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Environment Management Concept

Definition
Its an attempt to control human impact on and interaction with the environment in order to
preserve natural resources
Environmental management focuses on the improvement of human welfare for present and
future generations.
Administrative functions that develop, implement, and monitor the environmental policy of an
organization.
Sustainable Development
is a pattern of resource use, that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment
so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for generations to come.
The development initiatives be initiated in such a way that the future generations can enjoy the
benefits of Nature without any compromise.
Using the resources to the extent to which it is sustained.
Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

Significance in India
WHY factor

India is the world's sixth largest and second fastest growing producer of greenhouse
gases.

Delhi , Mumbai and Chennai are three of the world's ten most polluted cities.

Two-thirds of city dwellers lack sewerage; one-third lack potable water.

India urban population grows equivalent of another New York City every year. This
equals to a projected urban population of over 500 million in 20 years.

Trends in Environmental Management


Impact Assessment and Planning (IAP)
Assessing environmental and social impacts prior to setting up operations and obtaining environmental
approval from the authorities is almost mandatory in most project categories. IAP assessments may be
required not only for newly constructed facilities, but also for new operations that will be housed in an
existing building.
Environmental Liability and Clean-up
Foreign investment has resulted in heightened scrutiny of current and historic environmental liabilities
associated with property transactions in India.
Sustainability and Regulatory Compliance
The increasing desire of Indian companies to meet world class standards has caused established
companies in India to take on sustainability initiatives as a means of improving their global brand and
reputation.
Climate Change
While India still lags the West in coming up with concrete regulations based on the development versus
environment debate, there is an increasing awareness in India that climate change is not about scoring
points but about the existence of entire communities inside and outside of India.
National Environmental Policy
The National Environment Policy seeks to extend the coverage, and fill in gaps that still exist, in
light of present knowledge and accumulated experience.
It does not displace, but builds on the earlier policies.

National Forest Policy, 1988

National Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement on Environment and Development,


1992

Policy Statement on Abatement of Pollution,1992

The National Environment Policy is intended to mainstream environmental concerns in all


development activities.
Objectives of the National Environment Policy
Conservation of Critical Environmental Resources
To protect and conserve critical ecological systems and resources, and invaluable natural and man-made
heritage, which are essential for life support, livelihoods, economic growth, and a broad conception of
human well-being.
Intra-generational Equity: Livelihood Security for the Poor
To ensure equitable access to environmental resources and quality for all sections of society, and in
particular, to ensure that poor communities, which are most dependent on environmental resources for
their livelihoods, are assured secure access to these resources.
Environmental Governance
To apply the principles of good governance (transparency, rationality, accountability, reduction in time
and costs, participation, and regulatory independence) to the management and regulation of use of
environmental resources.
Enhancement of Resources for Environmental Conservation
To ensure higher resource flows, comprising finance, technology, management skills, traditional
knowledge, and social capital, for environmental conservation through mutually beneficial
multistakeholder partnerships between local communities, public agencies, the academic and research
community, investors, and multilateral and bilateral development partners.
Multilateral Development Banks are institutions that provide financial support and professional advice
for economic and social development activities in developing countries. The term Multilateral
Development Banks (MDBs) typically refers to the World Bank Group and four Regional Development
Banks:
The African Development Bank
The Asian Development Bank
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
The Inter-American Development Bank Group

Principles National Environment Policy


Human Beings are at the Centre of Sustainable Development Concerns
The Right to Development
The right to development must be fulfilled so as to equitably meet developmental and environmental
needs of present and future generations.
Environmental Protection is an Integral part of the Development Process
The Precautionary Approach
Where there are credible threats of serious or irreversible damage to key environmental resources, lack
of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent
environmental degradation.
Economic Efficiency
The services of environmental resources be given economic value, and such value to count equally with
the economic values of other goods and services, in analysis of alternative courses of action.
Example: Polluter Pays
Entities with Incomparable Values
Significant risks to human health, life, and environmental life-support systems, besides certain other
unique natural and man-made entities, which may impact the well-being, broadly conceived, of large
numbers of persons, may be considered as Incomparable in that individuals or societies would not
accept these risks for compensation in money or conventional goods and services.
Equity
The cardinal principle of equity or justice requires that human beings cannot be treated differently
based on irrelevant differences between them.
Legal Liability
The principle of legal liability may be viewed as an embodiment in legal doctrine of the polluter pays
approach.

