HOBhlX npo)J;ax HBJIHeTCH Bax
HbIM nOToMy, qTO Kax)J;aJI <pHpMa HMeeT ~elle6ou yp06eHb 3anaCOB MaTepHaJIbHbIX
060POTHbIX cpe)J;CTB, KOTOPbIii OHa npe)J;nOqHTaeT npo)J;OJI)l(aTb y)J;epXHBaTb B CH
TYaUHHX, npH KOTOPbIX npO)J;axH BpeMeHHO H,llYT 6bICTPee, HeXeJIH <pHpMa MoxeT
npOH3BO)J;HTb llpo,llYKT. IJ.eJIeBoii ypOBeHb onpe)J;eJIHeTCH 3aTPaTaMH H npH6bIJIbIO OT
BJIa)J;eHHH 60JIbIIIHM HJIH MeHbIIIHM 06'beMOM MarepHaJIbHbIX 3anaCOB.

rnaas

6. nOlfeMY npOMCXQART pe148CCMM

123

HMeTb MeHbIlIe 3anaCOB MaTepHaJIbHbIX 060POTHhlX Cpe)).CTB, qeM Ha3HalJeHO QeJIeBbIM


ypoBHeM, OnaCHO, nOTOMY ~O IPHpMa MO:lKeT OKaJaTbCH Hecnoc06HoH CnpaBHTbCH C nepHO

~eCKHMH BCDJIeCKaMH npo)).a:lK. 06JIa)].aHHe 60JIbIlIHMH 3anaCaMH, qeM HaJHalJeHHbIH QeJIe


BOH ypOBeHb, He3KOHOMHO, nOTOMY qro HeT CMbICJIa XpaHHTb TOBapbI, H3 ro)).a B ro)). BaJIHIO
WHeCH 003 .lIeJIa, HenpO.lIaHHbIMH.

KroIc.naH

IPHpMa B3BeIlIHBaeT H3)).ep:lKKH H BbIro.llY, lJro6bI

onpe)).eJIHTb C06CTBeHHbI-H QeJIeBOH ypoBeHb 3aIlaCOB MarepHaJIbHbIX 060poTHhlX Cpe)).CTB.


UeJIeBOH ypoBeHb MarepHaJIbHhlX JanaCOB MO:lKeT papbHpOBaTbCH H3 ro)).a B ro))., B 3aBHCH
MOCTH OT TOro, O:lKH)].aeT JIH IPHpMa 60JIbIlIHX HJIH MaJIhlX 06'beMOB npo)).a:lK. ECJIH MeHe)].X(epbI
O:lKH)].aIOT 6oJIbIIIOH 06'beM npo)).a:lK, OHH MOryI' JaDJIaHHpoBaTb YBeJIHqeHHe MarepHaJIbHbIX 3a
naCOB,. a eCJIH OHH O:lKH)].aIOT MaJIOrO 06'beMa npo)).a:lK, OHH MOryI' IVIaHHpOBaTb YMeHbIIIeHHe
3anaCOB.
KeiIHc OC03HaBaJI, qTO IlIOKH COBOKYDHOro cnpoca (KoTOpbIe no onpe)).eJIeHHIO Heo:lKH)].aH
HbI) MOryI' npOHBHTbCH HeO:lKH,lUlHHbIMH H3MeHeHHHMH MarepHaJIbHhlX 3anaCOB IPHpM.

vi' Heo:lKH)].aHHo HH3KHH COBOKYDHbIH cnpoc 3Ha~, qro npo)).a:lKH na)].aIOT Ha


CTOJIbKO,

~o

MaTepHaJIbHbIe 3anaCbI yBeJIHqHBaIOTCH H )).ocmraIOT ypOBHH,

npeBbIIlIaIOmero QeJIeBOH.

vi' HeO:lKH)].aHHO BbICOKHH COBOKYDHbIH cnpoc 3Ha~, qro npO)).a:lKH YBeJIHqHBa


IOTCH HacTOJIbKO, qro 3anaCbI COKPamaIOTCH H He )).OCTImUOT QeJIeBOro ypoBHH.

YsenHlfeHHe HnH COKpau.ceHHe 06"eAfa npoH3sO,ltCTsa


npH Kone6aHHH ypOSHII 3anacos
HeoxomaHHO 60JIbIlIHe H3MeHeHHH 3anaCOB MarepHaJIbHhlX o60poTHhlX cpe)).CTB npHBO)].HT
IPHPMbI K CJIe.lJYIOIUHM H3MeHeHHHM ypoBHH npoH3BO)).CTBa.

vi' BeJIH ypoBeHb MaTepHaJIbHhlX 3anaCOB npeBbIlliaeT QeJIeBOH ypoBeHb, IPHPMbI


pearHPYIOT cOKpameHHeM npOH3Bo)).cTBa. Kor)).a TeMn pOCTa npOH3BO)).CTBa
CTaHOBHTCH HH:lKe TeMna pOCTa npo)).a:lK, MaTepHaJIbHbIe JanaCbI HalJHHaIOT
CHH:lKaTbCH OTHOCHTeJIbHO QeJIeBoro ypoBHH.

vi' ECJIH YPOBeHb MarepHaJIbHhlX 3anaCOB OKa3bIBaeTCH HH:lKe QeJIeBoro ypoBHH,


IPHPMbI peamPYIOTYBeJIHqeHHeM npoH3BO)).cTBa. Kor,n;a TeMn pOCTa npOH3
BO)).CTBa CTaHOBHTCH BbIllie reMna pOCTa npo)).a:lK, MarepHaJIbHbIe 3anaCbl YBe
JI~HBaIOTCH.

H3MeHeHHe ypOBHH npOH3BO)).CTBa, BbI3BaHHOe H3MeHeHHHMH 3anaCOB MaTepHaJIbHbIX


060POTHblX Cpe)).CTB, lJpe3BMqaiIHo BlDKHO, nOTOMY ~o OHO nOKa3bIBaeT He TOJIbKO ro, YBe

JI~HBaeTCH npo.lJYKT

(y)

HJIH YMeHbIlIaeTCH, HO TaK:lKe paCTeT HJIH COKPaIUaeTCH ypOBeHb 003

paOOTHQbI.
HanpHMep, eCJIH npe)].DpHHTHH YBeJIHqHBaIOT 06'beM npOH3BO)).CTBa nOTOMY, ~o MarepH
aJIbHbIe 3anaCbI COKPaTHJIHCb )).0 ypOBHH, HaxO,D;HmerOCH HIDKe QeJIeBOro, HM H)'lKH0 HaHHTb
60JIbIlIe pa60'IHX, H Tor)).a 6e3pa6oTHQa nOMeT Ha yfibIJIb.

)).pyroH CroPOHbI, eCJIH IPHPMbI

COKpamaIOT 06'beM npOH3BO)).CTBa, nOToMy ~o MarepHaJIbHbIe 3anaCbI npeBbICHJIH QeJIeBOH


ypOBeHb, HM npHXO)).HTCH

YBOJIHTb pa60'IHX, if rorM OO3pa6oTHQa B03paCTaeT.

KoppelCTHposaHHe 3anaCOS CYlfeTOAf 3annaHHpOSaHHWX


Ht/JalCTHlfeCKHX paCXOAOS
B

MO)).eJIH KeHHca )).eJIaeTCH ynop Ha Pa3JIHqHH Me)K)].y JaIVIaHHPOBaHHbIMH H lPaKTHqe

CKHMH pacxo)).aMH.

124

'ISCTb

II.

MSICp03KOHOMHKS - HSyKa

06 3KOHOMH'IeCKOM pOCTe H cTs6HnbHocTH

./ 3annoHUjJ080HHble POCXOObl -

9TO KOJIWleCTBO ,n:eHer, KOTOphle ,n:OMOX035IHCTBa,

npe,n:rrpIDl1'IDl, rocy,n:apCTBO H Japy6eX<Hhle rr0Tpe6HTeJIH XOTeJIH 6hl rrOlpaTHTb


Ha TOBapbI H YC.rryrH OTe'leCTBeHHoro rrpoH3BO,n:CTBa
./ tP01CmUlfeCKUe POCXOObl rrpupaBHHBaIOTC5I K BaJIOBOMY BHYTPeHHeMY rrpO.n:yKTy

(BBTI),

0 KOTOpOM paCCKa3b1BaeTC5I B maBe

4.

cDaKTWlecKHe pacxo,n:hl paBHbl

CYMMe, KOTOPYIO B ,n:eDCTBHTeJIbHOCTH lpaT5IT Ha TOBapbl H yCJIyrH OTeqeCT


BeHHoro rrpOH3Bo,n:CTBa ,n:OMOX035IDcTBa, rrpe,n:rrpH5ITH5I, rrpaBHTeJIbCTBO H Ja
py6eX<Hhle rroKYIIaTeJIH.
qTO rrpOHcxo,n:HT, Kor,n:a lPaKTHqeCKHe pacxo,n:hl OTJIHqaIOTC5I OT 3aIIJIaHHpOBaHHhlX
paCXO,n:OB? 3arrachl MaTepHaJIbHblX o60poTHblX cpe,n:CTB aBTOMaTHqeCKH H3MeH5IIOT
C5I. HarrpHMep, ecml Ha TOBaphl H yc.rryru lpaTHTC5I 60JIbIIle ,n:eHer, qeM 3aIIJIaHHpO
BaHO, JIIO,n:H rrOKYIIaIOT 60JIbIIle rrpo,n:YKTa, qeM rrpOH3Bo,n:HTC5I B ,n:aHHblH MOMeHT.
3Ta cHTYaUH5I B03MOX<Ha rrOTOMY, 'ITO lPHpMbl rrpo,n:aIOT TOBaphl H3 CBOHX MaTepH
aJIbHbIX 3arraCOB, KOTOphle OHH C03,n:aJIH paHee.

C ,n:pyroH CTOpOHhl,

eCJIH JIIO,n:H lpa

T5IT MeHbIIle ,n:eHer Ha TOBaphl H ycJIyrH, qeM 6hlJIO 3aIIJIaHupOBaHO, MaTepHaJIbHhle


3arraCbl <tlHPM YBeJIHqHBaIOTC5I, rrOTOMY qTO lPHpMhl ,n:OJIX<Hhl CKJIa,n:HpoBaTb BeCb
rrpoJJ:YKT, KOTOphlH OHH He MOryT rrpo,n:aTb.
KeitHc rrpe,n:CTaDHJI 3aIIJIaHHpOBaHHhle pacxo,n:hI,

PE,

B BH.n;e aJIre6paWlecKoro paBeHCTBa:

PE = C + IP + G + NX

(6.1)

.sI ,n:eTaJIbHO 06b5ICH5IIO HX B maDe 4,

qTO 03HaqaIOT Bee 3TH 6yxBbl?

a :meCb rrpHBe.n:y JIHIIIb

KPaTKOe co,n:eplKaHHe

./ C 03HaQaeT 06beM

./ IP 03HaIJaeT

BhlrryCKa, KOTOPblH Heo6xo,n:HM rrOlpe6HTeJI5IM.

06'beM BhlrrycKa, KOTopoelPHpMhl IIJIaHHpYIOT rrpHo6peCTH KaK

HHBeCTHUHOHHhle TOBaphl, HarrpHMep, HOBhle <t>a6pHKH H o6opy,n:OBaHHe, a


TaIOKe BC5IKOe IIJIaHHpyeMoe H3MeHeHHe 3arraCOB MaTepHaJIbHhlX 060pOTHhlX
cpe,n:CTB.
ECJIH rr03,n:Hee <t>HpMbl ,n:OJIX<Hbl 6y.D:YT YBeJIH'lHTb HJIH COKpaTHTb MaTepHaJIb
Hhle 3arraCbI 6oJIbIIle, IJeM OHM IIJIaHHpOBaJIH, 3HaQHT, <t>aKTWleCKHe HHBeCTH
UHOHHble pacxoJJ:hl,

I,

He 6y.D:YT paBHbl o6beMY 3aIIJIaHHpOBaHHhlX HHBeCTH

uHH,IP.
./ G 03HaIJaeT,

KaKYIO qaCTb rrpOJJ:YKTa XOIJeT rrpH06pecTH rocy,n:apcTBo

B BH.n;e

II1KOJIbHhlX 3,n:aHHH HJIH rapaHTHpoBaHHoH rrOCTaBKH 6YMarH JJ)UI qHHOBHH


KOB .

./ NX 03HaQaeT IfUCmblU 06'be.M 3Kcnopmo -

CTOHMOCTb 3KcrropTa OreqeCTBeHHblX

TOBapoB H yc.rryr MHHYC CTOHMOCTb HMrropTa 3apy6eX<HOH rrpo,n:YKIlHH.

NX co

Q6II1aeT HaM QHCTbIH crrpoc 3apy6eXHbIX 3KOHOMHK Ha TOBapbl O"I'eIJeCTBeHHO


ro rrpoH3Bo.uCTBa.

