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# CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

3.1
(a)

## BASIC CONCEPTS AND IMPORTANT RESULTS

Continuity of a real function at a point
A function f is said to be left continuous or continuous from the left at x = c iff
(i) f(c) exists

(ii) xc
-

Lt f(x) = f(c).
(iii) xc
-

(i) f(c) exists

(ii) xc
+

Lt f(x) = f(c).
(iii) xc
+

(i) f(c) exists

(ii) xLt
f(x) exists and
c

(iii) xLt
f(x) = f(c).
c

## Hence, a function is continuous at x = c iff it is both left as well as right continuous at x = c.

When xLt
f(x) exists but either f(c) does not exist or xLt
f(x) f(c), we say that f has a
c
c
removable discontinuity; otherwise, we say that f has non-removable discontinuity.
(b)

## Continuity of a function in an interval

A function f is said to be continuous in an open interval (a, b) iff f is continuous at every point of the
interval (a, b) ; and f is said to be continuous in the closed interval [a, b] iff f is continuous in the open
interval (a, b) and it is continuous at a from the right and at b from the left.
Continuous function. A function is said to be a continuous function iff it is continuous at every point of its
domain. In particular, if the domain is a closed interval, say [a, b], then f must be continuous in (a, b)
and right continuous at a and left continuous at b.
The set of all point where the function is continuous is called its domain of continuity. The domain of
continuity of a function may be a proper subset of the domain of the function.

3.2

## PROPERTIES OF CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS

Property 1. Let f, g be two functions continuous at x = c, then
(i)
af is continuous at x = c, " a R
(ii)
f + g is continuous at x = c
(iii)
f g is continuous at x = c
(iv)
fg is continuous at x = c
(v)

f
g

## is continuous at x = c, provided g(c) 0.

Property 2. Let D1 and D2 be the domains of continuity of the functions f and g respectively then
(i)
af is continuous on D1 for all a R
(ii)
f + g is continuous on D1 D2
(iii)
f g is continuous on D1 D2
(iv)
fg is continuous on D1 D2
(v)

f
g

## Property 3. A polynomial function is continuous everywhere.

In particular, every constant function and every identity function is continuous.
Property 4. A rational function is continuous at every point of its domain.
Property 5. If f is continuous at c, then | f | is also continuous at x = c.
In particular, the function | x | is continuous for every x R.
Property 6. Let f be a continuous one-one function defined on [a, b] with range [c, d], then the inverse
function f1 : [c, d] [a, b] is continuous on [c, d]
Property 7. If f is continuous at c and g is continuous at f(c), then gof is continuous at c.
Property 8. All the basic trigonometric functions i.e. sin x, cos x, tan x, cot x, sec x and cosec x are
continuous.
Property 9. All basic inverse trigonometric functions i.e. sin1x, cos1x, tan1x, cot1x, sec1x, cosec1 x
are continuous (in their respective domains).
Property 10. Theorem. If a function is differentiable at any point, it is necessarily continuous at that point.
The converse of the above theorem may not be true i.e. a function may be continuous at a point but may
not be derivable at that point.

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2
3.3
(a)

## CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

DERIVATIVE OF VARIOUS FUNCTIONS
Derivative of composite functions
Theorem. If u = g(x) is differentiable at x and y = f(u) is differentiable at u, then y is
dy
dx

differentiable at x and

dy
du

du
dx

If g is differentiable at x and f is differentiable at g(x), then the composite function h(x) = f(g(x)) is
differentiable at x and h(x) = f(g(x)). g(x).
Chain Rule. The above rule is called the chain rule of differentiation, since determining the derivative of
y = f(g(x)) at x involves the following chain of steps :
(i)
First, find the derivative of the outer function f at g(x).
(ii)
Second, find the derivative of the inner function g at x.
(iii)
The product of these two derivatives gives the required derivative of the composite function fog
at x .
(i)

(iii)
(b)

(c)

dy
dx

dy
dx

dy
dt
dx
dt

dx
dy

dx
dt

, provided

0.

(ii)

dx

dy
dx

= dx , provided dy 0.
dy

=1

d
dx

(iv)

(| x |) = | x | , x 0.

