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S. K. Prasad

Dr. S. K. Prasad

Professor of Civil Engineering

S. J. College of Engineering, Mysore

1.

2.

3.

4.

Almost every structure is either built on or built in or built using soil or rock.

Mechanics of Soils and Rocks is the basis of Geotechnical Engineering

Geotechnical problems involve:

Stability

Deformations

Water flow

Soil is an un-cemented aggregate of mineral grains and decayed organic matter

(solid particles) with liquid and gas in the empty space between the solid particles

formed by weathering of rocks in the top surface of earth crust. Fig. 1 represents

a portion of soil mass comprising of solid particles and void space. Void space is

made up of liquid (water) and/or gas (air).

S. K. Prasad

1. Oldest.

2. Cheap or available free of cost many a times.

3. Most complex, yet having interesting properties.

4. Modified to suit the requirements, many a times.

Soil is used

1. to manufacture bricks, Tiles or earthenware.

2. as foundation material.

3. to construct dams and embankments.

4. to fill hollow zones behind retaining walls, low lying areas etc.

The following properties of soil make it perhaps the most complex construction

material.

1. Porous

2. Polyphasic

3. Permeable

4. Particulate

5. Heterogeneous

6. Anisotropic

7. Non-Linear

8. Pressure Level Dependent

9. Strain Level Dependent

10.Strain Rate Dependent

11.Temperature Dependent

12.Undergoes volume change in shear

S. K. Prasad

Yet, soil possesses some Interesting properties that relate with human beings,

namely,

1.

2.

3.

4.

Colorful

Sensitive

Possesses Memory

Changes its properties with time

It is an integration of Physics, Earth Science, Solid Mechanics, Geology and

Hydrogeology. Soil Mechanics provides the theoretical basis for describing the

mechanical behaviour of earth materials. Geotechnical Engineering involves

application of theory of soil mechanics to a variety of field problems. For most

other engineering disciplines, the material properties are well-defined or can be

controlled. But, in Geotechnical Engineering, material properties are highly

variable and difficult to measure with a reasonable degree of accuracy.

Geotechnical Engineering is among the younger branches of Civil Engineering. Yet,

it has evolved over centuries.

1. Geotechnical Engineering is probably one of the most challenging

engineering disciplines.

2. For a geotechnical engineer, no two days at work are going to be similar.

3. Geotechnical engineering expertise is required in a vast variety of

disciplines that includes the oil and offshore industry.

4. Being a relatively new discipline, there is ample scope for innovation.

5. For a geotechnical engineer, achieving job satisfaction is never a problem.

6. Material properties must be measured for each new construction site.

7. Remember that geotechnical engineers deal with natural materials and

there can be no quality control.

S. K. Prasad

9. To make matter worse, engineering properties of earth materials are

strongly influenced by their past geological history that is normally

unknown. Climatic conditions also influence these properties.

The following are the sub-branches of Geotechnical Engineering.

1. Foundation Engineering

2. Deep Excavation

3. Tunneling

4. Earth Pressure and Retaining Structures

5. Earth embankments

6. Stability of Slopes

7. Environmental Geotechniques

8. Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering

9. Ground Improvement technique

10.Rock Mechanics

11.Engineering geology

S. K. Prasad

Foundation

Engg

Earthquake

Geotechnical

Engg.

Environment

al

Geotechnics

Deep

Excavations

Geotechnical

Engg.

Tunneling

Retaining

Structures

Embankment

s

Slopes

1.5 Distinctions between Fine and Coarse Grained Soils

Soil can be broadly classified in to two types, namely Fine grained soil and

coarse grained soil based on the size, shape and behaviour. Table 1 provides

the important distinctions.

Table 1 : Distinctions between Fine grained soil and coarse grained soil

Fine Grained Soil

group

Properties are influenced by gravity

Dense packing, particle to particle contact

enable strength

Mostly round, sub-round, angular

Void ratio & water content can not be very high

Consistency (liquid, plastic & shrinkage) limits

are absent

Attraction and bonding between particles

enable strength

Mostly plate-like

Void ratio & water content can be very high

Possess consistency (liquid, plastic &

shrinkage) limits

S. K. Prasad

Soil is formed from rock due to erosion and weathering action. Igneous rock is the

basic rock formed from the crystallization of molten magma. This rock is formed

either inside the earth or on the surface. These rocks undergo metamorphism

under high temperature and pressure to form Metamorphic rocks. Both Igneous

and metamorphic rocks are converted in to sedimentary rocks due to

transportation to different locations by the agencies such as wind, water etc.

Finally, near the surface millions of years of erosion and weathering converts

rocks in to soil.