Fault Based Liability

In a fault based liability regime a party is held


for example, an environmental standard.

liable

if it breaches a preexisting legal duty,

Strict Liability

Strict liability imposes an obligation to compensate the victim for harm resulting from actions or
failure to take action, which may not necessarily constitute a breach of any law or duty of care.
Public Trust Doctrine
The State is not an absolute owner, but a trustee of all natural resources, which are by nature meant for
public use and enjoyment, subject to reasonable conditions, necessary to protect the legitimate interest
of a large number of people, or for matters of strategic national interest.
Decentralization
Decentralization involves ceding or transfer of power from a Central Authority to State and Local
Authorities, in order to empower public authorities having jurisdiction at the spatial level at which
particular environmental issues are salient, to address these issues.
Integration
Integration refers to the inclusion of environmental considerations in sectoral policymaking, the
integration of the social and natural sciences in environment related policy research, and the
strengthening of relevant linkages among various agencies at the Central, State, and Local SelfGovernment levels, charged with the implementation of environmental policies.
Environmental Standard Setting
Environmental standards must reflect the economic and social development situation in which they
apply. Standards adopted in one society or context may have unacceptable economic and social costs if
applied without discrimination in another society or context.
Preventive Action
It is preferable to prevent environmental damage from occurring in the first place, rather than
attempting to restore degraded environmental resources after the fact.
Environmental Offsetting
There is a general obligation to protect threatened or endangered species and natural systems that are
of special importance to sustaining life, providing livelihoods, or general well-being.

Regulatory Reforms
Revisiting the Policy and Legislative
Framework
Process Related Reforms
Substantive Reforms
Process Related Reforms
Approach
The objective is to reduce delays and levels of decision-making, realize decentralization of
environmental functions, and ensure greater transparency and Accountability.
Framework for Legal Action
A judicious mix of civil and criminal processes and sanctions will be employed in the legal regime for
enforcement, through a review of the existing legislation.
Substantive Reforms
Environment and Forests Clearances
Under the new arrangements, there would be significant devolution of powers to the State/UT level.
Coastal Areas
Living Modified Organisms (LMOs)
Environmentally Sensitive Zones
Monitoring of Compliance
Use of Economic Principles in Environmental Decision-making
LMOs
In order to ensure that development of biotechnology does not lead to unforeseen adverse impacts, the
following actions will be taken:

Review the regulatory processes for LMOs so that all relevant scientific knowledge is
taken into account, and ecological, health, and economic concerns are adequately
addressed.

Periodically review the National Bio-safety Guidelines, and Bio-safety Operations


Manual to ensure that these are based on current scientific knowledge.

Ensure the conservation of bio-diversity and human health when dealing with LMOs

Environmentally Sensitive Zones


The following actions will be taken:
Identify and give legal status to Environmentally Sensitive Zones in the country having
environmental entities with Incomparable values requiring special conservation efforts.
Formulate area development plans for these zones on a scientific basis, with adequate
participation by the local communities.
Create local institutions with adequate participation for the environmental management of such
areas, to ensure adherence to the approved area development plans, which should be prepared
in consultation with the local communities.
Monitoring of Compliance
The following actions will be taken:
Take measures, including capacity development initiatives to enable Panchayati Raj Institutions
and urban local bodies to undertake monitoring of compliance with environmental management
plans. Measures will also be taken to encourage municipalities to annually report their
environmental performance to their governing bodies.
Develop feasible models of public-private partnerships to leverage financial, technical, and
management resources of the private sector in setting up and operating infrastructure for
monitoring of environmental compliance, with ironclad safeguards against possible conflict of
interest or collusion with the monitored entities.
Use of Economic Principles in Environmental Decision-making:
It is necessary that the costs associated with the degradation and depletion of natural resources be
incorporated into the decisions of economic actors at various levels, to reverse the tendency to treat
these resources as free goods and to pass the costs of degradation to other sections of society, or to
future generations of the country.
Environment
The term environment refers to an organizations natural and human surroundings. An organizations
environment extends from within the organization itself to the global system, and includes air, water,
land, flora, fauna, as well as human beings.
Current Condition in India
Rapid growing Population

