centrifugal pump

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centrifugal pump

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Practical course

Turbomachinery

of a centrifugal pump

University Duisburg-Essen

Faculty of Engineering Sciences

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Turbomachinery

Prof. Dr.-Ing. F.-K. Benra

2

Table of contents

1.1 Range of application of centrifugal pumps .................................................................4

1.2 Impeller forms and pumping designs .........................................................................4

2 Theoretical bases 6

2.1 Speed conditions at the impeller ................................................................................6

2.2 Compression in impeller and peeler ...........................................................................8

2.3 Determination of the delivery head .......................................................................... 10

2.3.1 Influence of the finite number of blades .......................................................... 10

2.3.2 Blade angle ß2*................................................................................................ 12

2.4 Losses and efficiencies ............................................................................................ 13

2.5 Operating performance ............................................................................................ 14

2.5.1 Centrifugal pump characteristics ..................................................................... 15

2.5.2 Similarity laws................................................................................................ 19

2.5.3 Operating point of the pump............................................................................ 21

2.5.4 Regulation of centrifugal pump plants............................................................. 22

3.1 The centrifugal pump............................................................................................... 25

3.2 The drive of the centrifugal pumps........................................................................... 27

3.3 Start-up of the centrifugal pump plant...................................................................... 28

3.4 Measured variables .................................................................................................. 29

3.4.1 Flow measurement ....................................................................................... 29

3.4.2 Pressure measurement .................................................................................. 31

3.4.3 Measurement of torque, rpm measurement ................................................... 31

4.1 Throttle characteristic .............................................................................................. 32

4.2 Number of revolutions characteristic........................................................................ 32

4.3 Collection of formulae and evaluation ..................................................................... 32

3

Bibliography

1. Bohl, W.: Strömungsmaschinen Bd. 1 und 2

Vogel-Verlag

Arbeitsmaschinen

Hanser-Verlag, 1975

Springer-Verlag, 1977

4. KSB: Kreiselpumpenlexikon

KSB-AG, Frankenthal, 1989

Springer-Verlag, 1990

Hanser-Verlag, 1993

Kreiselpumpenanlagen

SIHI-Halberg, Ludwigshafen, 1978

Technik-Verlag, 1987

Springer-Verlag, 1959

Birkhäuser-Verlag, 1976

Vulkan-Verlag, 1990

Vorlesungsskript, Universität Duisburg-Essen

Strömungsmaschinen

Vorlesungsskript, Universität Duisburg-Essen

Vorlesungsskript, Universität Duisburg-Essen

Vorlesungsskript, Universität Duisburg-Essen

4

A m2 Surface

B m Impeller width

B T magnetic induction

c m/s absolute speed

D m Impeller diameter

f s-1 Frequency

F N Power

g m/s2 Acceleration due to gravity

H m Delivery head

K - A constant

m kg/s Mass-flow

n min-1 Number of revolutions

nq - specific number of revolutions

NPSH m Energy height

p - Less power factor

p N/m2 Pressure

P Kw Output

r m Radius

Re - Reynolds-number

s m distance

St - Strouhal-number

t s time

u m/s circumferential speed

U V Voltage

v m/s Speed

w m/s Relative speed

Y m2/s2 specific bladework

z m Height

Z m2/s2 specific loss

Greek letters

a rad angle

a - Orifice-constant

ß rad angle

? - Difference

e - Orifice-constant

? - Loss factor

? - Efficiency

? - Friction in pipes factor

? kg/m3 Density

?h - kinematic degree of reaction

? - Pressure-number

? s-1 Angle-speed

5

Indices

a Impeller a

A Plant

b Impeller b

d Torque

dyn dynamic

D Pressure-site

el electric

erf needed

h hydraulic

i internal

i optional

K Clutch

m mechanic

max. maximum

min. minimum

M measured value

N Nominal size

Opt. Optimum

P Pump

r friction-caused

R Friction

stat static

S Suction-site

Sch Vertex

Sch Blade

Sp Gap

th theoretic

u in circumferential direction

vorh given

V Loss

0 at zero delivering

1 Stage 1, Place

2 Stage 2, Place

8 Infinite, environment

6

The first type of a centrifugal pump was already built 1689 by the French physicist Denis

Papin. Since then the centrifugal pump found entrance in many fields of the technology. In

particular radial-flow pumps are used for liquid-delivering in a dominant number of

constructions. Beside water every other liquid is applicable as delivery medium. In particular

oil, but in addition, aggressive liquids or liquid solid mixtures can be delivered with

centrifugal pumps.

