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Appendix A

Bar area design aids


Designations, areas, perimeters, and weights of standard U.S. bars
Cross
Diameter
Sectional
Perimeter
(in.)
Area
(in.)
(in.2)
Nominal
Actual

0.250
0.05
079
3/8
0.375
0.11
1.18

0.500
0.20
1.57
5/8
0.625
0.31
1.96

0.750
0.44
2.36
7/8
0.875
0.60
2.75
1
1.000
0.79
3.14
1 1/8
1.128
1.00
3.54
1
1.270
1.27
3.99
1 3/8
1.410
1.56
4.43
1
1.693
2.25
5.32
2
2.257
4.00
7.09

Bar
no.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
14
18

Bar
no.
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
14
18

1
0.11
0.20
0.31
0.44
0.60
0.79
1.00
1.27
1.56
2.25
4.00

Areas of groups of standard U.S. bars, in square inches


Number of bars
2
3
4
5
6
0.22
0.33
0.44
0.55
0.66
0.39
0.58
0.78
0.98
1.18
0.61
0.91
1.23
1.53
1.84
0.88
1.32
1.77
2.21
2.65
1.20
1.80
2.41
3.01
3.61
1.57
2.35
3.14
3.93
4.71
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
2.53
3.79
5.06
6.33
7.59
3.12
4.68
6.25
7.81
9.37
4.50
6.75
9.00
11.25
11.25
8.00
12.00
16.00
20.00
20.00

Unit
Weight
per foot
(lb)
0.167
0.376
0.668
1.043
1.502
2.044
2.670
3.400
4.303
5.313
7.650
13.600

7
0.77
1.37
2.15
3.09
4.21
5.50
7.00
8.86
10.94
15.75
28.00

8
0.88
1.57
2.45
3.53
4.81
6.28
8.00
10.12
12.50
18.00
32.00

Areas of bars per foot width of slab As (in.2/ft)


Bar
size
#3
#4
#5
#6
#7
#8
#9
#10
#11

6
0.22
0.40
0.62
0.88
1.20
1.58
2.00
2.54
3.12

7
0.19
0.34
0.53
0.75
1.03
1.35
1.71
2.18
2.67

8
0.17
0.30
0.46
0.66
0.90
1.18
1.50
1.91
2.34

9
0.15
0.27
0.41
0.59
0.80
1.05
1.33
1.69
2.08

10
0.13
0.24
0.37
0.53
0.72
0.95
1.20
1.52
1.87

Bar spacing (in.)


11
12
13
0.12 0.11 0.10
0.22 0.20 0.18
0.34 0.31 0.29
0.48 0.44 0.41
0.65 0.60 0.55
0.86 0.79 0.73
1.09 1.00 0.92
1.39 1.27 1.17
1.70 1.56 1.44

-1-

14
0.09
0.17
0.27
0.38
0.51
0.68
0.86
1.09
1.34

15
0.09
0.16
0.25
0.35
0.48
0.63
0.80
1.02
1.25

16
0.08
0.15
0.23
0.33
0.45
0.59
0.75
0.95
1.17

17
0.08
0.14
0.22
0.31
0.42
0.56
0.71
0.90
1.10

18
0.07
0.13
0.21
0.29
0.40
0.53
0.67
0.85
1.04

Appendix A

Design aid for fit and placement in beam and girder webs
(Tables are based on figure shown)

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Appendix A

Design aid for pure flexure (no axial load)


This aid just summarizes the expressions for Mn (rectangular beam sections).
M n As f y ( d a / 2)
a As f y / 0.85 fc ' b
M n As f y ( d 0.59 As f y / fc ' b )
M n s bf y 1 0.59 s ( f y / fc ' )

s As / bd

For fc' = 4 ksi and fy = 60 ksi:


Maximum s allowed by code 2.06%
Maximum practical s for 0.9 1.8%
Typical economical steel ratio for beams and girders at critical moment section = 1 to
1.25%.
Maximum steel ratio permitting redistribution of moments computed by analysis =
1.38%.
Minimum steel ratios are:
For beams (and girders)*: s , min

As
0.00333
bd

For slabs (and footings): As ,min 0.0018bh

* Exceptions exist for

s , provided 4 3 s ,required

-3-

Appendix A

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Appendix A

Design aid for sizing economical concrete crosssections for beams (and girders)
1. Development using:
M u M n s f y bd 2 1 0.588 ( f y / fc ' )

Specializing for fc' = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi, = 1.25% and 0.90


The development for yields:
M u / bd 2 (0.9)(0.0125)(60)1 (0.588)(0.0125)(60 / 4) 0.60

For Mu in kipinches with b and d in inches:


M u 0.60bd 2

The natural units for Mu are kipfeet. To convert from kip-in by 12 leaving b and
d in inches:
M u / 12 0.60bd 2 or M u / 20 bd 2

2. Design aid for sizing concrete section (bd) for fc' = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi and =
1.25%:
bd 2 20 M u

(required size of crosssection)

In the above expression, b and d are in inch units, Mu is in kipfoot units.

-5-

Appendix A

Design aid for shear


Beam and girder webs

Based on ACI02, fc' =4,000 psi, fy = 60,000 psi, =


0.75 for shear and Vc 2 f c 'bw d , normal weight
concrete, vertical U stirrups.
Vc 0.095bw d

d
bw

bw

Vc = kips, bw and d = inches

Strength of concrete with at least minimum shear reinforcement.