)lmI:

<t>aKTH'leCKHX pacxo,n:OB,

Y,

KeHHC HCrrOJIb30BaJI TO JKe ypaBHeHHe, KOTopoe Mhl HC

rrOJIb3yeM JJ)UI BhI'lHCJIeHH5I BaJIOBOro BHYTPeHHero rrpOJJ:YKTa (peIJb 0 HeM H.n;eT B maBe

Y=C+I+G+NX

rnasa 6. nO'leMy npOMcxO~flT petteCCMM

4):

(6.2)

125

llo'IeMY MbI MOXeM HCnOJIb30BaTb ypaBHeHHe BBll AJUI BbI'lHCJleHIDl lPaKTH'IeCKHX


paCXO,llOB?

KaK H 06'bHCHHIO B maDe 4,

,lloxo.lly, noTOMY 'ITO B 3KOHOMHKe

lPaK'I'H'leCKHe pacxO,llhI PaBHhI COBOKYJIHOMY

KaXC,llhIit

KeM-TO H3paCXO,llOBaHHhUl: ueHT CTaHO

BHTCH ,llOXO,llOM AJUI KOro-HH6y.zu, ,llpyroro. DOJIee TOro, lPaK'I'H'leCKHe paCXO,llbI TaK
)ICe paBHbI CTOHMOCTH BCex TOBapOB ~

YCJI}T,

npoH3Be,lleHHhIX 3KOHOMHKOj;(, nOTO

MY 'ITO BCHKaH 'IaCTb npoH3Be,lleHHoro npo.uyKTa KOMY-HH6y,llb npo,llaHa. (BCHKHj;(


npo.uyKT, npoH3Be,lleHHbIA lPHPMOj;(, HO KOTOpblit He MO)ICeT 6hITb npo,llaH nOTPe6H~
TeJIHM, C'IHTaeTCH "npo,llaHHbIM" lPHPMOj;( CaMoj;( ce6e, KaK 'IaCTb ee M;arepHaJIbHbIX
3anaCOB.

3TH H3MeHeHIDI 3anaCOB H3BeCTHhI KaK uH6ecmu~uu 6

eTCH B BBll, KaK 'IaCTb 06w;ero 06'beMa HHBeCTHuIdt,

3anOCbl H CYMMHPY

I.)

Y C nOMolIlblO pa3HhIX cnoco60B.


Y B BH,lle lPaKTH'leCKHX paCXO,llOB;B

lbyqaH MO,lleJIb Kej;(Hca, O'IeHb Y,ll06HO paCCMaTPHBaTb


I1Hor,lla JIertle nOHHTb MO,lleJIb, eCJIH BhI npe,llCTaBJUIeTe
.upyroe BpeMH ee JIertle nOHHMaTb, eCJlH npeACTaBHTb

YB

BH,lle COBOKYJIHOro AOXOAa HlIH

06'b

eMa rtPOH3BO,llCTBa.BcHKIdt p83, KorAa R xoqy o6JIeI"lHTb nOHHMaHHe 3TOA MOAeJIH. MHe npH
XOAHTCR nepeKJIlO'IaTbCR C OAHOro onpeAeJIeHIDl

Ii ,~ ,
~;

Y Ha ,lij)yTOe

HJlH TPeTbe.

E,nHHCTBeHHaR p83HHua Mex.ny npaHOA 'I8CTbJO ypaBHeHH1t


HHBeCTHUHA. B nepBOMCJIyqae 3tO 3DntlaHUp06DHHble
aBO BTOpOM- ,paKmU14eCKUe

PE OTJIH'IBlOTCR

UH6ecmU~UOHHble

(6.1)

(6.2) -

3TO BH,llhI

UH6eCmU~UOHHblePDCXoObl (P'),

PDCXOObl

(I).

,lUlyrHMH CJIOBaMH,

YH

Ha BeJIH'lHHy npHpOCTa (YMeHbWeHHJI) HHBeCTHUHA, BhI3BaHHO

ro HeO)KH,!l8HHbIM YBeJIH'leHHeM HJlH COKPaw;eHHeM MaTepH8JlbHhIX 3anaCOB, KorAa


npO,llaxH HJlH HaxO,llRTCR HH)i(e 3anJIaHHpOBaHHOro ypOBHH, HJlH npeBbIWaJOT ero.

A renepb -

HeMHOJKKO

anre6pw

BhI 3H8JlH, 'ITO 3TO HeH36e>KHo: H8CTYJIHJlO BpeMH 8Jlre6paH'IeCKHX ynpUCHeHHj;(. KaKoBa
Hawa UeJIb? Onpe,neJIHTb 3KOHOMH'IeCKOe paBHOBeCHe B Mo,neJIH KeAHca, HCnOJIb3YJ1 HaWH
BbIlUlIOlUHeCR MaTeMaTH'IeCKHe cnOC06HOCTH. (11T1lK, KY,na )ICe R HX no,neB8Jl?)
Bo-nepBhIX, HaM HYXHO onpe,neJIHTb YHK~UIO nompe6.neHUJI nOTPe6JIeHHH, -

KqTOPYIO MbI no,nCTaBHM B ypaBHeHHe

(6.1).

cnoco6 paCtieTa 06111ero

B maBe

npe,ncTaBJIeHa CJIe

.llYIOlUaR lPOpMYJIa AJUI pactieTa nOTPe6JIeHIDl:

C = Co + c (l - t) Y.
3a BceMH ,lleTaJIHMH 06pawaj;(TeCb K rJIaDe

4. A ce1t'lac

(6.3)
Bce, 'iTO BaM ,neACTBHTeJIbHO HYJICHO

3HaTb 06 3TOA lPoPMYJIe, T1lK 3TO TO, 'iTO 60JIee BbICOKHj;( ypoBeHb ,nOXO,nOB

(C).
(6.3) B ypaBHeHHe (6.1),

(y)

npHBO,llHT K

60JIee BhICOKOMY ypoBHIO noope6JIeHIDl


ECJlH BhI nO,llCTaBHTe ypaBHeHHe

TO nOJIyqHTe:

PE =Co +c(1- t)Y+ jP +G + NX

(6.4)

ECJIH BbI BHHMaTeJIbHO nOCMOTPHTe, TO YBH,llHTe, 'ITO 3TO ypaBHeHHe nOKa3bIBaeT, 'ITO
06lUaH CYMMa 3anJIaHHpOBaHHhIX paCXO,llOB Ha TOBaPbI H ycJIyrH B 3KOHOMHKe
OT 06mero ,nOXO,lla B 3KOHOMHKe

(PE)

3aBHCHT

(n. qeM BhIwe ypoBeHb o6w;ero ,lloxo,lla, TeM 60JIbWe ,lleHer

JIIO.llH nJIaHHPYIOT nOTPaTHTb.


XopoWHA cnoc06 ynpOCTHTb 3TO ypaBHeHHe -

3TO C03.llaTb nepeMeHHyK)

H on

pe,neJIHTb ee CJIe.llYIOW;HM 06p83oM:

A =Co+IP+G+NX

126

"'SCTb

II.

MSIqJ08ICOHOMMICS - HSylCS

06 HOHOMlfCfeCICOM POCM H Crs6MRbHOcnr

ECJIH Bb! c,n;eJIaeTe 3TO, paBeHCTBO

(6.4)

6y,neT BbIrJIH,lJ;eTb HeMHoro rrpIDITHee:

PE=A+cO-t)Y.
IlepeMeHHaJI

03HaqaeT

(6.5)

aBmOHOMHble pacxoobl, rro,n KOTOPbIMH 3KOHOMHCTbI rrOHHMaIOT

qaCTb 3aIIJIaHHpOBaHHbIX pacxo,noB, KOTOpbIe He 3aBHCHT OT ,nOXO,nOB


BaHHbIx pacxo,nOB, KOTopbIe 3aBHCHT OT ,n;OXO,nOB, C (1

- t) Y,

(Y).

qacTb 3aIIJIaJIHpo

H3BeCTHa KaK

UHOy14UpOBaHHble

paCXOObl.

,LlJuI

rrOHHMaHIDI HH,DyUHpOBaHHbIX pacxo,noB rrpe,nCTllBbTe ce6e, qTO eCJIH

rro,noXO,ZJ;Horo HaJIOra, 3HaqHT,


yruIaTbI HaJIOroB.

11

(1 - t) Y-

6.6

3TO YPOBeHb

H3 3TOH CYMMbI qaCTb C TPaTHTCH Ha rrOTpe6JIeHHe, TaK qTO C (1

06UlHT BaM, KaKJIe pacxo,nbI "HH,ZJ;yIUfpoBaHbI" ,nOXO,nOM B pa3Mepe


Ha pHC.

t-

CYMMa, KOTOPaJI ,nQIDKHa OCTaTbCH Ha pacJ(o,nbI rrOCJIe

3llBHCHMOCTb

(6.5)

- t) Y co

Y.

H306plUKeHa rpa<t>~ecKH B BH,ZJ;e

1CpUBOU 3aTUlaHupOBaHHbIX

pacxoOoB.
3annaHMpOBaHH~epacxOA~

PE
3annaHMpOBaHHbie paCXQ,II,b1
PE = A + c( 1- t)Y

AOXOA,
PKC.

,LlJuI TOro 1ff06hI HaRTH

6.6.

B~nycK,

KPK8SR 3snnSHKp08SHHblX PSCXO~08

KOHKpeTHoe PllBHOBeCHe B KeHHCHaHCKOH Mo,neJIH, 3arrOMHHTe, ~O

see B03MO:lKHbIe BapHaHTbI pllBHOBeCHbIX COCTOHHHH BbIplUKeHbI CJIe,nYJOUlHM paBeHCTBOM:

PE= Y.
3To

(6.6)

ypaBHeHHe MoxeT 6bITb rrpoqHTaHO KaK "3aIIJIaHHpOBaHHbIe pacxo,nbI PllBHbI <t>aKTH

qeCKHM pacxo,naM. (IloMHHTe, 1ffO B 3KOHOMHKe

Y PllBHO

KaK o6UleMY ,noxo.ny, TaK H 06UlHM

pacxo,naM, rroTOMY ~o Bee pacXO,nbI ecTb qbHMH-TO ,nOXO,naMH.)

BCHKaJI CH'rya~IDI, Kor,na

PE = Y,

3KOHOMHKa ,nOCTHfaeT TOqKH, r,ne

eCTb paBHOBeCHe. IloqeMY? IloToMY, qTO eCJIH

PE = Y,

3HaqHT, HHKTO He HMeeT HHKaKOH rrpH

qHHbI H3MeIDITb CBoe rrOBe,neHHe. IloTPe6HTeJIH rrOTPe6AAIOT CTOJIbKO, CKOJIbKO


OHH 3aIIJIaHHpOBaJIH
rrpHo6pecTH

(G).

(C).

focy,naPCTBO rrOKYIIaeT CToJIbKO rrpO.nyKTa, CKOJIbKO XOqeT

3apy6e:lKHl>Ie rroTpe6HTeJIH rrOKYIIaIOT CTOJIbKO TOBapOB, CKOJIbKO

rn8186.nO~8MynpoMcx~Tp8q8CCMM

127

OHH HaMepeBaJIHCb IIpH06peCTH

(NX). H,

'ITO CaMOe BaJKHOe, c!>HpMbI TpanlT Ha

HHBeCTHUHH poBHO CTOJIbKO, CKOJIbKO OHH IIJIaHHpOBaJIH -

OTCIO,lla CJIe,llYeT, qTO

MarepHaJIbHble 3arraCbI He H3MeIDIIOTCg HeO)(OfJl;aHHO.


ECJIH 3arirraHHpoBaHHhle paCXO,!lbI paBHhl c!>aKTH'IeCKHM pacxo~. Bhl .neHCTBHTeJIbHO IIO
~aere paBHOBeCHe, IIOTOMY qTQ Ka.)({,lU>IH IIOJlY'laeT XeJIaeMoe. H HH Y KOro HeT CTHMYJIa .llJljJ:

H3MeHeHHjJ: CBOero IIOBe,lleHUjI.

Gf)

!:

.,

Bhl Moxere orrpe.neJIHTb paBHOBeCHoe 3HaqeHHe lIpO.ayKTa, KOTOPhlR g CJ>6l1paIOCb


Ha3BaTh

Y, IIo.nCTaBHB ypaBHeHHe (6.5) B ypaBHeHHe (6.6). ECJIH BLI c.neJIaere 3TO,

y Bac IIOJIyqHTCg CJIe.ZJ;yIOmee:

= - - - - A..
I - c(l - t)

(6.7)

Onpe,qenfleAf pSSHOSeCJfe rpacPJflfeCKJf


(6.7)

EcJIH paBeHCTBO

qepecqyp rryraeT Bac, rrpo.nOJIXaHre qHTaTh .naJIbllJe. HaMHoro JIer

qe OIIpe.neJIHTb paBHOBeCHe B MO,lleJIH KeHHca rpac!>WIecKH. ~ TOro 'IT06hl c.neJIaTh 3TO, Bhl
IIOMemaeTe rpac1>HK paBeHCTBa

PE

A + C (1 - t) Y,

PE

Y Ha TOT xe rpac!>HK, r.ne HaxO.ZJ;HTCg rpac!>HK paBeHCTBa


6.7. ToqKa, r.ne ,llBe JIHHHH IIepeCeKaIOTCg, 6y.neT

KaK IIOKa3aHO Ha pHC.

