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Part I

Plumbingg Systems
y
Lecture Notes
B D
By
Dr. M.F.KHALIL
M F KHALIL
LIU -2008

Table of Contents part 1


Symbol & legend
Description of Architecture
drawings of the project

Cold water distribution system


Calculation
Hot water distribution system
Calculation
Drawing of water distribution
inside the flats
Q
Questions
ti
1

Design of Risers
Daily W. Requirement
Load Values W.F.U.
Pipe sizing
Types of pumps
Circulating
g Pump
p
Pipe sizing
Electrical W. heater
Water storage heater
Instantaneous or
semi-inst. heaters
2

Symbols & legends


SS

SOIL STACK

WS

WASTE STACK

VS

VENT STACK

VENT

SV

STACK VENT

RW

RAIN WATER

RWS

RAIN WATER STACK

CW

COLD WATER

SW

SOFT COLD WATER

PW

POTABLE WATER

HW

DOMESTIC HOT WATER

HWR
TS
WTR

DOMESTIC HOT WATER RETURN


TANK SUPPLY
WATER

DR

DRAINAGE

F.F

FIRE FIGHTING

GAS

COMPRESSED AIR

VACUUM

FOS

FUEL OIL SUPPLY

CI

CAST IRON PIPE

GS

GALVANIZED STEEL PIPE ( SEAMLESS & WELDED )

BS

BLACK STEEL PIPE ( SEAMLESS )

PVC

POLYVINYLCHLORIDE PIPE

C-PVC

CHLORINATED POLYVINYLCHLORIDE PIPE

PVC-U

UNPLASTICIZED POLYVINYLCHLORIDE PIPE

P.P

POLYPROPYLENE PIPE ( DRAINAGE )

P.P.R

POLYPROPYLENE RANDOM PIPE ( WATER )

PE X
PE-X

CROSS LINKED POLYETHYLENE PIPE


CROSS-LINKED

PE-X / AL / PE-X

PE-X , ALUMINUM , PE-X ( TRIPLE LAYER ) PIPE

CU

COPPER PIPE

P.E

POLYETHYLENE PIPE

HDPE
H.D.P.E

HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE PIPE

AWC

ASIATIC WATER CLOSET

EWC

EUROPEAN WATER CLOSET

B
LAV
S

BIDET
LAVATORY
SINK

SH

SHOWER

KS

KITCHEN SINK

BT

BATHTUB

DF

DRINKING FOUNTAIN

HB

HOSE BIB

FT

FLASH TANK

FV

FLASH VALVE

CO

CLEANOUT

CCO

CEILING CLEANOUT

FCO

FLOOR CLEANOUT

J.B

JUNCTION BOX

RVC

ROOF VENT CAP

MH

MANHOLE

FHC

FIRE HOSE CABINET

WS

WATER SOFTNER

WH

WATER HEATER

FA

CO

CLEANOUT

CCO

CEILING CLEANOUT

FCO

FLOOR CLEANOUT

JB
J.B

JUNCTION BOX

RVC

ROOF VENT CAP

MH

MANHOLE

FHC

FIRE HOSE CABINET

WS

WATER SOFTNER

WH

WATER HEATER

FROM ABOVE

FA

FROM ABOVE

TB

TO BELOW

TB

TO BELOW

IW

IN WALL

IW

IN WALL

UT

UNDER TILE

UT

UNDER TILE

UG

UNDER GROUND

UG

UNDER GROUND

UCL

UNDER CEILING LEVEL

UCL

UNDER CEILING LEVEL

I.F.S

IN FLOOR SLAB

I.F.S

IN FLOOR SLAB

B.F.S

BELOW FLOOR SLAB

B.F.S

BELOW FLOOR SLAB

LL

LOW LEVEL

HL

HIGH LEVEL

UP

UP

DN

DOWN

FM

FROM

NTS

NOT TO SCALE

LL

LOW LEVEL

HL

HIGH LEVEL

UP

UP

DN

DOWN

FM

FROM

NTS

NOT TO SCALE

PLUMBING FIXTURES

Block A 18 floors

Block B 17 floors

Refer to your drawing & follow the lecture


1

Cars

Water
storage tanks

10

HOW TO READ AND DRAW THE


WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
INSIDE THE FLAT .

11

Example of some pipe


accessories needed for water
distribution system
1

12

EXAMPLE OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM INSIDE


BATHROOM GALV. STEEL PIPES

13

14

DETAIL OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM INSIDE


BATHROOM P.P.R PIPES

15

DETAIL OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM INSIDE


BATHROOM PEX OR PEX AL-PEX PIPES

16

Madam Cury project water distribution system


for typical floor

17

Schematic water risers diagram for Madam Cury project

18

Up to now !!
Before starting the detail calculation of
the
h plumbing
l bi project
j
. Student
d
should
h ld be
b
able to read and understand all the
Architecture drawings of the project
entitled Madam Cury .

19

Chap.2
p

Cold
C ld & H
Hott water
t
distribution systems

20

Calculation Of
W D Systems
W.D.
S
Design Of W.D.
W D
Systems

Daily Water requirement


Load Values
Pressure requirement

Pipe sizing

1 Max
Zornada (2002)
Pump
selection

21
Slide 21

Water Distribution Systems


y
Up
p to 10 floors Bldg

I di
Indirect
t

Direct

22

Distribution Systems
Buildings above 20 floors

Pressure vessel

Pressure Reducer

Break- pressure ( Branch water supply )

Break -Pressure reservoires

Direct supply ( Booster )


or frequency inverter

Direct

Indirect
1

23

24

MultiMulti
-pipes system is always preferable

Muli-pipes system

Underground Tank

Each flat has its own inlet flow pipe

25

W t storage
Water
t
in
i buildings
b ildi

Domestic
& Potable

Fire fighting

Irrigation

26

D
Domestic
ti water
t storage
t
in
i buildings
b ildi

Underground tanks

Roof tanks

27

Storage of water
Water is stored in buildings due to the irregular supply
supply of city water .Normally water is stored in
basement with pump transferring water to roof tanks .
Roof tanks could one single tank for the whole building or
separate tanks for each flat.
As shown in the following pages ,water tanks are provided
normally with float valve,
valve drain valve
valve, discharge valve ,
overflow and vent pipe.

Underground
g
water storage
g Pumps
p
Tanks Connections

28

29

Roof Tanks
Roof tanks should be elevated enough above roof level
to have enough pressure for the upper apartment ,
otherwise booster pump is needed.
needed

Material of roof tanks


1-Concrete tanks.
2-Galvanized tanks.
3- PPr tanks.
tanks

Concrete Roof tanks

30

G l
Galvanized
i d Roof
R f tanks
t k

31

P.P.R.
P P R Roof tanks

32

Riser diagram

33

1
Riser diagram of the
present project34

Chap. 3

Design
g recommendations
&
Calculations

35

36

Daily
y Water Requirement
q
1-Daily
D l water requirement & Tanks
T k
capacities. ( two methods are used to
determine the daily water requirement ,the
the
first is base on the number of occupants ,
the second is based on the load value).
value)
2- Load value (W.f.u.)

37

Average Daily Water Requirement for Storage


Table WW-1
Type of Establishment

Gallons
(per day
(p
yp
per p
person))

Schools (toilets & lavatories only)

15

S h l ((with
Schools
i h above
b
plus
l cafeteria)
f
i )

25

Schools (with above plus cafeteria plus


showers)
Day workers at schools and offices

35

Residences

15
35--50
35

Hotels (with connecting baths)

50

Hotels (with private baths, 2 persons per


room)

100

Daily Water Requirement for Storage


( Based
B
d on th
the number
b of
f occupants)
t )

38

Example
E
l calculation
l l ti of
f daily
d il domestic
d
ti water
t requirement
i
t
Suppose we have 24 floors & each floor consists of 4 flats,
2 of
f them having
g 3 bedrooms
2 of them having 2 bedrooms.
+1 Mad each flat.
A a rule
As
l of
f thumb
th mb we take
t k 2 persons/bed
p
n /b d room.
m
Total number/floor = 232+222+4 = 24 Persons/floor.
Total number of occupants=
p
24
24 24 + 5 ((labors+ concierges
g
etc) = 581 Persons.
From table WW-1 the daily water requirement is between 35
35-50
gal/ day
g
y (Residential
(
Building),
g),
The daily water requirement for the whole building is:
=> 50
50581 = 29000 gallons /day 110 m3/day

39

Capacity of Underground & Roof Tanks:


Based on Plumbing code , the daily water requirement is divided
between the roof & underground tanks as follows:
1 day
day'ss water requirement on the roof &
2 days on the ground floor ( standard ).
As mentioned before the total amount of water needed for the 24
floors building is 110 m3 ,this equivalent to 110 tones additional
weight on the roof. On the other hand 2 x 110 = 220 m3 must be
stored in
n the basement floor, th
thiss may affect the number of
cars in the basement.
As a general rules ( one day water storage on the roof &
basement may
y be satisfactory
y ,if
,if water flow from well p
pump
p is
guarantied
i d ).

N.B. Drinking water tank capacity is calculated based on 1010-12 L / person / day

Water storage for fire fighting


z

40

For buildings
g , it is reliable that, water for fire fighting
g
g
is provided by gravity storage wherever possible. Using
elevation as the means for developing proper water
pressure in water mains risers & FHCs
FHCs, not dependent on
pumps that could fail or be shut down as a result of an
electrical outage. Storage can be provided through one
or more large
l
storage
t
reservoirs
i or by
b multiple
lti l smaller
ll
reservoirs throughout the community that are linked
g
.A
. reasonable rule of
f thumb
m is that water
w
together
storage for fire fighting should be sufficient to provide
at least one hour .For example, in a typical residential
building with an ordinary hazards,
hazards the storage for fire
flow of 100 GPM for 30-60 min may be appropriate.