1

(i)

d
dx

(sin1 x) =

(ii)

d
dx

(cos1 x) =

(iii)

d
dx

(tan1 x) =

(iv)

d
dx

(cot1 x) =

(v)

d
dx

(sec1 x) =

(vi)

d
dx

(cosec1 x) =

1 - x2

1
1 - x2
1

1+ x2

, for all x R

1
1+ x2

, for all x R

1
x x2 - 1

,x>1

1
x x2 - 1

,x>1

## Derivatives of algebraic and trigonometric functions

(i)

d
dx

(xn) = nxn 1

(ii)

d
dx

(xx) = xx log ex

(iii)

d
dx

(sin x) = cos x

(iv)

d
dx

(cos x) = sin x

(v)

d
dx

(tan x) = sec2 x

(vi)

d
dx

(cot x) = cosec2 x

(vii)

d
dx

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3
(d)

(e)

## CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

Derivatives of exponential and logarithmic functions
d
dx

(vi)

d
dx

(ii)

d
dx

d
dx

(log | x |) =

(iii)

d
dx

(log x) =

d
dx

1
,x>0
x

(iv)

d
dx

(un) = un

d
dx

(n log u).

## Derivatives of functions in parametric form

If x and y are two variables such that both are explicitly expressed in terms of a third variable, say t, i.e.
if x = f(t) and y = g(t), then such functions are called parametric functions and
dy
dx

(g)

1
,x0
x

Logarithmic differentiation
If u, n are differentiable functions of x, then

(f)

(i)

dy
dt
dx
dt

, provided

dx
dt

0.

## Derivative of second order

If a function f is differentiable at a point x, then its derivative f is called the first derivative or derivative of
first order of the function f. If f is further differentiable at the same point x, then its derivative is called the
second derivative or derivative of the second order of f at that point and is denoted by f.
If the function f is defined by y = f(x), then its first and second derivatives are denoted by f (x) and f(x)
or by

dy
dx

and

d2 y
dx2

3.4
(i)

## ROLLES THEOREM AND LAGRANGES MEAN VALUE THEOREM

Rolles theorem
If a function f is
(i)
continuous in the closed interval [a, b]
(ii)
derivable in the open interval (a, b) and
(iii)
f(a) = f(b),
then there exists atleast one real number c in (a, b) such that f(c) = 0.
Thus converse of Rolles theorem may not be true.

(ii)

## Lagranges mean value theorem

If a function f is
(i)
continuous in the closed interval [a, b] and
(ii)
derivable in the open interval (a, b),
then there exists atleast one real number c in (a, b) such that f (c) =
The converse of Lagranges mean value theorem may not be true.

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f (b) - f (a)
b-a

SOLVED PROBLESM
Ex.1
Sol.

## Is the function defined by f(x) = x2 sin x + 5 continuous at x = p ?

Here, f(p) = (p)2 sin p 5 = p2 5
lim

x p +

lim
2
f(x)= hlim
0 f(p+h)= h 0 [(p+h) sin(p+h)5]
2
2
= hlim
0 [(p + h) + sin h 5] = p 5

lim
lim
2
and x lim
p - f(x)= h 0 f(ph) = h 0 [(ph) sin (ph)5]
2
2
= hlim
0 [(p h) sin h 5] = p 5

f(x) = x lim
Since, xlim
p - f(x) = f(p),
p +
the function f is continuous at x = p.
Ex.2 Discuss the continuity of the cosine, cosecant, secant and cotangent functions.
Sol. Continuity of f(x) = cos x
Let a be an arbitrary point of the domain of the function f(x) = cos x.
Then, f (a) = cos a
lim

x a +

lim
f(x) = hlim
0 f(a + h) = h 0 cos (a + h)

= hlim
0 [cos a cos h sin a sin h]
= cos a 1 sin a 0 = cos a
and

lim

x a -

lim
f(x) = hlim
0 f(a h) = h 0 cos (a h)

= hlim
0 [cos a cos h + sin a sin h]
= cos a 1 + sin a 0 = cos a
lim
Since, x lim
a + f(x) = x a - f(x)=f(a), the function is continuous at x = a.

As a is an arbitrary point of the domain, the function is continuous on the domain of the functions,
Proceed as above and prove yourself the continuity of other trigonometric
Ex.3

sinx

, if x < 0

f(x) = x

x + 1 , if x 0

Sol.