TOqKOH paBHOBeCUjI. B 3TOH TOqKe 3aIIJIaHHpOBaHHLIe paCXO,!lbI TOqHO paBHhl c!>aKTWIeCKHM


paCXO,ZJ;aM B 3KOHOMHKe.
3TO paBHOBeCHe

Cma6UJ1bHO (ycmou14u8o);

IIO.n 3THM IIO.ZJ;pa3YMeBaeTCg, qTO eCJIH 3KOHO

Y OHa BCKope B03BpamaeTCg


Y,- 3T0 H3MeHeHHg 3aIIaCOB MaTepHaJIbHhlX

MHKa HaquHaeTCg Ha JII060M ypOBHe .nOXO,llOB, OTJIWIHOM OT

KY. To, qTO 3aCTaBJUleT ee B03BpamaTbCg

o6oPOTHhlX cpe.nCTB.

3annaHHpOBaHHble paCXO,!lbl

ll>aKTH'leCKHe pacxoJl,bl

PE=Y

PE

3annaHHpOBaHHble paCXO,!lbl

PE=A+c(1-t)Y

45

y
PHC.

128

'IaCrb

II.

6.7.

lloxOA, BblnycK, Y

PSSHOS8CH8 S MO/J.8I1H K8HHC8

MaKP03ICOHOMIIICa -

HaylCa

06 3ICOHOMII"eCICOM poere II cTB6ItnllHocllf

QT06bI y6e.n;HTbCj( B 3TOM, nOCMOTPHTe H8 pHC.


HLlA reOMeTPHtleclOf1t lplOK C JIHHHeA

PE = Y,

6.8,

H8 KOTOPOM HCnOJIb30BaH npeBOCXO.n;

nOKa3hlBaIOUlHA, KaK 3KOHOMHKa Be.n;eT ce6j(,

Kor.n;8 06'beM ee BhIIIYCKa He COOTBeTCTByeT paBHOBeCHOMY YPOBHIO,

Y.

3annaHIIlpOBaHHble

paCXOAbI

PE
Cl>aKTM'leCKlIle paCXOAbi

Y, .--------------------------------------3annaHIIlpoBaHHble paCXOAbl

PEl
.,

,
,,

PE2

OKPalll~HMe aanaCOB npMBO~1T K yaenM'leHMIO BblnyCKa

Y2

I
I
I
I
I
I
I

,,
,
,
I
I
I

Y2
Pt1C.

6.8.

KSK t13MeHeHt1R 38nSCOB MSTept18J1bHblX 060poTHbiX CPeACTB BcerAB

B03Bpa~IOTBblnycK K,

.<i)

Aox(),[\. BblnycK, Y

Y,

<I>OI{YC, KOTOPbIA JlHHIDI

PE = Y nOKa3bIBaeT H8 rpa4lHKe

B BH.n;e ym8 B

45 0 ,

'IaeTCj( B TOM, 'ITO ee MOlKHO HCnOJIb30BaTb ,lJ,IUl Ha'lePTSHHj( KBa.nP8TOB -

3aKJIIO
reOMeT

pHtlecKHX <lmryp, 'lbH CTOpOHhI HMelOT O.z:(HHaKOBYIO .n;JIHHy. 3To 3H8'1HT, 'ITO BbI
Moxere nepeHOCHTb BCJII(oe 3Ha'leHHe

Y H8

BePTJfK8JIbH)'lO OCb.

c.n;eJl8Tb 3TO, B03bMHTe npOH3BOJlbHOe 3H8'1eHHe


nepece'leHHj( C JlHHHeA, 06p83Y1OUleA yroJl

MY,

45 0 ,

Y,

,ll;rn

Toro 'lT06bI

no.n;HHMHTeCb BBePX, .n;o TO'IKH

8 38TeM HanpaBIDlHreCb B CTOPO

.n;o TO'IKH nepeCe'leHHj( C BepTHKaJIbHOH OCblO. TO'lKa, KOTOPYlO BbI nOJIY'lHTe,

npe.n;CTaBJIj(eT KOJIH'IeCTBO .n;0JIJI8poB (H8 BepTHKaJlbHOH OCH), KOTOpoe npe.n;CTaBJUI


eT

Y (H8 roPH30HTaJIbHOA).

6.8, Ha'lHHTe H8 roPH30HTaJIbHOH OCH C YPOBIDl BbI


Yz, KOTOPhIH HaxO.n;HTCH HHXe paBHOBeCHOro ypOBHH Y.EcJIH BbI no.n;HHMereCb no aep
0
THKaJIH .n;o JIHHHH, 06p83Y1OUleH yrOJI 45 , 8 3areM, nOBepHeTe HaJIeBO, BbI Moxere H8HeCTH
ypOBeHb BbInyCKa Yz Ha BePTHKaJIbH)'lO OCb. nO'leMY 3TO TaK nOJle3HO (3Ha'lHMO)? nOTOMY
'ITO YzMO)((HO 6y.n;eT CPaBHHTb C ypoBHeM 3aIIJIaHHpoBaHHbIX p8CXO.n;OB, PEz, KOTOphIit BbI no
JIY'IHJlH, Ha'IHHaH C ypoBHH BblJIYCKa Yz, pacnOJIOXeHHoro Ha roPH30HTaJIbHOH OCH.
KaK BbI Moxere BH.n;eTb, PEz > Yz; 3TO 3Ha'lHT, 'ITO 3aIIJIaHHpOBaHHbIe pacxo.n;bI npeBbI
HanpHMep, eCJIH paCCM8lpHBaTb pHC.

nycKa

m810T 06'beM BbIIIYCKa B 3KOHOMHKe. 3To 3Ha'lHT, 'ITO MaTepHaJIbHbIe 3anaCbI 6y.n;yT HeO)((H

rnsss 6. nOlfeMY npotfCXo,qRT peqeCCtftf

129

,naHHO YMeHhlUaThCR, KOr,na cPHpMhI npo,n1\llYT '1aCTh CBOHX 3aIIaCOB Jl}Dl peWeHHR B03HHKIlleit
npo6n:eMhI, nOCKOJIhKY JIIO,ZJ;H nOKYI!aJOT 60JIhWe TOBapOB, '1eM cPHPMhI npoH3BO,lUlT B ,naHHhIit
MOMeHT. 3TO CHIDKeHHe ypOBHR 3aIIaCOB BepHeT 3KOHOMHKY B COCTORHHe paBHOBeCHR.
nOCKOJIhKY o6'beM MaTepHaJIhHhIX 3anaCOB CHIDKaeTCR HeO)KH,.ll;aHHO, cPHpMhI YBeJIH'IHBa
lOT 06heMhI npOH3BO,nCTBa.

B pe3YJIhTaTe

BaThCR ,nO rex nop, nOKa He ,nOCTHrHeT

B03paCTaeT

Y.

DoJIee TOro, OH npo,n0JDK8.eT YBeJIHtIH

Y ,nOTOMY 'ITO npH BCRKOM 3Ha'leHHH Y < Y ,KaK BhI

Moxere BH.neTh H3 rpacPHKa, 3anJIaHHpOBaHHhIe pacxo,nhI 6y,nYT cnoc06CTBOBaTh HapalllHBa


HHIO o6heMa BhInyCKa.
KOppeKTHpoBaHHe MarepHaJIhHhIX 3arraCOB TaIOKe B03BpalllaeT 3KOHOMHKY K paBHOBeCHIO,
eenH OHO HBtIHHaeTCR HB ypOBHe npO.lJYK.Ta
pHC.

Yj,

KOTOPhIit 60JIhwe

6.8, eenH HCnOJIh3yeTe JIHHHIO, 06pa3YlOlllYlO yroJI45,

waeT 3aMaHHpOBaHHhIe pacxo,nhI,

PEl'

Y.KaK BhI Moxere BH.neTh H3

<paKTH'IecKHit BhIrrycK,

Yj,

npeBhI

,ZJ;pymMH CJIOBaMH, JIIO,nH nOKYI!alOT MeHhwe

'1eM B ,naHHhIil MOMeHT npOH3BO,ZJ;RT cPHpMhI

(Y/),

(PE/),

noSTOMY 3arraChI MaTepHaJIhHhIX 060POTHhIX

cpe,nCTB Ha'lHHaIOT YBeJIH'lHBaThCR.


<I>HPMhI OTBe"IaIOT Ha YBenH'IeHHe 3arraCOB coxpallleHHeM 06'heMOB npOH3Bo,nCTBa. OHH
YBOJIhHRIOT pa60'lHx.
nOKa ,nocrnrneT

B pe3YJIhTaTe Y CHIDKaeTCH.

OH npo,nOJDKaeT CHIDKaThCR ,no Tex nop,

Y ,nOTOMY 'ITO,nnR KaX,noro 3HaqeHHH Y> Y ,KaK BhI MoxeTe BH.neTh H3 rpa

<pHKa, ypoBeHh npOH3BO,ZJ;HMOro npo,DyKTa npo,nOJDKlleT IIpeBhIWaTh <paKTH'IeCKHe pacxo,nhI.

PaCT BBn M MOAenb KeMHca


KeilHC H306peJI 3TY MO,neJIb He TOJIbKO Jl}Dl 06'hRCHeHHR TOro, KaK 3KOHOMHKa C xeCTKH
MH ueHaMH ,nOCTHraeT cTa6unbHoro paBHOBeCHR.

B ero ,neitCTBHTeJIhHhIe HaMepeHHR

Bxo,nuna

,neMOHCTpauHR TOro, 'ITO HMeHHO MoxeT cJJ:eJIaTh rocy,napCTBO Jl}Dl ynyqweHHH CHTYaUHH BO
BpeMR peueCCHH.
,ZJ;aBa:ttTe OIIRTh BepHeMCR K pHC.

6.8.

npeJJ:nOJIOXHM, 'ITO KOppeKTHpoBKa MaTepHaJIbHhIX

3anaCOB npHBeJIa 3KOHOMHKY K YPOBHIO paBHOBeCHoro ,noxo,na,


YPOBeHb npoJJ:YKTa, npOH3Be,neHHoro npH nOJIHoit 3aHJJTOCTH,

Y,

HO 3TO

MeHhwe, qeM

r. 'liTO B STOil CHTYBUHH, cnpa

wHBaeT KeitHC, JJ:OJIXHO ,nenaTh rocy,napCTBo?

.'

~.
'"
o

focy,napCTBO MoxeT HH'lerO He MeHRTh. Co BpeMeHeM, nOToMyqTO

Y < r, ueHhI

CHH3JJTCH H 3KOHOMHKa BepHeTCH K YPOBHIO npOJJ:yxTa, npOH3Be,neHHoro npH nOJI


Hoil 3aHRTOCTH (STO ,l1BIDKeHHe nOKa3aHO Ha pHC. 6.5: H3 TOqKH

B TOqKY

C). Ho

KeitHc JJ:OKa3aJI, 'ITO rocy,napCTBO ,nOJDKHO YCKOpHTh BOCCTaHOBHreJIhHhIit npouecc,


nOBhIWaR ypoBeHb 3anJIaHHpOBaHHhIX pacxo,nOB.

K npHMepy, npe.nrrOJIOXHM, 'ITO rocy,napCTBO peWHnO }'BeJIH'lHTh G, rocYJJ:apCTBeHHhIe pac


XOJJ:hI Ha TOBaphI H ycnyrH. BenH:no npoH30it,neT, 3HaqHT,
YBeJIHtIHBaThCR. nOCKOJIbKY
;rnqeHHe

G-

PE B ypaBHeHHH (6.4) RBHO HaqHeT


(A), }'BeJIHtIeHHe G 3HaqHT YBe

qaCTh aBTOHOMHhIX pacxo,nOB

B ypaBHeHHH (6.5). fpa<pHqecKH: 60JIbWee 3HaqeHHe

3HaqHT, 'ITO JIHHHR 3aMB

PE/,no PEl, KaK nOKa3aHO Ha pHC. 6.9.


'ITO JIHHHH <paKTH'lecKHX pacxo,nOB (PE = Y) He H3MeHHJ18Cb, BepniKaJIh

HHpOBaHHhIX pacxo,nOB nepe,nBHHeTCR BepniKaJIbHO OT


YqHThIBaft TOT <paKT,

Hhdl: no,n'heM JIHHHH 3aIIJIaHHPOBaHHhIX pacxo,nOB npHBe,neT K YBeJIHtIeHmO paBHOBecHoro BhI


nycKa OT

,no

Y2

KeitHc npe,nnaran, 'lT06hI nOJIHTHKa rocy,napCTBa 6hIJIa HarrpaBJIeHa Ha YBe;rnqeHHe 3anna


HHpOBaHHhIx pacxo,nOB ,no He06xo,nHMoro ypOBHR Jl}Dl YBeJIHqeHHH paBHOBeCHoro 3HaqeHHR
BhInyCKa B xpaTKOCpO'IHOM nepHo,ne, xapaKTepH3YJQllleMcH xeCTKHMH ueHaMH,
BhIIIYCKa, npOH3Bo,nHMOro npH nOJIHoit 3aHJJTOCTH,

130

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r.