Hose reel installation should be designed


so that no part of the floor
is
1
41
more than 6 m from the nozzle when the hose is fully extended. The
water supply must be able to provide a discharge of not less than 33
gpm through the nozzle and also designed to allow not less than three
hose reels to be used simultaneously at the total flow of 100 gpm for
one hour duration.
duration
The minimum required water pressure at the nozzle is 2 bar where the
maximum allowable pressure is 6.9 bar
bar.. Adequate system pressures is
about 4.5 bars .Booster pump is used for top roof flats.
The rubber hose reel length is 32 m & could be 1 or diameter
(British standard), or 1.1/2(US standard), and the jet should have a
horizontal distance of 8 m and a height of about 5 m.

For commercial building:


Riser main pipe diameter D= 2.1/2
B
Branch
h pipe
i
diameter=
di
t
1 1/
1.1/2
Rubber hose reel diameter = 1 .

42

43

Siamese connection

Located next to fire escape

44

W
Water
storage for
f irrigation
zIrrigation

systems could be by hose or automatically


using
g pump
p p , electrical valves ,timers
,
& sprinklers.
p
zAs a rule of thumb ,the water consumption for
irrigation is estimated as follows:
The green area x 0.02 m /day
For example :
S
Suppose
we have
h
a 500 m2 green area ( around
d the
th
house) to be irrigated. Estimate the water storage &
the pumping rate per hour.
500 x 0.02 = 10 m3. & the pumping rate is 10 m3/h.

Pipe sizing
Determine the number of FUs
From Table W
W-1
Determine the p
probable flow rate gpm
gp
From ChartChart-1 or Table W
W-2
Determine the Pipe size
Pipe flow ChartChart-2

N.B. Pipe material should be known in order


to
t use the
th corresponding
di pipe
i flow
fl chart.
h t

45

46

Probable Water Demand F.U.


F U ss ( Cold + Hot )
Table
l W-2

National Plumbing Code of USA


.
Fixture Type

Use

F.Us

Water closet - Flush tank

(Private)

Water closet - Flush valve

(Public
Public))

10

Bidet

(Private)

Bath tub

(Private)

Lavatory
Lavatory

(Private)

(Public
Public))

Shower
Shower

(Private)

(Public
Public))

Urinal - Flush tank

(Public
Public))

Kitchen sink

--

Restaurant sink

--

Mop sink

--

Drinking fountain

--

1 /2

Dish washer, washing mach


mach..

(Private)

The value for separate


hot and cold water
demands should be
taken as of the total
value

Table W-2

47

Sizing the
indoor cold
Water pipe

The
Th vvalue
lu for
f r separate
s p r t
hot and cold water
demands should be
taken as of the total
value

For the
whole bldg.

Water Hammer Arrestor

Chart -1

For each
flat

48

49

Fixture Units equivalent to water flow in gpm


Table
l W-3
LOAD

DEMAND

LOAD

LIT/SEC WSFU

GPM

DEMAND
LIT/SEC

WSFU

GPM

3.0

0.19

10 14
14..6

0.92

5.0

0.32

12 16

1.01

6.5

0.41

14 17

1.07

0.51

16 18

1.14

9.4

0.59

18 18
18..8

1.19

10..7
10

0.68

20 19
19..6

1.24

11..8
11

0.74

25 21
21..6

1.36

12..8
12

0.81

30 23
23..3

1.47

13..7
13

0.86

35 24
24..9

1.57

Table
bl W-3

50

51

Volume Flow Rate (Cold+Hot) at The Inlet of Flat.


Flat.
Pipe size at inlet of the flat is determined based on
FUs. For example suppose it is require to determine
the inlet flow rate (gpm) of an apartment having the
following fixtures:
3 W.C( flash tank) + 2 bidet + 3 lavatory + 1 shower +
2 bath tube + 1 sink + 1 Dish washer.
From table W
W-1 we get :
(33 F.U + 22 F.U + 31 F.U + 21 F.U +
+2
22 F.U +
12 F.U+
F U 12 F.U)
F U) 26 F.U
F U
From Graph
Graph-1 or table
table-2 we select the probable water
gpm ( 1.24
demand for each identical flat : is 20 gp
L/s).

52

Volume Flow Rate ((Cold+Hot)) for the whole building.


building
g.
If two risers pipe are used to supply water for the whole
building The probable flow rate is determined as

follows:

Assuming
A
i 24 floors
fl
each
h floor
fl
has
h 4 identical
id ti l apartments
t
t
As calculated before the probable water demand for each
apartment is 26 F.U
F US
S , therefore 24 x 26 x 4 = 2496
F.US let say 2500 FUs.
Graphp -1 with a value of 2500 FU and read the
Inter Graph
corresponding probable water demand for whole building
which is 3000 gpm . Since we have four risers the
total gpm is divided by 4 , that will be 750 gpm.
gpm
Each riser will be sized based on this value i.e. 750 gpm.
Without question the plumbing fixture will never operate simultaneously
, the diversity factor is included in Chart -1

Pipe sizing
1

53

Pipe flow charts are available which shows the relation


between the water flow in gpm or L/s , pressure drop in Psi
or ft / 100 ft , pipe diameter in mm or inches and the
corresponding flow velocity in m/s or ft/s.
To avoid erosion , water hammer & noise, the recommended
flow velocity is between 1.2 and 2.4 m/s ( less than 3 m/s).
Th optimum
The
ti
fl
flow velocity
l it iis 1.5 m/s.
/
The acceptable pressure drop per 100 ft is around 5
Psi/100
Psi/
100ft
ft ,that, in order to avoid excessive pressure loss and
the need for higher pressure to maintain the flow rate.
Low velocity pipe less than 0.5 m/s can cause precipitation of
sand and others in the pipe .

Velocity limitation method recognized as good engineering


practice.

1.35 m/s

54

V=2
V=
2 m/s

1
How to use the pipe flowflow-chart

55

The use of the pipe flow chart is best presented by the


f ll i
following
example
l : A fairly
f i l rough
h steell pipe
i iis used
d to
deliver 20 gpm of water at ordinary temperature with a
maximum allowed pressure drop of 5Psi/100 ft .What
What is the
recommended pipe size that can be used ?
Solution : Enter the Figure
g
along
g the abscissa with the value
of 5 Psi/100 ft , move upward to the ordinate where QV is 20
gpm .From the intersection ; read the values of ( D )and the
corresponding
di fl
flow velocity
l it ( V ) .
Now it is clear that the intersection lies between 1.1/4 and
1 diameter . If the 1 in pipe is used , the pressure drop will
1
be 15 Psi/100 ft which is greater than the given value . This s
is unacceptable.
p
If the 1.1/4 p
pipe
p is used , the pressure
p
drop will be 4 Psi/100 ft which is less than the maximum
allowed pressure drop .I would recommend D=1.1/4 with a flow
velocity
l it lless th
than 3 m/s.
/ The
Th fl
flow velocity
l it is
i about
b t 1.35
1 35 m/s
/
.

56

Sizing the riser diagram


D6 ?
Hot water

1 25 "
1.25

D1 ?

Inlet water flow ?

4 Pressure relief valve

D2 ?

Electrical water heater

D3 ?

1"
Cold water

1"

3/4 off the


h totall fi
fixture units
i are usedd for
f cold
ld water

H.W.

D4 ?

D5 ?

D?

Equall frictioon loss

1
57

Open system

Sizing the various pipes of the net work

58

3/4 of the total fixture units are used for cold water
Bathtub

WC

?"
?"

Bidet

Lavatory

Shower

Sink

?"
?"

?"

?"

?"

?"

?"

?"

Determine the pipe sizes of the present drawing

H.W.

59

60

61

General remarks on the installation of water pipes


1- Every apartment should have a valve on the main cold water
pipe feeding this apartment. Every bathroom should have two
valves one for cold and the second for hot water pipe.
2- Each plumbing Fixture should have and angle valve for
maintenance reason.
3- Exposing
E
i pipes
i
are installed
i t ll d approximately
i t l 3 cm from
f
wall
ll with
ith
hangers and supports.
4- Antirust paint is recommended for all expose steel pipes.
pipes
5- Pipe under tiles or in walls are PPR if however steel pipes are
used , the pipe
p p are wrapped
pp
with jute
j
and asphalt
p
.
6- Pipes crossing walls should be through pipe sleeves

Pressure Requirements
1- Pressure required during flow for different
fixtures.
2- Pressure required at the inlet of the flat.
3- The hydrostatic pressure available at each shutshutoff
ff valve.
l
4- Pressure
P
reducer
d
valve
l PRV

62

63

Pressure
P
Required
R
i d During
D i Flow
Fl
for
f
Different Fixtures

N.P.Code USA

64

Pressure Required At The Inlet Of each Flat


As it well known the Hydrostatic pressure @ shutshut-off valve is given by :

P = h

Where

is the specific weight kN/m3 & h is the pressure head in m

The maximum p
pressure at the inlet of the flat is Limited to 30 m which is about
2.9 bar
b , that
h , avoid
id excessive
i pressures

If the pressure is more than 2.9 Bar :


You may need breakbreak-pressure tank or pressure reducing valve.
valve
The available pressure at the inlet of the flat, has to overcome the pressure loss
due to p
pipe
p friction and fittings
g of the longest
g
branch and have a surplus
p
pressure
p
to operates the most critical fixture ( for example Dish washer or shower).
Pressure Drop, P= x hL + Surplus pressure ( hL is the head loss due to pipe
friction )
Allowing additional pressure drop around 25
25--30%
30% for fittings on straight pipe
or calculate the effective length for minor losses as described in Fluid Mechanics
Lecture notes. It is always
y recommended to use the K value for the calculation of
the
h pressure drop.
d

Example of high riser


Building

65

24
floors

ABBRAGE BEIRUT

1
66
The hydrostatic pressure available
at each shutshut-off valve.

