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Use and Abuse of Springs to

Model Foundations
Rob Day and Joe Muccillo Technical Directors
AECOM Australia Pty Ltd

14 Aug 2013

Part 1 The Geotechnical


Viewpoint

Outline

- What is the conflict?


- The limitations of spring models to represent soil
continuum
- The plate load test
- Behaviour of footings/rafts
- Behaviour of vertically loaded piles and pile groups
- Behaviour of laterally loaded piles and pile groups.
- Behaviour of propped sheetpile excavations

Use and Abuse of Springs

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Whats the conflict?

Conflicting points of view

Structural Engineer:
SPRING CONSTANT

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Conflicting points of view

Structural Engineer:

Geotechnical Engineer:

SPRING CONSTANT

MODULUS OF SUBGRADE
REACTION (HIGHLY
VARIABLE WITH
GEOMETRY/LOAD)

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Conflicting points of view

Geotechnical Engineer:
DEFLECTIONS UNDER
KNOWN LOAD AND
GEOMETRY

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Conflicting points of view

Structural Engineer:

Geotechnical Engineer:

DEPENDS ON FOUNDATION
STIFFNESS

DEFLECTIONS UNDER
KNOWN LOAD AND
GEOMETRY

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Conflicting points of view

Structural Engineer:

Geotechnical Engineer:

DEPENDS ON FOUNDATION
STIFFNESS

DEFLECTIONS UNDER
KNOWN LOAD AND
GEOMETRY

NEED TO REACH
A COMPROMISE

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A typical foundation scenario

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Typical Spring Constant Examples

RAFT

LATERAL
PILE

FRAME SUPPORT
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Why do Geotechnical Engineers HATE Springs?

- Soil does not behave like a spring


- The bigger the loaded area the softer the elastic response
per unit area
- Soil behaves inelastically from quite low stress levels and
undergoes extensive plastic yield at higher stresses.
- Hence there is a fear that springs will be used for other
than intended purpose.

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Typical settlement contours under a loaded area

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Footings and Rafts

Uniform load on a raft supported by springs

UNIFORM LOAD q

Ks

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Soil springs from textbooks

Soil
Loose sand
Medium dense sand

Ks, kN/m3
4800 -- 16000
9600 -- 80000

Dense sand
Clayey medium
dense sand
Silty medium dense
sand
Clayey soil

64000 128000
32000 80000

qu

200 kPa (4 ksf)

Bowles - Foundation
Analysis and Design
5th Ed
- The modulus of subgrade reaction
(Ks)
- The units are pressure/deflection
e.g. kPa/m
- Typical values from Bowles book

24000 -- 48000

12000 24000

Clayey soil
200 < qu

400 kPa

24000 48000

Clayey soil
qu > 800 kPa

Use and Abuse of Springs

> 48000

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Structural Engineer:
EASY! WHATS
THE PROBLEM?

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Uniform load on a raft supported by springs

UNIFORM LOAD q
=q/Ks
Ks

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Uniform load on a raft supported by springs

UNIFORM LOAD q
=q/Ks
Ks
CONSTANT LOAD AND DEFLECTION ON
ALL SPRINGS IRRESPECTIVE OF RAFT
SIZE/STIFFNESS
NO BENDING!
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Modulus of Subgrade Reaction Plate Load Test

Typically 0.3m diameter


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Uniform load on a RIGID circular plate

UNIFORM LOAD q = 100kPa

0.3m diameter (D)

E = 10MPa,
= 0.3,
c, = ? Assume elastic
Semiinfinite soil
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Elastic pressure response

Half of average

Asymptotes to
infinite
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Elastic plastic response for a stiff clay

Average pressure
Plastic yield
starts at edge:
zero for granular,
~ 2cu for cohesive
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Elastic plastic response for a stiff clay

Average pressure

Progressive yield
Ultimate bearing pressure

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Elastic plastic response for a stiff clay

Ks = 47,000kN/m3

Integrate area under pressure curve

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Effect of footing size

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For a RIGID CIRCULAR plate at LOW STRAINS

. .(

i.e. INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL


TO DIAMETER OF CIRCLE (D)

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Settlement of RIGID irregular shape

Using a uniform spring analogy a uniform load would settle


by an equal amount at all springs

UNIFORM LOAD q
=q/Ks
Ks

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Settlement of RIGID irregular shape

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Settlement of a FLEXIBLE raft

1m Thick
Raft

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Superposition of load

Why does this happen?


