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September 7, 2011

Prepared by: Prof Mah ElEl-Gammal

Presentation 6

Renewable Energy :
Wind Energy

Lecturer Schedule:

7th Week

6th Week is left for 1st Mid Term exam

September 7, 2011

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

1. WIND POWER - What is it?


2. Kinetic Energy of Air
3. Usable Wind Power
Power:: Betzs law
4. Electric Power Generation

5. Probability Density Function of Wind Speed for Particular Site


6. Small Wind Turbine Applications
7. On & Off Shore Wind Farms
8. Solved Problems
September 7, 2011

Prepared by: Prof Mah ElEl-Gammal

WIND POWER - What is it?

The warm air over the land


expands and rises, and the
heavier, cooler air rushes in to
take its place, creating winds.

In the same way, the large atmospheric winds that circle the
earth are created because the land near the earth's equator is
heated more by the sun than the land near the North and South
Poles.

Differential heating of the earths surface and atmosphere


induces vertical and horizontal air currents that are affected by
the earths rotation and contours of the land WIND ( e.g.:
Land Sea Breeze Cycle).

September 7, 2011

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

WIND POWER - What is it?

All renewable energy (except tidal and

geothermal power), ultimately comes


from the sun.

The earth receives 1.74 x 1017 watts of


power (per hour) from the sun.

About one or 2 percent of this energy is converted to wind energy


(which is about 50-100 times more than the energy converted to
biomass by all plants on earth)

September 7, 2011

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

Kinetic Energy of Air


m : mass of air

KE 21 m v2

v : speed of wind

m volume

A : sweep area
: air density (kg/m3)
t : time

A v t

Upstream wind Power (Ptotal) in W :


KE 1
Ptotal
2 A v3
t
Air Power Density in

September 7, 2011

W/m2

Ptotal 1
=
2 v3
A

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

Temperature correction for air density


When wind power data are presented, it is often assumed that the air
density is 1.225 kg/m3; that is, it is assumed that air temperature is 15oC

and pressure is 1 atmosphere. Density of warmer air can be calculated


from:

(in kg / m )

p (atm) Molecular Weight 10 3


R ( t o C 273)

Absolute pressure in atmosphere (or atm)

Molecular Weight of air

28.97

Ideal gas constant = 8.205610-5

For Example

September 7, 2011

at 30o C

1 atm 28.97 103


8.2056 105 30 273

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

1.165 kg / m 2

Altitude correction for air density


If Po is the reference atmospheric (at sea level), then the air pressure at
altitude of H meters is calculated from:

P Po e

September 7, 2011

1.18510 4 H

1(atm) e

1.18510 4 H

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

Impact of tower height

Wind power
al v3

Increase in height of tower to get

higher wind power

Impact:
wind speed is greatly affected by the
friction that the air experiences as it moves
across the earths surface

September 7, 2011

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

How to characterize the impact of the roughness of the earths


surface on wind speed?
USA standards
V

Vo

H

Ho

3
1
P 2 A V V

V
3
1
P
o 2 A Vo o

Vo is the wind speed at height Ho (often a reference height of 10 m)

September 7, 2011

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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How to characterize the impact of the roughness of the earths


surface on wind speed?
European standards
V

Vo

ln H

z

ln H o
z

September 7, 2011

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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Wind Turbine
Rotating
blades

Gear box

Housing
Generator

Tower

September 7, 2011

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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Schematic of Wind Plant

September 7, 2011

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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Speed Control
1. No speed control
The turbine, the electrical generator, and the entire system is
designed to withstand the extreme speed under gusty wind.
2. Yaw and tilt control
The rotor axis is shifted out of the wind direction when the wind
speed exceeds the design limit.
3. Pitch control
It changes the pitch of the blade with the changing wind speed to
regulate the rotor speed.
4. Stall control

When the wind speed exceeds the safe limit on the system, the
blades are shifted into a position such that they stall. The turbine
has to be restarted after the gust has gone.