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06 31C0HOAllflfeCICOAl pocre If CTB6Ifn"HOCTlf

B rJUlBe 7 nO,l106HWI nOJIHTHKa paCCMaTpHBaeTCR

60JIee ,lleTBJIbHO H 06'W1CRjleTCR. nOlleMY

Ha npaKTHKe OHa He BCer,lla XOpOwo pa60TlleT.


cPaKTM'leCKMe
paCXO,Il,bI

3annaHMpoBSHHble
pSCXO,Il,b1

PE
3annaHMpOBaHHble paCXOAbl
nocne yBBnM'leHMII G, PE2

~3Ha'lanbHble

3annaHMpOBaHHble
pacxOAbl, PEl

Yl
PHC.

6.9.

.. Y2

AOXOA, BblnycK, Y

YB6J1H'/SHHS rocy,qapCTBSHHblX paCXOAOB nOBblwaST paBHoBscHb/~BblnycK OT

rnsBs.6. nOlfeMY npOHcxo,qflT peqeccHH

AO

Yz

131

rnaBa 7
60pb6a C KpM3MCaMM C nOMO~blO
MOHeTapHOM M 4>McKanbHOM nOnMTMK
IJ 3~1t ua8e...

L4cno.nb30BaHllle MOHeTapHOI.1 III <!>IIICKa.nbHOI.1 no.nIllTIIIK AIlR

cTIIIMynRl.\1II111 aKOHOMIIIKIII

HeYTeWIIITe.nbHbll.1 <!>aKT: cnlllWKOM 60nbwaR

cTIIIMynRl.\IIIR -

nplII'-1I11Ha B03HIIIKHOBeHIIIR IIIH<!>nRI..\MIII

Pal.\IIIOHa.nbHble OJKIIIAClHIIIR MOryr orpaHIII'fIllTb

a<!><t>eKTIIIBHOCTb MOHeTapHOI.1 III <!>HCKa.nbHOI.1 nonlllTIIIK

60nee AeTa.nbHO 0 MOHeTapHOI.1 III <!>IIICKa.nbHO~

...~~

no.nIllTIIIKax

OHeTapHaR H <pHCKaJILHasI rrOmITHKH -

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BIDKHe~WHe

<PYHKUHH COBpeMeHHO

ro rocy,ll,apcTBa, HarrpaBJIeHHbIe Ha CTHMyJUU.J;HIO 3KOHOMHKH. MOHemapHaR no

AumUiCO Haue.rreHa Ha yaeJIH'ieHHe HJIH COIq>ameHHe ,lI,eHeJKHOH MaCCbI, TOr,ll,a KaK rjJUCKaAbHaR
nOAumUKa BKJIIOqaeT B ce6R rocy.napcTBeHHbIe paCXO,ll,bI H CHCTeMy HaJIoroo6J!oxeHHR.

DJlaro,ll,apR coaepWeHCTBOBaHHIO 3KOHOMH'ieCKOH HayKH B HawH ,lI,HH rocy,ll,apcTBO MOXeT


CMRI"DITb rrp0,ll,OJDKHTeJIbHOCTb H cepbe3HOCTb Iq>H3HCOB C rrOMOIIJ;bIO MOHeTapHOH H <pHC

KaJIbHO~ rrOJIHTHK.

3To ,lI,OCTHXeHHe qpe3BbI'I~HO BaXHO,

rrOTOMy ~o OHO ,lI,aeT rocy,ll,apcTBy

waHC rrpOBeCTH rr03HTHBHbIe H3MeHeHHR B XH3HH MHJUIHap,ll,OB JIIO,lI,e~. 3<p<peKTHBHasI 3KO


HOMH'ieCKaR rrOJIHTHKa MOXeT C,lI,e.rraTb HauHIO rrpoUBeTaIOIIJ;e~,TOr,ll,a KaK He3<P<PeKTHBHasI
HaHeCTH HerrorrpaBHMbI~Bpe,ll,.
TeM He MeHee, MOHeTapHaR H <pHCKaJIbHaR rrOJIHTHKH He JIHWeHbI He,ll,OCTaTKOB, H B 3TOH
maae R rroKaXy BaM HeTOJIbKO TO, KaK XOpOWO OHH pa6oTaIoT rrpH HaHJIyqWHX yCJIOBHRX, HO
orrHmy HX orpaHH'ieHHR H rrp06JIeMbI, B03HHKaIOIIJ;He rrpH rrpoBe,ll,eHHH HX B XH3Hb. nonyqHB
06m;yIO KaPTHHY, BbI CMOXeTe peWHTb AJllI ce6R, KOr,ll,a H KaK ,lI,OJI:lKHbI 6bf.fb HCrrOJIb30BaHbI
MOHeTapHaR H <pHCKaJIbHaR rrOJIHTHKH.
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rHX rrOJIHTHKOB H rrOMOXeT C,lI,e.rraTb co6cTBeHHbIe BhlBO,ll,bI, KOr,ll,a <paHa~o rrpHBepxeHHbIe


rrOJIHTHKe 3KOHOMHCTbI 6y,ll,YT CTapaTbCR rrpOBeCTH MC. KaK rOBOpHJIa AxoaH P06HHCOH,
O,ll,Ha H3 caMbIX BbI,lI,aIOIIJ;HXCR 3KOHOMHCTOB

XX BeKa:

"U;eJIb H3yqeHHR 3KOHOMH'ieCKO~TeO

pHH JaKJIIOqaeTCR He TOJIbKO B TOM, ~bI rrpH06pecTH Ha60p fOTOBbIX OTBeTOB Ha 3KOHOMH
qeCKHe BOrrpoCbI, HO H HayqHTbCR H300raTb 06MaHa co CTOPOHbI 3KOHO~t:HCTa"

.sI rrOJIHOCTbIO

COrJIaCeH C 3THM. Ho He BO.IIH}1heCb, MHe BbI MOXeTe aepHTb.

@S

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6,

R rrpowy MC c,lI,eJIaTb 3TO rrepe,ll, TeM, KaK BbI rrpH

CTYIIHTe K ,lI,aJIbHeRweMY qTeHHIO 3TOR maBhI. XOTR MoeR ueJIbIO 6bIJIO C,lI,eJIaTb
Kax.nYIO maBy 3TOR KHHrH caMOCTORTeJIbHOR, qT06bI BbI MomH, rro XeJIaHHIO,

"rreperrpblfHBaTh" C MeCTa Ha MeCTO, MHOrne TepMHHbI, C KOTOpbIMH BbI CTOJIKHe


TeCb B 3TOi\ maBe, rrpe)lCTaBJIeHbI H OOMICHeHbI B maBe

6.

B03MO:lKH0, BaM 6Y)leT

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6a30BbIM rrOHHMaHHeM TOro, KaK H rro'leMy rrpoHcxoMT peueCCHH, 'ITO HBJUleTCH
TeMOi\ maBbI

6.

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hjt.e0'lCMeJttul Cha'la
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COBOKYIIHOfO cnpoca Ha TOBapbI H YCJIYfH.

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3KOHOMHKY K eCTeCTBeHHOMY ypOBHIO BbInYCKa TaK 6bICTpO, KaK 3TO B03MO:lKH0.

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KOJIHQeCTBO rrpO)lYKTa, KOTOPbIit rrpOH3Be)leH 3KOHOMHKOH npH yCJIOBHH rrOJIHoit 3aH.lITOCTH,

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:lKeJIaHHe peaJIH30BaTb. ECJIH 3KOHOMHxa BOIlIJIa B xpH3HC H rrpOH3BO)lHT MeHbille rrpO)lYKTa,
'IeM

r, MHJIJIHOHbI JIIO)leit TepHIOT pa60Ty -

B 3THX yCJIOBIDIX rrpe)lrrpHHTHHM HyxGfO MeHb

IlIee KOJIH'leCTBO pa60'lHX )lJlH BbIpa60TKH MeHbiliero KOJIHlleCTBa rrpo)lyxTa.


XY:lKe TOro, ypOBeHb 6e3pa60THUbI OCTaeTCH BbICOKHM )l0 Tex rrop, noxa rrpo)lyxT He sep
HeTCH Ha ypoBeHb, COOTBeTCTBYIOI.JJ;Hit rrOJIHott 3aHHTOCTH. MOHeTapHlUI H q,HCKaJIbHlUI rrOJIH
THKH O'leHb rrOJIe3HbI, rroToMy 'ITO OHH MOryI' nOMO'Ib BepHYTb 3KOHOMHKY K rrpOH3BO)lCTBY
Ha ypOBHe

HaCTOJIbKO 6bICTpo, HaCKOJIbKO 3TO B03MO:lKH0; OHH MOryI' B 3Ha'lHTeJIbHott Mepe

CoxpaTHTh TOT rrepHO)l rrOTepb H HeB3fO)l, KOTOpbIi\ nepe:lKHBaIOT 6e3pa60THbIe.


llaBaiiTe B3fJIHHeM Ha pHC.

7.1,

KOTOPbIit nOKa3bmaeT, KaK MOryI' 6bITb HCnOJIb30BaHbI MO

HeTapHlUI H 'q,HCKaJIbHlUI nOJIHTHKH )lJlH CTHMYJIHpOB;;lHHH COBOxyIIHOfO cnpoca H KaK OHH


rrOMOfaIOT BepHYTb 3KOHOMHKY K npOH3BO,ll,CTBy Ha ypOBHe

r -

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CTpO, -

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B maBe

6, ompUl{ame.tlbHblU utOK cnpoca -

3T0 TO, QTO HeO:lKH)l,aHHO CHH:lKaeT COBOxyIIHbIit

cnpoc, HarrpHMep na)leHHe )lOBepHH nOTpe6HTeJIeit.)


Ha pHC.

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HHCXOMIUlUI XPHBlUI COBOxyIIHOro cl1poca,

ADo,

A,

f,ll,e

rrepecexaeT BepTHKaJIbHYJO xpHBYJO COBO

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LRAS. Kax

H 061.HCIUlIO B maDe

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ueHbI

B 3KOHOMHKe B xpaTKOCpO'lHOM rrepHO)le xeCTKHe. no 3TOtt npHllHHe XPHBlUI COBOKYrrHoro


rrpe)lJlO:lKeHHH B xpaTKOCpOQHOM rrepHO)le,
He ueH

(Po),

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6,

pa3JleJIe rro,ll, Ha3BaHHeM ")I(ecTKHe ueHbI B xpaTKOCpO'lHOM rrepHO,ll,e", 'ITO B 3ToD KHHre
)lJlH rrpOCTOTbI -

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BbIKJlH BH)I,eTh nO)lHHMaIOIUHeCH BsepX xpHBhIe

134

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KOf.lla npOHCXO.llHT OTpHJ.J.aTeJIhHblit lliOK cnpoca, CJIY'IaeTCSI CJIe.JlYlOm;ee.


,/ KPHBaSI COBOKYIlHOfO cnpoca CMem;aeTCSI BJleBO B nOJImKeHHe
COKpam;eHHe paCXO.llOB Ha TOBapbl 101

,/ C

AD]>

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Po

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B TO'IKY

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A
B

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,/ Kor.lla KOJIH'IeCTBO npO.ll}'KTa CHIDKaeTCSI, B03paCTaeT ypOBeHh 6e3pa60THUhl,
noTOM}' 'ITO npe.llnpHSlTHSI He H)')IC.naIOTCSI B 60JIhlliOM KOJIH'IeCTBe pa6OTHH
KOB.
KaK BbI Moxere BH,lleTb, 06XUHit pe3YJIhTaT HapymeHHSI cnpoca -

no 3KOHOMH'IeCKHj;!:

cna,ll (peueccHSI): nepHO.ll, KOf.lla npOHCXO.llHT CHIDKeHHe 06DeMOB BhIIIYCKa (npOH3BO.llHMOro


npo,ll,yKTa) 101 YBeJIH'IeHHe 6e3pa6oTIfl:u,I.

K CO)K8JIeHHIO, Ha npeO.llOJIeHHe cna,lla MoxeT yArn MHoro BpeMeHH. KaK SI 06bSlCHSlIO B


maDe

6,

eCJIH rOCY.llapCTBO He npe.llnpHHHMaeT HHKaKHX .lleitcTBHit ,llJISI TOro, 'IT06hl nOKOH

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Hblit ypOBeHh BblnyCKa 3aKJII()'IaeTCSI B CHH}I{eHHH ueH, ifr06h1 TO'IKa paBHOBecHSI 3KOHOMHKH
Moma nepe.llBHHyrbCSI no KpHBOit

AD]

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B maDe

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MHOro BpeMeHH.110 TOro, KaK OHa CMoxeT BepHyrbCSI K npOH3BO.llCTBY npo~a Ha ypOBHe

r,

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rn 7. Sop.6. C ICpM3MCIltfM...

135

nepeABMraeM KpMBylO AD BnpaBo


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~ IIp.'M, xorop..> BI<JIIO'''''' <ax MO.""'p.", TlU<.

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TO'IKH

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BB

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C (pHC. 7.1).

llpH 3TOM rrpOHCXO,!I,IIT nepeMemeHHe KPHBOH COBO

KylIHoro crrpoca BnpaBO.


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AD] 06paTHo
3To

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TO'IKa paBHOBeCHH 3KOHOMHKH Moma 6bI nepenpbImyfb B n03HUHK>

A.