Economic Development

Uncontrolled Growth of Urbanization

Industrialization/ Globalisation

Expansion and Massive Intensification of agriculture

Destruction of Forests

Rapid Growth of Population


50% of population to be in Urban cities by 2020
UN projection half of world population to stay in Urban cities by 2008

Environmental Conflict
India lags behind in putting forward any system for planned management of its fragile ecosystem that is in constant conflict with the needs of development .
Indian scenario is bleak, what with all round failures in arresting the population growth with
attendant pressures on land and scarce natural resources , increasing urbanisation ,
industrialisation , growth in rapacious consumption , wasteful life styles
In India, relationship between westernised models of development and the preservation
environment on the face of its fight against poverty, the conflict exists broadly on three levels:o

Some castigate excessive concern for environment as a result of conspiracy of the


developed nations against progress in the underdeveloped countries like India and
maintain that India may address issues concerning environment only after it reaches the
level of production and consumption of the industrialised nations.

Some others feel that concern for environment is bound to divert attention from the problems
of the poor. Environment, to this group has nothing to do with trying to give a better deal to the
large and ever growing population.
Some believe that in India at least the very large and ever-growing population is responsible for
the environment crises.
Environmental Issues in India
Forest and Agricultural Degradation of land
Resource depletion (water, mineral, forest, sand, rocks etc.) is an economic term referring to
the exhaustion of raw materials within a region.
Environmental Degradation

Public health
Loss of biodiversity
Loss of resilience in ecosystems
Livelihood security for the poor
Forest and Agricultural Degradation of land
Degradation means reduction of

Forest quality - the density and structure of the trees, the ecological services supplied,
the biomass of plants and animals, the species diversity.

Fertility and output Quality of Agricultural Land.

Biomass is the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time.
Causes:

Land clearance, such as clearcutting and deforestation.

Agricultural depletion of soil nutrients through poor farming practices.

Livestock including overgrazing.

Inappropriate Irrigation and overdrafting.

Urban sprawl and Commercial development.

Land pollution including industrial waste.

Vehicle off-roading.

Quarrying of stone, sand, ore and minerals.

Overdrafting is the process of extracting groundwater beyond the safe yield or equilibrium yield of the
aquifer.
An aquifer is a wet underground layer
The Urban sprawl is the spreading of urban developments (as houses and shopping centers) on
undeveloped land near a city
A commercial clear cut is when cutters remove only the valuable trees and leave others standing.
Effects

Accelerated soil erosion by wind and water

Soil acidification and the formation of acid sulfate soil resulting in barren soil.

Soil alkalinisation owing to irrigation with water containing sodium bicarbonate leading
to poor soil structure and reduced crop yields.

Soil salination in irrigated land requiring soil salinity control to reclaim the land.

Soil waterlogging in irrigated land which calls for some form of subsurface land drainage
to remediate the negative effects.

Destruction of soil structure including loss of organic matter.

Environmental Degradation
is defined as any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or
undesirable.
Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through

depletion of resources such as air, water and soil

the destruction of ecosystems

the extinction of wildlife.

Water resources
Usage of Ground and Underground water by the Industry - causes huge droughts and
contamination to a massive area by exploiting an excessive amount of ground water and then
replacing it with toxic discharge.
85% of rural drinking water and 55% of urban water comes from underground sources has
caused the national water table to suddenly and very dramatically drop.
The rivers are slowly being polluted and destroyed by sewage, chemicals and other agricultural
and industrial waste.
Deforestation
almost 5.3 Million hectares of forest have been destroyed since the independence for housing,
industrialisation and river projects.
Poor management and abuse of power are again the increasingly sad cause behind the mass
deforestation- Poaching.
The invasion of foreign tree species such as Eucalyptus etc.
Eucalyptus is water intensive and nutrient intensive.