R1

R2
ELECTRICFLOATVALVE

R3

R4
ELECTRIC FLOATVALVE

BLOCKB

BLOCK-B
UPPER DOMESTICWATERTANK
2 * 10000 litres ( P.ETANKS)
3"

BLOCK-B
UPPERDOMESTICWATERTANK
2 * 10000 litres ( P.ETANKS)
3"

2 1/2" FROMD.W.P-B

4" F.F.P

4" F.F.P
4" C.W.P

UPPERROOF

4" C.W.P
3" C.W.P

3" C.W.P

ROOF
3" C.W.P

3" C.W.P
1" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

4" C.W.P

3" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P
3" C.W.P

F.F.P

3" C.W.P

F.F.P

3" C.W.P

24TH. FLOOR
1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

Riser diagram
( pressure reducers)

1" C.W.P

3" C.W.P

3" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

3" C.W.P

3" C.W.P

23RD. FLOOR
1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

3" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

3" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

3" C.W.P

3" C.W.P

22ND. FLOOR
1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P
3" C.W.P

3" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

3" C.W.P

21ST. FLOOR
1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

3" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

2 1/2" C.W.P

3" C.W.P

2 1/2" C.W.P

20TH. FLOOR
1" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P

3" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P

2 1/2" C.W.P

2 1/2" C.W.P

3" C.W.P

19TH. FLOOR
3/4" C.W.P

3" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P

D.W.P.L

1" C.W.P

2 1/2" C.W.P

2 1/2" C.W.P

3" C.W.P

18TH. FLOOR
1" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P
3" P.R.V

2 1/2" P.R.V
2 1/2" P.R.V

3" P.R.V

17TH. FLOOR
1" C.W.P
3" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

2 1/2" C.W.P

2 1/2" C.W.P

1" C.W.P
3" C.W.P

16TH. FLOOR
1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

2 1/2" C.W.P

2 1/2" C.W.P

2 1/2" C.W.P

2 1/2" C.W.P

15TH. FLOOR
1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

2 1/2" C.W.P

2" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

2" C.W.P

2 1/2" C.W.P

GLOBEVALVE( TYP. )

1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

14TH. FLOOR

1" C.W.P

2" C.W.P

2 1/2" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

2 1/2"

2" C.W.P

2 1/2" C.W.P

13TH. FLOOR
3/4" C.W.P

1" C.W.P
2 1/2" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P

2" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P

2" C.W.P

2 1/2" C.W.P

12TH. FLOOR
1" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P

2" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P
2" C.W.P

2" C.W.P

2" C.W.P

GLOBE VALVE( TYP. )


GLOBEVALVE( TYP. )

1" C.W.P

11TH. FLOOR
3/4" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P
2" P.R.V

2" P.R.V
2" P.R.V

2" P.R.V

10TH. FLOOR
1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

2" C.W.P

D.W.P.L

1" C.W.P

2" C.W.P

2" C.W.P

2" C.W.P

GLOBE VALVE( TYP. )

1" C.W.P
2" C.W.P

9TH. FLOOR

1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

1 1/2" C.W.P

1 1/2" C.W.P

1" C.W.P
2" C.W.P

GLOBEVALVE( TYP. )

1" C.W.P
2" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

1 1/2" C.W.P

1 1/2" C.W.P

8TH. FLOOR
1" C.W.P
2" C.W.P

7TH. FLOOR
1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

1 1/2" C.W.P

1 1/2" C.W.P

1 1/2" C.W.P

1 1/2" C.W.P

6TH. FLOOR
1" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P

1 1/2" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P
1 1/2" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

5TH. FLOOR
1" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P

1 1/2" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/2" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

4TH. FLOOR
1" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P

1 1/4" P.R.V
1 1/2" P.R.V

1 1/2" P.R.V
1 1/4" P.R.V

3RD. FLOOR
1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

2ND. FLOOR
1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

D.W.P.L

1" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

1ST. FLOOR
1"

3/4" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P
2 1/2" DOMESTICWATER PUMPINGLINE

1" G.S.P

1" GENERALSERVICEPIPE

GRD. FLOOR
3/4" G.S.P

3/4" G.S.P

3/4" G.S.P

3/4" G.S.P
1 1/4" WELLWATERPIPE

3/4" G.S.P

3/4" G.S.P

F.H.C
D.W.P.L

POTABLEWATERINCOMINGPIPE
BLOCK-B LOWERDOMESTIC WATERTANK
8 * 4000 litres (P.ETANKS)
&4 *3000litres (P.ETANKS)

3"

3"

DOMESTICWATER PUMPINGSTATIOND.W.P-B
20m3/HR@95 mEACH

Indirect pumping system

67

68

1
1" C.W.P
11/2" C.W.P

MECH.ROOM
M22

11/4" C.W.P

19TH. FLOOR

FLOATVALVE
p.r

p.r

1" C.W.P

11/2" C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

UPPERDOMESTICWATERTANK
3*10000litres ( P.ETANKS)

FLOATVALVE

1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

1" C.W.P
11/4" C.W.P

Drainpipe
3"
3"

1" C.W.P

3"

11/2" C.W.P
11/2" C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P

1" C.W.P
11/2" C.W.P

3" C.W.P
11/2" C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

18TH. FLOOR

11/4" C.W.P

17TH. FLOOR
11/4" C.W.P

16TH. FLOOR
11/4" C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

15TH. FLOOR

R1

R2

R3

69

R4

ELECTRICFLOATVALVE

ELECTRICFLOATVALVE

BLOCKB

BLOCK-B
UPPERDOMESTICWATERTANK
2* 7500litres ( P.ETANKS)

BLOCK-B
UPPERDOMESTICWATERTANK
2* 7500litres ( P.ETANKS)

2 "FROMD.W.P-B
3"

3"

MECH.ROOM1
4"C.W.P

BOOSTERUNIT(TYPR1 - R4)
PUMPS- 9m3/HR@15mHEAD
ONESTANDBYWITHPRESSURETANK200L

4" F.F.P

UPPERROOF

4"C.W.P
3"C.W.P

3"C.W.P

ROOF
1 1/2" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

3"C.W.P

1 1/2" C.W.P

1 1/2"C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/4"C.W.P

BOOSTERUNIT(TYPR2 - R3)
PUMPS- 6.8m3/HR@15mHEAD
ONESTANDBYWITHPRESSURETANK200L

1 1/4" C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

24TH. FLOOR

1 1/4"C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P
2" C.W.P

2"C.W.P

2"C.W.P

2"C.W.P

23RD. FLOOR
11/4" C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P
2"

2"C.W.P

2"C.W.P

2"C.W.P

2"C.W.P

22ND. FLOOR
11/4" C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

2"C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/2"C.W.P

1 1/2"C.W.P

2"C.W.P

21ST. FLOOR
11/4" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

1 1/2"C.W.P

1 1/2"C.W.P

2"C.W.P

2"C.W.P

20TH. FLOOR
11/4" C.W.P
11/2" C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P
1 1/2" C.W.P

MECH.ROOM2
ELECTRICFLOATVALVE

11/4" C.W.P

19TH. FLOOR

Delay float -valve

UPPERDOMESTICWATERTANK
4 * 10000 litres ( P.ETANKS)

1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P
3"

Drain pipe

11/4" C.W.P

3"
3"

18TH. FLOOR
1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P
1 1/2" C.W.P

1 1/2" C.W.P

3"C.W.P

1 1/2"C.W.P

1 1/2"C.W.P

17TH. FLOOR

1 1/4"C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

1 1/4"C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/4"C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

16TH. FLOOR

15TH. FLOOR
11/4" C.W.P

2"C.W.P

2" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

2" C.W.P

2 "C.W.P

GLOBE VALVE( TYP. )

1 1/4"C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

14TH. FLOOR

11/4" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

2 1/2"

2" C.W.P

2"C.W.P

2" C.W.P

2 "C.W.P

13TH. FLOOR
1 1/4"C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P
2" C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/2"C.W.P

1 1/2"C.W.P

2 "C.W.P

GLOBE VALVE( TYP. )

11/4" C.W.P

12TH. FLOOR

1 1/4"C.W.P

11/2" C.W.P

1 1/4"C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

1 1/2" C.W.P
GLOBEVALVE( TYP. )

MECH.ROOM3

GLOBE VALVE( TYP. )

11TH. FLOOR

Delay -Float Valve

11/4" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

UPPERDOMESTICWATERTANK
3 * 10000 litres ( P.ETANKS)

3"
3"

3"

10TH. FLOOR

1 1/2" C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

1 1/2"C.W.P

11/2" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

D.W.P.L

11/4" C.W.P

1 1/2" C.W.P

9TH. FLOOR
1 1/4"C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/4"C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/4"C.W.P

1 1/4"C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

8TH. FLOOR
1 1/4" C.W.P

7TH. FLOOR
1 1/4" C.W.P

2"C.W.P

2"C.W.P

1 1/4"C.W.P

2"C.W.P

2"C.W.P

6TH. FLOOR
1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/4"C.W.P
2"C.W.P