Need to understand how the soil and loads interact
Consider a uniform flexible strip load on a deep soil
UNIFORM LOAD = 100kPa

1m wide
strip

E = 10MPa,
= 0.3,
c, = ? Assume elastic

Semiinfinite soil
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Single 1m wide strip

Settlement bowl
extends way
beyond footing

Edge of footing

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Nine 1m wide strip loads at 2.5m centres

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Settlement of a strip footing line load


LINE LOAD
P = 100kN/m
= 22mm

LINE LOAD
P = 100kN/m
= 22mm

0.5m wide
strip

E = 10MPa,
= 0.3,
c, = ? Assume elastic

Semiinfinite soil
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2m wide
strip

Settlement of a FLEXIBLE raft is superposition of many


small square loads

1m Thick
Raft

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Effect of finite soil depth or layering


UNIFORM LOAD = 100kPa

Width B=1m
Depth H

E = 10MPa,
= 0.3,
c, = ? Assume elastic

Rigid Base

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Real Soils not linear elastic purely plastic

- High modulus at very small strains


- Brittle, strain hardening and strain softening behaviour
- Time dependent consolidation

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Consolidation with time

pressure (kPa)

2000
1

1500

0%

1000
2%
500
4%
0
0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

6%

time (min)

500

1000

time (min)
1500
2000

2500

strain

0%

3000

3500

Strain

8%
10%
12%

5%

14%

10%

16%

15%

18%

20%

20%

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10

pressure
100

1000

10000

Non linear stress-strain behaviour

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Conclusions for spread footings and rafts


- At low strains spring stiffness
much higher around edges
than in middle
- Hence higher bending
moments (typically 2 to 3 times
higher for stiff footings at low
strains)
- For eccentric loads uniform
springs over-estimate rotation
(typically by 2 to 4 times)

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Conclusions for spread footings and rafts


- Springs go plastic at lower
stresses near edge than in
middle

- Spring stiffness HIGHLY


DEPENDENT on size of
loaded area

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Conclusions for spread footings and rafts


- Shape of raft affects spring
stiffness distribution

- Adjacent footings can have a


very significant effect on
settlement

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Spring Recommendations For Footings/Rafts:

- DONT use uniform springs


- Vary springs to take into account size and shape of
footing, proximity of other footings and location of spring
relative to centroid and perimeter of raft
- (as a rule of thumb edge spring is about double centre
springs and corner springs three to four times middle
springs).
- Check for highly loaded springs that may have gone
plastic and replace with loads when appropriate.
- ITERATIVE PROCESS BETWEEN STRUCTURAL AND
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGNERS.
Use and Abuse of Springs

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Axially Loaded Piles and Pile Groups

Single axially loaded pile

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Interaction between two identical rigid axially loaded


piles
Poulos and Davis
Elastic Solutions

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Interaction between two identical rigid axially loaded


piles
Poulos and Davis
Elastic Solutions
Two identically loaded floating
piles 3 diameters apart settle
approximately 1.5 times as
much as a single pile

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Consider a group of 25 piles at 3D floating in a stiff clay


soil single pile 5mm settle at 500kN

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Conclusions for Vertical Piles/Groups:

- Axial stiffness of a single pile is non linear from quite low


load levels
- Interaction effects of pile groups have similar issues to raft
footing interactions.
- Corner/end piles in rigid pilecaps tend to attract much
higher loads (although some pile yield can redistribute
load)

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Spring Recommendations Vertical Piles/Groups:

- For groups of piles sharing a pilecap generally DONT use


uniform springs, especially if floating Need to do pile
group analysis.
- In practice for single pile supports more than about 10
diameters apart with high end bearing interaction tends to
be small
- Check for highly loaded springs that may have gone
plastic and replace with soft springs or loads when
appropriate.
- ITERATIVE PROCESS BETWEEN STRUCTURAL AND
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGNERS.
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Laterally Loaded Piles and Pile Groups