irrigation, drainage, sewage

disposal) pumps, booster pumps, sprinkling and

irrigation pumps, sewage pumps

condensate pumps, storage pumps,

reactor pumps

pumps, chemical pumps, pipeline

Pumps, process pumps, inline pumps,

liquid gas pumps

ship pumps, fuel pumps

dry-sump lubrication pump, dialysate

feed pump

Despite the various application types of centrifugal pumps in technical plants the operating

ranges of the different designs can be summarized in a H,V-diagram (Fig. 1-2). Depending

upon size of the delivered flow, the delivery head and the number of revolutions another

characteristic impeller form results in the case of aiming at an optimal efficiency. With the

help of the rapidity and/or the specific number of revolutions

n V

nq = 333 (1.1)

( gH )3 / 4

7

the impellers can be split up according to their targeted application (Fig. 1-3).

1. Low rapidity (nq = 10-30): Radial-flow impeller with simply curved blades. Pumps

with low delivered flow and large delivery head.

2. Medium rapidity (nq = 30-50): Impeller with radial discharge and double curved

blades. Pumps with a middle delivered flow and middle delivery head.

3. Helicoidic impeller (nq = 50-80): Impeller with double curved blades. Pumps with

larger as middle delivered flow and smaller than middle delivery head.

4. Diagonal impeller with high rapidity (nq = 80-135) with double curved blades. Pumps

with high delivered flow and a low delivery head.

5. Propeller impeller with highest rapidity (nq = 135-330) and rotor blades in the form of

wings. Pumps with highest delivered flow and lowest delivery head.

If very large volume flow rates are needed, or if the velocity of flow is limited in the entrance

for reasons of the suction behaviour, radial flow pumps are frequently implemented in a

multi-flow way. Thereby two impellers with same dimensions deliver in a common housing.

With same delivery head the two flow rates are added together.

Since the maximum delivery head of an impeller is fixed by the pressure factor in dependence

of the design and upward the number of revolutions limited by firmness reasons, for the

achievement of large delivery heads several pump stages are connected in series. The delivery

heads of the single stages are added with same flow rate.

8

2 Theoretical bases

Pumps are mechanisms for delivering from a state of lower static pressure to a state of higher

static pressure. At the centrifugal pumps the impeller stud with blades transfers mechanical

work to the liquid which is in the impeller channels. The liquid is displaced by centrifugal

forces from the impeller. The increase in pressure in the impeller is a consequence of

centrifugal forces and possibly also the retarded relative flow in the impeller channels. The

absolute speed of the delivery medium increased at the same time and is afterwards converted

in a system of static and extending channels into static pressure energy.

With the current of a liquid through the channels of a rotary impeller it is to be differentiated

between absolute and relative movement. The movement of the liquid particles is called

absolute, if they can be noticed by an outside of the impeller standing observer. The relative

movement of the liquid particles notices an observer, who moves with the impeller.

9

In fig. 2-1 speed conditions in the impeller are represented for a backwards curved blading.

r

The current joins with the relative velocity ω1 the blade channel. At this with "A" designated

r

place the impeller has the peripheral speed u1 . From the vectorial addition of the relative

r r r

velocity ω1 and the peripheral speed u1 the absolute speed c1 results.

With flowing through the blade channel the relative velocity generally decreases. At this with

r r

"B" designated place the fluid has the peripheral speed u2 and the relative speed ω 2 . As

r

resulting the absolute outgoing speed c2 results, which is substantially larger due to the

r

transfer of energy than c1 . The transformation of the kinetic energy happens in the following

r

guidance mechanism. Here the current with the speed c2 occurs and is retarded to the speed

r

c3 .

10

The work transferred in the impeller to the liquid is converted to pressure energy on the one

hand by the increase of the circumferential speed from u1 to u2 and on the other hand by the

delay of the current in impeller and peeler.

In order to be able to determine the compression in the impeller and in the peeler, one makes

the assumption that all liquid particles follow accurately the course of the rotor blades (Blade-

congruent current). Thus the flow conditions (pressure and speed) are alike in each case along

concentric circles around the perpendicularly arranged wheel axle. This condition can be

fulfilled by the assumption of infinitely many and infinitely thin blades.

Further the transformation from speed energy in pressure energy should happen in the blade

r r

channels and the repeating-condition ( c3 = c1 ) should be fulfilled.