2" C.W.P

1 1/4"C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P
2"C.W.P

2"C.W.P

5TH. FLOOR
1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/4"C.W.P

11/2" C.W.P

2"C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/4"C.W.P

1 1/2"C.W.P

2"C.W.P

4TH. FLOOR
1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/4"C.W.P

2" C.W.P

11/2" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/4"C.W.P

2"C.W.P

1 1/2"C.W.P

3RD. FLOOR
1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/4"C.W.P

11/4" C.W.P

2" C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/4"C.W.P

1 1/4"C.W.P

2"C.W.P

2ND. FLOOR
1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/4"C.W.P

1 1/4" C.W.P

1 1/4"C.W.P

D.W.P.L

Riser diagram
(Break pressure tanks II)

11/2" C.W.P

2" C.W.P

2"C.W.P

1ST. FLOOR
11/4" C.W.P

3/4" C.W.P

1"C.W.P
2 1/2" DOMESTICWATERPUMPINGLINE

2"CWP
2
C.W.P
1 1/2" C.W.P

1 1/2" GENERALSERVICEPIPE
11/2" C.W.P

GRD. FLOOR
1 1/4" G.S.P

1 1/4"G.S.P

1 1/4" G.S.P

1 1/4"G.S.P

1 1/4"G.S.P

1 1/4" G.S.P
1 1/4" WELLWATERPIPE
POTABLEWATERFROMMAINCITY

BLOCK-BLOWERDOMESTICWATERTANK

3"

3"

DOMESTICWATERPUMPINGSTATIOND.W.P-B
20 m3/HR@95 mEACH
DP-pump

Indirectpum
Indirect
pumping
pingsystemCasestudy(II)
systemCase study(II)

70

PRV

71

Pressure Reducer Valve PRV

72

73

74

The head loss due to pipe friction


& fittings
Ref : F.
Ref.:
F White,
White Fluid Mechanics.6
Mechanics 6th edition,
edition
McGraw-Hill,2008.
,

1
Now
!!

75

After completing the above chapters you should be able to :


1- Calculate the daily water requirement for the given project & the
capacity of the overhead & underground tanks.
2- Recognize the drawing of water distribution system inside the flat.
3- Selecting
g the type
yp of the riser diagram
g
i.e. Direct or indirect
water supply. Sizing the riser diagram. Sizing the pipes inside the
bathrooms etc..
4- Justified
4
J ifi d if the
h hydrostatic
h d
i pressure at the
h inlet
i l of
f the
h flat
fl is
i
enough to overcome losses + the surplus pressure to operates the
most critical fixture .
5- Do we need a booster pump for top roof?
6-D
Do we need a break -p
pressure tank or pressure
p
reducing
g valve ?

Now move on to the next part


Pump selection

Design of pumping supply system to a


building
In engineering practice, the process of pipe sizing
and component selection is an iterative one ,
requiring
i i th
the design
d i engineer
i
tto fi
firstt assume iinitial
iti l
values :( the velocity , pressure and allowable
pressure loss ) and recalculate if necessary using
new values if the initial assumption was proved
wrong
g.
The pipe sizing is estimated easily using the pipe
flow charts followed by a simple calculation to
d t
determine
i th
the pumps power. U
Usually,
ll the
th equall
friction loss method is the simplest method used
which gives acceptable results.
results
1

76

The following procedure is used when estimating


the pipe size and pumps duty:
1) Prepare the drawing of the piping /pumping system, measure the
length of the pipe connecting the underground tank to the overhead (
delivery
d li
) tank
t k and
d countt all
ll fitti
fittings along
l
the
th way .
2) Find the required volume flow rate for each flat. Then, add them
up to obtain the total flow rate at the peak demand . The probable
water demand for each flat is determined based on the number of
occupants or based on the total fixture units. ( It is not always easy to
know the number of occupants in the early stage , so the second
method using
g the T.F.Us becomes more reliable ) .
3) Since the equal friction loss method is used , choose a value of friction
loss rate for the main riser pipe based on the following limits :
a ) The recommended friction loss rate is between 1-5 m //100
100 m p
pipe
p
length or ( 1- 5 ft/100
ft/100ft
ft , about 2 Psi per 100 ft ).
b ) The velocity in the main should not exceed 1.2-1.8 m / s ( say 1.5 m/s
) in small systems , or 2.4- 3 m / s in larger systems . The velocity in
occupied
i d areas should
h ld nott exceed
d 2.4 m/s,
m/s
/ , so as to
t preventt noise.
i
1

77

Design of pumping supply system to a


building ( cont)
4) Select a pipe size from the pipe flowcharts
based on the above limits . We could also prepare
tables which p
present the pipe
p p diameters , friction
f
factor and flow rate . The tables are regarded as
more accurate but the pipe flowcharts are more
convenient.
conven
ent.
5) Continuing along the circuit chosen , select the
succeeding pipe sizes . This should be done
according to the following guides:
Determine by inspection which branch will be the
longest, or have the greatest equivalent length .
C l l t th
Calculate
the pressure drop
d
i th
in
the longest
l
t circuit.
i
it

78

Design of pumping supply system to a


building ( cont)
6-Calculate :
a) The total effective length E.L
E L which is:
The actual pipe length + Equivalent length (due to
fittings
g and valves etc.).

L eff . = L + L e
b) The
Th ttotal
t lh
head
d lloss
ss or pressure
ss
d
drop hL is :
The head loss per unit of length is about (5
(5 ft
p
by
y the effective length
g .
w./100
w./
100 ft ) multiplied

hL = h1 L eff .
1

79

Design of pumping supply system to a


building ( cont)
7) The approximated pump s power is then calculated
as follows :
The
Th h
head
dd
delivered
li
d by
b th
the pump or th
the ttotal
t l head
h d of
f th
the
pump: which is equal to the static head + the total
head loss ( case of open
p tanks ).

hA = hs t + hL

The theoretical power requirement (Water power) is


P = x hAx QV .
(Where is the specific weight of water, hA is the
pump
p
p head in m and QV is the operating
p
g discharge
g
m3/s ). The operating discharge is taken from the
intersection of the pump characteristic curve with the
pipe
p p system
syst m curve.
cur .
1

80

Safety Margin
To avoid any miscalculation during pump selection, it
is recommended to apply
pp y a safety
y margin
g of
around 5% for the estimated flow rate & 10 % for
the estimated head.
For example :
Estimated Flow rate Q = 30 L/s & Head 25 m
The recommended flow & head will be :
Q= 30
30L/s
L/s +5
+5% , & H =25
=25m
m +10
+10%
%

81

Design of pumping supply system to a


building ( cont)
8- The shaft power of the pump can be determined
by dividing water power by the pump efficiency.

hA QV
Pump Power =

The motor power of the pump can be determined


by dividing water power by the overall pump
efficiency.

hA QV
Pump Motor Power =
0
1

82

The most popular types of


centrifugal
t if
l pump used
d for
f cold
ld
water supply
pp y systems
y
in buildings
g
are:

Review !
1

83

Vertical Multistage
g Pumps
p

84

Horizontal multistage pump

85

Vertical Line shaft submerged


submerged--pumps
The usual pumping depth is
about
b t 120 m. Nowadays,
N
d
a
depth of 250 m can be
obtained with multistage
turbines..
turbines
This kind of pumps is used
for clean water, sewage
g
irrigation and fire fittings,
etc.
A broad selection of driver
heads is available to drive the
pumps by most common prime
movers.
movers See figure (8
(8.10
10)).
10).
)
High performance and low
maintenance.
1

86

TURBINE, VERTICAL TYPE, MULTISTAGE,


DEEP WELL,
WELL SUBMERSIBLE
These pumps develop high head
b using
by
i a series
i of
f small
ll
impellers rather than a large
single one. The characteristic
curves for such pumps depend
upon the number of stages or
impellers.
p
Each impeller
p
has the
same characteristic curve and
the final curve is obtained by
adding them up
up. The total head
at a given discharge is the sum
of individual heads (case of
series pumps)
pumps). This kind of
pumps may deliver the liquid up
from 400 to 500 m depth.
Th s pumps
These
m s are commonly
mm l used
s d
in tube wells, deep open wells,
etc.

87

SUBMERSIBLE PUMP

For high heads and low flow.


DEEP WELL
1

88

Booster pump
Packages

89

( Auto-pneumatic,
p
pressurized
p
system )
Boosted water directly to each floor.
This method of providing high rise buildings with water supplies is more common, as it does not require electrical wiring
from ground/basement where the booster pump is situated to the high level tank room where the float switches are located in
the storage tank and drinking water header.
There are a number of specialist pump manufacturers who offer water pressurization plant similar to that shown in the
pressurization unit drawing.The cold water down service will require pressure reduction at intervals of five storeys to avoid
excessive pressures at the draw off points. The pressure vessel is sized to hold the calculated quantity of water, as
a rule of thumb the vessel capacity is about 15 minute
minutess the actual discharge.
As water is drawn off through the high level fittings, the water level in the
vessel falls. At a predetermined low level a pressure switch activates the booster pump.
The capacity of the pneumatic pressure tank :
Vmin =

net volume
Degree of admission

The net volume = Qmax. T , where Qmax = Peak water demand ,


T = 15 minutes storage of Qmax
, where P2 and P1 are the Maximum and minimum allowable
operating
ti pressure in
i absolute
b l t values.
l

Degree of admission =

P2 P1
P2

Ref[1]

90

Booster pump, pressurized system


balloon type

91

Booster Pump, Pressurized System Balloon Type


Used for direct supply
system , e.g.
e g Villa etc..
etc

92

Example

93

Sphere booster Units


Is used for boosting the
water to top floors, when
th h
the
hydrostatic
d t ti pressure
at the inlet of the flat is
less than the recommended
pressure requirement .
Location : In the attic or
on the roof.
As a rule of thumb the vessel
capacity is about 2 minutes
minutes the
actual p
pump
p discharge.
g
1

94

Domino pumps to replace the


pneumatic system

Domino is a device used to replace


the traditional booster system (
Balloon type) . It consists of an
electronic circuit, and diaphragm ,
retaining spring and pressure
sensors It is protected against dry
sensors.
running.
Used for small and medium
pressure system , up to 5.2 bar and
6.5 m3/h it is a single phase pump .
pumps
p catalogue
g
From LaworaLawora-p
1

95

Discharge & pressure head

96

valve

Estimated pumps
d h
discharge
G
Gpm or m 3/h

D?