Laterally loaded piles

In some ways, a laterally loaded pile can be considered similar to


a strip footing.
BUT, the ground surface and the limit of passive resistance have a
major effect on stiffness near the surface
E = 10MPa,
= 0.3,
c, = ? Assume elastic

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Effect of pile diameter

Remember footing width relationship:

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Effect of pile diameter

- Doubling the pile diameter halves pressure for a given


load
- BUT doubling diameter also halves modulus of subgrade
reaction.
- => Net effect is CHANGING PILE DIAMETER DOES
NOT CHANGE THE STIFFNESS of the equivalent spring
in the elastic range.
K = (0.8 to 1.8) Es
where Es in MPa and
K is a spring stiffness in MN/m per metre of pile length

- BUT diameter does increase the passive pressure limit.


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Effect of pile diameter


P

Ks=
P/

Ks=
P/

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SINGLE Lateral loaded pile

Passive limit has big effect particularly in sand


D
SAND

K~Es

CLAY
Pmax = 2cuD

Pmax =
3Kp D
3D

Pmax = 9cuD

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Single pile in clay analogy to plate load test

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Laterally loaded pile groups analogy with strip footings

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Interaction between lateral and vertical stiffness


H

displace
>>x

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displace=x

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Spring Recommendations Lateral Piles/Groups:

- Same spring irrespective of pile diameter


- Very sensitive to passive limits hence replace springs with
loads in upper parts of piles
- Must consider softer springs for rows of piles.
- Need to also use vertical springs to check mode of
bending
- ITERATIVE PROCESS BETWEEN STRUCTURAL AND
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGNERS.

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Ground movement induced loading


Propped Flexible Retaining Walls

Multi-propped, staged diaphragm wall in sand

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Excav. to elev. -3.00 on PASSIVE side

Net Pressure (kPa)


20

-30

-80

60
0

-20

-60

-100 -140 -180 -220


0

0.000
0

-2

-2

-4

-4

-4

-6

-6

-6

-8

-8

-8

Depth (m)

-2

-10

Use and Abuse of Springs

20

displacement (m)

-10

Depth (m)

70

Moment (kNm/m)

Depth (m)

Stage 3

-10

-12

-12

-12

-14

-14

-14

-16

-16

-16

-18

-18

-18

-20

-20

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-20

0.005

0.010

0.015

0.020

Excav. to elev. -6.00 on PASSIVE side

Net Pressure (kPa)


20

-30

-80

60
0

-20

-60

-100 -140 -180 -220


0

0.000
0

-2

-2

-4

-4

-4

-6

-6

-6

-8

-8

-8

Depth (m)

-2

-10

Use and Abuse of Springs

20

displacement (m)

-10

Depth (m)

70

Moment (kNm/m)

Depth (m)

Stage 5

-10

-12

-12

-12

-14

-14

-14

-16

-16

-16

-18

-18

-18

-20

-20

August 15, 2013

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-20

0.005

0.010

0.015

0.020

Excav. to elev. -9.00 on PASSIVE side

Net Pressure (kPa)


20

-30

-80

60
0

-20

-60

-100 -140 -180 -220


0

0.000
0

-2

-2

-4

-4

-4

-6

-6

-6

-8

-8

-8

Depth (m)

-2

-10

Use and Abuse of Springs

20

displacement (m)

-10

Depth (m)

70

Moment (kNm/m)

Depth (m)

Stage 7

-10

-12

-12

-12

-14

-14

-14

-16

-16

-16

-18

-18

-18

-20

-20

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-20

0.005

0.010

0.015

0.020

Excav. to elev. -12.00 on PASSIVE side

Net Pressure (kPa)


20

-30

-80

60
0

-20

-60

-100 -140 -180 -220


0

0.000
0

-2

-2

-4

-4

-4

-6

-6

-6

-8

-8

-8

Depth (m)

-2

-10

Use and Abuse of Springs

20

displacement (m)

-10

Depth (m)