The increase in pressure from the work of centrifugal forces can be determined, if a mass

particle of the pumping medium is regarded, which is limited by the lateral surfaces of two

cylinders with the radii r and r+dr as well as two neighbouring blades and the wheel walls of

cover- and wheel disk (Fig. 2-2a). Thus the centrifugal force of the mass particle can be

expressed as follows:

dF ′ = dA ⋅ dr ⋅ ρ ⋅ r ⋅ ω 2 2.1)

dp = ρω 2 rdr (2.2)

dp

= dY∞′ = ω 2 rdr (2.3)

ρ

the specific flow work of centrifugal forces, then the work portion from centrifugal forces can

be determined by integration along the radius.

1 p∞ p − p1

Y∞′ = ∫ dp = ∞ (2.4)

ρ p1 ρ

2 r2 − r1 u22 − u12

2 2

′

Y∞ = ω ∫ rdr = ω

r

2 2

= (2.5)

r1 2 2

As a result of the introduction of acceleration due to gravity the delivery head portion arises

due to centrifugal forces to:

H∞ = = = (2.6)

g ρg 2g

11

The increase in pressure from the delay of the relative velocity w can be derived by fig. 2-2b

from the dynamic Basic Law:

dω

dF ′′ = − dA ⋅ ds ⋅ ρ ⋅ (2.7)

dt

Thereby dw is negative since w decreases with rising pressure. With ds/dt = w and dp =

dF´´/dA can be written:

dp = − ρω dω (2.8)

dp

= dY∞′′ = −ωd ω (2.9)

ρ

the specific flow work from the delay of the relative velocity, then this work portion can be

determined by integration along the entire flow channel:

1 p p∞ − p∞

Y∞′′ = ∫

p p∞

dp = (2.10)

ρ p∞ ρ

ω2 ∞ ω12 − ω22∞

Y∞′′ = − ∫ ωd ω = (2.11)

ω1 2

p p∞ − p∞ ω12 − ω22∞

H ∞′′ = = (2.12)

ρg 2g

With fig. 2-2c for the transformation of the speed energy in the peeler accordingly derives:

p2 ∞ − p p∞ c22 − c12

H ∞′′′ = = (2.13)

ρg 2g

12

The entire specific work transferred theoretically to the liquid with infinitely many blades is:

Yth∞ = = (2.15)

ρ 2

By the use of the appropriate relations from the velocity triangles the relative velocities can be

eliminated and one receives the Euler Main-equation for the current in turbo machinery:

Yth∞

H th∞ = (2.17)

g

The continuous pressure ratios along concentric circles are no longer present with an impeller

with finite blade number (Fig. 2-3). The uneven distribution of velocity can be explained after

Pfleiderer with the help of the relative channel eddy.

13

On the blade front small and on the blade back large relative velocities result. That leads to a

diversion of the thread of stream in opposite to the direction of rotation. The by this caused

enlargement of the relative flow angle ß2 causes a reduction of the circumferential component

of cu28 to cu2. Thus, according to the Euler equation,

with a finite blade number a smaller specific work is exchanged (Fig. 2-3). The relationship

of these two blade work can be described with the less power factor p:

Yth 1

= (2.19)

Yth∞ 1 + p

The less power does not represent a loss, but a correction of the for the current in the pump

impeller to inaccurate linear theory. With one against infinitely going rotor blade number the

less power factor p goes against the limit value zero and the relationship of the two blade

work goes against one.

Imaging A Imaging B

14

The angle of outlet ß2* can theoretically be selected freely within a wide range. An angle

ß2*>90° leads to backwards curved blades. ß2 *=90° means radially ending blades and ß2 *<90°

means forward curved blades. With equation and velocity triangles results that the specific

blade work is the larger, the smaller ß2 * is. From fig. 2-4 it is to be recognized that a small

angle ß2* means also a large absolute speed c2. The transformation of this speed energy in

pressure energy in the peeler is connected with substantial losses. It is better to chose ß2*>90°

for getting a lower c2. In addition, a large angle ß2 * has the disadvantages that it requires with

same delivery head a larger circumferential speed and so it causes larger wheel friction losses.

Because of the larger difference of pressure between entrance and exit of the impeller, larger

gap leakages are caused. However, these disadvantages cannot cover the crucially better

hydraulic efficiency. Therefore in centrifugal pumps only backwards curved blades with

angles of outlet ß2*=140°-160° are used.

15

• Internal losses:

changes of direction.

Ø Losses of quantity at the sealing places between impeller and housing, at the

rotary shaft seals and sometimes at the balance piston.

With pumps the work for the covering of the internal losses must be additionally transferred

to the demanded specific work Y by the blades to the delivery medium. The internal losses

have the common characteristic that they turn into as warmth to the pumping medium. Their

summary with the available power results in the internal power Pi, which must be supplied at

the drive shaft. In contrast to it the dissipated heat of the outside or mechanical losses turns

not into the pumping medium. It is outward exhausted.

