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CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY


3.1
(a)

BASIC CONCEPTS AND IMPORTANT RESULTS


Continuity of a real function at a point
A function f is said to be left continuous or continuous from the left at x = c iff
(i) f(c) exists

Lt f(x) exists and


(ii) xc
-

Lt f(x) = f(c).
(iii) xc
-

A function f is said to be right continuous or continuous from the right at x = c iff


(i) f(c) exists

Lt f(x) exists and


(ii) xc
+

Lt f(x) = f(c).
(iii) xc
+

A function f is said to be continuous at x = c iff


(i) f(c) exists

(ii) xLt
f(x) exists and
c

(iii) xLt
f(x) = f(c).
c

Hence, a function is continuous at x = c iff it is both left as well as right continuous at x = c.


When xLt
f(x) exists but either f(c) does not exist or xLt
f(x) f(c), we say that f has a
c
c
removable discontinuity; otherwise, we say that f has non-removable discontinuity.
(b)

Continuity of a function in an interval


A function f is said to be continuous in an open interval (a, b) iff f is continuous at every point of the
interval (a, b) ; and f is said to be continuous in the closed interval [a, b] iff f is continuous in the open
interval (a, b) and it is continuous at a from the right and at b from the left.
Continuous function. A function is said to be a continuous function iff it is continuous at every point of its
domain. In particular, if the domain is a closed interval, say [a, b], then f must be continuous in (a, b)
and right continuous at a and left continuous at b.
The set of all point where the function is continuous is called its domain of continuity. The domain of
continuity of a function may be a proper subset of the domain of the function.

3.2

PROPERTIES OF CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS


Property 1. Let f, g be two functions continuous at x = c, then
(i)
af is continuous at x = c, " a R
(ii)
f + g is continuous at x = c
(iii)
f g is continuous at x = c
(iv)
fg is continuous at x = c
(v)

f
g

is continuous at x = c, provided g(c) 0.

Property 2. Let D1 and D2 be the domains of continuity of the functions f and g respectively then
(i)
af is continuous on D1 for all a R
(ii)
f + g is continuous on D1 D2
(iii)
f g is continuous on D1 D2
(iv)
fg is continuous on D1 D2
(v)

f
g

is continuous on D1 D2 except those points where g(x) = 0.

Property 3. A polynomial function is continuous everywhere.


In particular, every constant function and every identity function is continuous.
Property 4. A rational function is continuous at every point of its domain.
Property 5. If f is continuous at c, then | f | is also continuous at x = c.
In particular, the function | x | is continuous for every x R.
Property 6. Let f be a continuous one-one function defined on [a, b] with range [c, d], then the inverse
function f1 : [c, d] [a, b] is continuous on [c, d]
Property 7. If f is continuous at c and g is continuous at f(c), then gof is continuous at c.
Property 8. All the basic trigonometric functions i.e. sin x, cos x, tan x, cot x, sec x and cosec x are
continuous.
Property 9. All basic inverse trigonometric functions i.e. sin1x, cos1x, tan1x, cot1x, sec1x, cosec1 x
are continuous (in their respective domains).
Property 10. Theorem. If a function is differentiable at any point, it is necessarily continuous at that point.
The converse of the above theorem may not be true i.e. a function may be continuous at a point but may
not be derivable at that point.

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2
3.3
(a)

CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY


DERIVATIVE OF VARIOUS FUNCTIONS
Derivative of composite functions
Theorem. If u = g(x) is differentiable at x and y = f(u) is differentiable at u, then y is
dy
dx

differentiable at x and

dy
du

du
dx

If g is differentiable at x and f is differentiable at g(x), then the composite function h(x) = f(g(x)) is
differentiable at x and h(x) = f(g(x)). g(x).
Chain Rule. The above rule is called the chain rule of differentiation, since determining the derivative of
y = f(g(x)) at x involves the following chain of steps :
(i)
First, find the derivative of the outer function f at g(x).
(ii)
Second, find the derivative of the inner function g at x.
(iii)
The product of these two derivatives gives the required derivative of the composite function fog
at x .
(i)

(iii)
(b)

(c)

dy
dx

dy
dx

dy
dt
dx
dt

dx
dy

dx
dt

, provided

0.

(ii)

dx

dy
dx

= dx , provided dy 0.
dy

=1

d
dx

(iv)

(| x |) = | x | , x 0.

Derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions


1

(i)

d
dx

(sin1 x) =

(ii)

d
dx

(cos1 x) =

(iii)

d
dx

(tan1 x) =

(iv)

d
dx

(cot1 x) =

(v)

d
dx

(sec1 x) =

(vi)

d
dx

(cosec1 x) =

1 - x2

, x (1, 1) i.e. | x | < 1

1
1 - x2
1

1+ x2

, x (1, 1) i.e. | x | < 1

, for all x R

1
1+ x2

, for all x R

1
x x2 - 1

,x>1

1
x x2 - 1

,x>1

Derivatives of algebraic and trigonometric functions


(i)

d
dx

(xn) = nxn 1

(ii)

d
dx

(xx) = xx log ex

(iii)

d
dx

(sin x) = cos x

(iv)

d
dx

(cos x) = sin x

(v)

d
dx

(tan x) = sec2 x

(vi)

d
dx

(cot x) = cosec2 x

(vii)

d
dx

(cosec x) = cosec x cot x.

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3
(d)

(e)

CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY


Derivatives of exponential and logarithmic functions
d
dx

(ex) = ex , for all x R

(vi)

d
dx

(loga | x |) = x log a , x 0, a > 0, a 1.

(ii)

d
dx

(ax) = ax log a, a > 0, a 1, x R (v)

d
dx

(log | x |) =

(iii)

d
dx

(log x) =

d
dx

(loga x) = x log a , x > 0, a > 0, a 1

1
,x>0
x

(iv)

d
dx

(un) = un

d
dx

(n log u).

Derivatives of functions in parametric form


If x and y are two variables such that both are explicitly expressed in terms of a third variable, say t, i.e.
if x = f(t) and y = g(t), then such functions are called parametric functions and
dy
dx

(g)

1
,x0
x

Logarithmic differentiation
If u, n are differentiable functions of x, then

(f)

(i)

dy
dt
dx
dt

, provided

dx
dt

0.

Derivative of second order


If a function f is differentiable at a point x, then its derivative f is called the first derivative or derivative of
first order of the function f. If f is further differentiable at the same point x, then its derivative is called the
second derivative or derivative of the second order of f at that point and is denoted by f.
If the function f is defined by y = f(x), then its first and second derivatives are denoted by f (x) and f(x)
or by

dy
dx

and

d2 y
dx2

or by y1 and y2 or by y and y respectively..

3.4
(i)

ROLLES THEOREM AND LAGRANGES MEAN VALUE THEOREM


Rolles theorem
If a function f is
(i)
continuous in the closed interval [a, b]
(ii)
derivable in the open interval (a, b) and
(iii)
f(a) = f(b),
then there exists atleast one real number c in (a, b) such that f(c) = 0.
Thus converse of Rolles theorem may not be true.

(ii)

Lagranges mean value theorem


If a function f is
(i)
continuous in the closed interval [a, b] and
(ii)
derivable in the open interval (a, b),
then there exists atleast one real number c in (a, b) such that f (c) =
The converse of Lagranges mean value theorem may not be true.

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f (b) - f (a)
b-a

CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

SOLVED PROBLESM
Ex.1
Sol.

Is the function defined by f(x) = x2 sin x + 5 continuous at x = p ?


Here, f(p) = (p)2 sin p 5 = p2 5
lim

x p +

lim
2
f(x)= hlim
0 f(p+h)= h 0 [(p+h) sin(p+h)5]
2
2
= hlim
0 [(p + h) + sin h 5] = p 5

lim
lim
2
and x lim
p - f(x)= h 0 f(ph) = h 0 [(ph) sin (ph)5]
2
2
= hlim
0 [(p h) sin h 5] = p 5

f(x) = x lim
Since, xlim
p - f(x) = f(p),
p +
the function f is continuous at x = p.
Ex.2 Discuss the continuity of the cosine, cosecant, secant and cotangent functions.
Sol. Continuity of f(x) = cos x
Let a be an arbitrary point of the domain of the function f(x) = cos x.
Then, f (a) = cos a
lim

x a +

lim
f(x) = hlim
0 f(a + h) = h 0 cos (a + h)

= hlim
0 [cos a cos h sin a sin h]
= cos a 1 sin a 0 = cos a
and

lim

x a -

lim
f(x) = hlim
0 f(a h) = h 0 cos (a h)

= hlim
0 [cos a cos h + sin a sin h]
= cos a 1 + sin a 0 = cos a
lim
Since, x lim
a + f(x) = x a - f(x)=f(a), the function is continuous at x = a.

As a is an arbitrary point of the domain, the function is continuous on the domain of the functions,
Proceed as above and prove yourself the continuity of other trigonometric
Ex.3

Find all points of discontinuity of f, where


sinx

, if x < 0

f(x) = x

x + 1 , if x 0

Sol.

The point of discontinuity of f can at most be x = 0.


