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A blog network is a group of blogs that are connected to each other in a network.

A blog network can


either be a group of loosely connected blogs, or a group of blogs that are owned by the same company.
The purpose of such a network is usually to promote the other blogs in the same network and therefore
increase the advertising revenue generated from online advertising on the blogs.[1]

List of search engines


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For knowing popular web search engines see, see Most popular Internet search engines.
This is a list of search engines, including web search engines, selection-based search engines,
metasearch engines, desktop search tools, and web portals and vertical market websites that have
a search facility for online databases.

Contents

1 By content/topic
o 1.1 General
o 1.2 P2P search engines
o 1.3 Metasearch engines
o 1.4 Geographically limited scope
o 1.5 Semantic
o 1.6 Accountancy
o 1.7 Business
o 1.8 Computers
o 1.9 Enterprise
o 1.10 Fashion
o 1.11 Food/Recipes
o 1.12 Genealogy
o 1.13 Mobile/Handheld
o 1.14 Job
o 1.15 Legal
o 1.16 Medical
o 1.17 News
o 1.18 People
o 1.19 Real estate / property
o 1.20 Television
o 1.21 Video Games
2 By information type
o 2.1 Forum
o 2.2 Blog
o 2.3 Multimedia
o 2.4 Source code
o 2.5 BitTorrent

o
o
o
o

2.6 Email
2.7 Maps
2.8 Price
2.9 Question and answer
2.9.1 Human answers
2.9.2 Automatic answers
o 2.10 Natural language
3 By model
o 3.1 Privacy search engines
o 3.2 Open source search engines
o 3.3 Semantic browsing engines
o 3.4 Social search engines
o 3.5 Visual search engines
o 3.6 Search appliances
o 3.7 Desktop search engines
o 3.8 Usenet
4 Based on
o 4.1 Google
o 4.2 Yahoo!
o 4.3 Bing
o 4.4 Ask.com
5 Defunct or acquired search engines
6 See also
7 References
8 External links

By content/topic
General
Name
Language
Baidu
Chinese, Japanese
Bing
Multilingual
Blekko
English
DuckDuckGo Multilingual
Exalead
Multilingual
Gigablast
English
Google
Multilingual
Munax
Multilingual
Qwant
Multilingual
Sogou
Chinese
Soso.com
Chinese
Yahoo!
Multilingual

Name
Yandex
Youdao

Language
Multilingual
Chinese

P2P search engines


Name

Language
FAROO
English
Seeks (Open Source)
English
YaCy (Free and fully decentralized) Multilingual

Metasearch engines
See also: Metasearch engine
Name
Language
Blingo
English
Yippy (formerly Clusty) English
DeeperWeb
English
Dogpile
English
Excite
English
Harvester42
HotBot
English
Info.com
English
Ixquick (StartPage)
Multilingual
Kayak and SideStep
Multilingual
Mamma
Metacrawler
English
Mobissimo
Multilingual
Otalo
English
PCH Search and Win
WebCrawler
English

Geographically limited scope


Name
Accoona
Ansearch
Biglobe
Daum

Language
Country
Chinese, English China, United States
English
Australia, United States, United Kingdom, New Zealand
Japanese
Japan
Korean
Korea

Name
Language
Egerin
Kurdish
Goo
Japanese
Guruji.com
Leit.is
Maktoob
Miner.hu
Najdi.si
Naver
Korean
Onkosh
Rambler
Rediff
SAPO
Search.ch
Sesam
Seznam
Walla!
Yandex.ru
ZipLocal

Country
Kurdistan
Japan
India
Iceland
Arab World
Hungary
Slovenia
Korea
Arab World
Russia
India
Portugal, Angola, Cabo Verde, Mozambique
Switzerland
Norway, Sweden
Czech Republic
Israel
Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan
Canada/United States

Semantic
See also: Semantic search
Search Engine
Description
Speciality
Name
Sophia Search
Specialises in auto-tagging of content
search engine
Limited
for semantic search and discovery
True Knowledge Specialises in knowledge base and
answer engine
(now Evi)[1]
semantic search
Semantic web search engine for food,
Yummly
food related
cooking and recipes
Semantic web ontologies. Indexes
Swoogle
Searching over 10,000 ontologies
over 4 million semantic web
documents.

