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Lecture4

SolverSettings
14.0Release

IntroductiontoANSYS
FLUENT
1

2011ANSYS,Inc.

January19,2012

Release14.0

Introduction
LectureTheme:
FLUENTrequiresinputs(solversettings)whichtellithowtocalculatethe
solution.Byintroducingtheconceptsofaccuracy,stabilityand
convergence,thepurposeofeachsettingcanbeunderstood.Emphasis
willbeplacedonconvergence,whichiscriticalfortheCFDsimulation.
LearningAims:
Youwilllearn:
Howtochoosethesolverandthediscretization schemes
H
Howtoinitializethesolution
i i i li h
l i
Howtomonitorandjudgesolutionconvergenceandaccuracy
LearningObjectives:
YouwillbeabletochooseappropriatesolversettingsforyourCFD
simulationandbeabletomonitorandjudgesolutionconvergence
j g
g
Introduction
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January19,2012

Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

SolutionProcedureOverview
Thesketchtotherightshowsthe
basicworkflowforanysimulation

Set the solution parameters

Thislecturewilllookatalltheitems
This lecture will look at all the items
inthechart

Initialize the solution

Solutionparameters
Choosingthesolver
Discretizationschemes
h

Enable the solution monitors of interest

Initialization
Convergence

Calculate a solution

Monitoringconvergence
Monitoring convergence
Stability

SettingUnderrelaxation
SettingCourantnumber
SettingPseudotimestep

Check for convergence


Yes

Acceleratingconvergence

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No

Check for accuracy

Accuracy
GridIndependence
p
Adaption

Modify solution
parameters or grid

No

Yes
Stop

Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

AvailableSolvers
TherearetwokindsofsolversavailableinFLUENT
Pressurebased
Density based
Densitybased

Pressure-Based
Segregated

Density-Based

Coupled

Coupled Implicit

Coupled-Explicit

Solve Mass
Mass,
Momentum,
Energy,
Species

Solve Mass,
Mass
Momentum,
Energy,
Species

Solve U-Momentum
Solve V-Momentum
V Momentum
Solve W-Momentum

Solve Mass
& Momentum

Solve Mass
Continuity;
Update Velocity
Solve Energy
S l Species
Solve
S i
Solve Turbulence Equation(s)

Solve Other Transport Equations as required

Introduction
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Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

PressurebasedSolver(PBS)
Thepressurebasedsolvers

Pressure-Based

Velocityfieldisobtainedfromthemomentum
V l it fi ld i bt i d f
th
t
equation

Segregated
g g

Coupled
p

Solve U-Momentum

Massconservation(continuity)isachievedby
solvingapressurecorrectionequation
Pressurevelocitycouplingalgorithmsarederivedby
reformattingthecontinuityequation
Thepressureequationisderivedinsuchawaythat
thevelocityfield,correctedbythepressure,satisfies
continuity

Solve V-Momentum
Solve Mass
& Momentum

Solve W-Momentum
Solve Mass
Continuity;
Update Velocity

Energyequation(whereappropriate)issolved

Solve Energy

sequentially
Solve Species

Additionalscalarequationsarealsosolvedina
q
segregated(sequential)fashion

Solve Turbulence Equation(s)


Solve Other Transport Equations as required

Introduction
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Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

DensitybasedSolver(DBS)
DensitybasedSolver(DBS)

Density-Based
Coupled Implicit

Coupled Explicit

Solve Mass,
Momentum,
Energy,
S i
Species

Solve Mass,
Momentum,
Energy,
S i
Species

Thegoverningequationsofcontinuity,
g
g q
y,
momentum,and(whereappropriate)energy
andspeciestransportaresolved
simultaneously(i.e.,coupledtogether)

Additionalscalarequationsaresolvedina
Additional scalar equations are solved in a
segregatedfashion

Thedensitybasedsolvercanberunimplicitor
explicit

Solve Turbulence Equation(s)


Solve Other Transport Equations as required

Introduction
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January19,2012

Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

ChoosingaSolver

Introduction
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Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