Let us examine the continuity of f at x = 0.
lim
lim
Here, x lim
0 + f(x)= h 0 f(0+h)= h 0 [(0+h)+1]=1

and

lim

x 0 -

lim sin( 0 - h) = lim - sinh = 1


f(x) = hlim
0 f(0 h) = h 0
h 0

0 -h

-h

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CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

5
Also, f(0) = 0 + 1 = 1
Since,

lim

x 0 +

f(x) = x lim
0 - f(x) = f(0), f is continuous at x = 0.

Hence, there is no point of discontinuity of f.


Ex.4

Determine if f defined by
1
2
x sin , if x 0
x
0,
if x = 0

f(x) =

Sol.

is a continuous function.
It is sufficient to examine the continuity of the function f at x = 0.
Here f (0) = 0
Also,

lim

x 0 +

f(x) = hlim
0 f(0 + h)

lim h2 sin 1 = 0
(0 + h)2 sin
= hlim
=

0
h
0
0 + h
h

and

lim

x 0 -

f(x) = hlim
0 f(0 h)

1
1 lim 2

(0 - h)2 sin
= 0
h sin
= hlim
=
0
0 - h h 0
- h

1
Q sin 1
h

lim
Hence, x lim
0 + f(x) = x 0 - f(x) = f(0)

Ex.5

So, f is continuous at x = 0
This implies that f is a continuous function at all x R.
Examine the continuity of f, where f is defined by
sin x - cos x , if x 0
if x = 0

f(x) = - 1,
Sol.

Here, f(0) = 1

lim
lim
Also, x lim
0 + f(x)= h 0 f(0+h)= h 0 [sin(0+h)cos(0+h)]

= hlim
0 [sin h cos h] = 1
lim
lim
and x lim
0 - f(x)= h 0 f(0h)= h 0 [sin(0h)cos(0h)]

= hlim
0 [sin h cos h]

[Q sin (h) = sin h]

= 0 1 = 1

and cos (h) = cos h]

lim
Hence, x lim
0 + f(x) = x 0 - f(x) = f(0)

So, f is continuous at x = 0; and hence continuous at all x R.


Ex.6

Find the value of k so that the following function f is continuous at the indicated point :
kx + 1 , if x 5

(i)

f(x) = 3 x - 5 , if x > 5 at x = 5

(ii)

2
f(x) = kx , if x 2 at x = 2
3 ,

if x > 2

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6
Sol.

(i)

CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY


Since f is given to be continuous at x = 5, we have
lim

x 5 +

f(x) = x lim
5 - f(x) = f(5)

lim

= hlim
0 f(5 h) = f(5)

h 0 f(5 + h)

h 0 [3(5+h)5]= h 0

10 = 5k + 1

(ii)

Since f is given to be continuous at x = 2, we have

lim

lim

lim

x 2+

[k(5h)+1] = 5k + 1

k=

9
5

f(x) = x lim
2- f(x) = f(2)

lim

h 0 f(2 + h)

h 0 (3)

lim

= hlim
0 f(2 h) = f(2)

2
= hlim
0 [k(2 h) ] = 4k

3 = 4k

k=

3
4

Ex.7 Find the values of a and b such that the function defined by
5,

if x 2

21,

if x 10

f(x) = ax + b, if 2 < x 10
Sol.

is a continuous function.
Since the function f is continuous, it is continuous at x = 2 as well as at x = 10.
lim

f(x) = x lim
2- f(x) = f(2)

So,

x 2+

i.e.,

h 0 f(2 + h)

i.e.,
and

lim

= hlim
0 f(2 h) = f(2)

2a + b = 5 (......1)
lim

x 10 +

lim
f(x) = x 10
- f(x) = f(10)

lim
i.e., hlim
0 f(10 + h) = h 0 f(10 h) = f(10)

i.e., 21 = 10a + b
(......2)
From (1) and (2), we find that
a = 2 and b = 1
Ex.8 Show that the function defined by
g( x) = x [ x] is dis con tin uou s at all integral points. Here, [x] denotes the greatest
integer less than or equal to x.
Sol. The function f(x) = x [x] can be written as
x - (k - 1), if k - 1 < x < k
if k < x < k + 1, where k is an arbitrary integer..

f(x) = x - k,

lim
lim
Now, x lim
k + f(x)= h 0 f(k + h)= h 0 [(k+h) k]=0
lim
lim
and x lim
k - f(x)= h 0 f(kh)= h 0 [(kh) (k1)]=1

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CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

lim
Since, x lim
k + f(x) x k - f(x), the function f is not continuous at x = k.

Since k is an arbitrary integer, we can easily conclude that the function is discontinuous at all integral
points.
Ex.9

Verify LMV Theorem for the function


3
f(x) = x + 2, when x 1 on [ -1, 2 ].
3x

Sol.

