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# Data Communication Networks

Physical Layer

## Nguyn Quc Tun

Network and Communication System Department
Faculty of Electronics and Telecommunications
UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

Physical Layer

## Responsible for transmission of signals over a link

Focus on point-to-point channels (i.e., channels that connect just two
nodes),
There are two broad classes of point-to-point channels:
digital channels
analog channels.

Physical Layer
Channel
Analog channel was modeled as a filtering
- One of the most important distorting effects on most analog channels is linear
time invariant (LTI) filtering
- The defining properties of linear time-invariant filters are as follows:
If input s(t) yields output r(t), then for any, input s(t - ) yields output r(t - ).
If s(t) yields r(t), then for any real number then, .s(t) yields r(t).
If s1(t) yields r1(t) and s2(t) yields r2(t), then s1(t) + s2(t) yields r1(t) + r2(t).

Physical Layer
Channel
The problem is that: the impulse response of channel is not longer than a pulse
time, it is caused inter-symbol interference.
- Called h(t) the impulse response of the channel.
- The pulse from s() to s( +) can be viewed as a small impulse of area .s( )
at time

r t

s ht d

## - It called the convolution integral

Digital channel was converted by DSP
- h = (h1, h2 .. hL) is channel vector L is order of channel
- s = (s1, s2 .., sn) is a symbol to transmite
L

r n sk hn k
k 1

Physical Layer
Bandwidth of Channel
Fourier transform to frequency domain

H f

h e

j 2 f

S f

j 2 f

e
d

r t

s ht d

R f H f S f

## - Frequency band of symbol have to fit channel

- It is seen that |H(f)| is approximately 1 for small f and decreases as 1/ f for
large f.

ht e t

H f

j 2 f

Physical Layer
The Sampling Theorem
It is important to recognize that the sampling theorem specifies the number of
samples per second that can be utilized on a low-pass channel, but it does not
specify how many bits can be mapped into one sample
- For a given sample rate fs the band limit for perfect reconstruction is B fs/2
Looks

C 2B
C Blog 2 1 SNR
C Blog 2 M

## Multiplexed - High performance Communications

Physical Layer
Time-Division Multiplexing
- Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is an alternative technique for splitting a big
channel into many little channels.

Physical Layer
Modulation
- The modulation techniques of the preceding subsection are equally applicable
whether a bandwidth constraint is imposed by FDM or by channel filtering.

Physical Layer
Modulation
Analog Modulation
- AM
- PM
- FM
Digital Modulation