## The point of discontinuity of f can at most be x = 0.

Let us examine the continuity of f at x = 0.
lim
lim
Here, x lim
0 + f(x)= h 0 f(0+h)= h 0 [(0+h)+1]=1

and

lim

x 0 -

f(x) = hlim
0 f(0 h) = h 0
h 0

0 -h

-h

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## CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

5
Also, f(0) = 0 + 1 = 1
Since,

lim

x 0 +

f(x) = x lim
0 - f(x) = f(0), f is continuous at x = 0.

## Hence, there is no point of discontinuity of f.

Ex.4

Determine if f defined by
1
2
x sin , if x 0
x
0,
if x = 0

f(x) =

Sol.

is a continuous function.
It is sufficient to examine the continuity of the function f at x = 0.
Here f (0) = 0
Also,

lim

x 0 +

f(x) = hlim
0 f(0 + h)

lim h2 sin 1 = 0
(0 + h)2 sin
= hlim
=

0
h
0
0 + h
h

and

lim

x 0 -

f(x) = hlim
0 f(0 h)

1
1 lim 2

(0 - h)2 sin
= 0
h sin
= hlim
=
0
0 - h h 0
- h

1
Q sin 1
h

lim
Hence, x lim
0 + f(x) = x 0 - f(x) = f(0)

Ex.5

So, f is continuous at x = 0
This implies that f is a continuous function at all x R.
Examine the continuity of f, where f is defined by
sin x - cos x , if x 0
if x = 0

f(x) = - 1,
Sol.

Here, f(0) = 1

lim
lim
Also, x lim
0 + f(x)= h 0 f(0+h)= h 0 [sin(0+h)cos(0+h)]

= hlim
0 [sin h cos h] = 1
lim
lim
and x lim
0 - f(x)= h 0 f(0h)= h 0 [sin(0h)cos(0h)]

= hlim
0 [sin h cos h]

= 0 1 = 1

## and cos (h) = cos h]

lim
Hence, x lim
0 + f(x) = x 0 - f(x) = f(0)

## So, f is continuous at x = 0; and hence continuous at all x R.

Ex.6

Find the value of k so that the following function f is continuous at the indicated point :
kx + 1 , if x 5

(i)

f(x) = 3 x - 5 , if x > 5 at x = 5

(ii)

2
f(x) = kx , if x 2 at x = 2
3 ,

if x > 2

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6
Sol.

(i)

## CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

Since f is given to be continuous at x = 5, we have
lim

x 5 +

f(x) = x lim
5 - f(x) = f(5)

lim

= hlim
0 f(5 h) = f(5)

h 0 f(5 + h)

h 0 [3(5+h)5]= h 0

10 = 5k + 1

(ii)

## Since f is given to be continuous at x = 2, we have

lim

lim

lim

x 2+

[k(5h)+1] = 5k + 1

k=

9
5

f(x) = x lim
2- f(x) = f(2)

lim

h 0 f(2 + h)

h 0 (3)

lim

= hlim
0 f(2 h) = f(2)

2
= hlim
0 [k(2 h) ] = 4k

3 = 4k

k=

3
4

Ex.7 Find the values of a and b such that the function defined by
5,

if x 2

21,

if x 10

f(x) = ax + b, if 2 < x 10
Sol.

is a continuous function.
Since the function f is continuous, it is continuous at x = 2 as well as at x = 10.
lim

f(x) = x lim
2- f(x) = f(2)

So,

x 2+

i.e.,

h 0 f(2 + h)

i.e.,
and

lim

= hlim
0 f(2 h) = f(2)

2a + b = 5 (......1)
lim

x 10 +

lim
f(x) = x 10
- f(x) = f(10)

lim
i.e., hlim
0 f(10 + h) = h 0 f(10 h) = f(10)

i.e., 21 = 10a + b
(......2)
From (1) and (2), we find that
a = 2 and b = 1
Ex.8 Show that the function defined by
g( x) = x [ x] is dis con tin uou s at all integral points. Here, [x] denotes the greatest
integer less than or equal to x.
Sol. The function f(x) = x [x] can be written as
x - (k - 1), if k - 1 < x < k
if k < x < k + 1, where k is an arbitrary integer..

f(x) = x - k,

lim
lim
Now, x lim
k + f(x)= h 0 f(k + h)= h 0 [(k+h) k]=0
lim
lim
and x lim
k - f(x)= h 0 f(kh)= h 0 [(kh) (k1)]=1

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## CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

lim
Since, x lim
k + f(x) x k - f(x), the function f is not continuous at x = k.