, when x > 1

Both x3 + 2 and 3x are polynomial functions. So, f (x) is continuous and differentiable everywhere except
at x = 1.
Here,

lim f ( x ) = 3.1 = 3

x 1+

lim f ( x ) = 13 + 2 = 3

x 1-

As
lim f(x) = lim f(x) = f(1),f(x) iscontinuous
at x =1.

x1+

x1-

Obviously, then f(x) is continuous on [1, 2]. Again to test the differentiability of f(x) at x = 1, we have
3
3
f ( x ) - f (1)
lim ( x + 2) - (1 + 2)
L f (1) = xlim
=
1
x 1

x -1

x -1

x3 - 1
2
= xlim
= xlim
11- (x + x + 1) = 3
x -1

f ( x ) - f (1)
R f (1) = xlim
1+
x -1

3 x - 3.1
= xlim
1+

= xlim
1+ (3) = 3

x -1

As L f (1) = R f (1), the function f (x) is differentiable at x = 1. Hence, f is differentiable in (1, 2).
Thus, both the conditions required for the applicability of the LMV Theorem are satisfied and
hence, there exists at least one c (1, 2) such that
f (c) =

f (2) - f (-1)
2 - ( -1)

f (c) =

6 -1
3

5
3

Now, in x > 1, f (x) = 3. So, f (c) cannot be


In x 1.

5
3

in this interval.

f (x) = 3x2
f (c) = 3c2

Obviously, 3c2 =
Both

5
3

5
3

and

gives c2 =
5
3

5
9

or c =

5
3

lie in (1, 2). Thus, LMV is verified for f(x) and [1, 2].

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CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY


8
Ex.10 Verify Rolles theorem for the function f (x) = x (x 3)2 in the closed interval 0 x 3.
Sol.

(i)

Here,

f(x) = x (x 3)2
= x (x2 6x + 9) = x3 6x2 + 9x

Since f(x) is a polynomial function of x, it is continuous in [0, 3]


(ii)

f (x) = 3x2 12x + 9


exists uniquely in the open interval (0, 3)

(iii)

f(0) = (0)3 6(0)2 + 9(0) = 0 0 + 0 = 0


f(3) = (3)2 6(3)2 + 9(3) = 27 54 + 27 = 0

f(0) = f(3)
Thus, all the three conditions are satisfied, Hence, Rolles Theorem is applicable.
Let us now solve
i.e.

f (c) = 0

3c 12c + 9 = 0
2

3(c2 4c + 3) = 0
(c 3) (c 1) = 0
c = 3, 1
SInce, c = 1 (0, 3), the Rolles Theorem is verified for the function.
f(x) = x(x 3)2 in the closed interval [0, 3].
Ex.11 Verify Rolles Theorem for the function f(x) = (x a)m (x b)n in [a, b] ; m, n being positive
integers.
Sol.

Here, f(x) is a polynomial function of degree (m + n). So, it is a continuous function in [a, b].
f (x) = (x a)m 1 (x b)n 1 [m (x b) + n (x a)] exists uniquely in (a, b). So, it is derivable m (a, b).
Further, f(a) = 0 and f(b) = 0. So, f(a) = f(b)
Thus, all the three conditions of Rolles Theorem are satisfied. Hence, Rolles Theorem is applicable.
Let us now solve f (c) = 0
(ca)m 1 (c b)n 1 [m (c b) + n (ca)] = 0
Since c =

mb + na
m+n

c = a or c = b or c =

mb + na
m+n

(a, b), the Rolles Theorem is verified.


1 + x, if x 2

Ex.12 Show that the function f(x) = 5 - x , if x > 2 is continuous at x = 2, but not differentiable at x = 2.
Sol.

At x = 2,
lim

lim
f(x) = hlim
0 f(2 + h) = h 0 [5(2+ h)] = 3

lim

lim
f(x) = hlim
0 f(2 h) = h 0 [1+(2h)] = 3

x 2+
x 2-

Also,
Since,

f(2) = 1 + 2 = 3
lim

x 2+

f(x) = x lim
2- f(x) = f(2), f(x) is continuous at x = 2.

f (2 - h) - f (2)
Next, Lf (2) = hlim
0
-h

(1 + 2 - h) - (1 + 2)
= hlim
=1
0 =
-h

Rf (2)= hlim
0

f (2 + h) - f ( 2) lim 5 - (2 + h) - (1 + 2)
= h0 =
h
h

= 1

Since, Lf (2) Rf (2), the function f is not differentiable at x = 2.