ChoosingaSolver PressureBased
Thepressurebasedsolver(segregated)isapplicableforawide
rangeofflowregimesfromlowspeedincompressibleflowto
g p
p
highspeedcompressibleflow
Requireslessmemory(storage)comparedtocoupledsolvers
Allowsflexibilityinthesolutionprocedure dampingofallequationsseparately
Examples:Goodforthemajorityofdaytodayapplications;forconvergence
issues switch to PBCS or DBCS
issuesswitchtoPBCSorDBCS

Thepressurebasedcoupledsolverisapplicableformostflows,
andyieldssuperiorperformancetothestandard(segregated)
and
yields superior performance to the standard (segregated)
pressurebasedsolver
NotavailablewithNITA,periodicmassflow,fixed
velocityoption
Requires1.52timesmorememorythanthe
segregatedsolver.
Examples:Moredemandingapplicationswhere
pressurevelocitycouplingrulesconvergence,e.g.
hi h i ti
highinertiaorbodyforces
b d f

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Initialization

Enabling
pressure-based
coupled solver
(PBCS)

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

PBS PressureVelocityCoupling
Pressurevelocitycouplingreferstothenumericalalgorithmwhichusesa

combinationofcontinuityandmomentumequationstoderiveanequationfor
pressurecorrectionwhenusingthePBS

FivealgorithmsareavailableinFLUENT
SemiImplicitMethodforPressureLinkedEquations
(SIMPLE)

Thedefaultscheme,robust(memoryefficient)

Coupled
EnablethePressurebasedcoupledSolver.(fasterconvergencethansegregated)

SIMPLEConsistent(SIMPLEC)
AllowsfasterconvergencethanSIMPLEforsimpleproblems(allowhighunderrelaxation
factors)
(e.g.,laminarflowswithnophysicalmodelsemployed)

PressureImplicitwithSplittingofOperators(PISO)
Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators (PISO)
Usefulforunsteadyflow problemsorformeshescontainingcellswithhigherthanaverage
skewness

FractionalStepMethod(FSM)forunsteadyflowsonly
UsedwiththeNITAscheme;similarcharacteristicsasPISO(usedinLESforexample)
Used with the NITA scheme; similar characteristics as PISO (used in LES for example)
Introduction
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Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

PBSSegregatedProcedure UnderRelaxationFactors
ImplicitunderrelaxationfactorsareusedforSIMPLE,SIMPLEC,PISO
Theunderrelaxationfactor,, isincludedtostabilizetheiterativeprocessfor

thepressurebasedsolver
p
Thefinal,convergedsolutionisindependent
oftheunderrelaxationfactor
Onlythenumberofiterationsrequired
forconvergenceisdependent
for convergence is dependent

Defaultsettingsaresuitablefora
widerangeofproblems
id
f
bl
Youcanreducethevalueswhennecessary
Appropriatesettingsarebestlearned
fromexperience!

Note:Forthedensitybasedsolver,
underrelaxationfactorsforequations
outside the coupled set are modified
outsidethecoupledsetaremodified
asinthepressurebasedsolver

Introduction
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Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

PressureBased Coupled Solver


2mainoptionstocontrolconvergence:
Piloted byCourantnumber:default=200
can be reduced formorecomplex
for more complex physics 10
1050
50
(multiphase,combustion)

Pseudotransient (similar toCFXsolver)

Pseudotimestep is determined from velocity and


domain size.
Userspecified:Characteristic physical timeis chosen
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Initialization

Pseudo-transient:
Better convergence
for meshes with
large aspect ratio
cells

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

PressureBased Coupled Solver:Convergence


Pressurebased coupled solver with defaultsettings
Rotating propeller 1500 rpm

SIMPLE: ~2250
2250 iterations

Coupled: ~120
120 iterations

Approximately 2250iterations
2250 iterations ofSIMPLE(default)in3.5hours
of SIMPLE (default) in 3.5 hours
Approximately 120iterations ofcoupled 13minutes

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January19,2012

Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

UsingthePseudotransientSolutionMethod
SolutionMethodpanel
SelectPseudoTransient

RunCalculationpanel
SelectTimestepmethod
Automatic(default)
UserSpecified
Internal Flow