Accountancy

IFACnet

Business

Business.com
Getit Infoservices Private Limited
GenieKnows (United States and Canada)
GlobalSpec
Nexis (Lexis Nexis)
Thomasnet (United States)
Justdial

Computers

Shodan (website)

Enterprise
See also: Enterprise search

Funnelback: Funnelback Search


Jumper 2.0: Universal search powered by Enterprise bookmarking
Oracle Corporation: Secure Enterprise Search 10g
Q-Sensei: Q-Sensei Enterprise
TeraText: TeraText Suite
Swiftype: Swiftype Search

Fashion

Fashion Net

Food/Recipes

RecipeBridge: vertical search engine for recipes


Yummly: semantic recipe search

Genealogy

Mocavo.com: family history search engine

Mobile/Handheld

Taganode Local Search Engine


Taptu: taptu mobile/social search
URX: App Search

Job
Main article: Job search engine

Adzuna (UK)
Bixee.com (India)
CareerBuilder.com (USA)
Craigslist (by city)
Dice.com (USA)
Eluta.ca (Canada)
Hotjobs.com (USA)
JobStreet.com (Southeast Asia, Japan and India)
Incruit (Korea)
Indeed.com (USA)
Glassdoor.com (USA)
LinkUp.com (USA)
Monster.com (USA), (India)
Naukri.com (India)
Yahoo! HotJobs (Countrywise subdomains, International)

Legal

Google Scholar
Lexis (Lexis Nexis)
Manupatra
Quicklaw
WestLaw

Medical

Bing Health
Bioinformatic Harvester
CiteAb (antibody search engine for medical researchers)
EB-eye EMBL-EBI's Search engine
Entrez (includes Pubmed)
GenieKnows
GoPubMed (knowledge-based: GO - GeneOntology and MeSH - Medical Subject
Headings)
Healia
Healthline
Nextbio (Life Science Search Engine)
PubGene
Quertle (Semantic search of the biomedical literature)
Searchmedica
WebMD

News

Bing News
Daylife

Google News
MagPortal
Newslookup
Nexis (Lexis Nexis)
Topix.net
Trapit
Yahoo! News

People

Comfibook
Ex.plode.us
InfoSpace
PeekYou
Spock
Spokeo
Worldwide Helpers
Zabasearch.com
ZoomInfo

Real estate / property

Fizber.com
HotPads.com
Realtor.com
Redfin
Rightmove
Trulia
Zillow.com
Zoopla
StuRents.com

Television

TV Genius

Video Games

Wazap (Japan)

By information type
Search engines dedicated to a specific kind of information

Forum

Omgili

Blog

Amatomu
Bloglines
BlogScope
IceRocket
Munax
Regator
Technorati

Multimedia
See also: Multimedia search

Bing Videos
blinkx
FindSounds
Google Video
Munax's PlayAudioVideo
Picsearch
Pixsta
Podscope
ScienceStage
SeeqPod
Songza
TinEye
TV Genius
Veveo
Yahoo! Video

Source code

Google Code Search


Koders
Krugle

BitTorrent
These search engines work across the BitTorrent protocol.

BTDigg
FlixFlux
Isohunt
Mininova

The Pirate Bay


TorrentSpy
Torrentz
Torrentus

Email

Lookeen
TEK

Maps

Bing Maps
Goportail
Google Maps
MapQuest
Nokia Maps
OpenStreetMap
Wikiloc
WikiMapia
Yahoo! Maps

Price

Bing Shopping
Google Shopping (formerly Google Product Search and Froogle)
Kelkoo
MySimon
PriceGrabber
PriceRunner
PriceSCAN
Pronto.com
Shopping.com
ShopWiki
Shopzilla (also operates Bizrate)
SwoopThat.com
TheFind.com

Question and answer


Main article: List of question-and-answer websites
Human answers

Answers.com
Ask Me Help Desk

DeeperWeb
eHow
Quora
Stack Overflow/Stack Exchange Network
Uclue
wikiHow
Yahoo! Answers

Automatic answers
See also: Question answering

AskMeNow
BrainBoost
True Knowledge
Wolfram Alpha

Natural language
See also: Natural language search engine and Semantic search

Ask.com
Bing (Semantic ability is powered by Powerset)
hakia
Lexxe

By model
Privacy search engines

DuckDuckGo
Ixquick (StartPage)

Open source search engines

DataparkSearch
Gigablast
Grub
ht://Dig
Isearch
Lemur Toolkit & Indri Search Engine
Lucene
mnoGoSearch
Namazu
Nutch