Notes:
Vu 0.5(Vc )
Vu 1.4(Vc )

Av
Vu 1 0.4

Av , min

A
Vu 1 480 v
bw d

Vu 3(Vc )
Vu 3(Vc )
Vu 5(Vc )

No stirrups required
Quick check for capacity of minimum stirrups at S
= d/2

(Vc )
Alternate forms correspondent for


actual reinforcement used and spacing
used.
d
(Vc )
s
Smax = d/2
50bw s
Av , min
Smax = d/4
fy
increase bwd!

Key bwd values for allowed use of #3, #4 and #5 as minimum steel.
#3U: bwd 528 in2, #4U: bwd 960 in2, #5U: bwd 1,440 in2.
Strength values for stirrups
Vs (kips)
S

#3U

#4U

#5U

d/2

20

36

54

d/3

30

54

81

d/4

40

72

108

Additional notes:
Typ. Place 1st stirrup 2" from face of support.
Minimum practical spacing of stirrups is 4".
Vs is proportional to S, use corrected table
for noninteger d/n values.

Note: minimum bw values for U stirrups: #3 = 10"; #4 = 12"; #5 = 14".

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Appendix A

Notes on bar lengths stocked and splices

#5 #18 bars stocked in 60 ft lengths.

#3 and #4 typically stocked in 2040 ft lengths.

Splices in locations of maximum stress should be avoided (if possible).

Lap splices are typically made by over lapping bars by the required distance and
lightly wiring together!

Lap splices in tension

Two classes: A and B

Class A splice requires lap of (1)(ld)

Class B splice requires lap of (1.3)( ld)

Class B splices are typically required unless stated otherwise

Lap splices in compression

Length required (of lap) = 0.0005fydb (fy 60,000 psi)


Analysis (GR 60): (0.0005)(60,000)(db) = 30db

Example: #8 bar, db = 1", required lap = 30"


Note: these are used to splice column steel at floor levels and for column to footing
reinforcement.

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Appendix A

Additional note on development of tension hooks


ldh = development length of hooks
Basic formula: ldh = (0.2)(bar#) (ft)
Example: ldh #8 bar = (0.2)(8) = 1.6 ft = 19.2 inches
If cover on side of hook (vertical to hook) equals or exceeds 2 " (typical case) and clear
cover over end of hook 2" ldh can be multiplied by 0.7.
For example above: ldh = (19.2)(0.7) = 13.4 inches (consider case for 16"x16" column!)
Notes on structural integrity provisions of ACI

For other than perimeter beams (and girders):


of positive moment steel required at mid span but not less than 2 bars must be
continuous or spliced over or near support by a class A splice (simply lap bars by
ld) or at non continuous ends terminate with standard hook.

For perimeter beams (and girders): treat positive moment steel as above
And
1/6 of negative moment steel required at support, but not less than 2 bars, must
be continuous or spliced over or near mid span by a class A splice (lap bars by
ld)
And
The continuous reinforcement must be enclosed by: the corners of
stirrups
with 135 hooks at top. Use size and spacing of minimum shear reinforcement if
not otherwise present for shear loading!

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Appendix A

Example of standard bar cut off locations

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Appendix A

Preliminary design aid: column sizing


This design aid is used for estimating the crosssection of an interior column for the
purpose of computing column self weight only.
Assumes fc' = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi, st = 1%
Ag Atrib / 9
Ag = gross area of column crosssection, bh, in2.
Atrib = total tributary area supported by the column base (including the roof) expressed in
ft2.
Example: 2 floors and 1 roof supported, each with (15)(15) = 225 ft2 of tributary area.
Atrib = (3)(225) = 675 ft2
Ag 675 / 9 = 75 in2
If a square column is to be used:
b = h, h =

75

= 8.66"

Assume a 10"x10" standard column.


Column self weight (normal weight concrete):
wc = [(10x10) / 144] x 0.150 = 0.104 k/ft

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Appendix A

Strength of square tied columns

- 11 -

Appendix A

Shear strength of column concrete

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Appendix A

Simplified interaction diagram 12"x12" column

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Appendix A

Simplified interaction diagram 14"x14" column

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Appendix A

Simplified interaction diagram 16"x16" column

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Appendix A

Simplified interaction diagram 18"x18" column

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Appendix A

Reinforced concrete square column footings


Footings are typically cast against ground clearcover to all steel must be 3".
o Typically d = h 4" and end cover 3".
qa = allowable soil pressure based on maximum service loading includes weight of
footing and any overburden present typically < 10%.
o qa = P / Af Af (required) = P / qa, if square brequired A f (each way).
Practical note: round b up to even inches (or down if 3% change)
qu = factored soil pressure based on factored column loadings, no need to include
weight of footing or uniform over burden (no effect on V or M).
o qu = Pu / Af Af = actual area chosen; typically: Pu = 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5(S or Lr).
Maximum spacing of flexural steel = 3h 18" (footing per ACI)
Minimum flexural steel ratio: As,min = 0.0018bh 0.002bd. Many recommend s,min =
1/3% as in beams (shear will typically control d if used).
Reinforcement for shear not typical, all shear carried by Vc . Two types of shear
are of concern:
o Beam shear (oneway shear) on critical section at d from column edge.

Vc 2 fc ' bd and 0.75


o

Punching shear (twoway shear) on critical section at d/2 from column edge.

Vc 4 fc ' bo d and 0.75 , b

= critical per meter distance.

Bending is considered oneway with critical section at column face and used to select
main flexural steel (if square footing same each way) steel must extend at least ld' = ld
(As / As, required) from critical sections.
Designing for minimum steel s = As / bd = 0.002 will typically avoid problems with
shear (still must be checked for each type).
Footing are often designed for fc' = 3,000 psi (cheaper concrete) even if fc' 4,000 psi
use maximum size steel with near maximum spacing to avoid placing costs.

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Appendix A

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