ForAutomatic
SelectLengthScaleMethod(time=length/velocity)
Aggressive:
InternalFlow
Conservative: Max( Lext , LVol )
ExternalFlow
UserSpecified Min( Lext , LVol )
Conservativesettingisthedefault
SpecifyTimeStepScalingfactor:additionalusercontrol
toscaleautomaticmethod
Introduction
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January19,2012

Initialization

Convergence

Lext
Lvol = 3 Vol
External Flow
L

Summary
Release14.0

ChoosingaSolver DensityBased
Thedensitybased solverisapplicablewhenthereisastrongcoupling,or
interdependence,betweendensity,energy,momentum,and/orspecies

DensitybasedCoupledImplicit
Theimplicitoptionisgenerallypreferredoverexplicitsinceexplicithasaverystrictlimiton
timescalesize(CFLconstraint)asimplicitdoesnothave
time
scale size (CFL constraint) as implicit does not have
Examples:Highspeedcompressibleflowwithcombustion,hypersonicflows,shock
interactions

DensitybasedCoupledExplicit
Theexplicitapproachisusedforcaseswherethecharacteristictimescaleoftheflowison
thesameorderastheacoustictimescale
Example:propagationofhighMachshockwaves,shocktubeproblem

Introduction
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January19,2012

Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

DBSIterativeProcedure CourantNumber
Apseudotransienttermisincludedinthedensitybasedsolverevenforsteady
stateproblems
TheCourantnumber(CFL)definesthe
The Courant number (CFL) defines the
timescalesize
Pseudotransientoptioncanalsobeusedas
pressurebasedcoupledsolver.

Fordensitybasedexplicitsolver:
Stabilityconstraintsimposeamaximumlimit
ontheCourantnumber(<2)
th C
t
b ( 2)

Fordensitybasedimplicitsolver:
TheCourantnumberistheoreticallynotlimited
The Courant number is theoretically not limited
bystabilityconstraints
Defaultvalueis5
(canbereducedforstartupto0.12)
Valuesof100
Values of 100 1000arecommoninexternalaero
1000 are common in external aero

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Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

DBSIterativeProcedure SolutionSteering
Objective:
Provideanexpertsystemthatwill

Blending Factor - Stage-1

navigatethesolutionfromthedifficult
initial starting solution to a converged
initialstartingsolutiontoaconverged
solutionwithminimumuser
interventionandtweaking

f =0 +(1)( dr)

CFL=200

Particularlyusefulforhighspeed
compressibleflows

CFL Update Stage 2


CFL

ActivatingSolutionSteering:

CFL=5

Setupyourcasethenormalway
Performinitialization(i.e.typicallyfrom
Perform initialization (i e typically from

100

200

300

400

300

400

Stage-1
Stage-2

flowinlets)
ActivateSolutionSteering
Selecttypeofflowthatbest
characterizestheproblem

incompressible,subsonic,
transonic,supersonic,
hypersonicflows

CFL update Termination level

Startiterating
0

Introduction
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Initialization

100

Convergence

200

Summary
Release14.0

PBS InterpolationMethodsforPressure
Interpolationisrequiredforcalculatingcellfacepressuresinordertocomputepressure
gradient(Gaussmethod):

P =

r
Pface Aface

Area
Vector

Value (e g Pressure) computed here


Value(e.g.Pressure)computedhere
Butsolvermustestimate thevalueateach
faceinordertocomputepressuregradient
(Gauss method)
(Gaussmethod)

face

Volcell

Standard Thedefaultscheme;reducedaccuracyforflowsexhibitinglargesurfacenormal

pressuregradientsnearboundaries(butshouldnotbeusedwhensteeppressurechanges
arepresentintheflow
are
present in the flow PRESTO!schemeshouldbeusedinstead)
PRESTO! scheme should be used instead)
PRESTO! Useforhighlyswirlingflows,flowsinvolvingsteeppressuregradients(porous
media,fanmodel,etc.),orinstronglycurveddomains
Linear Usewhenotheroptionsresultinconvergencedifficultiesorunphysicalbehavior
SecondOrder Useforcompressibleflows;nottobeusedwithporousmedia,jump,fans,
etc.orVOF/Mixturemultiphasemodels
BodyForceWeighted Usewhenbodyforcesarelarge,e.g.,highRanaturalconvectionor
highlyswirlingflows

