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Chapter 2

Filing

Pa g e 1

LESSON PLAN
Basic Cutting Processes 1
PRT 01.10

Benchwork Workshop

Location

Chapter

Filing

Prepared by

ADIB
AZIHA
HASNIZAM

Objectives
1.

Describe the factors that effect the quality of a filling job

2.

Identify and describe the most common shapes and sizes of files

3.

Identify the cuts and coarseness of files and describe their intended use

4.

Select and properly use appropriate files for a given task

References

Media

1.

1.

Technology of Metal Trade

Overhead projector

Chapter 2
1.

FILING

General

The purpose of filing is to shape workpieces accurately so as to achieve smooth surfaces.


Files can be used to cut work to prescribed dimensions and shapes as well as to obtain a
desired surface finish.
1.1.

The file

A file should be considered as a hand-operated cutting tool

Manufacturing Steps of a File

A. Tool steel bar cut to correct length


B. Bar forged to shape
C. Blank after it has been annealed
D. Annealed blank straightened and ground smooth
E. Teeth cut on blank
F. Blank trimmed and coated for heat treatment
G. Completed file cleaned and inspected

1.1.

Classification of Files

Files are classified according to:


1. Shape
2. Cut of teeth
3. Coarseness of teeth
4. Size (armfile, handfile, wardfile and needle file)
1.1.1. Classification of Files According to Shapes

1.1.2. Classification according to the cut of teeth:

A. single-cut
B. double cut
C. rasp-cut
D. curved-cut

1.1.3. Classification according to coarseness of teeth:

1.1.4. Cut count and cut number of crosscut files


The number of cuts (notches) per cm of file length in the direction of the axis is known as the
cut count. Norms cover files with cut counts between 6 and 34, with reference to the upcut in
crosscut files. The higher the cut count, the smaller the cut spacing (distance between two
notches) will be. A cut file of any particular length will be available in four different cut counts,
designated by cut numbers 1 to 4.

1.2.

Hand file

A hand file is used for general surfacing work. Both faces are double-cut. The edge may be
single-cut, or one edge may be left uncut to provide a "safe" edge for use when filing up to a
shoulder as shown in the diagram.

1.3.

File selection

Many factors must be considered in selecting the file if maximum efficiency is to be attained.
1. The nature of work (flat, concave, convec, notched etc)
2. Kind of material
3. Amount of material to be removed
4. Surface finish and accuracy demanded
There is almost no limit to the numbers of different kinds, shapes and cuts of files that are
manufactured.

Of the many file shapes available, the most commonly used are flat, square, 3-square, knife,
half round, round and crossing files.

1.4.
1.

File safety
A file should NEVER be used without a handle. This applies especially to
lathe work because the tang can be driven right through a person's hand by
force exerted by the moving parts of the machine.

2.

Clean files with a file card, NOT your hand. The chips can penetrate your
hand and cause a painful infection.

3.

Files are very brittle. They will break if used to pry!

4.

Do NOT clean the surface being filed with your finger. Short burrs are formed
in filing and can cause serious cuts.

5.

Never hammer on or with a file. It may shatter and chips can fly in all
directions.

6.

1.5.
File handle

Avoid cleaning a file by slapping it on the bench. It may shatter.

Attachment of File Handle

1) drill out in stages

2) hammer on with wooden mallet

3) Do not let this happen to you

4) Loosening the file handle

1.6.

Securinq the workpiece for filing:

It is important to clamp to workpiece tightly; this is usually done in a bench vice by gripping
the workpiece as near to the vice jaws as possible.

Picture (a)

The front jaw is fixed, the back jaw is movable.

Picture (b)
The front jaw is movable, the back jaw is fixed.

1.7.

Protective pads

The surface of the workpieces should be protected by covering the hardened rice jaws with
protective "soft" jaws. These soft jaws can be made of copper, aluminium lead, press-board
or wood.

1.8.

Different soft jaws and special holding-devices:

1.9.

Height of vice

For correct body positioning for working

1.10. Tidiness in the working area


1) Only put those tools on the workbench which are necessary for the work.
2) Store measuring tools in the measuring tray
3) Tidiness saves working time
4) Remove stubborn filings with the filing brush

1.11.

Holding large files

The right hand grips the file handle so that the end of the handle presses against the ball of
the thumb.
The left hand presses on the file blade with the ball of the thumb.

1.12.

Positioning of feet

Safe distance during filing

1.13.

Positioning of body

Swift and regular movements of the body.

1.14.

Guiding the file

In its longitudinal axis to avoid serrations.


Pressure on the file:
1) the right hand pushes and presses
2) the left hand presses only

Forward stroke with pressure. Return stroke without pressure (use the whole length of the
file).

1.15.

