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# September 7, 2011

## Prepared by: Prof Mah ElEl-Gammal

Presentation 6

Renewable Energy :
Wind Energy

Lecturer Schedule:

7th Week

## 6th Week is left for 1st Mid Term exam

September 7, 2011

## 1. WIND POWER - What is it?

2. Kinetic Energy of Air
3. Usable Wind Power
Power:: Betzs law
4. Electric Power Generation

## 5. Probability Density Function of Wind Speed for Particular Site

6. Small Wind Turbine Applications
7. On & Off Shore Wind Farms
8. Solved Problems
September 7, 2011

## The warm air over the land

expands and rises, and the
heavier, cooler air rushes in to
take its place, creating winds.

In the same way, the large atmospheric winds that circle the
earth are created because the land near the earth's equator is
heated more by the sun than the land near the North and South
Poles.

## Differential heating of the earths surface and atmosphere

induces vertical and horizontal air currents that are affected by
the earths rotation and contours of the land WIND ( e.g.:
Land Sea Breeze Cycle).

September 7, 2011

from the sun.

## The earth receives 1.74 x 1017 watts of

power (per hour) from the sun.

## About one or 2 percent of this energy is converted to wind energy

(which is about 50-100 times more than the energy converted to
biomass by all plants on earth)

September 7, 2011

## Kinetic Energy of Air

m : mass of air

KE 21 m v2

v : speed of wind

m volume

A : sweep area
: air density (kg/m3)
t : time

A v t

## Upstream wind Power (Ptotal) in W :

KE 1
Ptotal
2 A v3
t
Air Power Density in

September 7, 2011

W/m2

Ptotal 1
=
2 v3
A

## Temperature correction for air density

When wind power data are presented, it is often assumed that the air
density is 1.225 kg/m3; that is, it is assumed that air temperature is 15oC

from:

(in kg / m )

R ( t o C 273)

28.97

## Ideal gas constant = 8.205610-5

For Example

September 7, 2011

at 30o C

## 1 atm 28.97 103

8.2056 105 30 273

1.165 kg / m 2

## Altitude correction for air density

If Po is the reference atmospheric (at sea level), then the air pressure at
altitude of H meters is calculated from:

P Po e

September 7, 2011

1.18510 4 H

1(atm) e

1.18510 4 H

Wind power
al v3

## higher wind power

Impact:
wind speed is greatly affected by the
friction that the air experiences as it moves
across the earths surface

September 7, 2011

## How to characterize the impact of the roughness of the earths

surface on wind speed?
USA standards
V

Vo

H

Ho

3
1
P 2 A V V

V
3
1
P
o 2 A Vo o

## Vo is the wind speed at height Ho (often a reference height of 10 m)

September 7, 2011

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## How to characterize the impact of the roughness of the earths

surface on wind speed?
European standards
V

Vo

ln H

z

ln H o
z

September 7, 2011

## Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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Wind Turbine
Rotating

Gear box

Housing
Generator

Tower

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## Schematic of Wind Plant

September 7, 2011

## Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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Speed Control
1. No speed control
The turbine, the electrical generator, and the entire system is
designed to withstand the extreme speed under gusty wind.
2. Yaw and tilt control
The rotor axis is shifted out of the wind direction when the wind
speed exceeds the design limit.
3. Pitch control
It changes the pitch of the blade with the changing wind speed to
regulate the rotor speed.
4. Stall control

When the wind speed exceeds the safe limit on the system, the
blades are shifted into a position such that they stall. The turbine
has to be restarted after the gust has gone.