Introduction
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January19,2012

Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

Discretization(InterpolationMethods)
Fieldvariables(storedatcellcenters)mustbeinterpolatedtothe
facesofthecontrolvolumes

Interpolationschemesfortheconvectionterm:
FirstOrderUpwind Easiesttoconverge,onlyfirstorderaccurate
PowerLaw
Power Law MoreaccuratethanfirstorderforflowswhenRe
More accurate than first order for flows when Recell <5(typ.lowRe
< 5 (typ low Re
flows)

SecondOrderUpwind Useslargerstencilsfor2ndorderaccuracy,essentialwith
tri/tet meshorwhenflowisnotalignedwithgrid;convergencemaybeslower

MonotoneUpstreamCenteredSchemesforConservationLaws(MUSCL)
Monotone UpstreamCentered Schemes for Conservation Laws (MUSCL) Locally3rd
Locally 3rd
orderconvectiondiscretization schemeforunstructuredmeshes;moreaccuratein
predictingsecondaryflows,vortices,forces,etc.

QuadraticUpwindInterpolation(QUICK) Appliestoquad/hexandhybridmeshes,
usefulforrotating/swirlingflows,3rdorderaccurateonuniformQuadmesh

Introduction
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January19,2012

Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

EffectsofDiscretization
RG

C 0

f
d0
dr

f =C0 + C0 dr0

Flow is misaligned
with mesh

Theory

C1

If =0wegetthe1stOrderUpwind convection
scheme,i.e.nocorrection

Thisisrobustbutonlyfirstorderaccurate
Sometimesusefulforinitialruns
Sometimes useful for initial runs

If =1wegetthe2ndOrderUpwindScheme
AdditionalLimitersmustbeaddedtoguaranteedthe

1st-Order Upwind
p
Scheme
=0

2nd-Order
Scheme
=1.00

solutiontobebounded(
l i
b b
d d (C0<f<C1)

TheQUICKResolution schememaximizes
throughouttheflowdomainwhilekeepingthe
solutionbounded
Introduction
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Initialization

QUICK
Resolution
Scheme

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

Discretization (InterpolationMethods)
Interpolationschemesforthediffusiveterm:

Alwayscentraldifferenced&2nd orderaccuracy

Introduction
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January19,2012

Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

InterpolationMethods(Gradients)
Gradientsofsolutionvariablesarerequiredinordertoevaluate
diffusivefluxes,velocityderivatives,andforhigherorder
discretization schemes.

RG

f =C0 + C0 dr0
Cell based/
Least-Squares

Thegradientsofsolutionvariablesatcellcenterscanbe
The gradients of solution variables at cell centers can be
determinedusingthreeapproaches:
GreenGaussCellBased Good,butsolutionmayhavefalsediffusion(smearingof
thesolutionfields)

GreenGaussNodeBased Moreaccurate;minimizesfalsediffusion;(strongly
recommendedfortri/tet andhybridmeshes)

LeastSquaresCellBased Thedefaultmethod.LessexpensivetocomputethanNode

Node-Based

Basedgradients.SlightlymoreexpensivethanCellBasedgradients.However,exactly
reconstruct linear field on highly skewed or distorted meshes (appropriate for any kind of
reconstructlinearfieldonhighlyskewedordistortedmeshes.(appropriateforanykindof
meshes)

Introduction
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Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

Initialization
FLUENTrequiresthatallsolutionvariablesbeinitializedbeforestarting
iterations
Arealisticinitialguessimprovessolutionstabilityandacceleratesconvergence
Insomecasesapoorinitialguessmaycausethesolvertofailduringthefirstfew
iterations

5waystoinitializetheflowfield
Standardinitialization
Patchvalues
Hybridinitialization(solvespotentialequation)
FMGinitialization
Startingfromaprevioussolution