1.7 Soil Mass, a three phase system

Soil mass comprises of solid particles and void space. The void space is filled with

water and/or air. Hence, soil mass comprises of some volume of solid (soil

particles), some volume of liquid (mostly soil water) and some volume of gas (air).

Hence, the total volume of soil mass can be treated as a three phase system.

S. K. Prasad

S. K. Prasad

W = Weight

V = Volume

s = Soil grains

w = Water

a = Air

v = Voids

Fig. 4 : Soil mass as three phase system

S. K. Prasad

The following are the basic definitions of soil.

1. Water Content ()

2. Void Ratio (e)

3. Porosity (n)

4. Degree of Saturation (S)

5. Air content (Ac)

6. Percentage air voids (na)

7. Bulk Density (b)

8. Dry density (d)

9. Density of soil solids (s)

10.Saturated density (sat)

11.Density of water ()

12.Submerged density (sub)

13.Specific Gravity of Soil Solids (G)

14.Specific Gravity of Soil Mass (Gm)

15. Relative density (Dr)

Each of the above definition is defined with soil represented as three phase

diagram.

1.8.1 Water Content ()

1. It is defined as ratio of weight of water to weight of solids.

2. It is also called Moisture Content.

3. It has no unit. It is expressed in percentage or decimals (for calculation

purpose).

4. It indicates the amount of water present in the voids in comparison with

weight of solids.

5. In dry soil, water content = 0.

S. K. Prasad

6. Clayey soil may possess very large water content leading to unfavourable

situation.

7. Water content of soil mass changes with season, being close to zero in

summer and maximum during rainy season.

8. It represents the amount of water present in soil mass. In dry soil, water

content = 0

9. Higher the water content, greater will be the vulnerability, especially in

clayey soil.

1. It is defined as the ratio of volume of voids to volume of solids

2. It has no unit. It is normally expressed in decimals.

3. It indicates the amount of voids present in a soil mass in comparison with

the amount of solids.

4. Normally, void ratio of clayey soil will be large.

5. The more the void ratio, more loose will be the soil mass and hence, less

strong and less stiff.

6. It is not possible to determine void ratio in the laboratory. Hence, it is

computed from other properties.

1. It is defined as the ratio of volume of voids to total volume of soil mass.

2. It has no unit. It is expressed in decimals or percentage.

3. Its value ranges from 0 to 100 % (0 < n < 1).

S. K. Prasad

the total volume of soil mass.

5. In some countries, it is more familiar than void ratio. But either can be used

interchangeably in calculation.

6. Like void ratio, porosity is computed and can not be directly determined in

the laboratory.

1.8.4 Degree of Saturation (S)

1. It is defined as the ratio of volume of water to volume of voids.

2. It has no unit. It is usually expressed in percentage.

3. Its value ranges from 0 to 100 % (0 < S < 100 %)

4. It represents the amount of water present in the void space of soil mass.

5. In dry soil, S = 0 and in fully saturated soil S = 100 %. Hence, during summer

S is close to zero, while during rainy season, S is close to 100 %. In partially

saturated soil, S lies between zero to 100 %.

6. It is computed and can not be directly determined in the laboratory.

1. It is defined as the ratio of volume of air to volume of voids.

2. It has no unit. It is usually expressed in percentage.

3. Its value ranges from 0 to 100 % (0 < Ac < 100 %).

4. It represents the amount of air present in the void space of soil mass.

5. In dry soil, Ac is 100 % and in fully saturated soil Ac is 0 %. In partially

saturated soil Ac lies between 0 and 100 %.

S. K. Prasad

6. S + Ac = 1

7. It is computed and can not be directly determined in the laboratory.

1. It is defined as the ratio of volume of air to total volume of soil mass.

2. It has no unit. It is expressed in percentage.

3. Its value ranges from zero to 100 % (0 < na < 100 %).

4. It represents the amount of air present in the total volume of soil mass.

5. Always na < Ac.

6. It is computed and can not be directly determined in the laboratory.

1. It is defined as the ratio of total weight to total volume of soil mass.

2. In SI units, it is expressed as kN/m3.

3. Its value normally ranges from 12 to 24 kN/m3.

4. It includes the weights of air, water and solids as a function of total volume

of soil mass. It changes with season, being maximum during rainy season

and minimum in summer.

5. Bulk density of soil mass can be determined experimentally. It is therefore

used to compute other properties such as dry density and void ratio.

S. K. Prasad

1. It is defined as the ratio of weight of soil solids to total volume of soil mass.

2. In SI units, it is expressed as kN/m3.

3. Dry density will always be less than or equal to bulk density of soil mass.

4. Dry density is independent of season. Hence, it is used in many design

calculations such as safe bearing capacity of soil.