Recoll
Sciencenet (for scientific knowledge, based on YaCy technology)
Searchdaimon
Seeks
Sphinx
SWISH-E
Terrier Search Engine
Xapian
YaCy
Zettair

Semantic browsing engines

Hakia
Yebol

Social search engines


See also: Social search, Relevance feedback and Human search engine

ChaCha Search
Delver
Eurekster
Mahalo.com
Rollyo
SearchTeam
Sproose
Trexy

Visual search engines


See also: Visual search engine

ChunkIt!
Grokker
Pixsta
PubGene
TinEye
Viewzi
Macroglossa

Search appliances
See also: Search appliance

Google Search Appliance

Fabasoft
Munax
Searchdaimon
Thunderstone

Desktop search engines


See also: Desktop search
Desktop search engines listed on a light purple background are no longer in active development.
Name
Autonomy

Beagle
Copernic
Desktop
Search

Platform
Windows

Linux

Windows

Remarks
IDOL Enterprise Desktop Search, HP
Autonomy Universal Search.[2]
Open source desktop search tool for Linux
based on Lucene. Unmaintained since
2009.

License
Proprietary,
commercial
A mix of the
X11/MIT License
and the Apache
License
Free for home use

Open source desktop search tool for


Eclipse Public
DocFetcher Cross-platform Windows and Linux, based on Apache
License
Lucene
Proprietary (30 day
dtSearch
Windows
trial)
Desktop
Find files and folders by name instantly on
Freeware
Everything Windows
NTFS volumes
Integrates with the main Google search
Linux, Mac OS, engine page. 5.9 Release now supports x64
Google
Freeware
Windows
systems. As of September 14, 2011,
Desktop
Google has discontinued this product.
Open Source desktop search tool for
GNOME
Linux
GPL
Unix/Linux
Storage
InSight
Windows
Metadata-based search utility
Freeware
Desktop
Search
Proprietary (14 day
ISYS Search
Windows
ISYS:desktop search software.
trial)
Software
Graphical port of Unix's locate & updatedb BSD License[3]
Locate32 Windows
Outlook Search Tool, with integrated
Proprietary (14 day
Lookeen Windows

Name

Platform

Meta Tracker Linux, Unix


Recoll
Spotlight
Strigi
Terrier
Search
Engine

Linux, Unix
Mac OS

Desktop Search
Open Source desktop search tool for
Unix/Linux
Open Source desktop search tool for
Unix/Linux
Found in Apple Mac OS X "Tiger" and
later OS X releases.

Linux, Unix,
Cross-platform open source desktop search
Solaris, Mac OS
engine
X and Windows
Linux, Mac OS, Desktop search for Windows, Mac OS X
Unix
(Tiger), Unix/Linux.

Tropes Zoom Windows


Unity Dash Linux
Windows
Search

Remarks

Windows

X1 Desktop
Windows
Search

Semantic Search Engine.

Google Groups (formerly Deja News)

Based on
Google

AOL Search
CompuServe Search
Groovle
MySpace Search
Mystery Seeker
Netscape
Ripple

Yahoo!

GPL v2 [4]
GPL [5]
Proprietary
LGPL v2 [6]

MPL
Freeware and
commercial
GPL v3

Part of Ubuntu Desktop.


Part of Windows Vista and later OSs.
Available as Windows Desktop Search for
Windows XP and Server 2003. Does not
Proprietary
support indexing UNC paths on x64
systems.
Major desktop search product along with Proprietary (14 day
Copernic Desktop Search.
trial)[7]

Usenet

License
trial)

Ecocho
Everyclick (formerly based on Ask.com)
Forestle (an ecologically motivated site supporting sustainable rain forests - formerly
based on Google)
GoodSearch
Rectifi

Bing

A9.com
Alexa Internet
Ciao!
Facebook
Ms. Dewey
Yahoo! Search
Egerin

Ask.com

Hakia (semantic search)


iWon
Lycos
Teoma

Defunct or acquired search engines

AlltheWeb
AltaVista (acquired by Yahoo! in 2003, shut down in 2013)
Brainboost (Public engine no longer exists, acquired by Answers, Inc.)
BRS/Search (now OpenText Livelink ECM Discovery Server)
Btjunkie
Cuil
ChunkIt! (now "yolink!") (Public engine no longer exists)
Direct Hit Technologies (acquired by Ask Jeeves in January, 2000)
Google Answers
IBM STAIRS
Infoseek
Inktomi
Kartoo
LeapFish (Public engine no longer exists)
Lotus Magellan
MetaLib (Public engine no longer exists)
mozDex (No longer exists)
Myriad Search (No longer exists)
Overture.com (formerly GoTo.com, now Yahoo! Search Marketing)
PubSub