Since k is an arbitrary integer, we can easily conclude that the function is discontinuous at all integral
points.
Ex.9

## Verify LMV Theorem for the function

3
f(x) = x + 2, when x 1 on [ -1, 2 ].
3x

Sol.

, when x > 1

Both x3 + 2 and 3x are polynomial functions. So, f (x) is continuous and differentiable everywhere except
at x = 1.
Here,

lim f ( x ) = 3.1 = 3

x 1+

lim f ( x ) = 13 + 2 = 3

x 1-

As
lim f(x) = lim f(x) = f(1),f(x) iscontinuous
at x =1.

x1+

x1-

Obviously, then f(x) is continuous on [1, 2]. Again to test the differentiability of f(x) at x = 1, we have
3
3
f ( x ) - f (1)
lim ( x + 2) - (1 + 2)
L f (1) = xlim
=
1
x 1

x -1

x -1

x3 - 1
2
= xlim
= xlim
11- (x + x + 1) = 3
x -1

f ( x ) - f (1)
R f (1) = xlim
1+
x -1

3 x - 3.1
= xlim
1+

= xlim
1+ (3) = 3

x -1

As L f (1) = R f (1), the function f (x) is differentiable at x = 1. Hence, f is differentiable in (1, 2).
Thus, both the conditions required for the applicability of the LMV Theorem are satisfied and
hence, there exists at least one c (1, 2) such that
f (c) =

f (2) - f (-1)
2 - ( -1)

f (c) =

6 -1
3

5
3

## Now, in x > 1, f (x) = 3. So, f (c) cannot be

In x 1.

5
3

in this interval.

f (x) = 3x2
f (c) = 3c2

Obviously, 3c2 =
Both

5
3

5
3

and

gives c2 =
5
3

5
9

or c =

5
3

lie in (1, 2). Thus, LMV is verified for f(x) and [1, 2].

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## CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

8
Ex.10 Verify Rolles theorem for the function f (x) = x (x 3)2 in the closed interval 0 x 3.
Sol.

(i)

Here,

f(x) = x (x 3)2
= x (x2 6x + 9) = x3 6x2 + 9x

(ii)

## f (x) = 3x2 12x + 9

exists uniquely in the open interval (0, 3)

(iii)

## f(0) = (0)3 6(0)2 + 9(0) = 0 0 + 0 = 0

f(3) = (3)2 6(3)2 + 9(3) = 27 54 + 27 = 0

f(0) = f(3)
Thus, all the three conditions are satisfied, Hence, Rolles Theorem is applicable.
Let us now solve
i.e.

f (c) = 0

3c 12c + 9 = 0
2

3(c2 4c + 3) = 0
(c 3) (c 1) = 0
c = 3, 1
SInce, c = 1 (0, 3), the Rolles Theorem is verified for the function.
f(x) = x(x 3)2 in the closed interval [0, 3].
Ex.11 Verify Rolles Theorem for the function f(x) = (x a)m (x b)n in [a, b] ; m, n being positive
integers.
Sol.

Here, f(x) is a polynomial function of degree (m + n). So, it is a continuous function in [a, b].
f (x) = (x a)m 1 (x b)n 1 [m (x b) + n (x a)] exists uniquely in (a, b). So, it is derivable m (a, b).
Further, f(a) = 0 and f(b) = 0. So, f(a) = f(b)
Thus, all the three conditions of Rolles Theorem are satisfied. Hence, Rolles Theorem is applicable.
Let us now solve f (c) = 0
(ca)m 1 (c b)n 1 [m (c b) + n (ca)] = 0
Since c =

mb + na
m+n

c = a or c = b or c =

mb + na
m+n

## (a, b), the Rolles Theorem is verified.

1 + x, if x 2

Ex.12 Show that the function f(x) = 5 - x , if x > 2 is continuous at x = 2, but not differentiable at x = 2.
Sol.