5. Knowing water content and bulk density, dry density can be computed.

1. It is defined as the ratio of weight of soil solids to volume of soil solids.

2. In SI units, it is expressed as kN/m3.

3. It is always greater than dry density of soil.

4. It can not be determined experimentally. Hence, it is computed from other

parameters. It is used to calculate other properties such as specific gravity

of soil solids.

1. It is defined as the ratio of total weight to total volume of soil mass when

the soil is fully saturated. Hence, it is the bulk density of soil mass when S =

1.

2. In SI units, it is expressed as kN/m3.

1.8.11 Density of water ()

1. It is defined as the ratio of weight of water to volume of water.

2. In SI units, it is expressed in kN/m3 and can be taken as 9.8 kN/m3.

S. K. Prasad

1. It is defined as the net weight of weight per volume of soil mass in water.

2. In SI units, it is expressed as kN/m3.

3. It is equal to saturated density minus density of water.

4. sub = sat

5. It is also called buoyant density.

6. In saturated soil, water exerts upward pressure on soil. Net weight of soil

particles acting downward will be actual weight of soil minus weight of

water.

1. It is defined as the weight of soil solids to weight of equal volume of water.

2. Hence, it is the ratio of density of soil solids to density of water.

3. It has no units and is expressed in decimals.

4. Normally, G of most soils varies from 2.6 to 2.75. Organic soils may have G

up to 2.

5. G is determined in the laboratory and is used to compute other parameters

such as void ratio.

6. Many a times, specific gravity means G

S. K. Prasad

1. It is defined as the weight of soil mass to weight of equal volume of water.

2. It is also called Apparent Specific Gravity.

3. It has no units and is expressed in decimals.

4. Its magnitude is always smaller than that of G.

5. It is less commonly used in calculations.

1. It is also called Density Index.

2. It has no unit. It is expressed in percentage.

3. Dr ranges from 0 to 100 %.

4. It is applicable for coarse grained soil such as sand and gravel.

5. It indicates whether the insitu density of soil is close to loosest or densest

state.

6. D r =

e max e

e max e min

Dr = d max

d

d d min

d max d min

8. When Dr = 1, soil in its densest state and when Dr = 0, soil is in its loosest

state.

Table 2 : Influence of Relative density on Soil State

S. K. Prasad

State of Soil

0 to 20

Very Loose

20 to 40

Loose

40 to 60

Medium dense

60 to 80

Dense

80 to 100

Very Dense

Problem 1

A natural soil mass has a bulk density of 18 kN/m3 and water content of 8 %.

Calculate the amount of water required per cubic meter of soil to raise the water

content to 18 %. What will be the degree of saturation at this water content?

Assume void ratio to be constant and take G = 2.7. (July 2006) 8 Marks

Data

b = 18 kN/m3

=8%

G = 2.7

= 9.8 kN/m3 (assumed)

b

= 16.67 kN / m 3

1+

G

e=

1 = 0.587

d

d =

d =

Ws

V

S. K. Prasad

If = 8 %, weight of water = 0.08Ws = 1.33 kN

If = 18 %, weight of water = 0.18Ws = 3 kN

Hence, amount of water required per cu.m of soil = 3 1.33 = 1.67 kN = 167 lt.

G = Se

S = 0.828 = 82.8%

Problem 2

How many cu.m of soil can be formed with void ratio of 0.5 from 100 m3 of soil

having void ratio of 0.7? (Jan 2006) 5 Marks

Data

e1 = 0.7

Vv1 = 0.7Vs

V1 = 100 m3 = Vv1 + Vs = 1.7 Vs

Vs = 58.82 m3

e2 = 0.5

Vv2 = 0.5Vs = 29.41 m3

V2 = Vv2 + Vs = 88.23 m3

Problem 3

A dry soil has a void ratio of 0.65 and specific gravity is 2.8. Find its unit weight.

Water is added to the sample so that its degree of saturation is 55 % without any

change in void ratio. Determine the water content and unit weight. The sample is

then submerged in water. Determine the unit weight when the degree of

saturation is 90 % and 100 %. (Jan 2008) 10 Marks

Data

e = 0.65

G = 2.8

= 9.8 kN/m3 (assumed)

d =

S. K. Prasad

G

= 16.63kN / m 3

1+ e

When S = 55 %, = 12.77 %

b = d (1 + ) = 18.75kN / m 3

When S = 90 %, = 20.89 %

When S = 100 %, = 23.21 %

Problem 4

In an earth dam under construction, the bulk unit weight is 16.5 kN/m3 at water

content 11 %. If the water content has to be increased to 15 %, compute the

quantity of water to be added per cu.m of soil. Assume no change in void ratio.