Estimated
E tim t d
Pump s
Head m

Static (hs)

Each pump drawing should have the value of H & Q .

Review of the Performance


Characteristics curves of a
water centrifugal pump
Q-H curve
Efficiency curve
Shaft power curve
S
NPSH

Review
1

97

1- Head capacity curve


The available head produced by the pump
decreases as the discharge increases.
At Q= 0, the corresponding head is called
shut off head point (1
( 1)
Point ((2
2) is called run out point below
which the pump cannot operate.
operate.&should be shut down

end--of curve
end

98

2- Efficiency curve
The efficiency of a centrifugal pump is the ratio of water
power to brake power.

Water power
P =
Shaft power

The highest efficiency of a pump


occurs at the flow where the
incidence angle of the fluid entering
the hydraulic
y
p
passages
g best
matches with the blade angle. The
operating condition where a pump
design has its highest efficiency is
referred to as the best efficiency
point B.E.P
B.E.P..

99

3- Power curve
The shaft power is determined in order to select a motor for the pump
pump.
The shaft power can be determined directly from the manufacturers
catalogue plot or calculated from the following formula :

shaft Power = H Q
From the equation,
q
, it is clear that the main
parameter affecting the shaft power is the
discharge and not the head.
head. This is becau
of the increase in the discharge for the same
pipe diameter leading to additional losses
which need more power to drive the pump.
pump.

100

4- NPSH required curve


The Net Positive Suction Head Required is the minimum energy
required at the suction flange for the pump to operate satisfactorily
away from cavitation problem .

The NPSHR required increases with an increase in discharge. ,


Operating the pump near the run
run--out point should be avoided
.It may lead to cavitation problem as the NPSHR value is high

101

How to draw the pipe system


resistance
i t
curves?
?

102

103

Sizing the discharge pipe of the pump


& the Pumping Rate
In order to size the discharge pipe which feed the roof tanks , the
following data are needed:
1- The capacity of the roof tanks
1
2- The pumping rate.
N.B. To avoid disturbance & noise the Pumping time is limited to 4 hours
y ( CIBSE B4).
/day
If for example , the Pump has to refill the empty overhead tank in 4
hours ,the pumping rate becomes 40 m3 / 4 h = 10 m3 /h.
If however ,the Pump has to refill the empty overhead tank in 2 hours
The pumping rate becomes 20 m3/h .
Decision has to be made by the consultant engineer to determine the
pumping time ,for example one or two hours .
pumping
mp g rate is not the operating
p
g point
p
or duty
y point
p
of
f the pump.
p mp
The p
It is an estimated value used to estimate the flow rate in the pipe. The
actual pump discharge is obtained from =>Intersection of the pipe
system curve and pump performance curve.

R f to
Refer
t our
u L
Lecture
ctu notes
n t s [R
[Reff [6] .

104

The estimated pump


pump s head
As it is known that , the role of the pump is to
overcome loss + elevation difference + dynamic
head.
V22
h A = hL + Z 2 Z 1 +
2. g
The elevation difference represents the total static
head which
w
is the vertical distance between the water
surface level of the suction and discharge tanks.
The dynamic head is too small, practically it can
be neglected.
neglected

Operating point or duty point


A centrifugal pump operating in a given system will deliver a flow rate
corresponding to the intersection of its headhead-capacity curve with the pipe
system curve. The intersection point is called Duty point or operating point
point

At this point the head


required from the pump
= the head given by the
pump
p
p .Also At this p
point
the pump would deliver
the maximum discharge
Qmax .
1

105

Pump selection limitations

15 L/s
17 L/s

13
L/s

106

Pump selection
Pump is selected based on the B.E.P. or nearly so . However the acceptable drop in
efficiency is limited to only 7 % from its maximum efficiency . As far as the
available NPSH is equal or exceeds the required NPSH

107

108

P
Pumps
power
Mono--block
Mono

109

The hydraulic
y
power
p
or water power
p
is given
g
by:
y

water power = F V = P A V = QV hm
S.P =
Input power=

water power

Water power
Transmissi
Motorefficiency
Pumpefficiency
on efficiency

Pump efficiency & motor power is selected from the manufacturer catalogues.
catalogues.
For Example ; The Transmition efficiency is taken as follows:
1- Case of shaft coupling = 1 ,
2- Case of flat belt Transmition = 0.9 to 0.93
3- Case of VV-belt Transmition = 0.9393- 0.95.
95.
1

110

Motor Power selection


There is no simple
Th
si l rule
l of
f thumb
th b in
i motor
t selection..
s l ti
Each
E h
manufacturer suggest a safety margent for their motor
selection.
selection
Example: KSB pump catalogue presents the follows
estimation values :
Example:

UP to 7.5 kW add 20
20%
%
pp
y 15
15%
%
From 7.5 - 40 kW add approximately
From 40 kW and above add approximately
10%
10%.
10
%
%.

111

Pumps power

M
Manufacturer
f t
Pumps power
End curve

Required
Pumps Shaft
power

Constant speed
Monoblock-- Pump
Monoblock
1

112

Class exercise
Select the size of the pump from the coverage chart shown in
the accompanied figure , assuming that , the estimated head
and discharge are h= 30 m & Q= 30 m3 /h respectively.
Solution
S l ti :
Enter the chart at Q= 30 m3 /h and move vertically up to the
line of intersection with
h=
h 30 m. The
Th selection
l ti charts
h t give
i the
th following
f ll i pump
selections for the present data:
CN 4040-160 or CN40
CN40--200 at n =2900
=2900 rpm. The CN
CN40
40--160 is
selected for the reason of economy.
economy
After this preliminary selection, you will be able to analyze the
performance characteristic curve CN40
CN40--160
CN: Standard motor
40 mm delivery output
160 mm impeller diameter
1

113

m3/hr

114

A centrifugal pump is used to supply water to the overhead tank


located at the top of a 10- floor building . The capacity of the
overhead tank is 30 m3.
1- Estimate the size of the rising main to overhead tank.
2- Select the most suitable pump from the Lawora- pump
catalogues.
l
3- Estimate the power required which fits the water pipe system.
4- Discuss the results.
Assuming that:
The total length of the pipe is 50 m.
The elevation
n difference
ff
n
is 31 m. ( f
from
m m
minimum
n mum water
w
level of
f the
underground level up to the top Float switch of the overhead tank)
2 gate valves full open and 6 (90 standard elbows) and one check
valve swing type
type. Other losses are neglected.
neglected
The maximum running time of the pump is about 2 hours /day.
The pumping of water is controlled automatically using automatic
water level switches.
switches
1

115

Class exercise
A centrifugal pump is used to supply water to a
1010
- floor building,
g, which consists of 35 flats.
Each flat is occupied by 6 persons.
1-Work out the daily water requirement, the
underground
d
d and
d overhead
h d ttank
k capacity.
it
Assuming that, each person requires 35 gal of
per day.
y
water / p
2- Estimate the pumping rate of the pump.
The pumping of water is controlled automatically
using automatic water level switches.

116

Variable Speed Pumps


Driven by Frequency
Converters .
Direct supply system . Used
In Hotels , villas , Hospital
etc..

117

Speed
reduction

Pumps
Shaft
power
1

118

Summary
Using constant speed centrifugal pump
,it is not possible to get a const flow rate
under variable pressure condition
condition.
(@BEP)
z Using constant speed centrifugal pump
,it is not possible to get a const pressure
under variable flow
flow. (@BEP)
Variable speed pump accompanied with
f
frequency
iinverter
t (VFD) can do
d So!
S !
z

119

VFD-pump can maintaining a constant


pressure att variable
i bl fl
flow

It can generate a constant pressure at variable flow


H

It can avoid water-hammer due


to p
pump
p stopping
pp g g
gradually
y

It

The RPM increases or


decreases automatically to
keep the pressure constant

can save energy


gy
1

120

Compensation for system losses (according system


curve)

Using a differential
pressure transmitter, the
pump is balancing the
friction losses of system
curve.
Q

As the discharge increases the


pressure increases to
compensate for the added
friction losses in the system.
system

It can save energy up to


60 % versus a full speed
pump.
p
p
1

121

M i t i i a constant
Maintaining
t t flow
fl
rate
t

It can guarantee a
constant flow at
variable head

It can avoid to run out of


the curve when the
system
t
needs
d llow h
head
d

As the discharge changes .The


VFD iincrease the
h rpm i.e.
i the
h
pressure to maintain a
constant discharge.

It can save energy

122

What happens to Flow, Head and Power with Speed?

Q ~ RPM
2
H ~ RPM
SP ~ RPM3
1

123

124

Affinity laws (For the same pump)

125

Affinity laws
Doubling the pump rotational
speed
d leads
l d tto:
1- Double the discharge.
discharge
2- Increase the total head
value by a factor of 4.
3- Increase the power by a
factor of 8.
1

126

Class Exercise
A pump delivers 2000 L /min. of water against
a head of 20m at a efficiency of 70 % and
running at shaft rotational speed of 3000 rpm.
Estimate the new pump characteristics if the
p
of the shaft is changed
g to
rotational speed
4000 rpm. Assume the pump efficiency is
constant .