O'leHb XOpOlIIO, nOTOMY 'ITO B TaKOM CJIY'lae 3KOHOMHKa B03BpamaeTCH K rrpOH3BO,n;CTBy

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XO,ll;HM ,lI;JIH nepexo,n;a 3KOHOMHKH H3 TO'lKH

B TO'IKY

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CHOBa CMOryr HaRTH paGOTY H npo,n;OJDKaT 3a60THTbCH 0 ce6e H CBOHX CeMbHX.
Ho,

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60pwbI C 3KOHOM~eCKHM Cna.n;OM -

,n;eJlO HeJleTKoe. Moryr B03HHKHyTb npo6J1eMbI, Cpe,ll;H

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,n;eH no nOBO.n;y TOro, HaCKOJlbKO YBeJl~eHHe COBOKYIIHOro cnpoca nOBJIHHeT Ha P03H~HbIe
ueHbI). ll03TOMY, nepe,n; TeM KaK H Ha'lMY paCCMaTPHBaTb OCo6eHHOCTH HCnOJlb30BaHHH MOHe
TapHOH H l>HCKaJIbHOH nOJIHTHKH C ueJlbK> YBeJI~eHHH COBOKYIIHOro cnpoca, xoqy 06bHCHHTb
BaM, KaK HH1>JIgUHH H HH1>JIgUHoHHbIe O)KH,ll;aHHH MOryr orpa~HTb HX 3<P<PeKTHBHOCTb.

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t:.,I,ltlllJttM/, OtJJ,b/ltOU cliiltJt't.AJlH,ll.It .
JlyqlIIHH cnoco6 nOHHTb
eT COBOKYIIHbIH cnpoc, -

orpaH~eHHH 3KOHOM~eCKOHnOJlHTHKH,

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nOJlHTHKa MoxeT H3MeHHTb TOJlbKO ypOBeHb ueH, a He 06'beM BbIl1YCKa. llo'leMY? MH;e no
Ha.n;06HTCH HeCKOJlbKO CTPaHHU ,lI;JIH Toro, 'IT06bI 06'bHCHHTb Bce np~HHbI, HO B HTore Bee
06'bHcHeHHH, CBe~H K TOMY, 0 'IeM H,ll;eT pe'lb B rJIaBe
CH KPHBaH COBOKYIIHoro cnpoca -

6:

He HMeeT 3Ha'leHHH' r,n;e HaxO,!I,IIT

He HMeeT 3Ha'leHHH, CKOJlbKO TOBapoB xeJlaIQT (HJlH He

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rrpH KoroPOM 3KOHOMHKa CHOBa Ha'lHHaeT IIpoH3BO,n;HTb eCTeCTBeHHbIH 06'beM BbIl1YCKa


3KOHOMHKa rrpocTo He XO'leT CJlHlIIKOM ,n;OJIro OTKJIOHHTbCH OT

H 06bHCHHK> rrpHBH3aHHOCTb
eCJlH rrOCMQTPHTe Ha pHC.

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3KOHOMHKH K

B rJIaBe

6;

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(r).

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OrpHuaTeJlbHbIH lIIOK crrpoca rrepe,n;BHraeT KPHBYK> COBOKYII

ADo BAD].

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UeJIbIO CTHMYJlHUHII rrpoH3BO,n;CTBa, 3KOHOMHKa rrOCTerreHHO CaMOCTOHTeJlbHO npHcrroca6J1H


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a 3aTeM -

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B TO'IKY

r.

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KPHBOH COBOKylIHOro crrpoca BrrPaBO B

ADI>

B ,n;OJITOCPO'IHOM rrepHo.n;e 3KOHOMHKa BCer.n;a rrpH

XO,ll;HT K PaBHOBeCHIO B TOlIKe, me KPHBaH COBOKylIHoro crrpoca rrepeceKaeTCH C ,n;OJITOCPO'lHOH


KPHBOH COBOKYIIHOro npeMo~eHHH (LRAS).

11, KaK H nOKa3bIB8lO B rJIaBe 6, LRAS -

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136

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nOCKOJIhKY 3KOHOMHKa BCer,n;a

(r),

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BaTh 061.eM BhInycKa B 3KOHOMHKe Ha ypOBHe, npeBhImalOIIJ,eM

r. ~ TOro 'ITO

6hI y6e,D;HThC~ B HCTHHHOCTH 3TOro ymepJK,ZJ;e~, npe.n;nOJIO)KHM, 'ITO rocy,n;apcTBO


. HCnOJIh30BaJIO MOHeTapHylO H/HJIH cPHCKaJIbHylO nOJIHTHKY ~ CMemeH~ Iq)HBOH
COBOKYllHOro cnpoca H3

P1 I

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XO,D;HlUI Iq)HBaJI COBOKYllHOro cnpoca
ro cnpoca

(LRAS),

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BePTHKaJIhHoit JIHHHeit, npoxo,n;~un.eH tIepe3 TOtIKY

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6)

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TO'IKY

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npoHCXO.llHT nOTOMy, 'ITO u;eHhI B KPaTKocpo'IHOM nepHo.ne xeCTKHe, 3KOHOMH

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B 60JIhme,

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r.

no 3TOH

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'Ieit CHnbl.

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Ma .n;OJDKHa BbIITna'IHBaTb HM .n;onOJIHHTeflbHbIe .n;eHbm.

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<pHPMbI .n;OJDKHbI }'BeJI~HTb 3apa6OTHyIo nnary (nocKOJIbKY nOHJITHO, 'ITO 3TH


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Ha TOBapbI H ycJIyJ'H.
no 3TOit np~HHe 3KOHOMHKa nepeit.n;eT H3 TO'IKH B B TO'IKY C, KaK nOKa3aHO Ha pHC. 7.2.
B pe3ynbTaTe nOBblWeHHJI ueH H3-3a nOBblWeHHJI 3apa60THoit nnaTbl 3KOHOMHKa nepe.n;BHHeT
Baepx KPHBYIO

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ypOBHe

B TO~e

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r, H 4lHpMaM He H)')K

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Po.n;o PI'

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r.

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HaJa,n K 3THM BeJIH'IHHaM~ CJIe.n;OBaTeJIbHO, PhIHO'lHa5I ueHa H o61.eM phIHKa
TaIOKe Ha3hIB8IOTCJI paBHOBeCHOU 14eHOU H paBHOBeCHbtM 06!eMOM.

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He HMeeT 3Ha'leHHJI, C 'Iero Ha'IHHaeT pbIHOK, OH Bcer.n;a B03BpaIUaeTC.II HaJa,n K paBHOBeCHIO.
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npe)l;JlO:lKeHHJI, BhI .n;OJDKHhI Y3HaTb o.n;HY O'leHb Ba:lKHYIO BeIUb. 3aMeTbTe, 'ITO npH
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TaJIH3MY BHYTPeHHe He npHcy:ma 3KcnnyaTaUHJI. COBceM Ha060poT: npH yCJIOBHH
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8.10

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OTBeTCTBOBaTb TO~e, B KOTOpOH nepeceKaIOTCSl 3TH KPHBhIe cnpoca H npe,lJJIOlKeHHSl. IIoCJIe
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Do K D], TOr,lI,a KaK KPHBaSl npe,lJJIOXeHHSl S oc~
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PbIHOqHoe npe,lJJIOXeHHe - Q"{)o KOr,ll,a KPHBaSl cnpoca CMemaeTCSl Bnpaao K D], u:eHa CHaqana
OCTaeTCSl Ha ypoBHe F {)o Ho 3Ta u:eHa He MOXeT ,lI,OJlTO OCTaBaTbCSl HeH3MeHHOH, nOTOMY qTQ c
HOBOH KPHBOH cnpoca nOSlBHllcSlH36bITO'IHlJIii: cnpoc. 3To 3HaqHT, qTQ npH u:eHe po 0 BeJIHqH
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)];aBaHTe BHHMaTeJlbHO paCCMOTpHM pHC.

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JIeBOM rpact>HKe pHC.

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lJepqeHHoil: Ha npaBOM rpacPHKe pHC.

8.7,

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PeaK",MR Ha YMeHbWeHMe npeAnO)l(eHMR


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8t 9

10:

eCJIH Sl norpaqy BOCbMOR ,llOJIJIap Ha noKYllKY qeTBeproro

KYcOqKa nHIJ;IJ;bI, TO noJIY'IY

e,llHHHIJ; nOJIe3HOCTH. To xe KOJI~eCTBO e,llH

HHIJ; Sl noJIY'IY. eCJIH norpaqy BOCbMOil ,llOJIJIaP (BMeCTe C ,lleBSlTbIM) Ha rpeTblO


nHHTY nHBa. TaK qTO MOH nOCJIe,llHHe rpH ,llOJIJIapa Sl ,llOJDKeH norpaTHTb Ha
noKYllKY qeTBeproro KYco~a nHIJ;IJ;bI H rpen,eH nHHTbI nHBa.

B Ta6JI. 9.4 Sl

npHBOxy ,llaHHble 0 roM, Ha qro Sl norpaTHJI 6b1 I<a.}I(,llblH H3 CBOHX

3aMeTbTe, qro COBOKynHaR nOJIe3HOCTb, KOropyro Sl MOry n~Tb 3a CBOH

112

JISleT

e,llHHHIJ; nOJIe3HOCTH. 3'1'0 HaMHoro JIyqme, qeM

6b1, norpamB Bce ,lleHbrH Ha nHIJ;.u;y, HJIH

80

64

10 ,llOJIJI.,

10 ,llOJIJI.
COCTaB

e,llHHHIJ;bI, KOTopble Sl nOJIyqHJI

e,llHHHIJ;, KOTopble Sl nOJIyqHJI 6b1 OT npH06peTe

HHSl nHBa. TIorpaTHB I<a.}I(,llblR ,llOJIJIap B COOTBeTCTBHH C ,llaHHblMH 0 MaKCHMaJIbHOil nOJIe3HO


cm I<a.}I(,lloro BH,lla TOBapa, Sl C,lleJIaIO JIyqme, qeM eCJIH norpaqy Bce ,lleHbrH TOJIbKO Ha 0.I\HH
BH,ll roBapa.

Ta6nML4a 9!4. KaK II onTMManbHO pacnopRAMncR CBOMM 61O,AlK8TOM


Aonnap

BIII6paHHIII" TOlap

1
2

nHlllla

nHlllla

nHBO

n~ll.ll1a

nnHIAOMlP

20
16
14
10
10
9
9

11HBO

nHBO

nHBO

nHlllla

8,

nHBO

9
10

nHBO

01511.\68 ICOnM'IeCTIO e,qMHM", none3HOCTM

8
112

3aMeTbTe TaIOKe, qrO B pe3YJIbTare Sl npHo6peJI qeTblpe KYCOqKa nHIJ;IJ;bI H rpH nHHTbI nHBa.
TIPH ,llaHHOM 6IO,ll}I{eTe H ,llaHHbIX IJ;eHax BeJI~HHa Moero cnpoca Ha nHIJ;.u;y COCTaBJUIeT qe
TbIpe KYCOqKa, a BeJI~HHa Moero cnpoca Ha nHBO -

rpH nHHTbI. TIpoIJ;ecc MaKCHMH3aIJ;HH

nOJIe3HOCTH TaKXe JIe:JICHT B OCHOBe KPHBbIX cnpoca H onpe,lleJISleT CBSl3b Me}l{,lly BeJI~HHOH
npeMoxeHHSl H IJ;eHoil.

(0

KPHBbIX cnpoca Sl paCCKa3b1BaIO B rJIaDe

8H

B03BpamaIOCb K HHM

n03,llHee B :noil maBe, B pa3,lleJIe "KpHBble cnpoca H COKPameHHe npe,lleJIbHoil nOJIe3HOCTH".)

B CJIe,llYJOmeM
lUYIO

194

pa3,lleJIe Sl npe,llCTaBJIIO BameMY BHHMaHHIO BOJIme6Hyro cPoPMYJIY, n03BOJISlIO

BaM BbI6paTb, Ha qro norpaTHTb CBOH ,lleHbrH B JII060R CHryaIJ;HH.

"'Ben, III. AfHICP031COHOMHKB - HBYKB 0 nos8,qetlHH norpe6wrenej H nP8Al'PIfJmfil

BblpaBHMBaHMe npeAenbHOA nOne~HOCTM BpaC'IeTe


Ha Aonnap CTOMMOCTM BCeX TOBapOB Mycnyr
B IIpe.n;hLlWIUeM

pa3JleJIe H 3aHHMaJICH OIIHCaHHeM ,llOBOJIbHO CK}"IHOro IIpOueCCa orrpe.n;e

JIeHHH, KaK JIY'lme IIoTpaTHTh 10.n;oJIJI. Ha IIHBO H IIHUUY. IIpHHHTHe IIo.n;o6Horo pemeHIDI He
BCer.aa 3aURMaeT TaKoe 6oJIbmoe KOJlH'IeCTBO BpeMeHH.