One can directly determine the overall efficiency ? and also the internal efficiency ? i by

attempt, but as for the blade efficiency and the hydraulic efficiency ?h this is not possible. It

must be computed from ? or ? i by excluding the losses, which are not pressure losses.

1 + V&sp / V&

ηh = ⋅η (2.20)

1 − (Pr + Pm ) / p

16

Efficiency η = =

Expenditure Input (Work )

Blade efficiency or hydraulic efficiency

Y Y

ηh = =

YSch Y + Z h

Pi − Pr (m& + m

& Sp )YSch

ηr = =

Pi Pi

1 YSch

ηr = ⋅

η Sp Yi

Gap efficiency

m&

η Sp =

m& + m& Sp

Internal efficiency

&

mY Y

ηi = =

Pi Yi

ηi = η h ⋅η r ⋅η Sp

Mechanical efficiency

Pi Pi

ηm = =

P Pi + Pm

Overall efficiency or clutch efficiency

&

mY & i

mYP

η= = = ηi ⋅η m

P PP

i

By the operating performance of a centrifugal pump one understands the connection between

the flow rate supplied by the pump with the delivery head prescribed by the plant.

During the evaluation of the operating performance it must be considered that the pump is not

an isolated machine, but that it is integrated always into a complete plant and all parts of the

plant have to be considered.

17

The co-operation of the pump with the consumer can be described therefore by the

characteristics of pump and plant.

machine and/or operating parameters. With centrifugal pumps the parameters V& , Y, n, P, ?,

NPSH have the greatest importance. For the representation of the characteristics frequently

sizes such as delivery head H, power P, efficiency ?, or the NPSH-value are laid over the

volume flow rate. Geometry sizes such as impeller diameters D2, position of the peeler a or

the machine number of revolutions n are often used as parameters. Thus result further

characteristics of constant parameter, which represent the characteristic diagram of the pump

(e.g. positive spin-characteristic, rpm-characteristic…).

From the characteristics some characteristic delivering data can already be read off. After fig.

2-7 these are for the characteristics of a radial centrifugal pump at constant number of

revolutions:

18

Delivered flow, for that the pump with the number of revolutions, the nominal delivery head and the pumping

medium indicated in the contract is ordered.

• Best flow rate V& opt:

The delivered flow in the point of the best efficiency with the rated speed and the liquid indicated in the contract.

The flow rate range V& < V& opt is called partial load, the range V& > V& opt is called overload

• Highest flow rate V& max:

Largest permissible delivered flow, which the pump can deliver continuously without getting damaged. (Limitation

e.g. through NPSHgiv , radial or axial forces etc.)

• Minimum flow rate V& min:

Smallest permissible delivered flow, which the pump can deliver continuously without getting damaged. (Limitation

e.g. through heating up, oscillations, NPSHneeded)

• Upper delivery head border Hmax:

Largest permissible delivery head, which the pump can deliver continuously without getting damaged.

• Nominal delivery head HN:

Delivery head, for that the pump with the number of revolutions, the nominal delivery head and the pumping

medium indicated in the contract is ordered.

• Best delivery head Hopt:

The delivery head in the point of the best efficiency with the rated speed and the liquid indicated in the contract.

• Lower delivery head border Hmin:

Lowest permissible delivery head, which the pump can deliver continuously without getting damaged.

• Zero delivery head H0:

Delivery head at the nominal number of revolutions nN, the pumping medium indicated in the contract and the flow

rate V& =0.

• Vertex delivery head Hvert:

Delivery head in the vertex (that means in the relative maximum of an instable centrifugal pump characteristic)

19

experiment. To improve the understanding a theoretical view is quite useful. First one

proceeds from a frictionless, blade-congruent current and considers only afterwards the

influence of the finite blade number and the losses.

The view of speed conditions with two different flow rates (V& and V&N , fig. 2-8) results in the

same circumferential speed u2 and the same relative flow angle ß28 in the case of same

number of revolutions. In the case of spin-free inflow results from the Euler' main equation:

V&

ωm 2 = & ωm 2 N (2.22)

VN

ωm 2

ωu 2 ∞ = (2.23)

tan(180° − β 2 ∞ )

and with

r r r

cu 2 ∞ = u2 + ωu 2 ∞ (2.24)

20

cu 2 ∞ = u2 − ωu 2 ∞ (2.25)

derives

V& u2ωm 2 N

Yth∞ = u22 + & (2.27)

VN A2 tan β 2 ∞

u2

Yth∞ = u22 + V& (2.28)

A2 tan β 2 ∞

Thus a theoretical characteristic in dependence of the volume flow rate can be represented

(Fig. 2-9). The angle ß28 determines thereby the upward gradient of this straight line, which

cuts the ordinate at u22 and, with the usual obtuse angles ß28 , has a falling tendency.