Introduction
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Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

StandardInitializationandPatchValues
StandardInitialization
Generallytheuserselectsaninletboundary
underComputefromtoautomaticallyfillthe
initializationvalueswiththevaluesthatare
specifiedattheinletboundary

Patchvaluesforindividual
g
variablesincertainregions
Freejetflows(highvelocityforjet)
Combustionproblems(hightemperature
regiontoinitializereaction)
Cellregisters(createdbymarkingthe
Cell registers (created by marking the
cellsintheAdaptionpanel)canbeused
forpatchingvaluesintovariousregions
ofthedomain.
Multiphaseflows(patchdifferentphase
Multiphase flows (patch different phase
volumefractionsinoneormoreregions)

Introduction
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Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

HybridInitialization
Thedefaultinitializationmethod
Thisprovidesaquickapproximationofthe
flowfield,byacollectionofmethods.

ItsolvesLaplace'sequationtodeterminethe
velocityandpressurefields.

Allothervariables,suchastemperature,
tturbulence,speciesfractions,volume
b l
i f ti
l
fractions,etc.,willbeautomaticallypatched
basedondomainaveragedvaluesora
particular interpolation method.
particularinterpolationmethod.

Introduction
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January19,2012

Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

FMGInitialization
FullMultigrid (FMG)Initialization
Canbeusedtocreateabetterinitializationoftheflowfield
FMGInitializationisusefulforcomplexflowproblemsinvolvinglargepressureandvelocitygradients
onlargemeshes

FMGusestheFullApproximationStorage(FAS)Multigrid methodtosolvetheflowproblem
onasequenceofcoarsermeshes
Eulerequationsaresolvedwithfirstorderaccuracyonthecoarselevelmeshes

ToenableFMGinitialization,executetheTUIcommand
To enable FMG initialization execute the TUI command
/solve/init/fmg-initialization

SettingscanbeaccessedbytheTUIcommand
/solve/init/set fmg initialization
/solve/init/set-fmg-initialization

Introduction
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January19,2012

Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

StartingfromaPreviousSolution
Apreviouslycalculatedsolutioncan
beusedasaninitialconditionwhen
changes are made to the case setup
changesaremadetothecasesetup
Usesolutioninterpolationtoinitializearun
(especiallyusefulforstartingfinemesh
caseswhencoarsemeshsolutionsare
available)
Oncethesolutionisinitialized,additional
iterationsalwaysusethecurrentdatasetas
thestartingpoint

Sometimessolvingasimplified
versionoftheproblemfirstwill
provideagoodinitialguessforthe
id
di i i l
f h
realproblem:

Introduction
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January19,2012

Actual Problem

Initial Condition

Heat Transfer

Isothermal

Natural convection

Low Rayleigh number

Combustion / reacting flow

Cold flow (no combustion)

Turbulence

Inviscid (Euler) solution

Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

CaseCheck
CaseCheckisautilityinFLUENTwhich
searchesforcommonsetuperrorsand
inconsistencies
Providesguidanceinselecting
caseparametersandmodels

Tabbedsectionscontain
recommendationswhichthe
usercanapplyorignore

Introduction
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January19,2012

Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

Convergence
Thesolvermustperformenoughiterationstoachieveaconvergedsolution
Atconvergence,thefollowingshouldbesatisfied:
Alldiscreteconservationequations(momentum,energy,etc.)areobeyedinallcellstoa
All di
t
ti
ti
(
t
t )
b d i ll ll t
specifiedtolerance(Residual).