At x = 2,
lim

lim
f(x) = hlim
0 f(2 + h) = h 0 [5(2+ h)] = 3

lim

lim
f(x) = hlim
0 f(2 h) = h 0 [1+(2h)] = 3

x 2+
x 2-

Also,
Since,

f(2) = 1 + 2 = 3
lim

x 2+

f(x) = x lim
2- f(x) = f(2), f(x) is continuous at x = 2.

f (2 - h) - f (2)
Next, Lf (2) = hlim
0
-h

(1 + 2 - h) - (1 + 2)
= hlim
=1
0 =
-h

Rf (2)= hlim
0

f (2 + h) - f ( 2) lim 5 - (2 + h) - (1 + 2)
= h0 =
h
h

= 1

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## CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

9
1 - x,

if x < 1

Ex.13 Show that the function f(x) = x2 - 1, if x 1 is continuous at x = 1, but not differentiable

Sol.

thereat.
The function is continuous at x = 1, because
lim

x 1+

f(x) = xlim
1- f(x) = f(1) as shown below :

lim

lim
lim
2
2
f(x) = hlim
0 f(1 + h) = h 0 [(1 + h) 1] = h 0 (h + 2h) = 0 ;

lim

lim
lim
f(x) = hlim
0 f(1 h) = h 0 [1 (1 h)] = h 0 (h) = 0

x 1+
x 1-

and

f(1) = (1)2 1 = 1 1 = 0

f (1 + h) - f (1)
Further,Rf (1) = hlim
0
h

[(1 + h ) 2 - 1] - [0 ]
= hlim
=2
0
h

f(1 - h) - f(1)
[(1 - h ) 2 - 1] - [0 ]
= hlim
Lf (1) = hlim
0
0
h

h
lim

= hlim
0 - h = h 0 (1) = 1
Since, Rf (1) Lf (1), the function is not differentiable at x = 1.
Ex.14 Show that the function f defined as

3x - 2, if 0 < x 1

## f(x) = 2x2 - x, if 1 < x 1

5 x - 4, if x > 2

## is continuous at x = 2, but not differentiable thereat.

Sol.

lim
lim
At x=2, x lim
2+ f(x)= h 0 f(2+h)= h 0 [5(2+h)4]=6

lim

x 2-

lim
2
f(x) = hlim
0 f(2h)= h 0 [2(2h) (2h)]

2
= hlim
0 [2(4 4h + h ) (2 h)]
2
= hlim
0 [6 7h + 2h ] = 6

and

f(2) = 2 (2)2 2 = 8 2 = 6

lim
Since x lim
2+ f(x) = x 2- f(x)=f(2), the function f is continuous at x = 2.
f (2 - h) - f (2)
Next, Lf (2) = hlim
0
-h

## 2(2 - h)2 - ( 2 - h) - [5(2) - 4]

6 - 7h + 2h2 - 6
= hlim
=
=7
0
-h

-h

f (2 + h) - f (2)
[5(2 + h) - 4] - [5(2) - 4]
[5(2 + h) - 4] - [5(2) - 4]
= hlim
= hlim
f (2) = hlim
0
0
0
h

6 + 5h - 6
= hlim
=5
0
h

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## CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

10

UNSOLVED PROBLEMS
EXERCISE I
1
e x -1

, when x 0
1
ex +1
0
, when x = 0

Q.1

Q.2

Q.3

## Is the following function continuous at the origin ?

f(0) =
Q.4

Q.5

Q.6

f(x) =

cos ax - cos bx
x2
b2 - a2
2

is continuous at x = 0

, when x = 0

, when x 0

, when x = 0

## If the function defined by f(x) =

if f(x) =

is discontinuous at x = 0.

cos2 x - sin 2 x - 1
,

x2 + 1 - 1

k
,

ex - 1

, when x 0
log(1 + 2x)
k,
when x = 0

when x 0

is continuous at x = 0, find k.

when x = 0

## Determine the value of k so that the function f(x) =

1 - cos 4x ,
when x < 0

x2

k
,
when x = 0 is continuous at x = 0.