Eucalyptus is toxic, due to allelopathic properties, which serve to reduce not only other plant life,
including crops, by restricting germination of other species, but is also detrimental to soil micro and
macrofauna.
macrofauna (biology), in soil science, animals that are one centimetre or more long but smaller than an
earthworm. Potworms, myriapods, centipedes, millipedes

Public Health
Public health has often been defined as a science dealing with the determinants and defence of
health at the population level, while clinical medicine deals with multiple maladies and their
remedies at the level of an individual patient.
Public health aims to understand and influence the social, cultural and economic determinants
of health as well as to study and structure health systems as efficient channels for health
services delivery.
Loss of Biodiversity
Biodiversity is the distribution and number, variety and variability of living organisms over time.
Biodiversity may be diversity within species (genetic diversity), between species (species
diversity), and between ecosystems (ecosystem diversity).
Biodiversity includes all ecosystemswildlands, nature preserves or national parks, plantations,
farms, croplands, aquaculture sites, rangelands and urban parks too have their own biodiversity.
Loss in biodiversity has direct and indirect negative effects on Food security, Vulnerability,
Health, Energy security, Clean water and Social relations.
Fragmentation of habitats and the sharp decline in small subpopulations of plants and animals
bring them on the edge of decline.
18 domestic poultry breeds are under threat and around 40 species of plants and animals have
extincted.
India has lost about 40% of its mangroves and some crucial part of its wetlands.
Major problems with biodiversity conservation
Low priority for conservation of living natural resources.
Exploitation of living natural resources for monetary gain.
Values and knowledge about the species and ecosystem inadequately known.
Unplanned urbanization and uncontrolled industrialization.

Major biodiversity threats


Habitat destruction.
Extension of agriculture.
Filling up of wetlands.
Conversion of rich bio-diversity site for Human settlement and industrial development.
Destruction of coastal areas.
Uncontrolled commercial exploitation.
Loss of resilience in ecosystem
Ecosystem resilience describes the capacity of an ecosystem to cope with disturbances, such as
storms, fire and pollution, without shifting into a qualitatively different state.
A resilient ecosystem has the capacity to withstand shocks and surprises and, if damaged, to
rebuild itself.
In a resilient ecosystem, the process of rebuilding after disturbance promotes renewal and
innovation.
Without resilience, ecosystems become vulnerable to the effects of disturbance that previously
could be absorbed.
Livelihood security for the poor
Poor farmers are unable to cope with adverse climatic conditions can only resort to seasonal
migration due to lack of any productive assets or availability of alternative employment options
in the village.
Slowdown in agricultural growth and productivity, changing cropping patterns, increase in
distress migration, changing consumption patterns, government policies favouring industrial
houses, among others have seriously undermined the food and livelihood security of the poorer
households.
Environmental issues in India
Water pollution
Growing water scarcity
Air pollution
Poor management of waste

Falling groundwater tables


Preservation and quality of forests
Biodiversity loss, and land/soil degradation
Water pollution
Discharge of untreated sewage is single most important cause for pollution of surface and
ground water in India.
Large gap between generation and treatment of domestic wastewater in India.
India lacks sufficient treatment capacity.
Sewage treatment plants that exist do not operate and are not maintained.
Improper design or poor maintenance or lack of reliable electricity supply to operate the plants,
together with absentee employees and poor management.
The untreated industrial wastes have resulted in calcium, magnesium, fluoride, mercury, betaendosulphan and heptachlor pesticide were more than permissible limit (MPL) in ground and tap
waters.
The water has high concentration of COD and BOD (chemical and biochemical oxygen demand),
ammonia, phosphate, chloride, chromium, arsenic and chlorpyrifos pesticide in many of the
dwellings along the industrial belt.
The ground water also contains nickel and selenium, while the tap water has high concentration
of lead, nickel and cadmium.
Endosulfan is an off-patent organochlorine insecticide and acaricide that is being phased out globally.
Heptachlor is an organochlorine compound that was used as an insecticide.
Acaricide: An agent, usually a chemical, that kills mites.

Water is Precious and scarce Resource


Only a small fraction (about 3%) is fresh water
India is the wettest country in the world, but rainfall is highly uneven with time and space (with
extremely low in Rajasthan and high in North-East)
On an average there are only 40 rainy days
Out of 4000 BCM(Billion Cubic Meter) rainfall received, about 600 BCM is put to use so far.
Water resources are over-exploited resulting in major Water Quality problems.

Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974


Preamble: Maintaining and restoring of wholesomeness of water level of WQ
Provision for consent.
Every polluter (industry or municipality) has to obtain consent from SPCBs/PCCs-State Pollution
Control Board (SPCB) Pollution Control Committee (PCC)
Consent is conditional.
Standards prescribed for effluents.
Monitoring the compliance.
Major Factors Responsible for WQ Degradation
Domestic: 423 class I cities and 499 class II towns harboring population of 20 Crore generate
about 26254 mld of wastewater of which only 6955 mld is treated.
Industrial: About 57,000 polluting industries in India generate about 13,468 mld of wastewater
out of which nearly 60% (generated from large & medium industries) is treated.
Non-point sources also contribute significant pollution loads mainly in rainy season. Pesticides
consumption is about 1,00,000 tonnes/year of which AP, Haryana, Punjab, TN, WB, Gujarat, UP
and Maharashtra are principal consumers.
Domestic sewage is the major source of pollution in India in surface water which contribute
pathogens, the main source of water borne diseases along with depletion of oxygen in water
bodies.
Sewage along with agricultural run-off and industrial effluents also contributes large amount of
nutrients in surface water causing eutrophication
A large part of the domestic sewage is not even collected. This results in stagnation of sewage
within city, a good breeding ground for mosquitoes and contaminate the groundwater, the only
source of drinking water in many cities.
WATER POLLUTION CONTROL STRATEGY
Urban sources National River Action Plan
Industrial Sources through consent ( SPCB)
Special Drives: 17 categories of industries
Industries discharging into rivers and lakes

24 Problem areas action plan


Environmental auditing
Common effluent treatment plants for cluster of SSI units (124)
Promotion of low-waste and no-waste technology
Recent efforts to address water issues
US$100 billion project to interlink all major river networks in India.
Connect water-deficient areas to water-abundant ones by interlinking 37 Indian rivers.
Transfer water through 30 links across 9,600 kilometers and the project would connect 32
dams.
Aims a transformation of India's water treatment, management, transmission and distribution.
Water Scarcity- Indian Scenario
The thirst of water for Indias rapid development is growing day by day.
Large area under the less water conditions/drought prone.
The quality of groundwater is not good.
Water supply of the 90% of Indias territory is served by inter-state rivers.
Growing number of conflicts across the states on water sharing issues.
Major Reasons behind Water Scarcity
Population growth and Food production (Agriculture)
Increasing construction/ infrastructure development Activities
Massive urbanization and industrialization throughout the country
Climatic change and variability- Depleting of natural resources due to changing climate
conditions (Deforestation etc.)
Lack of implementation of effective water management systems.
http://youtube/XGgYTcPzexE

Air Pollution
Vehicle emissions are responsible for 70% of the countrys air pollution.
Air pollution from vehicle exhaust and industry is a worsening problem for India.
Exhaust from vehicles has increased eight-fold over levels of twenty years ago; industrial
pollution has risen four times.
At average trip speeds between 20 to 40 kilometers per hour, the cars pollutant emission was
twice and At average trip speeds between 5 to 20 kilometers per hour, the cars pollutant
emissions were 4 to 8 times as much as much as when the average speed was 55 to 75
kilometers per hour.
Some Indian taxis and auto-rickshaws run on adulterated fuel blends.
Some adulterants increase emissions of harmful pollutants from vehicles, worsening urban air
pollution.
Fuel adulteration is essentially an unintended consequence of tax policies and the attempt to
control fuel prices, in the name of fairness.
Indias environmental problems are exacerbated by its heavy reliance on coal for power
generation.
Emits a high amount of carbon and greenhouse gases.
Harmful pollutants like nitrogen and sulphur oxides emitted by aircraft at approximately
35,000ft combine with other gases in the atmosphere to create noxious particulate matter.
8,000 people will die due to aircraft pollutants this year, and 3,500 of them would be from India
and China.
Fuelwood and biomass burning is the primary reason for near-permanent haze and smoke
observed above rural and urban India, and in satellite pictures of the country.
Fuelwood and biomass cakes are used for cooking and general heating in over 100 million
Indian households, and are used two to three times a day, daily.
World Health Organization, claim 300,000 to 400,000 people die of indoor air pollution and
carbon monoxide poisoning in India because of biomass burning and use of chullahs.
Recent trends in India's air quality
Most Indian cities continue to violate India's and world air quality PM10 targets. Respirable
particulate matter pollution remains a key challenge for India.