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CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

9
1 - x,

if x < 1

Ex.13 Show that the function f(x) = x2 - 1, if x 1 is continuous at x = 1, but not differentiable

Sol.

thereat.
The function is continuous at x = 1, because
lim

x 1+

f(x) = xlim
1- f(x) = f(1) as shown below :

lim

lim
lim
2
2
f(x) = hlim
0 f(1 + h) = h 0 [(1 + h) 1] = h 0 (h + 2h) = 0 ;

lim

lim
lim
f(x) = hlim
0 f(1 h) = h 0 [1 (1 h)] = h 0 (h) = 0

x 1+
x 1-

and

f(1) = (1)2 1 = 1 1 = 0

f (1 + h) - f (1)
Further,Rf (1) = hlim
0
h

[(1 + h ) 2 - 1] - [0 ]
= hlim
=2
0
h

f(1 - h) - f(1)
[(1 - h ) 2 - 1] - [0 ]
= hlim
Lf (1) = hlim
0
0
h

h
lim

= hlim
0 - h = h 0 (1) = 1
Since, Rf (1) Lf (1), the function is not differentiable at x = 1.
Ex.14 Show that the function f defined as

3x - 2, if 0 < x 1

f(x) = 2x2 - x, if 1 < x 1


5 x - 4, if x > 2

is continuous at x = 2, but not differentiable thereat.


Sol.

lim
lim
At x=2, x lim
2+ f(x)= h 0 f(2+h)= h 0 [5(2+h)4]=6

lim

x 2-

lim
2
f(x) = hlim
0 f(2h)= h 0 [2(2h) (2h)]

2
= hlim
0 [2(4 4h + h ) (2 h)]
2
= hlim
0 [6 7h + 2h ] = 6

and

f(2) = 2 (2)2 2 = 8 2 = 6

lim
Since x lim
2+ f(x) = x 2- f(x)=f(2), the function f is continuous at x = 2.
f (2 - h) - f (2)
Next, Lf (2) = hlim
0
-h

2(2 - h)2 - ( 2 - h) - [5(2) - 4]


6 - 7h + 2h2 - 6
= hlim
=
=7
0
-h

-h

f (2 + h) - f (2)
[5(2 + h) - 4] - [5(2) - 4]
[5(2 + h) - 4] - [5(2) - 4]
= hlim
= hlim
f (2) = hlim
0
0
0
h

6 + 5h - 6
= hlim
=5
0
h

Since, Lf (2) = Rf (2), the function f is not differentiable at x = 2.

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CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

10

UNSOLVED PROBLEMS
EXERCISE I
1
e x -1

, when x 0
1
ex +1
0
, when x = 0

Q.1

Show that the function f(x) =

Q.2

Show that the function f(x) = x sin x , when x 0

Q.3

Is the following function continuous at the origin ?

f(0) =
Q.4

Q.5

Q.6

f(x) =

cos ax - cos bx
x2
b2 - a2
2

is continuous at x = 0

, when x = 0

, when x 0

, when x = 0

If the function defined by f(x) =

if f(x) =

is discontinuous at x = 0.

cos2 x - sin 2 x - 1
,

x2 + 1 - 1

k
,

ex - 1

, when x 0
log(1 + 2x)
k,
when x = 0

when x 0

is continuous at x = 0, find k.

when x = 0

Determine the value of k so that the function f(x) =

1 - cos 4x ,
when x < 0

x2

k
,
when x = 0 is continuous at x = 0.

x
, when x > 0

16 + x - 4

Q.7

Discuss the continuity of the function f(x) at x = 0 if f(x) =

Q.8

Let f(x) = ax + b, if 3 < x < 5

2, if x 3

a , if x 5

is continuous at x = 0, find the value of k.

x- | x |

, when x 0
2
2
, when x = 0

find the value of a and b, so that f(x) is continuous.


x -1

, x 1
2x 2 - 7 x + 5

-1

, x =1

at x = 1

Q.9

Find the derivative of f(x) =

Q.10

Find the value of a and b, so that the function f(x) = bx + 2

Q.11

Differentiate the following w.r.t x :

Q.12

x 2 + 3x + a , if x 1
is differentiable at each x R.
, if x > 1

1 - cos x
1 + cos x

(i)

log

(iv)

x
x

log sin + cos

(i)

If y =

1- x
1+ x

(ii)

loga x + x 2 + a2

(v)

, prove that (1 x2)

dy
dx

1 + x sin x

1 - x sin x

log

+y=0

www.thinkiit.in

(iii)

log (sec x + tan x)

(vi)

log

2
x +a +x
2
2

x +a -x

CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

11

Q.13

(ii)

2
x +1+ x -1
, prove that dy = x + x - 1
If y =

(iii)