70

Moment (kNm/m)

Depth (m)

Stage 9

-10

-12

-12

-12

-14

-14

-14

-16

-16

-16

-18

-18

-18

-20

-20

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-20

0.005

0.010

0.015

0.020

Excav. to elev. -15.00 on PASSIVE side

Net Pressure (kPa)


20

-30

-80

60
0

-20

-60

-100 -140 -180 -220


0

0.000
0

-2

-2

-4

-4

-4

-6

-6

-6

-8

-8

-8

Depth (m)

-2

-10

Use and Abuse of Springs

20

displacement (m)

-10

Depth (m)

70

Moment (kNm/m)

Depth (m)

Stage 11

-10

-12

-12

-12

-14

-14

-14

-16

-16

-16

-18

-18

-18

-20

-20

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-20

0.005

0.010

0.015

0.020

All props wished into place and excavation in single stage


Net Pressure (kPa)
-30

-80

60
0

-20

-60

-100 -140 -180 -220


0

0.000
0

-2

-2

-4

-4

-4

-6

-6

-6

-8

-8

-8

Depth (m)

-2

-10

Use and Abuse of Springs

20

displacement (m)

-10

Depth (m)

20

Depth (m)

70

Moment (kNm/m)

-10

-12

-12

-12

-14

-14

-14

-16

-16

-16

-18

-18

-18

-20

-20

August 15, 2013

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-20

0.005

0.010

0.015

0.020

Spring Recommendations For Retaining Walls:

- Spring analogies are usually not suitable for retaining wall


design particularly when there are multiple construction
stages.
- Retaining wall analysis should generally be carried out by
geotechnical engineer first and then the structural
adequacy and compatibility/interaction checked.
- Waler and anchor design needs to consider 3D effects
- ITERATIVE PROCESS BETWEEN STRUCTURAL AND
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGNERS.

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A case study in structural and


geotechnical iteration
The Second Gateway Bridge

Sir Leo Hielscher Bridges Opened May 2010

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Geology (North)

JOIN LINE

(NORTH) ABUTMENT B

SOFT ALLUVIUM
STIFF ALLUVIUM
GRAVEL

FAULT?

ECTING FAULTS

KETTED PILES
Use and Abuse of Springs

DRIVEN OCTAGONAL PRESTRESSED PILES


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FLEXIBLE ROCK SOCKETS

Geology (South)

(SOUTH)

JOIN LINE

2xVERTICAL EXAGGERATION

RESIDUAL/WEAK

ASPLEY-TINGALPA
SANDSTONE/SILTSTONE
WIDE FAULT

COAL SEAMS

BEDDING SHEAR

SPREAD FOOTINGS ON ROCK

Use and Abuse of Springs

STIFF ALLUVIUM

August 15, 2013

INTERSECTING FAULTS
BORED ROCK SOCKETTED PILES

Page 75

Fault weathered to hard clay at Pier 1

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Discovered in construction when structure finalised

- Wide fault zone weathered to hard clay was exposed in


part of the footing excavation.
- Plate load tests indicated bearing capacity and modulus
much lower than adopted in design.
- To avoid pier and deck redesign, resized footing to
provide adequate bearing capacity without significantly
changing rotational stiffness.
- Achieved using an eccentric footing.
- Iterative approach with sensitivity checks.

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Revised Footing Design

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Variable springs calibrated to 2D FE analysis


SETTLEMENT OF RIGID RECTANGULAR FOOTING ON AN ELASTIC LAYER OF FINITE DEPTH
Foundation spring stiffness calibrated against FEAR output for rigid vertically loaded footing of same dimensions

Displacements (mm)

New Gate wa y Bridge


pier 1 13x 11m footing on fault with 2-way loads
SLS (in service ) Case 246

3.575
2.925

14.0-15.0

2.275

13.0-14.0
12.0-13.0

1.625

1.00-1.10
0.90-1.00

11.0-12.0

0.975

0.80-0.90

10.0-11.0

0.325

0.70-0.80
0.60-0.70

Y (L) axis (m)