A decreasing trend has been observed in sulphur dioxide levels in residential areas of many
cities such as Delhi, Mumbai, Lucknow, Bhopal during last few years. The decreasing trend in
sulphur dioxide levels may be due to recently introduced clean fuel standards, and the
increasing use of LPG as domestic fuel instead of coal or fuelwood, and the use of LPG instead of
diesel in certain vehicles.
PM10 (meaning Particulate Matter 10 micrometers or less in diameter).
Most Indian cities greatly exceed acceptable levels of suspended particulate matter. This is
because of refuse and biomass burning, vehicles emissions, power plant emissions, industrial
sources.
The Indian air quality monitoring stations reported lower levels of PM10 and suspended
particulate matter during monsoon months possibly due to wet deposition and air scrubbing by
rainfall. Higher levels of particulates were observed during winter months
Poor management of waste
Huge amount of wastage pileups have been created in the cities because of high population
density and congestion in most Indian cities.
Large numbers of factories have been established across the city area and in the outer circles
of the city which ignore the system of proper waste disposal.
Unplanned drains coming out of the slum areas.
Drainage water gets added to the drinking water and resulting in serious health problem to the
public.
In India, ineffective drainage has been a major reason for the spread of water borne diseases.
Improper disposal of bio-medical waste by several health centres, mainly dental clinics, primary
health centres, community health centres and diagnostic centres poses a health hazard to the
general public, sanitation workers and rag pickers.
Lack of regular supervision of health centres by the Pollution Control Board on disposal of biomedical waste
Falling groundwater tables
Groundwater levels have dropped in many places across the globe over the past nine years.
The decline is due to expanding agriculture which in turn has increased water demand.
Climate change may also accelerate declines in groundwater in some places as precipitation
patterns are becoming more extreme, increasing the severity of droughts.

Groundwater currently makes up about 97 percent of all the available fresh water on the planet
and presently accounts for about 40 percent of our total water supply
Precipitation is Rain, sleet, hail, snow and other forms of water falling from the sky.
Falling groundwater tables
Groundwater is a key driver of the global economy. If it becomes depleted, entire industries may
be forced to shut down or move. Whole regions could face acute water scarcity.
Over-extraction also has serious implications for the environment, especially when the climate is
warming, as falling water tables can lead to emptying lakes and rivers and dying landscapes as
the water they depended on is withdrawn.
In the 10 years since Coca-Cola started operations (2000-2010), groundwater levels have
plummeted 25.35 meters (83.2 feet)
Preservation and quality of forests
When deforestation perpetrates, a whole gamut of consequences from soil infertility to global
warming arises.
Depletion of forests increases the risk of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere with the resultant
effect of the reduction of the ozone layer, which leads to global warming.
Global warming is said to pose a serious danger to civilisation because of its devastating effects
on the ecosystem.
Deforestation changes the quantity of water that percolates into the soil which results in
reduction of evaporation.
Preservation and quality of forests
Forestry in India is a significant rural industry and a major environmental issue.
India's forest cover to be about 68 million hectares, or about 20 percent of the country's area.
India's consumption of fuelwood is about five times higher than what can be sustainably
removed from forests.
The variety and distribution of forest vegetation is large. There are 600 species of hardwoods
To achieve sustainable forest and ecological security
India must pursue rural development and animal husbandry policies to address local
communities need to find affordable cattle fodder and grazing.