x
, when x > 0

16 + x - 4

Q.7

Q.8

2, if x 3

a , if x 5

x- | x |

, when x 0
2
2
, when x = 0

x -1

, x 1
2x 2 - 7 x + 5

-1

, x =1

at x = 1

Q.9

Q.10

Q.11

## Differentiate the following w.r.t x :

Q.12

x 2 + 3x + a , if x 1
is differentiable at each x R.
, if x > 1

1 - cos x
1 + cos x

(i)

log

(iv)

x
x

## log sin + cos

(i)

If y =

1- x
1+ x

(ii)

loga x + x 2 + a2

(v)

dy
dx

1 + x sin x

1 - x sin x

log

+y=0

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(iii)

(vi)

log

2
x +a +x
2
2

x +a -x

## CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

11

Q.13

(ii)

2
x +1+ x -1
, prove that dy = x + x - 1
If y =

(iii)

If y =

(iv)

If y =

(i)

, show that 2x
If y = x +
+ y = 2 x (ii)
x
dx

x +1 - x -1
cos x + sin x
cos x - sin x

dx

dy
dx

, show that

sec x + tan x
sec x - tan x
1

p
4

= sec2 x +

dy
dx

, show that

x -1

dy

dy
dx

y
(1 - x cos y )

(iii)
Q.14

Q.15

## Given that cos

Q.16

If x = tan1

Q.17

Differentiate : (i)
(iii)

-1

dy

If x 1+ y + y 1+ x = 0, prove that
= (1 + x )2 , x y
dx

x
2

2t
1- t

. cos

x
4

. cos

and y = sin1

......=
2t

1+ t2

= ( 2y - 1)

1
sin x
, prove that 2
x
2
dy
dx

, show that

sec2

x + 3x + 3

+ tan1

2
1- x

tan1

(ii)

x
2

x + 5x + 7

+ tan1

1
2

+ tan1
2
1+ 1- x

(ii)

3 cos x - 4 sin x

Differentiate : sin1
2
1+ x

Q.20

Differentiate : (i)

Q.21

Q.22

Q.23
Q.24

## Discuss the continuity of the function f(x) = | x | + |x 1| in the interval [1, 2]

Show that f(x) = | x | is not differential at x = 1.

Q.25

## Let f(x) = 2 - x , if x < 0 , show that f(x) is not derivable at x = 0.

Q.26

2x

cos1

Q.19

x2

+ ............ to n terms.

Differentiate : (i)

1 + 15 x

tan1

Q.18

x
4

## sec2 + ......= cosec2x

= 1.

sin1 x 1 - x + x 1 - x 2

x + x + 1

tan1

x
8

dy
dx

1 + x2 - 1

.
x

+ tan1

1 + x + 1- x
2

sin1

(ii)

-1

x-x
cos1
-1
x+x

2x - 1, if x < 0

| x-4|

, x4
0

, x=4

2 + x , if x 0

2 1
x sin , if x 0

x
0
, if x = 0

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## CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

12

BOARD PROBLES
EXERCISE II
dy
dx

log x

Q.1

If xy = ex y, prove that

Q.2

Q.3

Find

Q.4

Q.5

Q.6

[C.B.S.E. 2002]

Q.7

[C.B.S.E. 2002]

Q.8

## If the function f(x) = 11

(1 + log x )2

dy
dx

y
x

[C.B.S.E. 2000]

[C.B.S.E. 2000]

d2 y

x
when y = log x .

dx2

[C.B.S.E. 2000]

d2 y
dx

dy
dx

2y = 0.

d2 y
dx2

[C.B.S.E. 2000]

+ n2y = 0.

[C.B.S.E. 2001]
2 x - 1 , x < 0

3ax + b

, x >1
, x = 1 is continuous. at x = 1, find the values of a and b.
5ax - 2b , x < 1

[C.B.S.E. 2002]
1 - sin 2x
1 + sin 2x

dy
dx

+ sec2 4 - x = 0.

Q.9

If y =

Q.10

dy

p x
If y = log tan + , show that
sec x = 0.