127

Summary of Exercise

128

Chap. 4

129

Domestic hot water system

Hot water circulating


g pump
p p
inside the apartment)

130

If water heater is located far away from


plumbing
l bi fi
fixtures
t
((more th
than 12 m)) hot
h t water
t
circulator should be provided in order to have
h t water
hot
t iin th
the piping
i i system
t
all
ll th
the time
ti
and
d
hot to wait for a long time to have hot water.
To
T size
i
the
th hot
h t water
t circulator
i
l t 1stt calculate
l l t
the total hot water fixture units (as mentioned
f cold
for
ld water
t )). N
Normally
ll hot
h t water
t fixture
fi t
unit is 0.75 of total fixture unit.

1
131
Suppose we have a large flat
having the following
plumbing
p
g fixtures estimate the circulated pump
p p
discharge in gpm. :

4
4
2
4
2

showers
lavatories
bath tubes
bidet
sinks
i k

x 2 x 0.75 = 6
x 1 x 0.75 = 3
x 2 x 0.75 = 3
x 2 x 0.75 = 6
x 2 x 0.75 = 3
_________
Total = 21 FU
For every 20 FU provide 1 gpm of
circulation 21 FU/ 20 FU = 1.05 gpm .

Pump head is calculated by multiplying pipe effective length by the


pressure drop per 100 ft as discussed earlier including pipe fittings.

132

Supply Hot Water Pipe Sizing :


In a manner similar to cold water
pipe , the hot water Pipe is sized .
First
Fi t of
f all
ll calculate
l l t the
th total
t t l fixture
fi t
units (0
(0.75 of total FU) then find the
corresponding flow in gpm and then
refer to pipe flow chart and select the
corresponding pipe size.

Domestic Hot Water-Return Pipe Sizing


[large systems].
systems]
1

133

Usually for small installation


installation, a 0.5
0 5 or 0.75
0 75 in
hot water return will be satisfactory.
However for large
g installation,, the heat loss
from the return line becomes a major
consideration. The following method is used
to size
i
the
h return pipe.
i
A. Determine the approximate total length of
all
ll hot
h t water
t supply
l + return
t
piping.
i i
B. Multiply this total length by 30 Btu/Ft
(28 8 W/m),
(28.8
W/ ) for
f insulated
i
l t d pipe
i
and
d 60
Btu/Ft (57.6 W/m) for un-insulated pipe to
obtain the approximate heat loss.
loss

134

C. Divide the total heat loss by 10,000 to obtain the


total pump capacity in GPM or by 40000 to obtain the
pump capacity in L/s.
[ 1Kg water /liter x 3600 sec/hr x 11 C=40 000]
[ 1lb water /gal x 60 min/hr x 20 F=10 000]
where 11C is the allowable temperature drop.
D Select a circulating pump to provide the total required
D.
GPM and obtain from pump curves the head created at
this flow.
E. Multiply the head required by 100 (30.5) and divide
by the total length of the longest run of the hot water
return piping to determine the allowable friction loss per
100 feet of pipe.
F Determine the required GPM (L/s ) in each
F.
circulating loop and size the hot water return pipe based
on this GPM and the allowable friction loss as determined
above step E.

Pipe insulation :
Hot water p
pipes
p are
insulated in order to
prevent losses of heat to
atmosphere.
h
Insulation
I
l i
material could be
fiberglass or rubber type
insulation like armaflex
which comes in the form of
tube and the pipe is pulled
inside it .

135

Pipe insulation:
reasons:
z Heat conservation.
conservation
z Reduce noise.
z Control surface condensation.
z Freeze prevention.
prevention

136

The insulating material is the same used in duct insulation


(Fiber glass)

137

Insulation thickness
Thi k
Thicknesses
or iinsulation
l ti to
t be
b supplied
li d and
d installed
i t ll d for
f the
th various
i
systems shall conform to the following table:
(Fiber glass thickness)
a. Conditioned air supply and return (ductwork) 1 11//2"
b. Refrigerant suction and liquid lines:
1/2"
c. Condensate drain pipes
1/2"
d. Acoustic duct liner.
1
e: Heating
H ti water
t pipes
i
up to
t 1" di
diameter:
t
1"
f. Heating water pipes above 1 :
1 1/
1/2"
g. Domestic hot water pipes:
1"
k. Boiler, water heater
2
L. Boiler breeching & steel chimney
2.1/2

138

E
Expansion
i of
f Pipe
Pi
material
t i l

L = L T
L =Amount of change in pipe length, mm
= Coefficient of linear expansion,
expansion mm/m.
mm/m C
C ( for (API
(API ) PPr =0.15 mm/m C)
T= Temperature difference , C
C
L = is the original length of pipe m
For example : A 6 m copper pipe is subjected to temperature difference of 50 C
Calculate the pipe expansion L :
L = 0.15 x 6 x 50 =45 mm

139

Calculate the length of the Arm Ls ,assuming that D= 25 mm


& L =45 mm.

Ls = 30 25 45 = 10 cm

140

Calculation of1 the Arm Length Ls

141

Determination of
f the
h Width
d h between
b
the
h arms B

142

B= 200 +2 x L =200+
200+ 2x45 = 290 mm.

143

144

145

146

147

Domestic hot water system


Electrical water heater

Water to water storage Heater


Boiler +Water Storage

Instantaneous or semi
semi-instantaneous
types of heaters

Electrical Water heater Power


3/4 of the total fixture units are used for hot water
Hot water

Thermostat

Drain

148

1.25 "

4 bar
Pressure Releif valve

Inlet water flow ?


Electrical power :

Temp.

1.5, 2.4, 4-5, & 9 Kw

Electrical water heater

Si off EWH :
Size

1"
Cold water

1"

15, 20 , 30,
15,
30, 40,
40, 50 ,
66,, 80 &1 20 gallons
66

3/4 of the total fixture units are used forc old water

Power =

4.2 150 ( 65 10)


S .hc Kg T .
= 4.2 Kw
=
Heating time Efficiency
3 3600 0.75

Where Shc is the specific heat capacity of water ( 4.2 Kj/kg. K), Heating time or recovery period T = 3
hrs, The mass of water 150 Liters = 150 Kg., Temperature rise from 10 to 65 C.
Insulation efficiency is 7575-80 %.

1
149 have
In general, electric water heaters
are fully automatic and
a storage tank, one or more electric elements, and operating
and
d safety
f
controls.
l Th
The h
heating
i elements
l
are available
il bl in
i a
variety of standard voltages and wattages to meet the
specific requirements of the installations.
installations

Electrical water heater are fitted with electrical resistance


( heater) 1.5 Kw,
Kw 2.4 Kw , 4- 5 Kw,
Kw 9 Kw . They could be
horizontal or vertical type . EWH are insulated and
protected by steel jacketing.
EWHs should have pressure /temperature relief valve
which will relieve excessive pressure . For high pressure
EWH the use of none -return is not recommended. In this
case ,the p
pressure relief valve is connected to nearest
floor drain.
EWHs are controlled by thermostat which will activate the
electrical heater automatically.
15,, 20 , 30
30,, 40
40,, 50 , 66
66,, 80 &1 20 gallons
Available EWHs size are 15

Resistance heating element

150

Usually the electrical water heaters have a primary


resistance
i t
heating
h ti element
l
t near th
the bottom
b tt
, and
d possible
ibl
a secondary element located within the upper quarter or
third of the tank.
tank
Minimum wattage ratings of two element heaters are based
as follows:
For the upper unit (8
(8 watt / liter) of the tank capacity.
For the lower unit (5
(5 watt/liter)
watt/liter) of the tank capacity.
For fast heating of ( 30
30-40
40-50 gal )), we take (26
watt/litter)) for each unit .
watt/litter
For one single element heater ,we
we take (26
(26 watt/litter
watt/litter))

Hot w
H
water demand
m
(definitions)
Demand of water supply :
is the rate of flow in pg
pgm furnished by
y a water
supply system to various types of plumbing fixtures
and water outlets under normal conditions.

Maximum Demand:
is the p
peak value of the demand. The values Hot of
water demand

are shown

previously in table (W(W-2 ).

Demand factor :
is the ratio of the maximum demand of the hot water
h ti system
heating
t m to
t th
the ttotal
t l connected
t d lload
d or the
th
total of the individual requirements of all the fixtures
of the system.

151

Water to water1 storage heater

152

Ah
hott-water
hott storage
t
tank
t k mustt meett code
d requirements
i
t th
thatt d
depend
d
on its size and pressure and the authority having jurisdiction. Its
capacity should be selected so that 60 to 80 percent of the volume of
water in the tank may be drawn off before the temperature drop
(caused by the incoming cold water) becomes unacceptable. A value
of 70 percent usually is used in design calculations.
g vessel
Heated water from boiler enter the coil of the water storage
where it will heat the water , and then returns to boiler at lower
temperature . Whereas the domestic Hot water leaves the top of the
water tank to the supply distribution piping upon demand for the
various fixtures and apparatus. When recalculation of the hot water
is provided,
provided the warm water is returned to the bottom of the hot
water vessel or tank by a circulate pump.
N
Normally
ll heating
h ti water
t from
f
boiler
b il enters
t the
th water
t tank
t k att 180 F (
82 C ) and return to boiler at 160 F ( 70 C), T = 1212-15 C.

153

Hot water requirement


q
for storage
g

The hot water storage for Buildings & Hotels will be calculated based on unit hourly
demand rates as follows :
galon per hour
Fixture type
Building
Hotels
L t
Lavatory
2 gph
h
2 gph
h
bathtub
20 gph
20 gph
Shower
30 gph
75 gph
Sink
10 gph
30 gph
Laundry
20 gph
28 gph
Dishwashers
15 gph
50 gph
Demand factor
0.3
0.25
Storage factor
1.25
0.8
Domestic hot water temperature will be 60
60 C.