If y =

(iv)

If y =

(i)

, show that 2x
If y = x +
+ y = 2 x (ii)
x
dx

x +1 - x -1
cos x + sin x
cos x - sin x

dx

dy
dx

, show that

sec x + tan x
sec x - tan x
1

p
4

= sec2 x +

dy
dx

, show that

x -1

= sec x (sec x + tan x)

dy

If y = x sin y, prove that x

dy
dx

y
(1 - x cos y )

(iii)
Q.14

If y = x + x + x + ........ , prove that

Q.15

Given that cos

Q.16

If x = tan1

Q.17

Differentiate : (i)
(iii)

-1

dy

If x 1+ y + y 1+ x = 0, prove that
= (1 + x )2 , x y
dx

x
2

2t
1- t

. cos

x
4

. cos

and y = sin1

......=
2t

1+ t2

= ( 2y - 1)

1
sin x
, prove that 2
x
2
dy
dx

, show that

sec2

x + 3x + 3

+ tan1

2
1- x

tan1

(ii)

x
2

x + 5x + 7

+ tan1

1
2

+ tan1
2
1+ 1- x

(ii)

3 cos x - 4 sin x

Differentiate : sin1
2
1+ x

Q.20

Differentiate : (i)

Q.21

Discuss the continuity of the function f(x) = 2x + 1, if x 0

Q.22

If a function f(x) is defined as f(x) = x - 4

Q.23
Q.24

Discuss the continuity of the function f(x) = | x | + |x 1| in the interval [1, 2]


Show that f(x) = | x | is not differential at x = 1.

Q.25

Let f(x) = 2 - x , if x < 0 , show that f(x) is not derivable at x = 0.

Q.26

2x

cos1

Q.19

x2

+ ............ to n terms.

Differentiate : (i)

1 + 15 x

tan1

Q.18

x
4

sec2 + ......= cosec2x

= 1.

sin1 x 1 - x + x 1 - x 2

x + x + 1

tan1

x
8

dy
dx

1 + x2 - 1

.
x

+ tan1

1 + x + 1- x
2

sin1

(ii)

-1

x-x
cos1
-1
x+x

2x - 1, if x < 0

| x-4|

, x4
0

, x=4

show that f is everywhere continuous except at x = 4.

2 + x , if x 0

Show that the function f(x) =

2 1
x sin , if x 0

x
0
, if x = 0

is differential at x = 0 and f (0) = 0.

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CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

12

BOARD PROBLES
EXERCISE II
dy
dx

log x

Q.1

If xy = ex y, prove that

Q.2

If xp yq = (x + y)p + q, prove that

Q.3

Find

Q.4

If y = ae2x + bex, prove that

Q.5

If y = A cos nx + B sin nx show that

Q.6

Discuss the continuity of the function f(x) at x = 0 if f(x) = 2x + 1 , x 0

[C.B.S.E. 2002]

Q.7

Show that the function f(x) = 2x | x | is continuous at x = 0.

[C.B.S.E. 2002]

Q.8

If the function f(x) = 11

(1 + log x )2

dy
dx

y
x

[C.B.S.E. 2000]

[C.B.S.E. 2000]

d2 y

x
when y = log x .

dx2

[C.B.S.E. 2000]

d2 y
dx

dy
dx

2y = 0.

d2 y
dx2

[C.B.S.E. 2000]

+ n2y = 0.

[C.B.S.E. 2001]
2 x - 1 , x < 0

3ax + b

, x >1
, x = 1 is continuous. at x = 1, find the values of a and b.
5ax - 2b , x < 1

[C.B.S.E. 2002]
1 - sin 2x
1 + sin 2x

dy
dx

+ sec2 4 - x = 0.

Q.9

If y =

Q.10

dy

p x
If y = log tan + , show that
sec x = 0.

Q.11

, prove that

[C.B.S.E. 2002]
[C.B.S.E. 2002]

dx

Verify Lagranges mean value theorem for the following functions in the given intervals.
[C.B.S.E. 2002]
Also find c of this theorem : (i) f(x)=x2 +x1 in [0, 4] (ii) f(x)= x 2 - 4 on [2, 4]

Q.12

If y = ex (sin x + cos x), prove that

Q.13

Differentiate the following w.r.t. x

d2 y
dx2

dy
dx

1 - cos x

(ii)
dy
dx

Q.14

If x = a(t + sin t), y = a(1 cos t), find

Q.15

Differentiate the following functions w.r.t x :


1 + sin x

at t =

1 - sin x

(i) tan1 1 - sin x . (ii) cot1 1 + sin x

5x + 12 1 - x 2

13

(iv) sin

[C.B.S.E. 2002]
[C.B.S.E. 2003]

(i) log 1 + cos x

+ 2y = 0.