3TOM pa3JleJIe H O6'MICHHIO IIpOCTyIO

<P<>PMYJIY, KOTOpaH II03BOJIHeT JIIOAAM MaKCHMH3HpoBaTb COBOKYIIJIYlO IIOJIe3HOCTh, KOTOPYIO


OUR MOIyr IIOJIY'IHTh rrpH pacxo.n;OBaHHH KaKHX yro.n;HO CYMM, -

He HMeeT 3HaqeHIDI, KaKoe KO

JIHlIeCTBO TOBapoB HaxO.n;HTCH y HHX B paCilopIDKeHHH HJIH CKOJIbKO 3TH TOBaphl MOIyr CTOIITh.

AmI IIpOCTOTbI II03BOJIbTe H

HaQHY C IIOKaJa BaM BepCHH <pOpMyJIbI, KOTOPaH npHMeHHeT

CH IIpH pemeHHH TOro, KaK JIY'lme IIOTpaTHTb BamH KaIIHTaJIbI, Kor.n;a eCTb TOJIbKO ,llBa BH.n;a

TOBapOB HJlH yc.rryr. Kor,lla BbI 03HaKOMHTeCb C ".n;ByxBH.n;OBhlM" BapHaHTOM, TO 6e3 YCRJIHA:
CMO:lKeTe OCBOHTb "MHOroBH.n;OBOit".
,lJ,aBmtTe 0603HaQHM .n;Ba TOBapa 6YKBaMH
COOTBeTCTBeHHO

Px JJ.OJIJI.

X H Y H rrpe.n;IIOJIO:lKllM, QTO HX ueHa COCTaBHT


X H Py.n;OJIJI. 3a Ka:lK.!lYIO e.n;HHHUY Y. Hx rrpe

38 Ka:lK.!lYlO e.n;HHHUY

,lleJIbHble IIOJIe3HOCTH COOTBeTCTBeHHO 6y.n;YT Ha3bIBaTbCH

MUx H MUy~

PaCCMOTpHM <POPMYJIY,

II03BOJIHIOIUYIO'COilOCTaBHTh IIpe.n;eJIbHbIe IIOJIe3HOCTH .n;Byx BH.n;OB TOBapOB:

MU x _
--Px

MUy
Py

(9.1)

HH"'n ..,H. H cnpoc


KorAS Bbl 6YAeTe PSCCMSTP~BSTb ypSB
HeHHe (9.1) ~n~ YPSBHeHHe (9.3),npHBeAeH

Ho B rnSBe

5 SI

rOBop~n BSM 0 60nbw~x

6eAaX, np~XOAJlw,HX C ~H4>nSlIl~eR. aT~ 6eAbI

Hble B 3TO~ rnSBe, TO MOlKeTe 3SMeT~Tb OAHY

npO~CXOASIT OT TOro, "lTO B pesnbHoR lKH3H~

~HTepeCHYIO

Bbl H~KorAS He YB~A~Te H,Q6snbHYIO ~H4>nSl

Bew,b: ecnH Bce l.\eHbI B '3HSMe

HSTenSiX BHe3snHO YMHOlK~Tb Ha OA~H K034>

1I~1O nOA06HO ToR, KOTOPYIO SI TonbKO "lTO


KorAS u,eHbl Ha Bce TOBSpbl ~ ycnyr~

4>Hl..l1'1eHT, Bce pSBeHCTBS OCTSHyrCSI npelKHH

on~can,

M~,

nOAHHMSIOTCSI C~HXPOHHO ~ Ha OA~HSKOBYIO

- S 3TO 3Ha"l~T, "lTO nlOA~ npOAonlKSIOT


Bbl6~pSTb TO lKe KOn~"leCTBO KSlKAOrO B~AS
TOBSpS. Apyr~MH cnOBaM~, ecn~ npO~30~
AeT BHe3snHSSI ~H4>nSlIl~S1, B pe3ynbTsTe
KOTOpoR u,eHbl nOBblCSlT,CSI B ASS pS3S, nlOAH
6YAYT npOAonlKSTb nOKYnSTb TO"lHO TaKoe lKe
KOn~"leCTBO TOBSpS, KSK H pSHbwe.
lo13 3Toro cneAyeT, "lTO ecn~ MoR AOXOA YA
BO~TCSI OAHOBpeMeHHO C ABOAHblM nOBblwe
H~eM lIeH HS TOBSpbl, MHOIO np~06peTaeMble,
B AeRCTB~TenbHOCT~ HH"lerO He ~3MeH~TCR.
51 6YAY npOAOnlKSTb n0KYnSTb TO"lHO TSKoe lKe
Kon~"leCTBO TOeapOB ~ ycnyr, KOTOpoe SI np~BblK
nonY"!aTb AO ~H4>nSlI..lH~. lo1 nOCKOnbKY 3TO Kon~
"leCTBO 6b1no ~MeHHO TaKHM, KOTOpoe MaKC~
M~3HPOIl8Jl0 nonY"!aeMYIO MHOIO nonb3Y paHee,
3Ha"l~T, OHO 6YAeT npoAonlKSTb MSKC~M~3~
pOBSTb MOIO nonb3Y ceR"lsc. B pe3ynbTaTe no
A06HblX BblKnBAOK BaM MOlKeT nOKa38TbCSI, "lTO
~H4>nSlI..lHSI He OK83b1BaeT H~KaKoro BnHSlHHSI.

Ben~"l~HY

BMeCTO 3Toro npo~cxOA~T TaK, "lTO u,eHbI


HS pS3Hble TOBSpbl ~ ycnyr~ nOAH~MSIOTCSI
no-ps3HOMy, T.e. 3HaMeHSTen~ B pa3HblX "lSC
TSiX YPsBHeHHR (9.1) ~ (9.3) H3MeHSIIOTCSI no
PS3HOMY. KorAS 3TO npo~CXOA~T, nlOp,M Ha"l~
HalOT "lpe3MepHO MeHSlTb

Ben~'l~HY

CBoero

cnpoca B nonblTKBX np~poBHSlTbnpBAenbHYIO


none3HOCTb K Aonnapy

CTO~Mocn,

Bcex TO

BapOB ~ ycnyr. KorAS OH~ nblTalOTCSI CAenaTb


3TO, nonY"!aeTCSI xaoc; HeKOTopble
SlT~Sl CTanK~BSIOTCSl

C BHe3anHblM

npeAnp~
nBAeH~eM

cnpoca Ha CBOVI TOBSpbl, rorAS KaK APyrVlX


npVlSlTHO

YA~BnSleT nOBblweH~e

cnpoca Ha

npOVl3BoAHMylO HM~ npoAyKIIViIO.


lo1TaK, He n03BonSlATe ypaBHeH~SlM (9.1)
~nH

(9.3)

II~Sl

He OKa3blBaeT

3aCTaB~Tb Bac AyMaTb, "lTO ~H4>nSl


BnVlSlH~Sl

Ha cnpoc B pe

anbHOM M~pe. OKa3b1BSeT!

rna. 9. 3HSKOMtlrec.: norpe6HT&n., MaKcMMM3MPYlOUCri none3Hocr.

195

#fJI,.

It~. ECJIH qeJIOBeK OllTHMaJIhHhIM 06pa30M pacnpe.n;eJIHJI CBOH OrpamAeHHhIe cpe.n;CTBa


~\, ..'

Mex,ny

.n;eJIhHllil nOJIe3HOCTh Ha .n;OJIJIap CTOHMOCTH

.lI:BYMH

BH.n;aMH TOBapa, 3HaqHT, npH OillHMaJIhHOM KOJI~eCTBe X H

Y npe

X H Y 6y.n;eT O.n;HHaKOBO~.

3Ta CBH3h nO.n;TBep)l{)];aeTCH B npHMepe, npHBe.n;eHHOM B npeJlhI.llYIlleM paJ.n;eJIe. BepHeMCJI


K Ta6JI. 9.4. Kor.n;a H OnTHMaJIhHhIM 06PaJOM nOTpaTHJI CBOH 10.n;oJIJI. Ha nHOO H nHI.J;.QY, on
THMaJIhHoe
ThI nHBa.

KOJI~eCTBO Ka)I{)];OrO

113 TpeThe~

npO.n;yKTa COCTaBHJIO qeThIpe KyCOqKa nHQQhI H TpHnHH

KOJIOHKH ni6JI. 9.4 BhI MoxeTe BH.n;eTh, ~o npe.n;eJIhHllil nOJIe3HOCTh Ha

.n;OJIJIap .lI:JIH qeTBePToro KyCOqKa llHQUbI H TpeThe~ PHHThI nHBa .n;e~CTBHTeJIhHOo.n;HHaKOBa H


COCTaBJUleT

8 e.n;HHHQ nOJIe3HOCTH Ha ,.n;oJIJIap, TaK KaK npe.n;nHChIBaeT ypaBHeHHe

(9.1).

nOlfeAfY npe,qenbHBfI none3HOCTb Ha ,qonnap ,qOnJICHa 6",Tb O,QMHaKOBOii


nOlteMY npe.n;eJIhHllil nOJIe3HOCTh Ha .n;OJIJIap
B XOTH'1,'eMflKCIfMJf3HPQBlSTb n~3HOC11t npHpacxo.a~a

B 3TOM pa3.n;eJIe H npo.n;eMOHCTpHpyro BaM,


.n;OJDKHa 6LlTh OJlHlW(OBOft. ecMf
HHH orpaHH'lemmro

6x>ne-ra. ECJIH ypa3HhIX TOBaPOBnpe.nem.HIUl none3HOCTh Ha .n;O.Map 'He

O.n;HHaKOBa, BhI 6y.n;eTe XOTeTh nepepacnpe.n;eJIHTh CBOH nOKYllKH .n;o rex nop, nOKa He .n;OCTHr
HeTe paBeHCTBa. llpHMephI, npHBe.n;eHHhIe B 3TOM paJ.n;eJIe, noKWKYT BaM, noqeMY.
Bo-nepBhIX, npe.n;CTaBhre, ~O H BbI6paJI .n;pyroe KOJIHlieCTBO Ka)l{)];oro BH.n;a TOBapa, TaK qTO

.lI:JIH nOCJIe.n;He~ e.n;HHHUbI

XH

nOCJIe.n;HeH e.n;HHHQbI

Y,

KOTopbIe H KYllHJI, CnpaBe.n;JIHBO CJIe

)JJlJOIUee HepaBeHCTBO:

(9.2)

~,.~

HanpHMep, nyCTh llHQQa 6y.n;eT

X,

Y. 113

a nHBO -

Ta6JI. 9.2 H 9.3 BbI MoxeTe .BH

.n;eTh, qro eCJIH npH06pereHHe qeThIPex nHHT nHBa H .n;Byx

KyCO~OB llHQQhI,MU

(npe.n;eJIhHllil nOJIe3HOCTh) Ha .n;OJIJIap.ll:JIH qeTBePTo~ llHHThI nHBa COCTaBHT

7,

TOr.n;a

MU Ha .n;OJIJIap BTOpOro KyCOqKa nHQUhI COCTaBHT 16. HCHo, qro MU Ha .n;OJIJIap


y nHQQbI HaMHOro 6oJIhllIe, HeXeJIH MU Ha .n;OJIJIap y nHBa, eCJIH H TaKHM 06paJOM
KaK

H3pacxo)JJlJO CBOH orpaHH'IeHHhIe cpe.n;CTBa.


Ho 3TOT cnoc06 pacXO.n;OBaHHH cpe.n;CTB He HBJUleTCH OmHMaJIhHhIM. llpwn{Ho~ 3TOro HB
I

JIHeTCH TOT q,aKT, qTO Ha .n;eHhfH, KOTOpbIe H Tpaqy Ha reKYIUHH nOCJIe.n;HHH KyCOqeK

X (nHQ-

UbI), MOXHO KYllHTh 60JIhwe npe.n;eJIhHO~ nOJIe3HOCTH, qeM Ha .n;eHhfH, KOTOpbIe H Tpaqy Ha
nOCJIe.n;HHH KyCOqeK
Ha

X,

Y (nHoo).

EcJIH H MOry nonyqHTh 60JIhllIe nOJIe3HOCTH, nOTPaTHB .n;OJIJIap"

qeM Kor.n;a nOTPaqy ero Ha

reM, qro6hI nOTpaTHTh HX Ha

X.

Y,

g .n;OJI)KeH H3'bHTh .n;eHhfHH3 npe,nHaJHaqeHHhIX.niuI

YC

1'I.n;0 Tex nop, nOKa HepaBeHCTBO (9.2) 6y.n;eT cnpaBe.n;JIHBhIM,

H 6y.n;y npo.n;OJI)KaTh H3bIMaTh .n;eHhfH OT npe.n;Ha3HaqeHHhIX .llJIH npH06pereHHH Y.llJIH TOro,


qro6hI YBeJIH1IHTh TpaThI Ha

X.

)l;aBa~Te paCCMOTPHM .n;pyroft npHMep. llpe.n;noJIo:lKHM, qTO Bce

10 .n;OJIJI.