Movement of the file

a) The file should be moved with equal pressure along the entire length of the file. However,
do not push the file forward so that the handle hits against the work. This could remove the
handle and cause accidents.
b) To minimize vibrations, sheet metal should be filed at an angle.
c) Never touch the surface to be filed with your hands, as this leaves a film of lubricant on
the face of the work which impairs the action of the file.
d) Scoring can be minimized by rubbing chalk over the body of the file.

Regular forward stroke motion to both sides produces even removal of filings.

Compensate -for varying heights of both flanges by re-clamping a number of times.

1.16.

Radius filing

1.17.

Work technique

File provisional surfaces diagonally at right angles to the broad surface. Turn the file about
its longitudinal axis when round filing at right angles to the radius.

Guide the file-see-saw motion-in synchronization with the radius. Re-clamp the workpiece
repeatedly so that a circular shape is produced. Check the radius with the radius gauge.
Turn the file about its lateral axis when round filing in synchronization with the radius.

1.18.

Round filing of internal surfaces

Turn the file about its longitudinal axis

1.19.

Basic principles

Round filing of internal surfaces requires the use of rounded files, the radius of which must
be smaller than that of the radius of the workpiece to be filed.

1.20.

Work process

Rough down to the smoothing allowance.

1.21.

Work technique

Guide the file straight as in flat filing, turning it at the same time about its longitudinal axis. To
achieve an even radius, an additional sideways feed is necessary. The sideways feed should
not be too great otherwise serrations will be produced.

1.22.

Diagonal filing

The file is used across the work surface at an angle of 45. Change the direction of filing by
90 each time. The resulting shades on the workpiece surface show up the unevenness of
the surface.

1.23.

Transverse filing

The file is used at right angles to the longer edge of the workpiece.

1.24.

Longitudinal filing

The file is used parallel to the longer edge of the workpiece.

De-burring the filed edge in a longitudinal direction (do not file the chamfer).

1.25.

File brush

Cleaning the file is necessary because "dirty" files produce messy finishes (serrations) or do
not bite at all. Only use the file brush in the direction of the over-cut. Stubborn chips should
be removed with a file cleaner (brass or cooper sheet).
The chalk settles into the base of the file teeth and thus reduces the penetration of the teeth.
Chips which could otherwise damage the smooth surface of the workpiece do embed
themselves into the chalk. The file should, therefore, be cleaned more often and recoated
with chalk.

1.26. Care of Files


1) Keep files clean with a file card (special wire brush).
2) Keep files in a rack so that the teeth are not damaged.
3) Use a new file on non-ferrous metals until the teeth are "broken-in". If a new file is
used on steel, the burr on the teeth may chip, ruining the file and the user. Slow, even
strokes using the full length of the file are the best.
4) The file only cuts on the forward stroke. Ease the downward pressure on the return
stroke.
5) Do not throw files together in a heap. remember that files are cutting tools with sharp
and hardened cutting edges. Treat files as you would any other cutting tools.

1.27. Accident prevention


1) Check the file to make sure that the handle is securely attached.
2) Never use a file without the handle.
3) Do not lay the file down on the edge of the work bench.
4) Be careful not to knock the file handle against the work.
5) Replace broken file handles at once
6) Do not blow file dust away from the vice, it may get in your eyes or the eyes of
someone else.

1.28.

Question sheet for Filing

1. What are the three types of file cut?


2. Which types of materials are usually filed using a rasp?
3.

Which cut of file is intended to cut steel, cast iron and hard plastics?

4. Name three methods of filing techniques:


5. What is the meaning of 'safe-edge' as applied to a file?
6. Match the names of the files with their uses or descriptions by writing the
correct letters in the blanks.
i. Half-round file
ii. Rasp
iii. Three square file
iv. Hand file
v. Mill file
A. Always has one safe edge: used to finish flat surfaces.
B. Has one flat surface and one curved surface.
C. Specially made for filing soft metals.
D. Used for filing corners and angles with less than 90 degress.

E. Specially made for shaping wood and similar materials


cooland.

1.29.

Answers sheet for Filing


1. What are the three types of file cut?
Single-cut, double-cut and rasp
2. Which type of materials are usually filed using a rasp?
Soft material, wood and other soft non-metallic substances
3. Which cut of file is intended to cut steel, cast iron and hard plastics?
Double-cut
4. Name three methods of techniques of filling
Diagonal Transverse filing Longitudinal
5. What is the meaning of 'safe-edge' as applied to a file?
Safe-edge means that the edge or side is smooth and without teeth.
6. Match the names of the files with their uses or descriptions by writing the
correct letters in the blanks.
i. Half-round file = B
ii. Rasp = E
iii. Three square file = D
iv. Hand file = A
v. Mill file = C
A. Always has one safe_edge: used to finish flat surfaces.
B. Has one flat surface and one curved surface.
C. Specially made for filing soft metals.
D. Used for filing comers and angles with less than 90 degress.
E. Specially made for shaping wood and similar materials.