9.0-10.0

0.50-0.60

-0.325

8.0-9.0

0.40-0.50

-0.975

7.0-8.0

0.30-0.40

-1.625

0.20-0.30

-2.275

2.93

1.83

0.73

m
m
kNm
kNm
kN/mm
kNm2/mm
kNm2/mm
mm
mm/m
mm/m
kPa
kPa
mm
mm
mm
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa

-0.38

6.0-7.0
5.0-6.0
4.0-5.0

-2.925

3.0-4.0

-3.575

2.0-3.0

-4.225

1.0-2.0

X (B) axis (m) not to relative scale

-4.875

0.0-1.0

-5.525
3.48

2.93

2.38

1.83

1.28

0.73

0.18

-0.38

-0.93

-1.48

-2.03

-2.58

-3.13

-3.68

-4.23

-4.78

-5.33

-5.88

-6.43

-6.175
-6.98

1.710
-0.321
40859
30973
6072
67614
113830
10.7
0.60
0.27
3911
46
15
5
11
708
165
365
207
1007

4.875
4.225

6.175
5.525
4.875
4.225
3.575
2.925
2.275
1.625
0.975
0.325
Y (L) axis (m)
-0.325
-0.975
-1.625
-2.275
-2.925
-3.575
-4.225
-4.875
-5.525
-6.175
-1.48

m
m
kN
kNm
kNm
m2

5.525

-2.58

1.75
0.00
64,700
38300
10200
0.3575

6.175

Non-Uniform Subgrade Modular Ratio Simulating Fault

-3.68

m
m
m
MPa

-4.78

11
13
23
400
0.3

-5.88

INPUTS
X width of rectangle (B<L)
B
Y length of rectangle
L
depth to rigid layer>10E but H<5B
H
Young's modulus of soil
E
poissons ratio
v
APPLIED LOADS:
Xcoord of Pvert (relative to centre of footing)
xp
Ycoord of Pvert (relative to centre of footing)
yp
Pvert
Pve rt
Mxz (longitudina l)
Mxz
Myz (transve rse)
Myz
Area of spring
A
LOAD CENTROID PROPERTIES
X coord of weighted spring group centroid
xc
Y c oord of weighted s pring group centroid
yc
Moment Mxz about xc
Mxzc
Moment Myz about yc
Myzc
Z axial stiffness at (xc,yc)
Kzc
XZ rot stiffness about (xc,yc)
Kmxzc
YZ rot stiffness about (xc,yc)
Kmyzc
total axial deflection at (xc,yc)
sc
XZ rotation (longitutudinal)
Rxz
YZ rotation (tra nsverse)
Ryz
Max imum bearing pressure
Minimum be aring pressure
Max imum settlement
Minimum settlement
centre of column se ttle ment
Max imum bearing pressure on fault ma terial
Average pressure on fault material
a verage load on worst fa ult corner over 9 nodes
Meyerhof be aring pressure on south/fa ult
Meyerhof be aring pressure on north rock

-6.98

PROJECT
DESCRIPTION

X (B) axis (m) not to relative scale

Approx. Moments in Longitudinal Direction (kNm/m)

Bearing Pressure (kPa)


6.175

6.175

5.525

5.525
4.875

4.875
4.225

3800-4000

4.225

3.575

3600-3800

3.575

3400-3600

2.925

2.925

3200-3400

2.275

12000-13000

1.625

1.625

11000-12000

2800-3000

0.975

2600-2800

0.975

0.325

2400-2600

0.325

2.275

3000-3200

Y (L) axis (m)

-0.325

2200-2400
2000-2200

-1.625

-2.275

1400-1600

-2.275

3000-4000

-2.925

2000-3000

-3.575

1000-2000

1200-1400
800-1000

-4.225

600-800

-4.225

-4.875

400-600

-4.875

-5.525

200-400

-5.525

0-200

X (B) axis (m) not to relative scale

X (B) axis (m) not to relative scale

August 15, 2013

Page 79

3.48

2.93

2.38

1.83

1.28

0.73

0.18

-0.38

-0.93

-1.48

-2.03

-2.58

-3.13

-3.68

-4.23

-4.78

-5.33

-5.88

-6.43

-6.175
-6.98

3.48

2.93

2.38

1.83

1.28

0.73

0.18

-0.38

-0.93

-1.48

-2.03

-2.58

-3.13

-3.68

-4.23

-4.78

-5.33

6000-7000

1600-1800

-6.175
-5.88

7000-8000

-0.975

-1.625

-3.575

-6.43

8000-9000

-0.325

1800-2000

1000-1200

-6.98

9000-10000

Y (L) axis (m)

