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1.

0 TITLE
Experiment of Relationship between Pressure and Volume in Gas

2.0 OBJECTIVE
-

To understand the application concept of Boyles Law.

To study the relationship between the pressure and volume of a confined gas.

To understand the planning of a measurement series, the reading of measurement result


and the conversion of measurements into a statement of theoretical principle.

3.0 THEORY
Boyle's law (sometimes known as the Boyle Mariotte law) is one of the gas laws. Boyle fixed the
amount of gas and its temperature during his investigation. He found that when he manipulated
the pressure that the volume responded in the opposite direction. For example, when Boyle
increased the pressure on a gas sample the volume would decrease. Mathematically, PV =
constant value if the gas is behaving as an Ideal Gas. A practical math expression of Boyle's
findings is as follows:

Where:

V is volume of the gas.

P is the pressure of the gas.

k is a constant (see Note 1).

where the variables with the 1 subscript mean initial values before the manipulation and the
variables with the 2 subscript mean final values after the manipulation.

4.0 PROCEDURE AND APPARATUS


WL100 Apparatus for Demonstrating Boyles Law

Figure 3 - Schematic Diagram For Boyles Law Apparatus


Compression Operation (1.0L-0.3L)
1. Both the hose side and atmosphere side valves at the compression side are closed.

2. Hose side closed and atmosphere side opened at the suction side.
3. The pump is turned on.
4. The compression valve (hose side) is slowly opened and closed firmly when the test
point reached (volume air 0.9L).
5. Quantities of pressure is read and recorded into the table when the level of water
remains steady.
6. Steps 3 to 5 repeated for the test point 0.7, 0.5 and 0.3.
7. The pump is turned off.
8. Dual valve compression side and suction side are opened.

Vacuum Operation (1.0L-2.0L)


1. Hose side closed and atmosphere side opened at the compression side.
2. Both the hose side and atmosphere side valves at the suction side are closed.
3. The pump is turned on.
4. The compression valve (hose side) is slowly opened and closed firmly when the test
point reached (volume air 1.1L).
5. Quantities of pressure is read and recorded into the table when the level of water
remains steady.
6. Steps 3 to 5 repeated for the test point 1.3, 1.5, 1.7 and 1.9.
7. The pump is turned off.
8. Dual valve compression side and suction side are opened.
9. Main switch is switched off.

5.0 DATA AND ANALYSIS


V (litre)

(bar)

xV
(litre.bar)
[X]

Absolute deviance
from mean
[X Y]
(litre.bar)

Relative
deviance from
mean (%)
[
x 100]

0.3

3.20

3.18

3.18

3.19

0.957

0.040

4.01

0.5

2.00

1.98

1.98

1.99

0.995

0.002

0.20

0.7

1.48

1.46

1.44

1.46

1.022

0.025

2.51

0.9

1.10

1.10

1.08

1.09

0.981

0.016

1.60

1.1

0.90

0.90

0.91

0.90

0.990

0.007

0.70

1.3

0.78

0.77

0.78

0.78

1.014

0.017

1.71

1.5

0.70

0.68

0.67

0.68

1.020

0.023

2.31

1.7

0.60

0.59

0.59

0.59

1.003

0.006

0.60

1.9

0.52

0.52

0.52

0.52

0.988
Mean [Y]

0.009

0.90
Mean = 1.62

= 0.997

Graph of Pressure vs Volume


3.50
3.00

Pressure (bar)

2.50
2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1
Volume (L)

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Pressure (bar)

1/V (1/L)

3.19
1.99
1.46
1.09
0.9
0.78
0.68

3.33
2.00
1.43
1.11
0.91
0.77
0.67

Graph of Pressure vs 1/V


3.50
3.00

Pressure (bar)

2.50
2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
0

0.5

1.5

2
1/V (1/L)

2.5

3.5

6.0 CALCULATION

=
= 3.19
X

xV

= 3.19 x 0.3
= 0.957 litre.bar
Absolute deviance from mean = [X Y]
= 0.957 0.997
= 0.40 litre.bar

Relative deviance from mean (%)

=[

x 100]

=
= 4.01

7.0 DISCUSSION
1. From the graph that plotted, the P versus 1/V is a straight line graph and passes through the origin.
This graph shows that P is directly proportional to 1/V. While for the graph P versus V, we get a
hyperbolic curve graph. The pattern that we can see is when the volume increasing, the pressure
decreasing which mean that in this experiment Boyles Law is valid.
2. The gas will not apply Boyles Law when the temperature of gas is not fixed while doing the
experiment. This is because Boyles Law allows us to find out the relationship between pressure
and volume under condition where temperature is fixed. Besides that, if the gas is not an ideal
gas it does not apply Boyles Law because according to Boyles Law, PV= constant value just
when the gas behaving like an ideal gas. Real gas will disobey the boyles Law
3. There is some error which occurs in this experiment such as error we made when reading the
scale of pressure gauge. The scale of the pressure gauge is too big so we just take the
approximate reading which causes the error in reading. Parallax error also occurs in this
experiment. This error occurs when we take the reading from graduated cylinder.

8.0 CONCLUSION
Conclusion, from this experiment we have proved that the volume of a fixed mass of an ideal gas is
inversely proportional to its pressure which is same with what stated in Boyles Law. When we
increase the volume inside the cylinder, the pressure inside the pressure cylinder will also decreases
correspondingly. To apply Boyles Law in this experiment, we had to assume that the temperature
was fixed and the gas we used is an ideal gas before we start the experiment.