To avoid destruction of local forest cover, fodder must reach these communities on reliable
roads and other infrastructure, in all seasons year round.
Revenue generated from lease of mines must be pooled into a dedicated fund to conserve and
improve the quality of forests in the region where the mines are located.
Power to declare ecologically sensitive areas must be with each Indian state.
Sustainable agro-forestry and farm forestry must be encouraged through financial and
regulatory reforms, particularly on privately owned lands.
Government should reform regulations and laws that encourages sustainable Growth of Forest.
Social organisations and Local people be involved in activities that preserve and conserve forest
and to maintain ecological security.
Biodiversity loss
Biodiversity is defined as the variability among living organisms from all sources, including
terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are
a part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.
India has a total of 89,451 animal species accounting for 7.31% of the faunal species in the
world and the flora accounts for 10.78% of the global total.
44 plant species are critically endangered, 113 endangered and 87 vulnerable. Amongst
animals, 18 are critically endangered, 54 endangered and 143 are vulnerable.
The major proximate causes of species extinction are habitat loss and degradation.
However, the Underlying causes of biodiversity loss are:
Poverty
Macroeconomic policies
International trade factors
Policy failures
Poor environmental law/weak enforcement
Unsustainable development projects and lack of local control over resources
Population pressures and concomitant increases in the collection of fuelwood and fodder, and
grazing in forests by local communities too take their toll on the forests, and consequently its
biodiversity.

Industrial Ecology, CSR and Sustainability


Industrial Ecology
Industrial ecology is the study
of the flows of materials and energy in industrial and consumer activities,
of the effects of these flows on the environment,
and of the influence of economic, political, regulatory, and social factors of the flow,
use, and transformation of resources .
Industrial Ecology has been defined as a "systems-based, multidisciplinary discourse that seeks
to understand emergent behaviour of complex integrated human/natural systems". The field
approaches issues of sustainability by examining problems from multiple perspectives, usually
involving aspects of sociology, the environment, economy and technology.
Industrial ecology operates at 3 levels
o

Firms

design for environment

pollution prevention

eco-efficiency

green accounting

environmental management

Across Firms

industrial symbiosis

product life-cycles

industrial sector initiatives

Regional / Global

materials and energy flow studies

policies and strategies

supply chain management

Corporate Social Responsibility


Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is about business and industry taking responsibilities
beyond that of creating economic value.
A concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business
operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis
CSR policy functions as a built-in, self-regulating mechanism whereby a business monitors and
ensures its active compliance with the spirit of the law, ethical standards, and international
norms.
The goal of CSR is to embrace responsibility for the company's actions and encourage a positive
impact through its activities on the environment, consumers, employees, communities,
stakeholders and all other members of the public sphere.
Corporate Social Responsibility in India
The problem with corporate social responsibility (CSR) is that nobody is very clear about what
exactly it encompasses.
The Indian government has been trying to make it mandatory for companies to spend at least
2% of net profits on CSR.
Facing strong criticism, it gave up the effort in mid-July 2011 and made the spending voluntary.
Instead of defining CSR, the Indian government recast it as "responsible business" in a set of
voluntary guidelines for firms.
No Clear Definition, but Plenty of Debate
CSR should actually relate to the way you conduct your business, whereas it gets confused with
giving to the local communities in which you operate.
Sustainable Development
Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Sustainable development in India
Sustainable development in India encompasses a variety of development schemes in social,
cleantech (clean energy, clean water and sustainable agriculture) and human resources
segments.
India is expected to begin the greening of its national income accounting, making depletion in
natural resources wealth a key component in its measurement of gross domestic product (GDP).