H nOTpaTHJI Ha

noKYllKy IDITH nHHT nHBa. 1'13 Tll6JI. 9.3 BbI Moxere BH.n;eTh, qTO npe.n;eJIhHllil UOJIe3HOCTh Ha
.n;OJIJIap nOCJIe,nHero nOTPaqeHHoro .n;OJIJIapa Ha nHBO COCTaBJUleT Bcero 6 e,nHHHQ. HanpOTHB,
eCJIH g B03hMY 3TOT .n;OJIJIap H3 .n;eHer, npe.n;HaJHaqeHHhIX Ha llHBO, H HCnOJIh3yro HX Ha noKYll
Ky nepBOro KyCOqKa nHQQbI, TO 3Ta llHQQa npHHeceT MHe 20 e.n;HHHQ (CM. Ta6JI. 9.2). HCHo,
qro MHe HYXHO COKPaTHTh JaKYIIKy llHBa .lI:JIH TOro, qro6bI YBeJIH'lHTh JaKYllKy llHQQbI.

51

npo.n;OJI)KaJI 6hI nOKYllaTh MeHhwe nHBa H 60JIhllIe nHQQhI .n;o rex nop, nOKa He noJIY

qHJI 6hI KOM6HHaQHIO H3 qeThIpex KyCOqKOB nHQQbI H TPex nHHT nHBa. 3T0 3HaqHT, qTO MHe

196

"BeTh III.

MtfJCP03KOHOMtfK8 -

H8yrcB 0

no.e,qeHtftf no-rpe6lfTeJ1eM tf npe,qn""".,..,if

lfY}KH0 6b1JIo 6bI KOppeKTHpOBaTb CBOH 1paTbI ,ll0 TeX nop, nOKa npe,lleJIhHIDI nOJIe3HOCTh Ha

~OJIJIap KaK

y nHBa, TaK H Y ITHI.J;IJ,hI He CTaJIa 6bI O.!UlHaKOBOIt:, KaK B ypaoHeHHH

To :lICe npaBHJIO npHMeHHMO H B cnyqae,

(9.1).

ecnH JI HaqHHalO TPaTHTh Bce CBOH ,lleHhfH Ha

nHI.J;I.J;Y. EcnH SI KYITJIIO ,lleCJITh KyCOqKOB nHI.J;I.J;bI, TO H3 Ta6n.


,llenhHaSl nOne3HOCTh ,lleCSlTOrO KyCOqKa COCTaBJIHeT

-4

9.2 BbI

MO:llCeTe BH,lleTh, 'ITO npe

e,llHHHI.J;hI, TOr,lla KaK npe,lleJIhHIDI IIO

ne3HOCTh Ha nepBbIlt:nOTpaqeHHbIH Ha IIHBO ,llOJIJIap COCTaBJIHeT

10 e,llHHHI.J;.

IlOHJITHO, 'ITO 51

,llon::KeH 3a6paTh ,lleHhrH OT nHI.J;UhI H HCnOnh30BaTh HX ,!VIS[ yoenH'IeHHH MoeH 3aKyIIKH nHBa.

npHMeHeHHe

@j

t/JOpMynw A/lfl pa3HOo6pa3HWX TOBapOB H ycnyr

BaM lfY}KH0 3aIIOMHHTh npaBHJIO, npe,llCTaBneHHOe B ypaoHeHHH

(9.1).

OHO ,ll0

BOJIhHO npoCToe: .llJIJI Toro, 'IT06bI MaKCHMH3HpOBaTh COBOKyIIHYIO nOJIe3HOCTh,


BaM lfY}KH0 BHeCTH KOppeKTHBbI B CBOH 3aKyIIKH TaKHM 06paJOM, 'lT06bI .llJIH no
cne,llHeH e,llHHHI.J;bI Ka::K,lloro BH,lla TOBapa npe,llenhHIDI IIOJIe3HOCTh Ha ,llOJIJIap 6b1JIa
O,llHHaKOBoit EcnH 3TOHe TaK, O,llHH BH,ll TOBapa IIpeMaraeT BaM 60JIhmee KOJIHqe
CTBO y,llOBneTBopeHHJI Ha Ka::K,llbIH IIOTpaqeHHhIH ,llOJIJIap; 3TO 3HaqHT, 'ITO BbI XOTH
re BHeCTH KOppeKTHBbI B 3aKYITKH, IIOTpaTHB 60nhme .neHer Ha 3TOT TOMp. TOJIhKO
KOr,lla paoeHcTBO

(9.1)

cIIpaoeMHBO, BbI He 6Y,llere 60JIhme BHOCHTh KOppeKTHBbI,

IIocKonhKy HH O.nHH H3 TOBapOB He IIpeMO::KHT BaM 60nhme y.nOBneTBopeHHJI Ha


.nOJIJIap, qeM .npyroH.
TaK::Ke HY::KHO IIOHJITb, 'ITO ypaoHeHHe

(9.1)

MO:llCeT 6bITh HCIIOJIh30BaHO .llJIH MHOfHX TO

BapOB. HanpHMep, B cnyqae C TpeMJI PaJHbIMH TOBapaMH BaM HY::KHO opraHH30BaTh CBOH 3a
KyIIKH TaKHM 06paJOM, 'lT06bI IIocne.llHJlJl e.nHHHI.J;a Ka::K,llOro BH,lla TOBapa

X, Y H Z

IIpHHOCHJIa

o.nHHaKOByIO IIone3HOCTh Ha .nOJIJIap:

MUx

MUy

MUz

Px

Py

Pz

EcnH O.nHH H3 1pex BH,llOB TOBapa HMeeT

(9.3)

60nee BLICOKyIO IIpe.nenhHyIO IIone3HOCTh Ha

.nOJIJIap, qeM ,llpyrHe, BLI 6y.nere BHOCHTh KOppeKTHBLI B CBOH 3aKYIIKH C reM, 'IT06LI KyIIHTh
MeHLmee ICOJIHtIeCTBO,llpyrHX TOBapoB H 60JIhlIlee rnpOBKy .no rex IIOp, IIOKa paBeHCTBO

(9.3)

3TOro.

If BbI 6y.nere

IIpo.nOJDKaTh KoppeK

He CTaHeT cIIpaoeMHBbIM.

K;uJbte cltftOca It 'IJl.eH.blMeltlle


Itjte'lUbJUJU JtO.,U!3JUJclJill
I~l

YMeHhmeHHe IIpe.nenhHoH IIone3Hocrn -

3T0 o.nHa H3 npHtIHH, IIO KOTOPOH KpH

BLIe CIIpoca HanpaB1IeHhI BHH3. IlOCMOTPHTe Ha pHC.

9.2,

r.ne BLI YBH,llHTe, 'ITO

npe

.nenLHIDI IIone3HOCTh, KOTOpIDI IIOCTYIIaeT OT Ka::K,llOro .nOIIOnHHTenLHoro KyCOqKa


nHI.J;IJ,hI, YMeHhlIlaeTCJI. EcnH BalIla I.J;enh 3aKJIIOqeHa B HCIIOnh30BaHHH .neHer MH
npH06pereHHJI KaK MO::KHO 60nLmero KOnHqeCTBa nOnh3bI .llJIH TOrn, 'IT06bI MaK
CHMaJIhHO y.nOBneTBOPHTh CBOH IIOTpe6Hocrn, BLI 3axOTHTe nnaTHTL Bee MeHbme H
MeHhme 3a

Ka::K.llhIH .nOIIOJIHHTenhHbIH KyCOqeK IIHI.J;I.J;LI, IIOCKOJIhKy Ka::K):lbIH .nOIIOJI

HHTeJILHhIH KyCOqeK IIHI.J;I.J;bI IIpHHeceT MeHLlIle IIone3Hocrn, 'IeM IIpe,ll,hJ.llYIIUfH.

rnasa 9. 3HaKOM"TeC": nOTP66trren", MaKCHMH3HPYJ014HH none3Hocr"

197

TeM He MeHee ICpHB8Jl, H306proKeHH8Jl Ha pHC.

9.2,

He HBJUleTCH KPHBO:A CIIpoca IIO ,n;BYM

IIpH'IHHaM.
./ OHa He IIpHHHMaeT B paC'IeT BJIHHHHe ueH Ha BeJIH'lHHY crrpoca
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.llIDI BbDKHMaHIDI ,llOCTaTOqHOrO

KOJI~eCTBa COKa.llJIH HanOJIHeHIDI 50 6yn.illOK, BJIOJKHB JIHMOHbl B COKOBhDKHMaJIKY H rrpo


H3Be,llH Bce He06xo,llHMble MaHHnymruHH. Ho OKa3blBaeTCH, qro,llBOe pa60qHX, eCJIH 6y.llYT pa
60TaTb BMeCTe, CMOryT CrrpaBHTbCH C 3THM ~Ille, eCJIH pa3.lleJIHT 06H3aHHocrn: O,llHH 6Y,lleT
rrpHHOCHTb JIHMOHbl K COKOBbDKHMaJIKe, a BTOpoit;- rrpOH3BO,llHTb Bce He06xo,llHMble MaHH
rrYAAUHH.Pa6OTaH BMeCTe, OHH MOryT B 061IleH cYMMe rrpOH3BeCTH 140 6yrbIJIOK -

6oJIbIlle,

qeM B,llBOe, rrpeBblCHTb H3HaqaJIbHbie 50, KOTopble CMoxeT npOH3BeCTH O,llHH pa60qHH, eCJIH
6Y,lleT TPYll.HTbCH B O,llHHOqKY.

TeM He MeHee, TPeTHH pa60qHH He yeJIWDfBaeT npOH3BO,llCTBO npo,llyKTa HaCTOJIbKO, KaK


3TO lI.eJIaeT BTopoa, rrOTOMY qTO ,llBe OCHOBHble 3a,llaQH -

,llOCTaBKa H MaHHnyAAUHH -

yxe

nOll.eJIeHbl. B ~IlleM c~ae OHCMoxeT nOMOqb ,llB)'M rrepBbIM pa60qHM BbInOJIHHTb HX 06H
3aHHOCTH HeMHoro 6blCTPee. 31'0 CnpaBeAlIHBO H .llJIH Qcex ,llPYJ'HX, HaHHTbIX B ,llaJIbHeallieM
pa60qHX: OHH nOJIe3Hbl, HO KroK.llblit H3 HHX ,ll06aBHT K rrp0.llYKTY MeHbIlle, qeM rrpe,llbI.llYIUHH,
rrOCKOJIbKY pa60qHX CTaHeT CJIHIIIKOM MHOro H BeKOpe .llJIH ,llaJIbHeHIllero COBepIlleHCTBOBaHHH
rrpOH3BOll.CTBa rrOqTH He OCTaHeTCH MeCTa.

CpeAHMe nepeMeHHble M3AeplKKM


Ha rrepeMeHHble H3.llepXKH OKa3blBaeT BJIIDIHHe TOT l!>aKT, qrO nOHaqaJIY ,llOrrOJIHHTeJIbHbIe
pa60qHe yeJIHqHBaIOT ,llOXO,llbI, a 3aTeM COKpalIlaIOT HX. B c~ae C lCoprropaUHeH
(CM. Ta6JI. 10.1) nepeMeHHble H3.llepXKH -

LemonAid

3TO Bce paCXO.llbI Ha pa60qyro CHJIY npH 3apIIJIaTe

Ka)I{,lloro pa6oqero B 80 ,llOJIJI. B ,lleHb. BbI Moxere BH,lleTb B03PacTaHHe 3THX nepeMeHHbIX H3
,llepXeK, eCJIH H3yqHTe ,llaHHble IIHTOH KOJIOHKH Ta6JIHUbl.

~
"'..El/r.

; / ...
. .
~ ...

Ho HaMHoro HHTepeCHee nOCMOTPeTb Ha

cpeiJnue nepeMeHHble U3iJep;HCKu (AVe),

KOTOpbIe Orrpell.eAAIOTCH KaK nepeMeHHbIe H3.llep:lKKH, rrO,lleJIeHHble Ha


BO e.llHHHU npo,llyKTa

(VC/q).

KOJI~eCT-

HanpHMep, rrOCKOJIbKY O,llHH pa60QHH rrpOH3BO,llHT

506yrbIJIOK rrp0,llYKTa rrpH rrepeMeHHblx 3aTPaTax B 80,lloJIJI., Cpe.llHHe rrepeMeH


Hble H3,llepXKH COCTaBAAIOT 80 ,llOJIJI. / 50 = 1,60 ,llOJIJI. 3a 1 6yrbIJIKY. Kor,lla lI.BOe
pa60QHX 06XO,llHTCH B 160 ,llOJIJI. rrepeMeHHMx H3,uepxeK, HO rrpoH3BO,llHT 140 6y
TbIJIQK, Cpe.llHHe nepeMeHHble H3,llep:lKKH AlIH ,llBYX pa60QHX COCTaBAAIOT TOJIbKO
160 ,llOJIJI. / 140 = 1,14 ,llOJIJI. 3a 6yn.illKY.

YMeHbIlleHHe Cpe,llHHX rrepeMeHHbIX H3,llepXeK npHBO,llHT K YBeJI~eHHIO OT,lla<rn: rrpH rre


peXO,lle OT cHTyaUHH C O,llHHM HaHHTbIM pa60QHM,llo CHTyauHH C

.llBYMH HaHHTblMH pa60QHMH

nepeMeHHble H3,llepXKH y,llBaHBaIOTCH (OT 80,lloJIJI. ,ll0 160), HO rrpo,llyKT B03pacTaeT 60JIee,
QeM B.llBa pa3a (OT 50 6yrblJIOK,ll0 140).
Kor,lla npOHCXO,llHT YMeHbIlleHHe OT,llaQH, Cpe,llHHe nepeMeHHble H3,llep)I{KH HaQHHaIOT
B03paCTaTb -

Bbl MoxeTe BH,lleTb 3TO, rrpOCMOTPeB ,llaHHble H3 IllecToit KOJIOHKH Ta6JI. 10.1.