Table HwHw-1

154

Table HwHw-2

155

Procedure for estimating 1the heating capacity156


((recovery
y capacity)
p
y) of a hot-water heating
g system
y

having a storage tank.

Step(11) Tabulate the number of fixtures of each type in the building.


Step(
building.
Step(2) Then multiply the number of fixtures of each type by the probable
Step(2
d
demand
d for
f each
h type of
f fixture
fi
fixture.
.
Step(3) Obtain the maximum demand by taking the sum of products of
Step(3
step (2)
Step(4) Then obtain the hourly heating capacity by multiplying the
Step(4
maximum
m m m demand
m
in step
step3
p3 by
y the demand
m
factor obtained f
f
from
m table 2.
Step(5) multiply the hourly heating capacity of step 4 by the storage
Step(5
capacity factor given in table HWHW-1 for the appropriate type of building to
obtain the
h required
d capacity of
f the
h storage tank
tank.
k.
N.B. Not to be used for instantaneous or semi
semi--instantaneous types of
heaters

157

Acceptable
p
Temperature
p
of domestic Hot water

F = 1.8 C + 32 , C = 0.55 (F - 32
32))

Example

158

Suppose you have to calculate , the hot water storage


capacity , the boiler power of an apartment house
((building)
g) having
g the following
g data:
60 Lavatories , 40 kitchen sinks ,and 10 laundry 60
showers and 40 dishwasher .
showers,
Step1& 2. The probable water demand are as follows:
From table HW-1;
Lavatories =

60 x 2 gp
gph = 120 gp
gph

Kitchen sink = 40 x 10 gph = 400 gph .


L
Laundry
d

= 10 x 20 gph
h = 200 gph
h .

Shower

= 60 x 30 gph = 1800 gph.

Dishwasher

40 x 15 gph = 600 gph .

159

Step 3 :
The Maximum demand of the hot water demand is:
=((60
=((
60
2gph)+ ((60
60
30
30gph)+
gph)+ (40
(40
10
10gph)
gph) + ((40
40 x 15 gph)
+(10
+(
10x
x 20 gph ))= 3120 gph.
Step 4
Building demand factor = 0.3 (from table HW
HW-1 ).
Hourly heating capacity = (3120
(3120
0.3) = (936
(936 gph)= 15
15..6
gpm.= 0.985 liter /sec or 3546 L/hr.
Step 5
The required capacity of the storage tank is:
Usable capacity = 936 x 1.25 = 1170 gal i.e. (4429 liters)
[1.25 is the storage factor from table HwHw-1]

Safety
S
f t st
storage::
Since only 70
70%
% of the tank is usable
usable,, so the actual

tank capacity = (1170


(1170 / 0.7 gallon) = (1670
(1670 gallon) that is
(6327 liters).

Boiler power Calculation

From the basic equation

160

Q = m C T

I U.S.
In
U S units
it
Boiler Power Q (BTU/h) = GPM (60min/hou r) T1 (8.3
(8 3 lb/gal)
Q (boiler in BTU/h) = 500 gpm T1
Where

gpm
p = is the calculated water demand in gpm
p (flow rate ) ;
T = is the temperatur e difference between initial & Fianal [ 101 oF]

From th
F
the previous
i
example,
l we have
h
936 gph
h = 15
15..6 gpm
of water to be heated , temperature rise T=
T=101
101 F.
QT= 500 x 15.
15.6 x 101 = 787800 BTU/hr =
=230
230 Kw.
In SI units
units:
Power KW =

0.985 Kg / sec . 4.2 Kj / Kg .C (55) C = 227.5 Kw

Boiler power
1

161

1 Kw = 860 Kcal/hr.
Kcal/hr = 3413 BTU/ hr.
hr
1boiler hp = 9.81 KW.

The required gross boiler power for heating water + overcome the heat
loss from pipe and boiler + the heat needed to rise the initial water
temperature ( Pick up ) is given by:
QBoiler = QT [1+ a + b]
QT = Calculated boiler
boiler power
power
,a = additional heat coefficient to overcome the heat loss in the pipe
systems and boiler. [0
[0.1]
b = additional heat coefficient to overcome the pick up period [0
[0.1 to 0.2]
. The required gross output is then;
QBoiler = [1
[1.2 or 1.3 ] QT
As mentioned before : for QT= 230 Kw ,

The required boiler power = 1.2 x QT = 1.2 x230 =276 Kw

162

T=82
T=
82 C

T=10
T=
10 C
T=72
T=
72 C

Hot water & Boiler Circulated pump


There are two
centrifugal circulated
pumps used in Hot water
y
system:
Pump1: is used to
circulate the hot water
system (Located in the
returned pipe ).
Pump2 : Is used to
circulate the hot water
from boiler to storage
tank (closed system).

163

164
For hot water systems in 1which piping from the
heater to the fixture or appliance
pp
is short [(30
[(30
m), or less], circulating systems are not generally
used. But it is common p
practice to provide
p
circulating pump in all hot water supply systems in
which it is desirable to have hot water available
continuously at the fixtures.

Sizing of hot water circulating pump is simplified


by
y .

1 gpm for every 20 fixtures units in the system.

Or:
0.5 gpm (0
(0.03161/s)
03161/s) for each 0.75
75- or 1 riser;
1 gpm
gp (0
(0.06311/s)
06311/s)) for each 1.25
25 - or 1.5 riser;
2 gpm for each 2 riser.

165

Since hot water is corrosive due to oxygen content


and high temperature and high temperature,
circulating pumps should be made of bronze or
other material designed to withstand these
condition.
cond
t on.
When the hot water piping exceed (30m ) , a
water
t circulated
i
l t d pump is
i often
ft
iinstalled.
t ll d It is
i
controlled by an immersion thermostat (in the
return
t
li
line)) sett tto start
t t and
d stop
t the
th pump over a
11 C). However for continuous hot water supply
th thermostat
the
th
t t is
i eliminated.
li i t d

166

Calculation of circulating
g pump
p p -1 capacity
p
y

Circulating
pump 1

H.W. S
R.H.W.

H.W.Storage tank

H.W. S
R.H.W.
Circulating
g ppump
p
C.W.S

1
167
Suppose we have a building
containing the
following
g plumbing
p
g fixtures estimate the circulate
pumppump
-1 flow rate in gpm
gpm.. :

Lavatories =

60 x 1 x 0.75 = 45 Fus.

Kitchen sink = 40 x 2 x 0.75


0 75 = 60 Fus .
Laundry

= 10 x 2 x 0.75 = 15 Fus .

Shower

= 60 x 2 x 0.75 = 90 Fus.

Dishwasher

= 40 x 1 x 0.75 = 30 Fus .

Total = 240 FU
For every 20 FU provide 1 gpm of circulation 240 FU/ 20
FU = 12 gpm
This is the discharge of the circulated pump , which
circulate the water from (boiler tank) to building.

168

Calculation of the circulating pumppump-2 capacity


Pump 1

P T

P.R.V.

H.W.Storage tank

H.W. S
R.H.W.

BOILER

Boiler
Circulating pump

FUEL Supply

Expansion Vessel
Pump 2

Circulating pump
C.W.S

169

Estimating circulating pump 2 capacity


In U.S.units
The GPM of the system Circulating pump ;
Q (BTU/h) = GPM (60min/hour ) T1 (8.3 lb/gal)

Q (gpm) = Q (boiler in BTU/h) / (8.3 T1 60min/hour )


= Q ((boiler in BTU/h)) /500 T1

In SI units:
Power KW = Kg/sec.
/
4.2Kj/Kg.C
4 2 j/
C (11) C
Power Kw
227
Kg/sec =
=
= 4.9
4 9 L/s
4.2 11
4.2 11
This is the discharge of the circulated pump 2, which
circulate the water from boilerboiler-storage tank
tank- Boiler.

170

H d of
Head
f th
the Ci
Circulated
l t d pump
As it is known that , the role of the circulated pump
is to overcome loss due to pipe friction & fittings.

h =h

A
L included .
The elevation difference
is not
The head loss due is determined from Darcy equation
as mentioned in chap. 9

171

Suppose we have to estimate the head required of a


circulated
i
l
d pump , assuming
i the
h following
f ll i : The
Th pipe
i length
l
h is
i
600 ft. and an allowance for fittings on straight pipe of 25 %50 % is to be use.
use
1- Determine,, the total effective length
g E.L that is:
is:
The actual pipe length + Equivalent length (due to fittings and
valves etc.)
L effff . = L + L e
2- The total head loss or pressure drop hL is determined as :
The head loss per unit of length h1(5-7ftw
ftw../100
100ft
ft )
multiplied by the effective length .

Le ff = L + 25% L = 600 + 150 = 750 ft


hL = Leff . 5 ft / 100 ft = 750 0.05 = 37.5 ft that is [ 11 m ]
Usually the Pump is oversized by 10 % of head & 5% flow .

Instantaneous or semisemi-instantaneous
types of heaters

172

Inst nt n us T
Instantaneous
Type:
p :
The instantaneous indirect water heater is used to meet a demand for a
steady,
d continuous supply
l of
f hot
h water. In this
h type of
f unit, the
h water is
heated instantaneously as it flows through the tubes of the heating coil.
coil.
The heating
g medium (steam or hot boiler water) flows through
g the steel
pipe shell yielding a small ratio of hot water volume to heating medium
volume. Instantaneous water heaters are designed to provide sufficient
capacity
capac ty to heat the required
requ red quantity
quant ty of water (usually expressed in
n gpm
(l/s)) at the time the hot water draw occurs. Storage tanks are not usually
part of an instantaneous water heater, although a separate storage tank
may be used to provide hot water
water. Since instantaneous heaters are of the
high demand type, a circulating pump should be installed in both the boiler
water and domestic water piping circuits.