Major Achievements
The number of carbon credits issued for emission reduction projects in India is set to triple to
246 million by December 2012 from 72 million in November 2009.
This will cement India's second position in the global carbon credits market (technically called
Certified Emission Reduction units or CERs).
India's renewable energy capacity to increase to 20,000 megawatt (MW) by December 2012,
from the current 15,542 MW.
The contribution of renewable energy to the power business in India has now reached 70 per
cent, compared to 10 per cent in 2000.
Growth in use of green technologies has put India on the green-building leader board with
countries such as the US. About 2-3 per cent of all construction in India is green, as good as (in)
the US. In the next two or three years, we want to bring it up to 10 per cent, which will put us on
top
The US$ 1.79 billion Indian lighting market is estimated to be growing at 18 per cent annually
and switching rapidly to energy-efficient systems.
On the back of the incentive package for electric vehicles average monthly sales of electric twowheelers has risen 20 per cent.
National Aluminium Company Limited (NALCO), the Navratna PSU, under the Union Ministry of
Mines, Govt. of India, has become the first PSU in the country by implementing a pilot-cumdemonstration project on Carbon Sequestration in its captive power plant at Angul.
Corporate Investments
State-owned Gujarat Alkalies and Chemicals Limited (GACL) has entered into an agreement with
a Germany-based specialty chemicals maker, Evonik Industries for setting up a multi-million
Hydrogen Peroxide and Propylene Oxide (HPPO) project at Dahej in Gujarat. This project would
be based on an innovative, environment friendly HPPO technology.
Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), an agency of the US Government, has signed
an agreement with Azure Power to fund its 15 MW solar photovoltaic (PV) project in Gujarat.
The investment in the US$ 40 million project will be led by OPIC.
The worlds first facility to manufacture carbon foam batteries will be set up at Bavla near
Ahmedabad. Firefly Energy India is planning to build a plant to produce carbon foam batteries at
an investment of US$ 28 million.

State Bank of India (SBI), the countrys largest lender, has become a signatory investor in the
Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP), a collaboration of over 550 global institutional investors with
assets under management of US$ 71 trillion.
CDP is an independent not-for-profit organisation, holding the largest database of primary corporate
climate change information in the world. Over 3,000 organsations across the worlds largest economies
measure and disclose their greenhouse gas emissions and climate change strategies through CDP. These
disclosures aid them in setting reduction targets and make performance improvements.
National Solar Mission
The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has informed that the progress in
implementing the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission is satisfactory and according to
schedule.
The Ministry has sanctioned 802 MW capacities of grid-connected solar projects and 36 MW of
off-grid solar projects.
In addition, six major research projects include setting up of National Centre for Photovoltaic
Research and Education at IIT-Bombay were also approved.
Government Initiatives
Planned launch of National Mission in hybrid and electric vehicles.
Allocations of US$ 89.41 million from National Clean Energy fund for speeding up The National
Mission for a Green India.
The budget of the Environment Ministry increased by around US$ 67.1 million.
Extension of Tax holiday for the power sector by one year.
A budgetary provision (2011-12) of US$ 56.6 million has been made for research and
development in new and renewable energy for the first four years of the 11th Five Year Plan of
the MNRE.
The government would dole out US$ 335 million over the next two years to banks and finance
companies to lend money to solar energy projects at a generous 5 per cent interest rate, top
government official said. The money would be lent to small solar projects adding up to 200 MW
by companies like Sidbi, Nabard and National Housing Bank. These lenders would be provided
interest-free loans by IREDA.
IFC will provide up to US$ 15 million in corporate equity financing to Simran Wind Project Private
Limited (Simran), a privately-owned entity which is into wind-based power production. The
company will use the money to finance its pipeline projects worth US$ 40 million in Tamil Nadu.

IFC International Finance Corporation is a member of the World Bank Group. It finances and provides
advice for private sector ventures and projects in developing countries.
Punjab government has initiated an ambitious clean energy project to generate 1,500 MW
power from the run of the canal turbines. The Punjab Energy Development Agency (Peda) has
already developed an indigenous prototype of the turbines.
To facilitate fast track exploration of shale gas, the Ministry for Petroleum and Natural Gas
expects the process of carving out suitable blocks to be completed by April 2011, which would
allow floating of the first round of auctions of shale gas blocks in August 2011.
Solairedirect Energy India is in talks with the Gujarat government to set up a 20 MW plant at the
Solar Energy Park in Kutch at an estimated cost of US$ 67.1 million.
Shale gas refers to natural gas that is trapped within shale formations. Shales are fine-grained
sedimentary rocks that can be rich sources of petroleum and natural gas.
Reference Text
Krishnamoorthy: Environmental Management (Prentice - Hall India)
Vijay S Chitris : Changing face of the planet and Environmental Law (Snow White)
Tietenberg. Environmental & Natural Resources Economics (Pearson)
G.N. Pandey: Environment Management (Vikas)
Y.K. Saxena & N.K. Oberol: Environment Emplaned (Excel)
N.K. Oberol: Environmental Management (Excel Books)