Q.11

, prove that

[C.B.S.E. 2002]
[C.B.S.E. 2002]

dx

Verify Lagranges mean value theorem for the following functions in the given intervals.
[C.B.S.E. 2002]
Also find c of this theorem : (i) f(x)=x2 +x1 in [0, 4] (ii) f(x)= x 2 - 4 on [2, 4]

Q.12

Q.13

d2 y
dx2

dy
dx

1 - cos x

(ii)
dy
dx

Q.14

Q.15

1 + sin x

at t =

1 - sin x

5x + 12 1 - x 2

13

(iv) sin

[C.B.S.E. 2002]
[C.B.S.E. 2003]

## (i) log 1 + cos x

+ 2y = 0.

(v) tan

log (x + 1+ x 2 )

p
.
2

[C.B.S.E. 2003]
[C.B.S.E. 2004]
(iii)

2
2
1+ x - 1 - x

2
2
1 + x + 1- x

1 + x 2 - 1
tan1

1+ x - 1 - x

(vi) tan1 1 + x + 1 - x

www.thinkiit.in

13
x
x
a2

sin -1
a2 - x 2 +
2
2
2

d
dx

= a2 - x 2 .

Q.16

Prove that

Q.17

## If y = (sin x)x + (cos x)tan x, find

Q.18

Find

Q.19

Differentiate tan1

Q.20

If f(x) =

Q.21

Find

Q.22

x
d2 y
1
If y = x log a + bx , prove that 2 =

x
dx

Q.23

dy
dx

, when x = a

1- t2
1+ t

2x

1 - x2

3+ x

1+ x

dy
dx

[C.B.S.E. 2004]

dy
dx

,y=

[C.B.S.E. 2004]
2bt

[C.B.S.E. 2004]

1+ t2
2x
.
1 + x2

w.r.t. sin1

[C.B.S.E. 2004]

2 + 3x

, find f (0).

[C.B.S.E. 2005]

1 + t2
2t

if : x = a
2 , y=
2
1- t

[C.B.S.E. 2005]

1- t

a + bx

1 - cos 4x
, x<0

x2

a
, x =0

, x>0
16 + x - 4

[C.B.S.E. 2005]

[C.B.S.E. 2006]
1

If y = x +

Q.25

## Differentiate w.r.t. x : tan1

1 + sin x - 1 - sin x

Q.26

+ xy + 1 = 0.
dx

Q.27

## , then show that 2x

dy
dx

Q.24

+y=2 x .

[C.B.S.E. 2006]

1 + sin x + 1 - sin x

[C.B.S.E. 2006]
dy

[C.B.S.E. 2006]

b
dy
=

p
dx
a
t =

[C.B.S.E. 2006]
d2 y

Q.28

Q.29

x 2 - 25

, x5
x-5

k
, x =5

Q.30

If f(x) =

Q.31

Q.32

dx2

= y2.

[C.B.S.E. 2006]
[C.B.S.E. 2006]

d2 y
dx

d2 y
dx2

dy
dx

+ 6y = 0.

(m + n)

dy
dx

+ mny = 0.

www.thinkiit.in

[C.B.S.E. 2007]

[C.B.S.E. 2007]
[C.B.S.E. 2007]

14
d2 y

dy
dx

Q.33

Q.34

dx

+x

+ y = 0.

[C.B.S.E. 2007]

2x + 1 , x < 2

k , x=2
3 x - 1 , x > 2

f(x) =
Q.35

## Discuss the continuity of the following function at x = 0 :

f(x) =

Q.36

Q.37

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

x 4 + 2x3 + x 2

, x0
.

tan-1 x

0
, x =0

1 - sin 3 x

3 cos2 x

a
Let f(x) =

b(1 - sin x )
( p - 2x )2

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

p
2
p
p
, if x = . If f(x) be a continuous function at x = , find a and b.
2
2
p
, if x >
2
, if x <

[C.B.S.E. 2008]
If f(x), defined by the following, is continuous at x = 0, find the values of a, b and c.

f(x) =

## sin( a + 1)x + sin x

, if x < 0

c
, if x = 0

2
x + bx - x
, if x > 0

bx 3 / 2

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

ny

dy

Q.38

=
If y = (x + x 2 + a 2 )n, prove that
dx

Q.39

If x 1 + y + y 1 + x = 0 , find

Q.40

If y = x 2 + 1 log x + 1 +

Q.41

Q.42

Q.43

Q.44

Q.45

If y =

Q.46

x + a2

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

1
dy
2 , find
dx
x

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

q
2

sin -1 x
1- x

dy
dx

dy
dx

dy
dx

d2 y
dx2

+x

dy
dx

dy
dx

at q =

2 = 0.