TheResidualmeasurestheimbalanceofthecurrentnumericalsolutionandisrelatedbutNOTEQUALto
thenumericalerror

Overallmass,momentum,energy,andscalarbalancesareachieved
Overall mass momentum energy and scalar balances are achieved
Targetquantitiesreachconstantvalues

Res
siduals

Isentrop
pic Efficiency

Integral:e.g.Pressuredrop
Local:e.g.Velocityatspecifiedposition

Iteration Number

Introduction
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Iteration Number

Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

Convergence
Monitoringconvergenceusingresidualhistory:
Generally,adecreaseinresidualsbythreeordersofmagnitudecanbeasignof
convergence
Scaledenergyresidualshoulddecreaseto106 (forthepressurebasedsolver)
Scaledspeciesresidualmayneedtodecreaseto105 toachievespeciesbalance

Bestpracticeistoalsomonitorquantitativevariablestodecide
convergence:
g
Ensurethatoverallmass/heat/speciesconservationissatisfied
Monitorotherrelevantkeyvariables/physicalquantitiesforconfirmation

Introduction
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Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

ConvergenceMonitors Residuals
Residualplotsshowwhentheresidualvalueshavereachedthe
specifiedtolerance
Itispossibletomodifyordisablethedefault
It is possible to modify or disable the default
checkingcriterionforconvergence
(topreventthecalculationfrombeingstopped
prematurely)

All equations
converged
10-3

10-6

Introduction
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Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

CheckingOverallFluxConservation
Thenetfluximbalance(shownintheGUIasNetResults)should
belessthan1%ofthesmallestfluxthroughthedomain
boundary

Introduction
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Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

ConvergenceMonitors ForcesandSurfaces
Inadditiontoresiduals,youcanalso
monitor

Lift,dragandmomentcoefficients
Lift drag and moment coefficients
Relevantvariablesorfunctions(e.g.surface
integrals)ataboundaryoranydefinedsurface

Theseadditionalmonitoredquantitiesare
Th
dditi
l
it d
titi
importantconvergenceindicators

Introduction
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Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

ConvergenceDifficulties
Numericalinstabilitiescanarisewithanillposedproblem,poorquality
meshand/orinappropriatesolversettings
Exhibitedasincreasing(diverging)orstuckresiduals
Divergingresidualsimplyincreasingimbalanceinconservationequations
Unconverged resultsareverymisleading!
Continuity equation convergence

Troubleshooting

trouble affects convergence of


allll equations.
ti

Ensurethattheproblemiswellposed
Computeaninitialsolutionusinga
firstorderdiscretization scheme
Forthepressure
For the pressurebased
basedsolver,decrease
solver decrease
underrelaxation factorsforequations
havingconvergenceproblems
Forthedensitybasedsolver,reduce
theCourantnumber
h
b
Remesh orrefinecellswhichhavelarge
aspectratioorlargeskewness.
Rememberthatyoucannotimprove
cellskewness byusingmeshadaption!

Introduction
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January19,2012

Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

AcceleratingConvergence
Convergencecanbeacceleratedby:
Supplyingbetterinitialconditions
Startingfromaprevioussolution(usingfile/interpolationwhen
necessary)

GraduallyincreasingunderrelaxationfactorsorCourantnumber

Excessivelyhighvaluescanleadtosolutioninstabilityand
convergenceproblems
Youshouldalwayssavecaseanddatafilesbeforecontinuing
iterations
Startingwithagoodqualitymeshwithappropriatemeshresolution
TheorthogonalqualityreportedinMesh>Info>Qualityshould
The orthogonal q alit reported in Mesh > Info > Q alit sho ld
haveaminimumvalueof.01andanaveragevaluethatismuch
higher

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January19,2012

Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

Convergencevs Accuracy
Aconvergedsolutionisnotnecessarilyanaccuratesolution
Accuracydependson:
Orderofthediscretization schemes(2nd orderschemesare
recommended)
Meshresolution
M h
l i
BoundaryConditions
Modellimitations
Geometrysimplifications
G
i lifi i
Precisionofthesolver(2d/3dor2ddp/3ddp)

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Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

AdaptionExample 2DPlanarShell
Adaptgridinregionsoflargepressuregradienttobetterresolve
thesuddenpressureriseacrosstheshock
Largepressuregradientindicatinga
shock(poorresolutiononcoarsemesh)

Initial Mesh

Introduction
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January19,2012

Pressure Contours on Initial Mesh

Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

2DPlanarShell SolutiononAdaptedMesh
Solutionbasedmeshadaptionallowsbetterresolutionofthe
bowshockandexpansionwave.
Adaptedcellsinlocations
Adapted
cells in locations
oflargepressuregradients

Adapted Mesh

Introduction
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January19,2012

Meshadaptionyieldsmuchimproved
Mesh
adaption yields muchimproved
resolutionofthebowshock.