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## Usable Wind Power : Betzs law

The power extracted by a blades expressed as a
fraction of the upstream wind power as follow

## P Upstream Wind Power (Ptotal ) cp

21 A v3 cp
Cp = Rotor blade & rotor mechanism efficiency (fraction of the

## upstream wind power)

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## Electric Power Generation

The electric power generation from the usable wind
power is

Pe P g m 21 A v3 cp g m

Generator efficiency

## Efficiency of gear box

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Turbine Rating

Pe al d 2 v3
Rotor
diameter

Wind
speed

SRC

Rotor swept area

## For the 300/30 wind turbine:

300 kW electrical generator and 30-meter diameter turbine
SRC 30

September 7, 2011

0
.
42
kW
/
m
152

## Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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0.12
0.10
0.08

Probability density

## Probability Density Function

Of
Wind Speed for Particular Site

## Mean Speed (8 to 15 m/s)

Mean Speed (8 to 15 m/s)

0.06

## Cut out Speed

0.04
0.02

Cut in Speed

September 7, 2011

## Wind speed m/s

0 2 4 6

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

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## Wind power density function

Ptotal 21 A V 3

Power density

Working range
upstream wind power input

## Usable wind power

Electric power output

Pe 21 A v3 cp g m
Wind speed m/s
0

10

15

20

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## Betz Limit : Theoretical maximum energy extraction from wind = 59.3%

September 7, 2011

## Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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September 7, 2011

## Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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Power Coefficient Cp

50

600

44
40

400

30
20

200

10

0
0

10

15

20

## The power coefficient curve

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10

15

20

wind turbine

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## 1. Wind Home Systems

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## Small Wind Turbine Applications

2)

Wind-Electric Pumping-Systems

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## On Shore Wind Farms

Wind Plants of California's Tehachapi Pass

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## On Shore Wind Farms

NORDTANK Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark

September 7, 2011

## Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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Solved Problems : P1
Data:
Wind speed = 10 m/s
Air pressure = 1 atm

## Air temperature = 15oC

Turbine diameter = 120 m

## Turbine efficiency = 40%

Requirements Total power density (in W/m2) in the wind stream , developed
mechanical torque (in N) and electrical output power (W)

p
R T

## : is the air density in Kg/m3

T: is the temperature in oK

## R: is the gas constant in J/(Kg oK

1.01325 105

1.226Kg / m3
287 (15 273)

September 7, 2011

## Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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Solved Problems : P1
The total power density of wind stream (in W/m2) =

Ptotal 1 3 1
2 V 2 1.226 (10)3 613W / m2
A
The total produced mechanical power (Pm) =

Ptotal
d2
1202
m 4 613x0.40 4 2773.2 kW
A
The total electric power output (Pe) =

Pm g 2773.2x0.85 2357.2 kW
Developed mechanical torque (Tm) =
3
1
Pm 2 AV m 1 DV 3 m 1 1.226 120 (10)3 0.40
Tm

8
8
11034 N.m
40
n

D n 60
60
60

September 7, 2011

## Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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Solved Problems : P2
Data:
Daily wind velocity distribution may be approximated by half a sine wave with a
maximum velocity =12 m/s
Turbine-generator overall efficiency is assumed, for simplicity, constant at 25%
Wind (or air) density = 1.22 kg/m3
Turbine diameter = 30 m

Requirements

velocity in m/s

## The generated electric power

Pe () 21 AV()3 ov erall
Pe ()

2
1 1.22 (30)
2
4

## V()3 0.25 107.8 V()3 W

Pe () 0.1078 V()3 KW

September 7, 2011

## Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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V()

Solved Problems : P2

12

## The wind velocity V() in m/s at any

hour during a day is:
V()

Vm sin(
)
24

0
0

## day E (in KWh) is calculated as:

12

16

20

24

24
3

24
E 0.1078 (12)
sin 24 d 186.28
sin2
d cos

24
24
0
0
24
(1423.06)
1 cos2
d cos

24
24
0

3 24

cos
24

24
(1423.06)) cos

24 0
3

0
3

24

in hours

(1423.06)) 2 23 1897.42KWh
September 7, 2011

## Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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Solved Problems : P2

The mean wind energy velocity Vav (in m/s) is then obtained as:
24

d
Vm sin
24

Vav

September 7, 2011

24

24
12 24

cos

24

24

12 24
2

24

7.64m / s

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