3To npOHCXO,llHT nOTOMY,

QTO TOr,lla KaK Ka)I{,llbIH ,llOrrOJIHHTeJIbHblH pa60QHH CTOHT ,llOrrOJIHH

TeJIbHbIe 80,lloJIJI., K3)I{,llbIH ,llOnOJIHHTeJIbHbIH pa60QHH, HaQHHaH C TPeTbero, 06eCrreQHBaeT


rrpHpOCT rrpO,llyKTa Ha MeHbIIIYIO BeJI~HHY, QeM ero rrpe.llIlleCTBeHHHK. KIDK.naH nOCJIe.llYlOIUaH
BbIIIJIaTa 80-,llOJIJIapOBOH 3apIIJIaTbI npHHOCHT C co6oii Bee MeHbIlle H MeHbIlle ,llOrrOJIHHTeJIb

212

lIaen. III. MIfIqJ03lCOHOMIfICB - H8Y1C8 0 noBeAeH1f1f norpe6ln"e.neMIf npe.qnplfflnHf

HblX 6yTbInOK nHMOHa,ua, TaK qTO CpeilHHe rrepeMeHHbIe H3,ll.ep:lKKH Ha npOH3BOilCTBO OilHOH

6yn,mKH ilOJDKHbI B03paCTaTb.

LemonAid H306paxeH Ha pHC. 10.1.

fpa41HK cpe):{HHX rrepeMeHHLIX H3,ll.ep)ICeK KOprrOpawm

(TaM )ICe rrOKa3aHbl cpe)lHHe 4lHKcHP0BaHHble H3,ll.ep:lKKH H cpeilHHe COBoKYIIHble H3ilepXKH


KOMrraHHH.) 3arrOMHHTe

3TY KpHBYJO Cpe)lHHX rrepeMeHHblX H3ilepxeK, rrocKonbKY OHa 6YileT

. HMeTb orpOMHoe BJIIDIHHe Ha TO, CKonbKO 6yTbInOK 3aXOTHT rrpOH3BeCTH MeHe,lOKepbI 4lHpMbi
C reM, qT06b1 MaKCHMH3HPOBaTb rrpH6bInb CBoeH 4lHpMbI.

4,00
3,50
3,00
2,50

III

2,00
1,50

ATe

1,00 '

100

0,50 ]
0,00

200

300

~AVC
AFC

400

500

6yn.lJ1ICM

P~C.

10.1.

Cpe,qH~e

nepeMeHHble ~3,qep)f(K~, cpe,qH~e C/J~Kc~poBaHHble


cOBOKYnHble ~3,qep)f(K~ Kopnopal.4H~ LemonAid

~3,qep)f(K~

~ cpe,qH~e

Cpe.QHMe cj)MKCMpOBaHHble M3Aep>KKM


CpeilHHe 4lHKcHpoBaHHble H3)lep)ICKH

(AFt')

orrpeilellilIOTcH KaK 4lHKcHpoBaHHbIe H3

ilep:lKKH, rrOileneHHble Ha KOnHqeCTBO e)lHHHU rrpoLI,yKTa


KoprropauHH

LemonAid COCTaBnHIOT 100 ilOM.,

(FC/q). <l>HKCHPOBaHHble H3,ll.ep:lKKH

KOTOpble 6b1nH 3arrna'IeHbI 3a COKOBbDKHMM

KY, 6e30rnOCHTenbHO TOro, KaKoe KOnH'IeCTBO npoLI,yKTa OHa npOH3BOilHT.

B pe3ynbTaTe,

qeM

60nbrne nHMoHa,ua OHa rrpOH3BO)lHT, TeM MeHbIIle cpeilHHe 4lHKcHpoBaHHble H3,ll.ep:lKKH.

AFC (CM.

~,.

I~

qeTBepTyIO KonoHKy Ta6n.

10.1):

no

2 ilOM. 3a 6YTblJIKY
npH rrpOH3BO)lCTBe 50 6yTbInOK C HCrrOnb30BaHHeM TpYJlll O)lHOro pa60'Iero - ilO 0,21 ilOM. 3a
6YTbIJIKY rrpH npOH3BO)lCTBe 470 6yTbInOK C HCrr01lb30BaHHeM Tpy)la BOCbMH pa60'IHX.
:nOH rrpH'IHHe CHIDKaeTCH

OT

Cpe,U,lme 4lHKCHpoB8HHble H3,ll.ep:lKKH Bcerila YMeHbrnaIOTCH, nOCKOnbKY OilHH H Te


)ICe 4lHKcHpoBaHHbIe 3aTpaTbl C YD.

e~H'IeHHeM

o6DeMa rrpOH3BeileHHoro npo)lyKT.a

\~ ilenHTCH Ha 60nbrnee H 60nbrnee KPJIWiecTBO eilHHHU. Korila BbI pa306beTe Ha yqa


CTKH cpeilHHe 4liuccHpoBaHHble 3aTpaTbl Ha 6yTbInKY, KaK Ha pHC.
re CHH)I(aIOIUYIOCH KpHBYJO

AFC.. 3arrOMHHTe

10.1, TO nonyqn

3TOT 4laKT, rrOTOMy 'ITO OH rrOMO:lKeT

06DHCHHTb <I>oPMy KpHBOH CpelI,HHX COBOKYIIHbIX H3,ll.ep)ICeK

(A1L), pe'Ib 0 KoropOH

rroHileT B cne)lYJOIUeM p83,ll.ene.

rnasa 10. OCHOaa KanwrantI3Ma: npe,qnpMflTlff, MaKCHMIf3HPflO~ee npH6wnh

213

B npe.n;bmymHX .n;Byx pa3.n;eJIax 51 nOKa3aJI BaM, qro cpe.n;HHe cPHKCHpOBaHHbIe H3- .


.n;epXKH Bcer,na YMeHblUalOTCj{ C YBeJIHqeHHeM npo.n;YKTa, Tor.n;a KaK cpe.n;HHe nepe
MeHHble H3.n;epXKH CHaqaJIa YMeHblUaIOTCj{ (B pe3YJIbTaTe YBeJIHqeHHH OT.n;aqH), a
3areM YBeJIHqHBalOTCj{ (B pe3YJIbTare YMeHblUeHHj{ OT.n;aqH). IIOCKOJIbKY COBOKYTI3TO CYMMa q,HKCHPOBaHHbIX H nepeMeHHbIX H3.n;epxeK, cpeiJHue
C080KynHble U3iJepJICKU j{BHO 3aBHCj{T OT TOro, KaK CYMMHpyIOTCj{ cpe.n;HHe cPHKCH
Hble 1f3.n;epXKH -

p0BaHHble H cpe.n;HHe nepeMeHHble H3,lJ;epXKH.


Cpe.n;HHe COBOKYTIHble H3.n;epXKH
Hble Ha KOJIHqeCTBO

(TC/q).

(A7q

onpe.n;eAAIOTCj{ KaK 06m;He H3.n;epXKH, no.n;eJIeH

(10.3), npHBe.n;eHHOMy
(10.3) Ha q, ro nO~Hre

Tenepb .n;aBaDTe BepHeMCj{ K paBeHCTBy

paHee B 3TOD rJIaBe. ECJIH BbI pa3.n;eJIHTe KaX.n;bllI: qJIeH ypaBHeHHH


CJle.n;yIOm;ee:

TC/q
BbI MoxeTe
a

AVC

= FC/q + VC/q.

(lOA)

ynPOCTHTb paBeHCTBO (1004), eCJIH npe.n;CTaBHTe, qro ATC = TC/q, AFC = FC/q,

= VC/q. Y Bac n~HTCj{:

ATe = AFC + AVC.


113 paBeHCTBa (10.5)

(10.5)

BbI Moxere JlCHO BH,lJ;eTb, ~o Cpe,lJ;HHe COBOKYTIHble H3.n;epXKH JaBH

CHT OT roro, KaK COOTHOCHTCj{ cpe,lJ;HHe q,HKCHpOBaHHble H cpe,lJ;HHe nepeMeHHble H3,lJ;epXKH.


3.n;ecb HYXHO BbI,lJ;eJIHTb .n;Ba OCHOBHbIX MOMeHTa.

,/lml roro

ATC Bcer.n;a 60JIblUe AVC Ha BeJIHqHHY AFC.


ATC .n;OCTHraeT CBOero
npo.n;yKTa, qeM AVC.

MHHHMaJIbHOro 3HaqeHHH npH 60JIee BbICOKOM ypOBHe

10.1,
AVC. BepmKaJIbHoe paccroj{HHe Mexmy
HHMH Ha KaX,lJ;OM OT.n;eJIbHOM ypoBHe npo.n;YKTa paBHO AFC Ha 3TOM ypOBHe npo,lJ;YK'fa. Kor.n;a
BbI nepelt.n;ere OT 60JIee HH3KHX ypoBHell: np0,Il.YKTa ,Il.O 60JIee BblCOKHX, KpHBbIe ATC H AVC
colI:.n;yTcj{, nOCKOJIbKY AFC 6Y,Il.eT CTaHOBHTbCj{ Bce MeHblUe H MeHblUe. ()J.pyrHMH CJIOBaMH,
BepTHKaJlbHOe paccroj{HHe Mexmy KPHBblMH ATC H AVC TaKXe 6Y,Il.eT YMeHblUaTbCj{.)
,/lml Toro qTo6bI YBH,lJ;eTb CnpaBe,Il.JIHBOCTb Broporo YTBepx.n;eHHH, ,Il.aBaHTe CHOBa nOCMOT
pHM Ha m6JI. 10.1. BbI YBH,lJ;HTe, qro Cpe,Il.HHe nepeMeHHble H3,lJ;epXKH ,Il.OCTHraIOT CBOell: MH
qro6bI y6e.n;HTbCj{ B HCTHHHOCTH nepBOro YTBepx.n;eHHH, B3rJIHHHTe Ha pHC.

Ha KOTOpoM KPHBaH

ATC pacnOJIaraeTCj{

HHMaJIbHOD CTOHMOCTH B

Ha,lJ; KPHBOII:

1,09 .n;0JIJI., Kor.n;a HaHHro Tpoe

pa60qHX H npOH3BO,!J.HTCj{

JIOK.O.n;HaKO cpe.n;HHe COBOKYTIHble H3,lJ;epXKH .n;OCTHraIOT CBoero MHHHMYMa B


yCJIOBHH HaDMa

rutm pa60qHX,

KOTOpble npoH3BO,!J.HT

350 6YTbIJIOK.

220

6YTb1

1,43 ,Il.OJUl.

npH

IIpHqHHolI: 3Toro j{BJIj{eTCj{ TO, qTO cpe.n;HHe cPHKCHpOBaHHbIe 3aTPaTbI Bcer.n;a YMeHb
lUalOTCj{, ~O 3HaqHT: B ypaBHeHHH

(10.5) AFC

C npaBOII: CTOpOHbI ypaBHeHHj{ acer.n;a 6Y,Il.eT

YMeHblUaTbCJI. 3To nOCTOj{HHoe YMeHblUeHHe nOMoraeT BpeMeHHO noraCHTb 3cPcPeKT yae


JIHqeHHj{ cpe.n;HHX nepeMeHHbIX H3,lJ;epXeK, Koropoe npOHCXO,II.HT npH YMeHblUeHHH OT.n;aqH.
CJIe.n;OBaTeJIbHO, XOTj{ cpe,lJ;HHe nepeMeHHble H3,lJ;epXKH ,Il.OCTHraIOT MHHHMaJIbHOro 3HaqeHHH
TIpH HaJIHqHH TPex pa60qHX, cpe.n;HHe COBOKYTIHbIe lf3,!J.epXKH He .n;OCTHraIOT CBoero HHXHero
npe.n;eJIa H npo.n;OJIXalOT YMeHblUaTbCj{ .n;o TIHTOro pa6oqero.

214

'1SCTI

II'. M..Kpo3lCOHOII..KS -

HSYleS 0

nQ8fIMH.... norpe6Mrenej .. npe,qnp...nrJf

npeAenbHble M3Aep)l(KM
tITO BCer,na CTPeMHTCH Y3HaTb MeHe,lOKep <pHPMbI, TaK 3TO KOJ!HqeCTBO,

q,

rrpo,nyKTa, KO

TOpOe <pHpMa ,nOmKHa rrpOH3BO,nHTb MH MaKCHMH3aJ..J;HH rrpH6billH. OTCIO,na CJIe,nyeT, 'ITO .IJ;JIH
perneHHH 3mH rrpo6JIeMbI eMY HyxillO 3HaTb 0 eme O,nHOH COCTaBJIHIOmeH 3aTPaT: rrpe,neJIbHbIX
H3,nepXKax.

,..olWlr

;~

IIpeiJeIlbHble U3iJepJICIW

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