(v) tan

log (x + 1+ x 2 )

p
.
2

[C.B.S.E. 2003]
[C.B.S.E. 2004]
(iii)

2
2
1+ x - 1 - x

2
2
1 + x + 1- x

1 + x 2 - 1
tan1

1+ x - 1 - x

(vi) tan1 1 + x + 1 - x

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CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

13
x
x
a2

sin -1
a2 - x 2 +
2
2
2

d
dx

= a2 - x 2 .

Q.16

Prove that

Q.17

If y = (sin x)x + (cos x)tan x, find

Q.18

Find

Q.19

Differentiate tan1

Q.20

If f(x) =

Q.21

Find

Q.22

x
d2 y
1
If y = x log a + bx , prove that 2 =

x
dx

Q.23

dy
dx

, when x = a

1- t2
1+ t

2x

1 - x2

3+ x

1+ x

dy
dx

[C.B.S.E. 2004]

dy
dx

,y=

[C.B.S.E. 2004]
2bt

[C.B.S.E. 2004]

1+ t2
2x
.
1 + x2

w.r.t. sin1

[C.B.S.E. 2004]

2 + 3x

, find f (0).

[C.B.S.E. 2005]

1 + t2
2t

if : x = a
2 , y=
2
1- t

[C.B.S.E. 2005]

1- t

If the function f defined by f(x) =

a + bx

1 - cos 4x
, x<0

x2

a
, x =0

, x>0
16 + x - 4

[C.B.S.E. 2005]

is continuous at x = 0, find the value of a.

[C.B.S.E. 2006]
1

If y = x +

Q.25

Differentiate w.r.t. x : tan1

1 + sin x - 1 - sin x

Q.26

If y x 2 + 1 = log ( x 2 + 1 x), prove that (x2 + 1)


+ xy + 1 = 0.
dx

Q.27

If x = a sin 2t (1 + cos 2t) and y = b cos 2t (1 cos 2t), show that

, then show that 2x

dy
dx

Q.24

+y=2 x .

[C.B.S.E. 2006]

1 + sin x + 1 - sin x

[C.B.S.E. 2006]
dy

[C.B.S.E. 2006]

b
dy
=

p
dx
a
t =

[C.B.S.E. 2006]
d2 y

Q.28

If y = cosec x + cot x, show that sin x .

Q.29

Verify LMV ; find c f(x) = x2 + 2x + 3 in [4, 6]


x 2 - 25

, x5
x-5

k
, x =5

Q.30

If f(x) =

Q.31

If y = 3e2x + 2e3x, prove that

Q.32

If y = A emx + B enx, prove that

dx2

= y2.

[C.B.S.E. 2006]
[C.B.S.E. 2006]

is continuous at x = 5, find the value of k.


d2 y
dx

d2 y
dx2

dy
dx

+ 6y = 0.

(m + n)

dy
dx

+ mny = 0.

www.thinkiit.in

[C.B.S.E. 2007]

[C.B.S.E. 2007]
[C.B.S.E. 2007]

CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

14
d2 y

dy
dx

Q.33

If y = sin (log x), prove that x2

Q.34

For what value of k is the following function continuous at x = 2 ?

dx

+x

+ y = 0.

[C.B.S.E. 2007]

2x + 1 , x < 2

k , x=2
3 x - 1 , x > 2

f(x) =
Q.35

Discuss the continuity of the following function at x = 0 :


f(x) =

Q.36

Q.37

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

x 4 + 2x3 + x 2

, x0
.

tan-1 x

0
, x =0

1 - sin 3 x

3 cos2 x

a
Let f(x) =

b(1 - sin x )
( p - 2x )2

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

p
2
p
p
, if x = . If f(x) be a continuous function at x = , find a and b.
2
2
p
, if x >
2
, if x <

[C.B.S.E. 2008]
If f(x), defined by the following, is continuous at x = 0, find the values of a, b and c.

f(x) =

sin( a + 1)x + sin x


, if x < 0

c
, if x = 0

2
x + bx - x
, if x > 0

bx 3 / 2

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

ny

dy

Q.38

=
If y = (x + x 2 + a 2 )n, prove that
dx

Q.39

If x 1 + y + y 1 + x = 0 , find

Q.40

If y = x 2 + 1 log x + 1 +

Q.41

If x = a cos q + log tan and y = a sin q, find the value of

Q.42

If y = (log (x + x 2 + 1 ))2, show that (1 + x2)