-0.975

-2.925

Use and Abuse of Springs

10000-11000

5000-6000
4000-5000

0-1000

Part 2 The Structural Viewpoint

Outline
- Why do structural engineers need springs
- Types of springs and how we use them
- Examples
Typical Bridge
Gateway Bridge Approach Spans

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Why do Structural Engineers NEED Springs


- Structural model needs to be supported on SOMETHING
- Pinned or fixed supports not realistic.
- High level of redundancy in structure (indeterminant)
- Load transfer and sharing depends on relative stiffness of
both structural elements and supporting ground
- Lots of load cases to be considered (Permanent,
Temporary, Dynamic, different combinations, load factors
etc.)
- Serviceability deflections are often critical
- Cost and Time associated with more rigorous analysis
methods
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Why we LIKE Springs


Behaviour of springs is predictable and easy to understand
Springs are easy to incorporate into the software most
structural engineers use
In a lot of cases structure response is not that sensitive to
the spring values used. (Sensitivity test 50% to 200% x
Spring value)

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Types of Springs used by Structural Engineers


Global Springs
- Easy to include in structural models
- Makes use of foundation analysis
software to derive spring stiffness
- As soil behaviour is non linear spring
stiffness depends on load. Therefore
iteration required.
- Interaction between degrees of
freedom can be significant and
requires consideration.

Presentation Title

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Page 84

Column

Equivalent Global Springs


Equivalent Spring
XH

Presentation Title

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Equivalent Global Springs


Equivalent Spring
XH + XH

L
EI

+
+

Solve for EI and L

Presentation Title

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XH + XM..(1)

M...(2)

Types of Springs used by Structural Engineers


Column

Soil Springs (Winkler Springs)


- Soil structure interaction modelled
directly by soil springs
- Pile Cap or spread footing flexibility
can be modelled
- Does not account for pile group effects
- For pile groups foundation stiffness
should be calibrated against pile group
analysis.

Presentation Title

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Page 87

Types of Springs used by Structural Engineers


Multi Parameter Models
- Models the effects of shear in soil
- Some models are readily incorporated into standard
frame analysis software. Some are not.
- Continuum analysis may be just as easy

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Page 88

Typical Bridge Example

Lateral restraint block

Bridge Articulation
Precast deck girders

Elastomeric Bearings

Bored Pile/Column

Presentation Title

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Deck restrained laterally by


restraint blocks.

Longitudinally structure
floats on elastomeric
bearings

Deck continuous between


movement joints at abutments

Typical Bridge Example


- Longitudinal loads are shared between piers due to shear
deformation of elastomeric bearings
- Column and foundation stiffness also play a part in load
sharing between piers
- Lateral loading transferred through restraint blocks to each
pier
- Load sharing affects design of columns, piles, bearings and
movement joints.
- Structure modelled as 3D frame including piles.
- Winkler spring model works well in this case due to limited
pile group effects
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Typical Bridge Example

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Typical Bridge Example

Spring replaced
with reaction force
if passive limit
exceeded
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Typical Bridge Example


- Deformation behaviour of individual piles should be
calibrated against those of an equivalent laterally loaded
pile
- Need to check whether soil passive limits are reached. If
so then affected springs are removed and replaced with a
force equal to the passive limit. Likely to require iteration.

Presentation Title

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Page 93

Rigid vs Flexible Pile Caps


- Can influence load distribution
in pile groups

Column
Pile Cap

- Pile group analysis software


normally does not consider pile
cap stiffness
- Can be included in structural
model with Winkler springs but
pile group effects not
accounted for.