If the less power factor p and thus the relationship 1/(1+p) are accepted as constant, then the

characteristic Yth = f (V& ) becomes again a straight line.

Up to this moment the view without consideration of losses was accomplished. One generally

differentiates between friction and collision losses. The friction losses ∆VV,R in the design point

(V&N) are given by

and for operating conditions deviating from the design point for instance proportional to the

square of the flow rate:

V&

∆YV , R = (1 − η h )Yth ( & ) 2 (2.30)

VN

The stronger the flow rate from its design value to larger flow rates deviates, the larger are the

friction losses.

21

The deviation of the direction of the relative flow against velocity connected with the change

of the volume stream causes additional collision losses. This reduction of the specific work is

for instance proportional to the square of the flow rate difference ( V&A − V& ):

V&N − V& 2

∆YV , S : ( ) (2.31)

V&N

By subtraction of the two loss portions ? YV,R and ? YV,S from Yth the searched pump

characteristic Y = f (V& ) results. Further from the relationship:

Y

=η h (2.32)

Yth

the process of the hydraulic efficiency of the pump results. Instead of the specific work also

the delivery head is often represented as a function of the flow rate.

revolutions. Often it is however necessary to know either for a pump curves at different

numbers of revolutions or to conclude from a machine already built to a machine which is to

be developed. In addition one uses the similarity-mechanical model laws (affinity laws). With

the use of similarity-mechanical conversions of the main data of turbo machineries the

following conditions must be kept:

dimensions and forms.

• The currents in the channels, in particular in the impellers, must run kinematically

similarly. That means that the velocity triangles of the corresponding machines must

be geometrically similar, which means that the dimensionless velocity triangles are

equal.

• The currents, which have to be compared, must run dynamically similarly. The

appropriate forces of inertia and friction forces must behave similarly, which means

that the Reynolds number of the machines should almost agree.

22

The comparison of two geometrically similar impellers a and b with same dimensionless

velocity triangles results under the condition of spin-free incident flow and same efficiencies

in the following connections:

Delivery head

Y η

H= = u2cu 2 (2.33)

g g

Ha D n

= ( 2, a )2 ( a )2 (2.34)

Hb D2,b nb

V& = cm 2 ⋅ D2 ⋅ B2 ⋅ π (2.35)

V&a na D2,a 3

= ( ) (2.36)

V&b nb D2,b

Available power

P = H ⋅ g ⋅ ρ ⋅V& (2.37)

Pa n D

= ( a )3 ( 2, a )5 (2.38)

Pb nb D2,b

The accepted equality of the efficiencies is only approximately correct, since as a result of

change of the machine size, the number of revolutions or the viscosity of the delivery medium

a deviation of the efficiency arises. The change of efficiency can be considered by so-called

empirical revaluation formulas. By Pfleiderer applies:

1 − ηb Re

= ( a )0,1 (2.39)

1 − ηa Reb

with

u2 ⋅ D2

Re = (2.40)

ν

The regularities indicated here can be proven for a pump with different numbers of

revolutions. In fig. 2-11 the appropriate curves in a diagram are represented for a two-stage

radial-flow pump with design data V& N = 74,5 m3/h and nN = 1500 min-1. Into these theoretical

curves the measured values for water delivering are drawn in.

23

The operating point of a centrifugal pump in a plant is determined not only by the pump

characteristic, but also by the plant characteristic. The plant characteristic indicates the

delivery head, which is necessary for delivering the fluid against the existing resistances in the

piping for any flow rates. From the continuity equation and the energy equation for stationary

currents an appropriate relationship for the delivery head can be derived:

p2 − p1 c 22 − c12

HA = + + z2 − z1 + HVD + HVS (2.41)

ρg 2g

This plant characteristic contains static portions, which are independent of the flow rate and

dynamic portions, in which squared flow rates and the fall in meters arise. The allocation into

static and dynamic portions is represented in fig. 2-12 for a simple centrifugal pump plant.

The fall in meters on the suction and the pressure site can be computed after Darcy-Weisbach

for straight pipings by:

l c2

HV = λ ⋅ (2.42)

d 2g

resp.

c2

HV = ξ (2.43)

2g

24

;if one assumes that the dependence of the friction number for pipes λ and the coefficients of

drag ξ on the Reynolds number and thus on the delivered flow V& is negligible .