September 7, 2011

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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Usable Wind Power : Betzs law


The power extracted by a blades expressed as a
fraction of the upstream wind power as follow

P Upstream Wind Power (Ptotal ) cp


21 A v3 cp
Cp = Rotor blade & rotor mechanism efficiency (fraction of the

upstream wind power)

September 7, 2011

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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Electric Power Generation


The electric power generation from the usable wind
power is

Pe P g m 21 A v3 cp g m

Generator efficiency

Efficiency of gear box

September 7, 2011

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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Turbine Rating

Pe al d 2 v3
Rotor
diameter

Wind
speed

European manufacturers standards defines Specific Rated Capacity as


SRC

Generator electrical capacity


Rotor swept area

For the 300/30 wind turbine:


300 kW electrical generator and 30-meter diameter turbine
SRC 30

September 7, 2011

0
.
42
kW
/
m
152

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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0.12
0.10
0.08

Probability density

Probability Density Function


Of
Wind Speed for Particular Site

Mean Speed (8 to 15 m/s)


Mean Speed (8 to 15 m/s)

0.06

Cut out Speed

0.04
0.02

Cut in Speed

September 7, 2011

Wind speed m/s


0 2 4 6

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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Wind power density function


Ptotal 21 A V 3

Power density

Working range
upstream wind power input

Usable wind power


Electric power output

Pe 21 A v3 cp g m
Wind speed m/s
0

10

15

20

25

Betz Limit : Theoretical maximum energy extraction from wind = 59.3%

September 7, 2011

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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September 7, 2011

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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Power Coefficient Cp

Typical Wind Turbine Characteristics


50

600

44
40

400

30
20

200

10

Wind speed m/s

0
0

10

15

20

Wind speed m/s

The power coefficient curve

September 7, 2011

10

15

20

Power curve of a typical 600 kW


wind turbine

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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Small Wind Turbine Applications

1. Wind Home Systems

September 7, 2011

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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Small Wind Turbine Applications


2)

Wind-Electric Pumping-Systems

September 7, 2011

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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On Shore Wind Farms


Wind Plants of California's Tehachapi Pass

September 7, 2011

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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On Shore Wind Farms


NORDTANK Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark

September 7, 2011

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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Solved Problems : P1
Data:
Wind speed = 10 m/s
Air pressure = 1 atm

1 atm = 1.01325x105 N/m2

Air temperature = 15oC


Turbine diameter = 120 m

Turbine speed = 40 r.p.m

Turbine efficiency = 40%

Requirements Total power density (in W/m2) in the wind stream , developed
mechanical torque (in N) and electrical output power (W)

The equation of state for air as a perfect gas is:

p
R T

P: is the air pressure in N/m2

: is the air density in Kg/m3

T: is the temperature in oK

R: is the gas constant in J/(Kg oK

1.01325 105

1.226Kg / m3
287 (15 273)

September 7, 2011

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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Solved Problems : P1
The total power density of wind stream (in W/m2) =

Ptotal 1 3 1
2 V 2 1.226 (10)3 613W / m2
A
The total produced mechanical power (Pm) =

Ptotal
d2
1202
m 4 613x0.40 4 2773.2 kW
A
The total electric power output (Pe) =

Pm g 2773.2x0.85 2357.2 kW
Developed mechanical torque (Tm) =
3
1
Pm 2 AV m 1 DV 3 m 1 1.226 120 (10)3 0.40
Tm

8
8
11034 N.m
40
n

D n 60
60
60

September 7, 2011

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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Solved Problems : P2
Data:
Daily wind velocity distribution may be approximated by half a sine wave with a
maximum velocity =12 m/s
Turbine-generator overall efficiency is assumed, for simplicity, constant at 25%
Wind (or air) density = 1.22 kg/m3
Turbine diameter = 30 m

Requirements

Electric power generated during the day

& Mean energy

velocity in m/s

The generated electric power

Pe () 21 AV()3 ov erall
Pe ()

2
1 1.22 (30)
2
4

V()3 0.25 107.8 V()3 W

Pe () 0.1078 V()3 KW

September 7, 2011

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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V()

Solved Problems : P2

12

The wind velocity V() in m/s at any


hour during a day is:
V()

Vm sin(
)
24

Vmax =12 m/s

The electric generated energy in a


0
0

day E (in KWh) is calculated as:

12

16

20

24

24
3

24
E 0.1078 (12)
sin 24 d 186.28
sin2
d cos

24
24
0
0
24
(1423.06)
1 cos2
d cos

24
24
0

3 24

cos
24

24
(1423.06)) cos

24 0
3

0
3

24

in hours

(1423.06)) 2 23 1897.42KWh
September 7, 2011

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

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Solved Problems : P2

The mean wind energy velocity Vav (in m/s) is then obtained as:
24

d
Vm sin
24

Vav

September 7, 2011

24

24
12 24

cos

24

24

12 24
2

Prepared by: Prof Mah El-Gammal

24

7.64m / s

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