sin 2 (a + y )
.
sin a

p
.
4

[C.B.S.E. 2008]
[C.B.S.E. 2008]
[C.B.S.E. 2009]
[C.B.S.E. 2009]

d2 y
dx

3x

dy
dx

y=0

www.thinkiit.in

[C.B.S.E. 2009]
[C.B.S.E. 2009]

## CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

15
sin x sin x + cos x log x

Q.47 x

Q.48 Find

dy
dx

+ (sin x)

cos x

[C.B.S.E. 2009]

[C.B.S.E. 2009]
d2 y

dy
dx

Q.49

Q.50

If y = cos1

Q.51

## If y = cosec1 x, x > 1, then show that x (x2 1)

Q.52

If xy = ex y, show that

Q.53

## If x = tan log y , show that (1 + x2)

Q.54

dy
y
=- .
If x = asin-1 t , y = acos-1 t , show that
dx
x

[C.B.S.E. 2012]

Q.55

Differentiate tan1

1 + x2 - 1

[C.B.S.E. 2012]

Q.56

2
2
2
dy
dx dy
If x = a (cos t + t sin t) and y = a (sin t t cos t), 0 < t < 2p , find 2 , 2 and 2 .

3x + 4 1 - x 2

1
a

dy
dx

dy

, find dx

dx2

+x

+y=0

[C.B.S.E. 2009]
[C.B.S.E. 2010]

log x
{log (xe)}2

d2 y
dx2

+ (2x2 1)

dy
dx

=0

[C.B.S.E. 2010]
[C.B.S.E. 2011]

d2y
dx2

+ (2x a)

dy
dx

=0

[C.B.S.E. 2011]

with respect to x.

dt

dt

dx

[C.B.S.E. 2012]
dy (1 + log)2
=
dx
log y

Q.57

If yx = ey x, prove that

Q.58

[C.B.S.E. 2013]
[C.B.S.E. 2013]

2 x +1.3x

sin1 1 + (36)x

Q.59

## Find the value of k, for which

f(x) =

[C.B.S.E. 2013]

1 + kx - 1 - kx
, if - 1 x < 0

2x + 1

,
if 0 x < 1

x -1

is continuous at x = 0.
OR
If x = a cos3 q and y = a sin3 q, then find the value of

d2 y
dx 2

at q =

p
6

www.thinkiit.in

## CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

16

EXERCISE 1 (UNSOLVED PROBLEMS)
3. yes

4. 1/2

5. 4

9. 2/9

10. 3 and 5

## 11. (i) cosec x (ii)

(v)

2( x cos x + sin x)
2

1 - x sin x

(vi)

x +a

6. 8

17. (i)

1- x

7. discontinuous
1

log a x 2 + a2

1
2 x-x

(ii)

## 8. 7/5 and 17/2

5
1 + 25 x

1
2

tan 4 - 2

3
1 + 9x2

(iii) 1 + ( x + x )2
1+ x2

18. (i)

3
2 1- x

-1

(ii) 1

19. 2(1 + x 2 )

20. (i)

-1
2 1- x

(ii)

-2
1+ x2

3.

-2
x2

6. Discontinuous

8. 3,2

1+ x2

1
2

14. 1

15. (i)

19. 1

21.

1+ t2
2at

## 35. continuous 36.

1
,4
2

(ii)

1
2

(iii) 2(1 + x 2 )

23. 8

(iv)

3
2

48.

1- x

25. 1/2

## 44. log cos x - cot y

y - 4x 3 - 4xy 2
2

4x y + 4y - x

50.

(v)

1- x

29. 5

1
2

-1

40.

1- x

(vi)

-1
2 1- x

30. 10

39. (1 + x )2
-1

55. 2(1 + x2 )

3
56. at cos t, at sin t and sec t

at

www.thinkiit.in

x2 + 1
x

18.

- b(1 - t 2 )
2at

41. 1