The operating point of the pump adjusts itself, where the delivery head of the centrifugal

pump and the plant are the same size. That is the case in the intersection of pumping and plant

characteristic. An extremely important condition for working the pump in the adjusting

operating point is the demand:

With changing plant conditions a control procedure is released, with which the intersection of

the two characteristics is shifted, until the requested flow rate is reached. In order to reach

this, the following possibilities are available:

- Change of the dynamic portions of the plant characteristic H A,dyn = f (V& ) through:

· Throttling

· Opening of bypasses in the pressure pipe

· Adapt the counter-pressure in the tank

· Change of the geodetic differences in height of the water levels

· Number of revolutions

· Positive Spin before the impeller by spin throttle or arranged bypass

25

· Switching on or off parallel-working pumps

· Correction of the impeller diameter

· Sharpen of the vane ends

- Change of the middle density ? of the delivery medium by steered content of steam

bubbles (self-regulation by cavitation)

In the practical course which is accomplished here as measure on side of the plant the

throttling (Throttle characteristic) and as measure on side of the pump the speed-regulation

(number of revolutions characteristic) are accomplished.

The throttle regulation uses the change of the dynamic losses HV in the armatures, with which

the slope of the plant characteristics HA can be affected within wide ranges of the delivered

flow ( V& till V& =0) (Fig. 2-13). The operating point B can be shifted thereby over the entire

pump characteristic from N to O. Throttle armatures (which in consideration of the A-value

should be built in only on the pressure site of the pump into the piping) are relative cheap

controlling means, they have however always the disadvantage that they in particular convert

considerable portions (HB-HA)/HB of the hydraulically usable energy in (mostly not usable)

warmth with stronger interferences and that they remove the operating point B from the

design point N of the centrifugal pump at the same time and causes thus the additional loss

portion (? N-? B)/? N.

26

In the characteristic diagram ( V& -H) with throttle curves of different numbers of revolutions

the points of the best efficiency are on an origin parabola, which can coincide with the plant

characteristics without static portion ( H A : V& 2 ) more or less accurately. If one regulates, in

such cases, the pumping-rpm as a function of the need, then the operating point of the pump

always lies within the area of the best efficiency. At the same time the pump doesn't deliver

more delivery head, than the plant for the transmission of the delivered flow requires. Thus,

this kind of regulation is economically unsurpassed.

The larger the static portions HA,stat of the plant characteristic HA are, the more this economic

advantage is lost. Also in these cases no more delivery head H as if required is delivered, but

the pump drives out of its efficiency optimum with a lower number of revolutions n<nN.

Fig. 2-14: Speed regulation of plant characteristics HA with large static portion

With pump drive by turbines or combustion engines speed regulation can be realized more

easily. With drives by three-phase motors an additional expenditure on capital assets is

unavoidable, e.g. by hydraulic transmissions and/or induction couplings or increasingly by

Frequency inverter.

27

The plant for the investigation of centrifugal pumps is represented in fig. 3-1. It consists of an

open cycle and is operated with industrial water of ambient temperature. The open water store

tank made of PL (1) seizes maximally 8000 litres and is provided with several pipe unions as

well as a level monitoring and an exhaust.

The suction pipe (3) of the nominal size (DN) 100 (measured inside Diameter di = 107,1mm)

is reduced before the pump to the connection nominal DN 80 (di = 82,5mm) size of the pump.

In the pressure pipe of the nominal size DN 65 (di = 70,3mm) a flat slide is inserted behind

the pump, which serves as shutoff device. Subsequently, an extension of the piping DN 100 as

well as a regulating valve DN 100 follows. With its assistance the operating point of the pump

can be adjusted. After the valve the piping branches out to the two measuring sections A and

B, which are provided with two volumetric flow meters switched into row in each case.

Depending upon the operating point of the plant the measuring section A or the measuring

section B can be released over the ball valves (9). Over the return pipe (14) of the nominal

size DN 100 the water flows back into the store tank.

The centrifugal pump (4) is a product of the company Klein, Schanzlin und Becker (KSB /

Frankenthal). It’s a three stage, horizontal arranged high-pressure pump in segmental-type

way out of the series MOVI with uncooled axial face seal and fat-lubricated grooved ball

bearings. Pumps of this series predominantly used for general water supply, spray irrigation -,

28

irrigation and pressure increasing systems. In addition they are used for warm water -, hot

waters -, cooling water circulation, for condensate-delivering, boiler supply and in fire-

extinguishing systems.

The rating data as well as the most important technical details are summarized in the

following table.

