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Special Requirements

of IEEE C37.013 for


Generator Circuit Breaker
Applications

November 20, 2009

Schutzvermerk / Copyright-Vermerk
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Sector Energy, Business Unit Medium Voltage

Generator Circuit Breaker Applications


What is different about generator
circuit breakers?
Applicable standards
Special considerations
Vacuum versus SF6 technology
Questions.

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Generator and Distribution Circuit Breakers


Generator circuit breaker

Distribution circuit breaker

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Circuit Breakers for Distribution


Requirements
Standards:
IEEE C37.04
IEEE C37.09
IEEE C37.10

Rating structure for HV circuit breakers


Tests for HV circuit breakers
Application guide for HV circuit breakers.

X/R ratio:

17 (60 Hz).

Time constant of dc decay:

45 ms.

TRV typical values (15 kV, class S1 cable):


Peak voltage
(uc) = 25.7 kV
Time-to-peak
(t3) = 66 s
RRRV
0.39 kV/s.

Duty cycle:
Folie 4

November 09

O t CO t CO
t = 0.3 s for reclosing / 15 s for non-reclosing
Siemens AG 2009
t = 3 minutes.
Sector Energy, Business Unit Medium Voltage

Circuit Breakers for Generation


Requirements
Standards:
IEEE C37.013

Generator circuit breaker.

X/R ratio:

50 (60 Hz).

Time constant of dc decay:

133 ms.

TRV typical values (15 kV, 100 MVA machine):


Peak voltage
(E2) = 1.84 V = 1.84 x 15.0 = 27.6 kV
Time-to-peak
(T2) = 0.62 V = 0.62 x 15.0 = 9.3 s
RRRV
3.5 kV/s.

Duty cycle:

CO 30 min CO.
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Notes on TRV Representation


IEEEC37.04 for distribution circuit
breakers expresses TRV in terms
harmonized with IEC with peak voltage
uc, and
time-to-peak t3.
IEEE C37.013 still uses old TRV
expressions with peak voltage E2 and
time-to-peak T2. Peak voltage is not
changed, but t3 is approximately 0.88 x
T2.
The physics are not changed, just the
representation.

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IEEE C37.04-1999 Scope


IEEE Standard Rating Structure for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers

1. Scope
This standard establishes a symmetrical current rating structure and construction
requirements for all indoor and outdoor types of ac high-voltage circuit breakers
rated above 1000 V. It is only applicable to three-pole circuit breakers used in
three-phase systems and single-pole circuit breakers used in single-phase
systems.
This standard does not cover circuit breakers used at frequencies other than
50 Hz or 60 Hz, or generator circuit breakers that are covered in IEEE
Standard C37.013-1997.

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IEEE C37.013-1997 Scope


IEEE Standard for AC High-Voltage Generator Circuit Breakers Rated on a
Symmetrical Current Basis
1. Scope
This standard applies to all ac high-voltage generator circuit breakers rated on a
symmetrical current basis that are installed between the generator and the
transformer terminals...
Note: Since no other national or international standard on generator circuit
breakers exists, this standard is used worldwide.

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IEEE C37.013 the International Standard


for Generator Circuit Breakers
IEEE C37.013 Revision PAR (Project)
PAR approved by IEEE-SA
Standards Board, March, 2009
Joint development with IEC SC 17A
(HV Switchgear and Controlgear)
IEEE WG chair is convenor (WG chair) of
IEC working group.
IEC has no standard for a generator circuit breaker.
The IEEE and IEC intent has been that IEEE
C37.013 would be the global standard.
IEC SC 17A WG 52
WG scope: Joint IEC/IEEE revision of
IEEE C37.013: IEEE Standard for AC HighVoltage Generator Circuit Breakers Rated on a
Symmetrical Current Basis
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X/R Ratio Determines %dc Component


X/R = 17, = 45 ms

X/R = 50, = 133 ms

%dc vs Contact Part for X/R = 17 and X/R = 50


120.0

%dc Component

100.0

80.0

60.0

40.0

20.0

0.0
0

10

15 20

25

30

35

40

45

50 55

60

Contact Part tim e (m s)

65

70

75

80 85

90

95 100
X/R = 17
X/R = 50

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X/R Ratio Effect on Asymmetrical Interrupting

3.00

Instantaneous (total) current

2.50

S-factor (C37.04-1979)

dc component

dc component (in decimal form)


(multiply by 100 for %dc component)
(C37.04-1999)

Current (Isc = 1.00)

2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
-0.50
-1.00
-1.50

Symmetrical current (ac component)

3600

3420

3240

3060

2880

2700

2520

2340

2160

1980

1800

1620

1440

1260

1080

900

720

540

360

180

-2.00

Time (in degrees)