Presentation Title

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Page 94

D
Rigid if
L/D < 2
L

Bridge Abutment

Use and Abuse of Springs

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Second Gateway Bridge Layout Overview


- Visually mirrors the
existing bridge
- 1.6km long
- 260m main span, 71m
approach spans.
- Includes pedestrian and
bicycle access.
- First crossing built circa
1985
- New crossing completed in
2010
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Second Gateway Bridge Overview


- Balanced Cantilever construction used for both main river
spans and approach spans
- Range of Foundation Types Used
- Southern Approach Piers - Spread footings on rock
- Main River Spans Up to 24 No. 1.8m diameter
vertical rock socket piles in river pier pile caps
- Northern Approach Piers - 40-45No. Octagonal
prestressed piles in a standardised 2m deep pilecap.
- Piers 14 & 17 - single row of 1.8m dia. rock sockets
to give more flexible foundation.
- Different approach span articulation to existing bridge

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BRIDGE LAYOUT Existing Bridge Articulation


Fixed abutment
Columns pinned top and bottom

Halving joint
Fixed
Abutment

Pinned bearings

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BRIDGE LAYOUT Existing Bridge Articulation


Fixed abutment
Columns pinned top and bottom
All longitudinal loads transferred to abutment

Halving joint
Fixed
Abutment

Pinned bearings

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BRIDGE LAYOUT Second Bridge Articulation


Pot bearing joints spaced 4 to 5 spans
Columns fixed top and bottom

Halving
Joint

Halving
Joint

Columns Fixed top and bottom

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Expansion
Joint

Second Gateway Bridge Articulation


Expansion joints spaced 4 to 5 spans (Up to 350m
apart)
Columns fixed top and bottom
Longitudinal loads shared but extra stresses due to
restraint to creep and shrinkage in concrete
Halving
Joint

Halving
Joint

Fixed connections

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Expansion
Joint

BRIDGE LAYOUT Foundation requirements


- Potential for large stresses in spans due to concrete creep
and shrinkage
- Hence piers and foundations need to be flexible in the
longitudinal bridge direction
- BUT still strong/stiff enough to accommodate construction
loading during deck cantilevering as well as lateral and
vertical loads in service.

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Balanced Cantilever Construction


Precast segment

Pier Segment cast


integrally with pier

Cast in situ stitch pour

Cantilever tendon

Continuity tendon

Cast in situ pier

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Second Gateway Bridge Foundations

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Page 104

BRIDGE LAYOUT Second Bridge Articulation


Single row of bored rock sockets provides flexible
foundation.
This reduces shrinkage stresses by reducing curvature
and resistance.
Halving
Joint

Fixed connections

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Expansion
Joint

Flexible piles for short piers


- Shorter piers at northern end driven pile group too stiff.
- High stresses would have developed in piers and deck
under creep and shrinkage.
- Adopted single row of 1.8m dia. rock sockets to give more
flexible foundation.

Use and Abuse of Springs

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Second Gateway Bridge Foundations

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Second Gateway Bridge Articulation

Halving
Joint

Use and Abuse of Springs

August 15, 2013

Halving
Joint

Page 108

Expansion
Joint

Use of Springs for Approach Analysis of Approach Spans


- Global springs used at base of piers in approach spans.
- Spring stiffness based on pile group or foundation
analysis
- Spring stiffnesses determined for both short term and long
term loading
- Iterative procedure since spring stiffness depends on load
in foundation (non linear behaviour)
- In practice required different spring stiffness for SLS and
ULS load cases and for long and short term loading.
- Loads so determined were then used in pile group or
foundation analysis to design piles or spread footings.
Use and Abuse of Springs

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Northern Approach Spans Pile Group

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Suggestions for better collaboration:


Structural engineers:
Learn more about how geotechnical engineers do
business
Talk to geotechnical engineer early
Explain the structures and the foundation loads clearly
Check the sensitivity of the critical actions to the
foundation stiffness
Geotechnical engineers:
Learn more about how structural engineers do
business
Seek clarification from structural engineers on what
they are using recommendations for
Be open to using springs when appropriate
Use and Abuse of Springs

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Page 111

Thank You

email address rob.day@aecom.com