Nominal delivery head HN = 140 m

Pumping medium Water

Nominal rpm nN = 2900 min-1

Power requirement P = 45 kw

Max. pressure pmax = 40 bar

Characteristics Fig. 3-2

Intake joint DN 80 PN 40 (d i = 82,5mm)

Pressure joint DN 65 PN 40 (d i = 70,3mm)

Housing material Gray cast iron

Impeller material Tin bronze

The adaption to the demanded nominal dates was reached by differently strong turning off the

normally similar impellers of the three stages. The impeller diameters of the three stages

amount to:

Stage 2 : D2,2 = 185 mm

Stage 3 : D2,3 = 172 mm

29

Centrifugal pumps are in most cases driven by electric motors. The centrifugal pump used

here is in such a way conceived that it can be coupled e.g. directly with the shaft of a three-

phase alternating current asynchronous engine (5). The synchronous number of revolutions of

the used engine with a pair of poles amounts to, with the existing frequency of 50 cycles per

second, n = 3000 rpm. The actual number of revolutions lies due to the load-rate slip with

approximately n = 2900 rpm. By change of the frequency with the help of a currentsteered

frequency changer the number of revolutions can be adjusted steplessly in the range 0,3nN = n

= 1,0 nN. The lower speed limit is given by the cooling performance of the blower at low

numbers of revolutions, while the upper speed limit arises as a result of the maximum

capacity of the engine.

30

engine with squirrel-cage rotor is represented in fig. 3. The parabola-similar process of the

load-moment corresponds to the conditions available with a pump drive.

For the determination of the taken up electrical power of the engine the current and the

voltage of one of the three phases can be measured.

The centrifugal pump described in chapter 3.1 belongs to the group of the normalsucking, i.e.

no self-priming pumps. Since the water store tank is set up in the basement under the actual

test stand, the pump works in priming mode and must suck in the delivery medium depending

upon the water level over a certain geodetic height-difference. Normal priming pumps only

produce a very small difference of pressure during air delivering. Therefore they are not able

to air out their intake independently, if they are running in the priming mode. In order to fill

the pump with liquid, a pneumatically operated ejector (6) is arranged as external ventilation

system on the pressure site of the pump (Fig. 3-4).

31

After switching on the centrifugal pump on first only the priming-automat is activated. In the

case of completion of the exhaust procedure a float switch response, the vent line is locked by

a valve, the priming-automat is set out of operation and the centrifugal pump can be switched

on.

For the determination of the characteristics of a centrifugal pump the measurement of the

volume flow rate is of elementary importance. The delivered flow rate of the pump is

determined by two different measuring procedures switched into row. Due to the limited

measuring range of the volumetric flow meters the measuring section is divided into two

parallel legs (Fig. 3-5). With a small overlap range flow rates up to 10 m3/h are measured in

the measuring pipe A (DN 25), while delivered flows over 10 m3/h in the measuring pipe B

(DN 100) are measured.

32

a constant magnetic field with the magnetic induction B by moving electrically conductive

measuring material through it (Fig. 3-6). This voltage is proportional to the middle velocity of

flow of the measuring material. With the knowledge of the distance of the test electrodes the

flow can be determined with the help of an equipment constant K.

π D

V& = U (3.1)

4 KB

The principle of the eddy flow measurement is based on the fact that at a flowed against body

(Vortex-body) at both sides eddies are produced, which separates and form a vortex trail. The

mutually forming eddies shift the vortex-body in oscillation with a frequency, which results

from the flow rate and the thickness of the vortex-body according to the definition for the

Strouhal number:

v

f = St ⋅ (3.2)

d

The dimensionless constant St is called Strouhal number and is a relevant parameter for eddy

flow measurements.

Fig. 3-7 shows the typical dependence of the Strouhal number of the Reynolds number for a

cylindrical vortex-body. Within a large range of the Reynolds number the vortex-body

frequency is directly proportional to the flow velocity and independent of the density and the

viscosity of the medium. If the Strouhal number of a vortex-body is known, the flow can be

determined by the vortex-body frequency.

33

The measurement of the volume flow rate according to the effect pressure principle takes

place with a standard orifice. From the continuity equation and the energy equation in the

form after Bernoulli one receives the relationship for the determination of the volume stream:

πd2 2∆ p

V& = αε (3.3)

4 ρ

The constants of a and e can be inferred from the DIN 1952 for standard orifices.

For the determination of the delivery head characteristic of the several stages as well as the

entire pump the pressures in the intake before the pump, after the 1. stage, after the 2. stage

as well as in the pressure pipe after the pump has to be measured. Note that the pressure of the

intake is a pressure below the atmospheric pressure, which is indicated in the measuring

cabinet as absolute pressure!