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X/R Ratio Effect on Asymmetrical Interrupting

S=

I total
I symmetrical

= 1 + 2(%dc / 100)

S factor (from IEEE C37.04-1979)


Ratio of rms asymmetrical current to rms symmetrical current
Assume contact part time of 55 ms, and 50 kA symmetrical current
X/R = 17

%dc = 29.5

S = 1.084

I = 54.2 kA

X/R = 50

%dc = 66.1

S = 1.369

I = 68.5 kA
over 26% higher

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Short-Circuit Currents
Consider system shown:
Transformer
1,000 A full load (self-cooled)
impedance = 10%
Generator
1,000 A full load
Xd (subtransient reactance) = 20%
For fault at F2, circuit breaker sees transformer
fault current, roughly 1,000 A / 0.10 = 10 kA
For fault at F1, circuit breaker sees generator
fault current, roughly 1,000 A / 0.20 = 5 kA

F1

F2
G

Note:
Fault current for generator
source fault is only about
50% of fault current for
system (transformer)
source fault
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Generator Circuit Breaker Ratings


Characteristic

Unit

Drawout
(Metal-Clad)

FixedMounted

Maximum voltage

kV

15.0

17.5

Dielectric 60 Hz / BIL

kV/kV

38 / 95

50 / 110

Short-circuit current
Transformer source
Generator source

kA
kA

40 / 63
20 / 31.5

50 / 63 / 72
25 / 31.5 / 36

%dc component

73 / 61

75 / 65 / 65

Delayed current zero*

ms

40 / 30

30 / 30 / 30

TRV parameters
Peak voltage (1.84 V)
RRRV transformer source
RRRV generator source

kV
kV/s
kV/s

27.6
3.5 / 4.5
1.6 / 1.8

32.2
4.5 / 4.5 / 4.5
1.4 / 1.8 / 1.8

* Higher values may be available


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Generator Circuit Breakers

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Generator Circuit Breakers

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Out-of-Phase Switching
Circuit Breakers for Standard Applications:
IEEE C37.04 (clause 5.12):
Out-of-phase switching is optional, not required for general purpose circuit
breakers
If a rating is assigned, the preferred rating is 25% of the rated symmetrical
interrupting rating, with recovery voltage of (250% rated voltage / 1.732).
Therefore, out-of-phase ratings are not typically assigned to general purpose
circuit breakers rated per IEEE C37.04 and tested to IEEE C37.09.

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Out-of-Phase Switching
Circuit Breakers for Generator Switching Applications:
IEEE C37.013 (clause 6.2.9):
Out-of-phase switching is optional, not required for generator circuit breakers
If a rating is assigned, the assigned rating is shall be 50% of the rated
symmetrical interrupting rating (transformer or system source).
Out-of-phase switching recovery voltage values are based on a maximum
out-of-phase condition of 90 degrees between generator and system. This is
reasonable as more extreme angles would result in damage to the machine.
The likelihood of out-of-phase switching is influenced by generator inertia, i.e.,
low-inertia machines are more likely to be subject to out-of-phase switching
conditions.
Generator circuit breakers should have an assigned out-of-phase switching
rating.
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Other Differences
Reclosing:
Reclosing duty not required for generator circuit breakers.
Short-time current duration:
Normal circuit breakers
3 seconds (metal-clad switchgear = 2 seconds)
Generator circuit breakers
1.0 second (typically test to 3 seconds).
Closing & latching rating:
Normal circuit breakers
Peak current 260% of symmetrical short-circuit (60 Hz)
With X/R = 17, real peak is 259.3%
Generator circuit breakers
Peak current 274% of symmetrical short-circuit (60 Hz)
With X/R = 50, real peak is 274.2%.
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160

150

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

Delayed Current Zero Example C37.013

0.500
0.000
-0.500

Current (unitized)

-1.000
-1.500
-2.000
-2.500
-3.000
-3.500
-4.000
Time (ms)

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Delayed Zero Test Example

20.6 ms

30.0 ms

40.1 ms

57.7 ms
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Generator Circuit Breaker Technologies


Vacuum
Well-suited to smaller units
(up to 6,000 A or so)

SF6
Only option for very large units

Most economic for small units

VERY expensive

Derived from proven distribution unit


operators and interrupters
High experience-base

Unlike distribution products

Very low arc voltage (20 - 50 V)


Little affect on X/R ratio
Lower arc voltage = less arc energy =
lower contact erosion

SF6 low arc voltage (several 100 V)


Somewhat higher impact on X/R ratio
Higher arc voltage = higher arc energy =
greater contact erosion

Lower experience-base

Extremely rapid recovery of dielectric


Less able to cope with high TRV levels
strength between contacts after
interruption good for extreme TRV levels
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