RetrievalWare (acquired by Fast Search & Transfer and now owned by Microsoft)
Scroogle (Google Scraper)
Singingfish
Speechbot
Sphere
Tafiti
Volunia [8]
Wikia Search (defunct)
WiseNut
World Wide Web Worm

List of Search engines


Site

Domain

Google[1]

Alexa Traffic
Rank

Estimated Unique
Monthly Visitors

https://www.google.com

1,100,000,000

http://www.baidu.com/

564,000,000

Yahoo

http://www.search.yahoo.com/ 4

350,000,000

Bing[5]

http://www.bing.com/

24

300,000,000

Amplitude-shift
keying[6]

http://www.ask.com/

28

245,000,000

DuckDuckGo[7]

https://duckduckgo.com/

842

NA

Baidu

[2][3]
[4]

[8]

wolframalpha
[9]

blekko

[10]

IconFinder
yandex

[11]

http://www.wolframalpha.com/ 1,968

NA

http://blekko.com/

1,749

NA

https://www.iconfinder.com/

2,028

NA

https://www.yandex.ru/

20

NA

References

List of educational video websites


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a list of notable websites which provide access to educational films as one of their
primary functions.

Name

Discipline(s)

60second Recap

Literature

Academic Earth

Multidisciplinar
y

Coursera

Multidisciplinar
y

EdX

Multidisciplinar
y

FORA.tv

Multidisciplinar
y

Gresham College

Multidisciplinar
y

Grovo

Internet, Online
Tools, Social
Media, Cloud
Computing,
Mobile Apps,
and other area's

Description Access Cost 0


Educational
Free
videos
Lectures from
Free
universities
Educational
courses with
lectures,
quizzes and
exams
provided by
universities
for free.
Free
Certificates
are provided
by the
respective
university on
successful
completion of
a course
Educational
courses with
lectures,
quizzes and
Free
exams
provided by
universities
for free.
Academic
Free/Subscriptio
videos
n
Institution
with a history
of "free public
Free
lectures" hosts
many
online.[1][2]
Grovo.com
produces 1minute videos
covering the
latest changes
to apps and
Free/Subscriptio
online tools n
like
Facebook,
Evernote, and
Google Apps.
Each lesson

License

Provider(s)

60secondcap

Academic Earth

Coursera

EdX

FORA.tv

Gresham College

Grovo

Name

Discipline(s)

Description Access Cost 0


License
includes a
multiple
choice quiz,
downloadable
PDF and
time-synced
transcript.
Free (requires
Multidisciplinar Lectures from
iTunesU
iTunes
?
y
universities
software)
Creative
Commons
Multidisciplinar
Khan Academy
Video lessons Free
Attributiony
NonCommercial
-ShareAlike[3]
Videos
Multidisciplinar reviewed by Free/Subscriptio
Lesson Planet
?
y
credentialed n
academics
Multidisciplinar
MIT World
Videos
Free
?
y
Educational
television
station with
an Internet
Multidisciplinar presence was
ResearchChannel
Free
?
y
funded by the
University of
Washington
until 2010.
(defunct)
Royal Society for
the encouragement
Multidisciplinar Videos from
of Arts,
Free
?
y
RSA events
Manufactures &
Commerce
Multidisciplinar
Free/Subscriptio
SchoolTube
Videos
?
y
n
A global,
scienceoriented
multimedia
Multidisciplinar
ScienceStage
portal that
Free
?
y
specializes in
online video
streaming.
Aims to

Provider(s)

Apple Inc.