Pressure Contours on Adapted Mesh

Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

GridAdaption
Gridadaptionaddsmorecellswhereneededto
resolvetheflowfieldwithoutpreprocessor

Adaptionproceedsinthreesteps:
Markcellssatisfyingtheadaptioncriteriaandstore

theminaregister
Displayandmodifytheregister
ClickonAdapttoadaptthecellslistedinthe
register

Refine Threshold should be set


to 10% of the value reported
in the Max field.

Registerscanbedefinedbasedon:

Gradientsorisovaluesofallvariables
Allcellsonaboundary
All ll i
Allcellsinaregionwithadefinedshape
i
i h d fi d h
Cellvolumesorvolumechanges
y+incellsadjacenttowalls

Always save
case and data
files prior to
adapting the
mesh!

Toassistadaptionprocess,youcan:

Combineadaptionregisters
Drawcontoursofadaptionfunction
Displaycellsmarkedforadaption
Limitadaptionbasedoncellsize
andnumberofcells
b
f ll

Introduction
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SolverTheory
January19,2012

Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

Summary
Solutionprocedureforboththepressurebasedanddensitybasedsolversis
identical
Setadequatesolver&solutionparameters
Set adequate solver & solution parameters
Calculateuntilyougetaconvergedsolution
Obtainasecondordersolution(recommended)
Refinethemeshandrecalculateuntilagridindependentsolutionisobtained

Allsolversprovidetoolsforjudgingandimprovingconvergenceandensuring
stability

Aconvergedsolutionisnotnecessarilyaccurate
SolutionaccuracydependsonMeshresolution,appropriatenessofthephysicalmodels,
boundaryconditions,

Introduction
39

2011ANSYS,Inc.

SolverTheory
January19,2012

Initialization

Convergence

Summary
Release14.0

Appendix

40

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Release14.0

TighteningtheConvergenceTolerance
Ifsolutionmonitorsindicatethatthesolutionisconverged,but
thesolutionisstillchangingorhasalargemass/heatimbalance,
this clearly indicates the solution is not yet converged
thisclearlyindicatesthesolutionisnotyetconverged

Inthiscase,youneedto:
ReducevaluesofConvergenceCriteriaordisableCheckConvergenceinthe
Reduce values of Convergence Criteria or disable Check Convergence in the
ResidualMonitorspanel
Continueiterationsuntilthesolutionconverges

SelectingNoneunder
ConvergenceCriterion
disablesconvergence
checkingforallequations

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Release14.0

Autosave
Thesolutioncanbesavedatregularintervalsduringthecalculationusingthe
Autosave menu,whichisaccessedthroughtheCalculationActivitiesmenu
panel

Thiscanbehelpfulinsituationswhereconvergencedifficultiesareencountered,

42

becauseitmakesitpossibletoreturntoanearlierpointinthecalculation
KeepingalargenumberofAutosave
p g
g
filescanusealargeamountofdiskspace,
g
p ,
thereforeinmostcases,itisrecommendedtousetheoptiontoretainonlythemost
recentfiles

2011ANSYS,Inc.

January19,2012

Release14.0

RunningSimulationsinParallel
Serial

LocalParallel
SharedMemory

DistributedParallel
DistributedMemory

Differentcommunicationmethodsareavailable(MPICH2,HPMPI,PVM)
Different communication methods are available (MPICH2 HP MPI PVM)
SeedocumentationWhenToUseMPIorPVMformoredetails,butHPMPIisrecommendedinmost
cases

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Release14.0

RunningSimulationsinParallel
In theFLUENTLauncheryoucanchooseParallel
and settheParameter

IfyouchooseDistributedMemory,youhaveto
specifythenamesofthecomputerswhichyou
want to connect
wanttoconnect

Youcanspecifythenamesdirectly
Youcanspecifyafilewhichcontainsthenames

ForfurtherinformationseeChapter32in
UserGuide

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