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Data Communication Networks

Physical Layer

Nguyn Quc Tun


Network and Communication System Department
Faculty of Electronics and Telecommunications
UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

Physical Layer

Responsible for transmission of signals over a link


Focus on point-to-point channels (i.e., channels that connect just two
nodes),
There are two broad classes of point-to-point channels:
digital channels
analog channels.

Physical Layer
Channel
Analog channel was modeled as a filtering
- One of the most important distorting effects on most analog channels is linear
time invariant (LTI) filtering
- The defining properties of linear time-invariant filters are as follows:
If input s(t) yields output r(t), then for any, input s(t - ) yields output r(t - ).
If s(t) yields r(t), then for any real number then, .s(t) yields r(t).
If s1(t) yields r1(t) and s2(t) yields r2(t), then s1(t) + s2(t) yields r1(t) + r2(t).

Physical Layer
Channel
The problem is that: the impulse response of channel is not longer than a pulse
time, it is caused inter-symbol interference.
- Called h(t) the impulse response of the channel.
- The pulse from s() to s( +) can be viewed as a small impulse of area .s( )
at time

r t

s ht d

- It called the convolution integral


Digital channel was converted by DSP
- h = (h1, h2 .. hL) is channel vector L is order of channel
- s = (s1, s2 .., sn) is a symbol to transmite
L

r n sk hn k
k 1

Physical Layer
Bandwidth of Channel
Fourier transform to frequency domain

H f

h e

j 2 f

S f

j 2 f

e
d

|H(f)| is large only for a frequency band around f = 0 to be the


r t

s ht d

R f H f S f

- Frequency band of symbol have to fit channel


- It is seen that |H(f)| is approximately 1 for small f and decreases as 1/ f for
large f.

ht e t

H f

j 2 f

Physical Layer
The Sampling Theorem
It is important to recognize that the sampling theorem specifies the number of
samples per second that can be utilized on a low-pass channel, but it does not
specify how many bits can be mapped into one sample
- For a given sample rate fs the band limit for perfect reconstruction is B fs/2
Looks

C 2B
C Blog 2 1 SNR
C Blog 2 M

Multiplexed - High performance Communications

Physical Layer
Time-Division Multiplexing
- Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is an alternative technique for splitting a big
channel into many little channels.

Physical Layer
Modulation
- The modulation techniques of the preceding subsection are equally applicable
whether a bandwidth constraint is imposed by FDM or by channel filtering.

Physical Layer
Modulation
Analog Modulation
- AM
- PM
- FM
Digital Modulation
- M-ASK
- M-PSK
- M-FSK
- M-QAM

Physical Layer

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