Q.43

If sin y = x sin (a + y), prove that

Q.44

If (cos x)y = (sin y)x, find

Q.45

If y =

Q.46

Differentiate the following function w.r.t. x : xsin x + (sin x)cos x

x + a2

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

1
dy
2 , find
dx
x

[C.B.S.E. 2008]

q
2

sin -1 x
1- x

dy
dx

dy
dx

dy
dx

d2 y
dx2

+x

dy
dx

dy
dx

at q =

2 = 0.

sin 2 (a + y )
.
sin a

, show that (1 x2)

p
.
4

[C.B.S.E. 2008]
[C.B.S.E. 2008]
[C.B.S.E. 2009]
[C.B.S.E. 2009]

d2 y
dx

3x

dy
dx

y=0

www.thinkiit.in

[C.B.S.E. 2009]
[C.B.S.E. 2009]

CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

15
sin x sin x + cos x log x

Q.47 x

Q.48 Find

dy
dx

+ (sin x)

cos x

(cos x cot x sin x logsin x)

[C.B.S.E. 2009]

if (x2 + y2)2 = xy..

[C.B.S.E. 2009]
d2 y

dy
dx

Q.49

If y = 3 cos (log x) + 4 sin (log x), then show that x2 .

Q.50

If y = cos1

Q.51

If y = cosec1 x, x > 1, then show that x (x2 1)

Q.52

If xy = ex y, show that

Q.53

If x = tan log y , show that (1 + x2)

Q.54

dy
y
=- .
If x = asin-1 t , y = acos-1 t , show that
dx
x

[C.B.S.E. 2012]

Q.55

Differentiate tan1

1 + x2 - 1

[C.B.S.E. 2012]

Q.56

2
2
2
dy
dx dy
If x = a (cos t + t sin t) and y = a (sin t t cos t), 0 < t < 2p , find 2 , 2 and 2 .

3x + 4 1 - x 2

1
a

dy
dx

dy

, find dx

dx2

+x

+y=0

[C.B.S.E. 2009]
[C.B.S.E. 2010]

log x
{log (xe)}2

d2 y
dx2

+ (2x2 1)

dy
dx

=0

[C.B.S.E. 2010]
[C.B.S.E. 2011]

d2y
dx2

+ (2x a)

dy
dx

=0

[C.B.S.E. 2011]

with respect to x.

dt

dt

dx

[C.B.S.E. 2012]
dy (1 + log)2
=
dx
log y

Q.57

If yx = ey x, prove that

Q.58

Differentiate the following with respect to x :

[C.B.S.E. 2013]
[C.B.S.E. 2013]

2 x +1.3x

sin1 1 + (36)x

Q.59

Find the value of k, for which

f(x) =

[C.B.S.E. 2013]

1 + kx - 1 - kx
, if - 1 x < 0

2x + 1

,
if 0 x < 1

x -1

is continuous at x = 0.
OR
If x = a cos3 q and y = a sin3 q, then find the value of

d2 y
dx 2

at q =

p
6

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CONTINUTITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY

16

ANSWER KEY
EXERCISE 1 (UNSOLVED PROBLEMS)
3. yes

4. 1/2

5. 4

9. 2/9

10. 3 and 5

11. (i) cosec x (ii)

(v)

2( x cos x + sin x)
2

1 - x sin x

(vi)

x +a

6. 8

17. (i)

1- x

7. discontinuous
1

(iii) sec x (iv)

log a x 2 + a2

1
2 x-x

(ii)

8. 7/5 and 17/2

5
1 + 25 x

1
2

tan 4 - 2

3
1 + 9x2

(iii) 1 + ( x + x )2
1+ x2

18. (i)

3
2 1- x

-1

(ii) 1

19. 2(1 + x 2 )

20. (i)

-1
2 1- x

(ii)

-2
1+ x2

EXERCISE 2 (BOARD PROBLEMS)


3.

-2
x2

6. Discontinuous

8. 3,2

11. (i) 2 (ii) 6

13. (i) cosec x (ii)

1+ x2

1
2

14. 1

15. (i)

19. 1

21.

1+ t2
2at

35. continuous 36.

1
,4
2

(ii)

1
2

(iii) 2(1 + x 2 )

23. 8

(iv)

3
2

log sin y + y tan x

48.

1- x

25. 1/2

37. , any real number,

44. log cos x - cot y

y - 4x 3 - 4xy 2
2

4x y + 4y - x

50.

(v)

1- x

29. 5

1
2

-1

40.

1- x

(vi)

-1
2 1- x

30. 10

39. (1 + x )2
-1

55. 2(1 + x2 )

3
56. at cos t, at sin t and sec t

at

www.thinkiit.in

x2 + 1
x

18.

- b(1 - t 2 )
2at

32. 5/2 34. 5

41. 1