Determine the degree of saturation at this water content. Take G = 2.7. (Jan 2009)

10 Marks.

Data

b =16.5 kN/m3

= 11 %

G = 2.7

= 9.8 kN/m3 (assumed)

d =

b

= 14.86kN / m 3

1+

Ww = 1.63 kN per unit volume

e=

S=

d

G

e

1 = 0.78

= 51.92%

Problem 5

An undisturbed specimen of clay was tested in a laboratory and the following

results were obtained. Weight = 2.1 N, Oven dry weight = 1.75 N. Specific Gravity

S. K. Prasad

of soil solids = 2.7. What was the total volume of original undisturbed specimen

assuming that the specimen was 50 % saturated? (Model QP) 8 Marks

Data

W = 2.1 N

Ws = 1.75 N

Ww = 0.35 N

G = 2.7

S = 0.5

= 9.8 kN/m3 (assumed)

=

W

= 20%

Ws

= 1.08

S

G

d = = 12.72kN / m 3

1+ e

e=

Ws 1.75 X 10 3

d =

=

= 12.72

V

V

V = 0.1376 X10-3 m3

Problem 6

The maximum and minimum dry unit weights of sand determined in the

laboratory are 21 kN/m3 and 16 kN/m3 respectively. If the relative density of sand

is 60 %, determine the in-situ porosity of the sand deposit. Take G = 2.65. (June

2008) 6 Marks

Data

Dr = 60 % =0.6

dmax = 21 kN/m3

dmin = 16 kN/m3

d = 18.67 kN/m3

S. K. Prasad

Dr = d max

d

e=

n=

d d min

d max d min

1 = 0.78

e

= 0.44

1+ e

Problem 7

For a soil in its natural state, void ratio, water content and specific gravity are

respectively 0.8, 24 % and 2.68. Determine bulk density, dry density and degree of

saturation. If the soil is completely saturated by adding water, what would be its

water content and saturated density.

Data

e=0.8

= 0.24

G = 2.68

= 9.8 kN/m3 (assumed)

d =

G

= 14.59kN / m 3

1+ e

b = d (1 + ) = 18.09kN / m 3

S=

G

e

= 80.4%

If S =1, =29.85 %

sat = d (1 + ) = 18.95 kN / m 3

Problem 8

In its natural condition, a soil sample has a mass of 22.9 N and a volume of 1.15 X

10-3 m3. After being completely dried in the oven sample weighs 20.35 N. Find

bulk density, water content, void ratio, porosity, degree of saturation, air content,

dry density and percentage air voids.

Data

W = 22.9 N

S. K. Prasad

V = 1.15 X 10-3 m3

Ws = 20.35 N

G = 2.7

= 9.8 kN/m3 (assumed)

b =

W

22.9

=

= 19.91 kN / m 3

3

V 1.15 X 10

= 12.53 %

d = 17.7 kN/m3

e=

1 = 0.495

e

= 0.331

1+ e

G

S=

= 68 .35 %

e

n=

Ac = 1 S = 31.65 %

d =

(1 n a )G

1 + G

na = 0.105

Problem 9

A moist sample of soil has a weight of 6.33 N and a volume of 300000 mm3 at a

water content of 11 %. Taking G = 2.68, determine e, S and na. Also determine

water content at which soil gets fully saturated. What will be the unit weight at

saturation?

Data

W = 6.33 N

V = 3X105 mm3

G = 2.68

S. K. Prasad

= 11%

w = 9.8 kN/m3

b =

W

= 21.1 kN / m 3

V

b

= 19 kN / m 3

1+

G

e=

1 = 0.38

d

d =

S=

G

e

= 77.6%

If S = 1, then =

e

= 14.18 %

G

sat = d (1 + ) = 21.69 kN / m 3

1.9 Distinction between Mass Density and Unit weight or Weight Density

In geotechnical engineering, it is common to use weight density or unit weight

than mass density. It should be noted that weight density depends on

acceleration due to gravity (g) and hence it is place dependent. However, g does

not change considerably from place to place within the engineering limits.

Commonly, symbol is used to represent mass density and symbol is used to

represent weight density. Further, = * g.

Table 3 : Common mass densities and Unit weights in Geotechnical Engineering

Mass Density

(kg/m3)

Unit weight

(kN/m3)

S. K. Prasad

Bulk

Dry

Soil Solids

Water

Saturated

sat

sat

Submerged

sub

sub

= 1000 kg/m3

= 9800 N/m3 = 9.8 kN/m3

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