In order to be able to determine the achievement taken up by the pump, torque and number of

revolutions of the pump drive shaft must be known. For the measuring of the torque a torque

measuring shaft of the company Höttinger Baldwin Meßtechnik of the type T1 (15) is used.

On the measuring shaft strain gauges (DMS) are fastened, which are tossed or stretched, if the

wave is torqued. The Ohm's resistance of the DMS changes thereby proportionally to the

stretch and is a measure for the torque.

The number of revolutions is determined over a disk with 60 teeth in connection with an

inductive giver, attached on the shaft, by an impulse counter.

34

The range of the practical course attempt "measurement of the characteristics of a centrifugal

pump" includes the taking down of a throttle curve at a certain number of revolutions as well

as a number of revolutions characteristic during a certain throttle position. Apart from the

machine characteristics also only for the throttle curve the delivery head characteristics of the

individual stages are to be determined and to be represented in the prepared diagrams.

At a given number of revolutions, which has to be kept constant during this attempt, the valve

in the pressure pipe is completely opened after starting the pump. The maximum flow rate

adjusting by the leg B (DN 100) is divided into a certain number of measuring points (max.

15). Subsequently, the valve is closed after each measurement in as small as possible

appropriate flow rate steps. When falling below the smallest measuring range of the leg B it is

to be switched to the parallel leg A (DN 25), as first A is additionally opened, before B is

closed. For the examination of the agreement of both measuring legs the last measuring point

of the leg B is to be measured again in the leg A.

The measured values are to be registered into the prepared table 4-1.

With a given position of the throttle valve on the pressure-site different numbers of

revolutions are to be examined. To avoid an overload of the engine, the attempt starts with an

rpm = 3000min -1 and then the speed is reduced in small steps ? n ˜ 250min-1. The lower speed

limit of 1000rpm shouldn’t substantially fall below. Also here a change of the volume

measuring legs is to be made according to chapter 4.1 at given time. The read off measured

values are to be registered into the prepared table 4.2. To reduce the extent of work only the

values of the entire pump without view of the single stages has to be taken up.

V& + V&

V& = 1 2 (4.1)

2

Pressure:

pi = p∞ + ∆pM ,i + ( ρ ⋅ g ⋅ ∆z M ,i ) (4.2)

35

pD − pS v2 − v2

Y= + g ( zD − zS ) + D S (4.3)

ρ 2

Y

H= (4.4)

g

Output:

PK = M d ⋅ ω (4.5)

ω = 2 ⋅π ⋅ n (4.6)

& = ρ ⋅ V& ⋅ Y

PNutz = mY (4.7)

Efficiency:

PNutz

ηP = (4.8)

PK

36

1 Delivery head characteristic Stage 1 H1(V) 4-3a 4-1

2 Delivery head characteristic Stage 2 H2(V)

4-3b 4-1

3 Delivery head characteristic Stage 3 H3(V)

4-3c 4-1

4 Pump characteristic

4-3d 4-1, 4-2

5 Rpm-charactersitic of the pump

4-4 4-1

6 Rpm-charactersitic of the pump

4-4 4-3

In addition first the missing values are to be computed according to the equations (4.1) till

(4.8) in the tables 4-3a till 4-3d and 4-4. Subsequently, the demanded values are to be

registered into the prepared diagrams. The results should be discussed in detail in a critical

view of the attempt. In particular a statement about the range of validity of the affinity law is

to be made. In addition are to compare, related to the measuring point at largest adjusted

number of revolutions of the series of measurements during constant throttle position, the

theoretical characteristics of the affinity law (Equations 2.34, 2.35, 2.38) with the measuring

data.

37

Volume flow

rate Pressure [bar] blade-work delivery head Output

V [l/s] ps p1 Y1 [m2/s2] H1 [m] P1,Nutz [kW]

Volume flow

rate Pressure [bar] blade-work delivery head Output

V [l/s] p1 p2 Y2 [m2/s2] H2 [m] P2,Nutz [kW]

38

Volume flow

rate Pressure [bar] blade-work delivery head Output

V [l/s] p2 p3 Y3 [m2/s2] H3 [m] P3,Nutz [kW]

Flow

rate Pressure Velocity Specific Delivery Power Required Efficiency

work head Output Power

V pS pD vS vD Y H Pnutz PK ?P

[l/s] [bar] [bar] [m/s] [m/s] [m2/s2] [m] [kW] [kW] [-]

39

revolutions rate work head Output Power

V pS pD vS vD Y H Pnutz PK ?P

[min-1] [l/s] [bar] [bar] [m/s] [m/s] [m2/s2] [m] [kW] [kW] [-]

.

40

41

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