173

Semi-Instantaneous Type:
yp
They are similar to instantaneous water heater except
th t Semi-instantaneous
that,
S i i t t
water
t h
heaters
t
have
h
limited
li it d
storage. Storage capacities are determined by the
manufacturer to average momentary surges of hot water.
water

Procedure for estimating 1the heating capacity174for


instantaneous and semi- instantaneous water
heaters.
Step(1) Tabulate the number of plumbing fixtures of each type that use
Step(1
hot water.
water.
Step(2
S
Step(
(2) Multiply
(2
M l i l the
h number
b of
f fixtures
fi
of
f each
h type by
b the
h number
b of
f
fixture units per fixture ( obtained from table HWHW-3 ) to obtain the total
number of fixture units
units..
Step(3) Using the total number of fixtures units obtained from step 2 ,
Step(3
determine the maximum demand in gpm using the appropriate curve given in
chart
h t HW
HW--4 .
Step(4) To the demand of step 3 , add the demand for hot
Step(4
hot--water fixtures
( or equipment) that operate continuously ( practically 1 gpm) .
Step(5) Select a heater that will provide the required rise in temperature
Step(5
T = 101 F for the total demand of step
p 3 & 4.

1
175
Example on the calculation
of water demand using
semisemi
-instantaneous type of heaters .

Determine the required capacity in gpm of a semiinstantaneous water heater for a high school in which
there are 6 wash fountains , 10 showers, 2 service sinks,
1 p
pantry
y sink , and 4 p
private lavatory
y basins.
Step-1& 2: Tabulate the number of plumbing fixture & Multiply

these numbers by the number of fixture units per fixture ( obtained


from table HWHW-3 ) to obtain the total number of fixture units.
6 circular wash fountain =

6 x 2.5
2 5 = 15 Fus.
Fus

Service sink

= 2 x 2.5 = 5 Fus .

P nt sink
Pantry
ink

= 1 x 2.5
2 5 = 2.5
2 5 Fus
F .

Showers
= 30 x 1.5 = 45 Fus.
Private lavatory basins = 4 x 0.75
0 75 = 3Fus ,
Total Fixture units = 70.5 FUs

176

Step-3 & 4 : Using the total number of fixtures units


obtained from step 2 , determine the maximum demand in gpm
using the appropriate curve given in chart HW
HW--4 .
Refer to figure HWHW-4 ( the enlarged section) for schools,
schools and
read the corresponding value for 70
70..5 FUs , which is 15 gpm.
This is the hot water demand for fixtures that operate
p
intermittently . Now assume at least one fixture operates
continuously , and it needs a demand of 1 gpm.
The total water flow rate becomes 16 gpm ,this is the capacity
of the semi
semi--instantaneous Boiler.
Select the desired temperature of the water leave & the
temperature
p
of cold water enters the boiler in order to
calculate the boiler power.
Q (boiler in BTU/h) = 500 gpm T
Q (boiler ) = 500 16 101 F = 808 000 BTU/h = 236.6 Kw

HWHW
-3

177

HWHW
-4

Another 178
way to
determine gpm

HWHW
-4

179

1
(b)

15 gpm

Drawing of Water
Distribution
Systems

180

181

182

Boiler Selection And


Specifications

183

BOILER SPECIFICATIONS
1

184

Qualities of a good boiler are:


1-It should be capable of quick startstart-up
up..
2-Should meet large load fluctuations.
fluctuations.
3-Occupy less floor space.
space.
4- Should afford easy maintenance and inspection.
inspection.
5-Should essentially possess the capacity of producing
maximum steam with minimum fuel consumption. i.e. high
thermal efficiency
6- Simple in construction.
7-Tubes should be sufficiently strong to resist wear and
corrosion.
8- Mud and other deposits should not collect on heated
plates..
plates
9-The velocity of water and that of flue gas should be a
minimum..
minimum

Selection 1of a boiler

185

The selection criteria of a boiler depends very much on the


purpose of the boiler i.e. the load requirement.
requirement. Boiler may be
either
ith used
d to
t produce
d
steam
t
tto a steam
t
turbine,
t bi
or f
for
heating process.
process. If steam is required for power Generation
then superheated steam with the pressure of inlet to the
turbine is essential.
On the other hand,, if the boiler is required
q
for a heating
g
process like an industrial load other applications like hospitals,
hotels, kitchens steam or hot water boilers must be
considered.
id
d
Forr power generation we need essentially a water tube boiler.
Fo
boiler.
On the other hand,
hand for Heating process all types are
possible. Hot water are usually produced around 100
100C And
pressure from 2 ~ 8 atm
p
atm,, and highhigh
g -temp
p hot water HTHW
from 121
121C~
C~260
260C and pressure over 10
10..8 atm

1
High efficiency
Cast Iron Boilers

186

Diesel Fuel

Cast Iron1 Boilers

187

Gas
boilers
25 to 200 horsepower
Water

Boiler for light commercial heating

Cast iron boilers (gas)

188

Cast iron boilers are limited to low-pressure steam or hot


water
t applications,
li ti
and
d ttypically
i ll range iin size
i f
from 25 to
t 200
horsepower. An example of gas cast iron boilers is the AtmoGas LN is available with an output range from 29 to 51kW.
51kW The
Atmo-Gas LN is a cast iron boiler supplied for use with
natural g
gas or propane.
propane
p p
The boiler is suitable for both central heating and indirect hot
water supply
w
upp y for
f working
w
g pressures
p
u
up to 4.0
. Bar.. An integral
g
draught diverter is provided for reduced boiler height aiding
plant room access.

Diesel
D esel fuel boilers
bo lers

189

Fire tube boilers

190

Scotch Marine Fire tube boilers are


available for low pressure hot water
applications, in which the product of
combustion(
b
gases)) pass through
h
h the
h
tubes which are surrounded by
y water.
z Fire tube boiler has a flame inside the
furnace and the combustion gases inside
the tubes. The furnace and tubes are
within
ithi a large
l
vessell which
hi h contains
t i
water.
z

191

This type of boiler possesses some


characteristics that differ from other
types, because of its large quantity of
g stored energy)
gy) , making
g it
water ((high
reliable to respond for load changes, if
qu
an instantaneous
u load
it required
demand where a large quantity of water
is needed for a short period of time ,
so it is preferable to choose this type
of boiler to meet instantaneous water
requirements.

Fire tube
F
u
boiler

15 to 1500 horsepower

192

Burner

193

Burner is used in order to burn fuel


in more efficient
ff
way to give a
complete
p
combustion ,prevent
p
the
formation of toxic contaminations
(NOx, SOx, HC .). The burner
uses air in order to atomize the
p
to become
fuel into small droplets
more easily to vaporize and
combust.

194

B
Breeching
hi
z

Breeching should be run as directly


as possible; when elbows are
necessary they should be as long a
radius as possible
possible. Individual
breeching should enter the common
breeching
b
hi at a 45o angle
l to prevent
flue g
gas backback-up
p to down units on
a multiple installation.

Steel Breeching Vent Connection stack:

195

196

Steel breeching vent connection must


b round
be
d rather
th than
th
square or
rectangular to avoid noise and vibration.
z
Vents should terminate at a point
where flue gases will not be
objectionable.
z Stack exit must be a higher than any
g building
g by
y few meters to
surrounding
avoid contamination.
z

1 Kw
w = 9600 Kcal//hr. = 33413 BT
TU/ hr.
1booiler hp
p = 9.811 KW.

1
197

198

199

Water hammer arrestor

Water hammer is a pulsating type noise caused by shock waves when water flowing at high velocity in a pipe is suddenly
arrested. This can happen due to sudden closer off manually operated valves or due to instantaneous closer off automatic valves
(e.g. solenoid , or motorized valves ) or sudden electrical power failure of the pumping system ( non-return valve).

PMax = 0.1 C V / g
Where PMax is the maximum p
pressure developed
p on sudden closure.
PMax = 0.1 1470 V / 9.81 = 15 V ( Kgf / Cm 2 )
C is velocity of sound ( 1470 m/s), V is the flow velocity m/s.
The maximum pressure developed will be PMax + the actual pressure in the line pressure

Ref-- 9
Ref

Automatic air vent


The float of the Air-vent keeps
the venting valve closed. When
air is collected inside the float
chamber, the water level inside
the Air-vent will decrease and
the venting valve will be opened.
opened
The collected air will escape
through the venting valve and
the water level inside the Air
Airvent will increase again, which in
turn results in closing of the
venting
g valve. This process
p
is
continuous as long as air is
collected in the Air-vent.

200

Air vent

201

References
1

202

1- Mechanical & electrical equipment for buildings by Stein/Reynolds,


N h edition,
Ninth
d
John
h Wiley,
l
2000.
2000
000.
2-Practical Plumbing Engineering, Cyril M.Harris, ASPE,1998
ASPE,1998..
3- Building Services & equipment (I/II/III), F.Hall, Third edition,
1994..
1994
4- Upland
U l d engineering,
i
i
M
Mechanical
h i l consulting
lti office,
ffi
D
Dr. Ali H
Hammoud.
d
5- Applied hydraulics Part I & II .Lecture notes." by
A. Hammoud BAUBAU- 1995
6- Pumps with practical applications, .Lecture notes. by A. Hammoud
BAUBAU
- 1999
1999..
7- Lowara catalogue
8- Plumbers
Pl b & pipefilters
i filt , C
Calculations
l l ti
M
Manuall b
by R
R. D
Dodge
d
W
Woodson.
d
9- Plumbing Design & practice by S G Deolalikar
1010
-

fluidedesign Jacques Chaurette

1212
- Internet web sides

End

203