Khan Academy

Lesson Planet

MIT

University of
Washington
(former)

Royal Society for


the encouragement
of Arts,
Manufactures &
Commerce
SchoolTube

ScienceStage

Name

Discipline(s)

TeacherTube

Multidisciplinar
y

Teaching Channel

Multidisciplinar
y, Education

TED (Technology,
Multidisciplinar
Entertainment,
y
Design)

UCTV

Multidisciplinar
y

VideoLectures.NE Multidisciplinar
T
y

YouTube EDU

Multidisciplinar
y

Description
support
communicatio
n between
scientists,
scholars,
researchers in
industry, and
professionals
Academic
videos
Video
emphasize
teaching
practices in a
variety of
topics
Brings
together
leaders in
various fields.
Presentations
are limited to
20 minutes.
Videos and
Podcasts
Awardwinning free
and open
access
educational
video lectures
repository
Videos
uploaded by
accredited
universities

Access Cost 0

Free

License

Free/Subscriptio
?
n

Provider(s)

TeacherTube

Teaching Channel

Free

Creative
Commons
Attribution
TED (conference)
NonCommercial
NonDerivative

Free

University of
California

Free

VideoLectures.NE
T

Free

YouTube

List of video hosting services


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from List of video hosting websites)
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article
by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (September 2014)

Video hosting services are websites or software which allow users to distribute their video clips.
Other kinds of websites such as file hosting services, image hosting services and social network
services might support video sharing as an enhancement to their primary mission, but in general
they are not listed here. Many services have options for private sharing and other publication
options. Video hosting services can be classified into several categories, among them: user
generated video sharing websites, video sharing platform / white label providers and web based
video editing. Websites that are solely search engines and do not host their video content (such
as Singingfish) are not included. Some services may charge a fee, but most are available for free.
Some websites offer commercialization features, such as partnership programs and the ability for
users to offer pay-per-view for their videos.

Contents

1 User generated
o 1.1 Notable examples
2 White-label providers
3 Enterprise providers
4 Open source
5 Web-based video editing
6 See also
7 References

User generated
User generated sites mostly offer free services whereby users can upload video clips and share
them with the masses. Many sites place restrictions on the file size, duration, subject matter and
format of the uploaded video file. Many sites do not allow inappropriate content though each site
makes judgment calls on what qualifies as inappropriate content, usually via its Terms of Service
information. Some sites provide access control to adult material where the user must verify that
they are of adult age. Some sites screen all their content before it is published and others approve
first and use community features to filter out inappropriate content "after-the-fact."

Notable examples

Hoster

Notable video hosting services


Location of
Available
Language
main server

56.com

Yes

Archive.org

Yes

AfreecaTV

Yes

Blip.tv

Yes

Chinese

China
United
States

Korean

Republic
of Korea
United

Notes

Hoster

Notable video hosting services


Location of
Available
Language
main server

Notes

States
BlogTV

No

United
States

Break.com

Yes

United
States

Buzznet

Yes

United
States

Comedy.com

Yes

United
States

Commons.wikimedia.org

Yes

Crackle

Yes

DaCast

Yes

Dailymotion

Yes

France

EngageMedia

Yes

Germany

ExpoTV

Yes

United
States

Facebook

Yes

United
States

video since 2007

Flickr

Yes

United
States

video since 2008

Fotki

Yes

Estonia

Frequency

Yes

United
States

Funnyordie.com

Yes

United
States

Funshion

Yes

GodTube

Yes

United
States

Hulu

Yes

United
States

islamictube

Yes

Lafango

Yes

287 languages

United
States

43,765 videos as of 4
May 2014[1]

United
States
English

Chinese

United
States

China

UAE
United
States

formerly Tangle.com

Hoster

Notable video hosting services


Location of
Available
Language
main server

LeTV

Yes

Chinese

Liveleak

Yes

United
States

Mefeedia

Yes

United
States

Metacafe

Yes

United
States

Mevio

No

United
States

Myspace

Yes

United
States

MyVideo

Yes

Germany

MUZU.TV

Yes

Ireland

Nico Nico Douga

Yes

OneWorldTV

Yes

United
States

Openfilm

Yes

United
States

Panopto

Yes

United
States

Photobucket

Yes

United
States

Pixorial

No

United
States

Rediff

Yes

ReelTime.com

Yes

RuTube

Yes

Russian

Russia

Sapo Videos

Yes

Portuguese

Portugal

SchoolTube

Yes

ScienceStage

Yes

Germany

Sevenload

No

Germany

SmugMug

Yes

Japanese

English, Indian

China

Japan

Australia
United
States

United
States

United
States

Notes

Hoster

Notable video hosting services


Location of
Available
Language
main server

Tape.tv

Yes

Ireland

Trilulilu

Yes

TroopTube

Yes

Tudou

Yes

Chinese

Tune

Yes

English

Romanian

Notes
only music videos

Romania
United
States
China
United
States

TV UOL

Yes

Portuguese(Brazilian)

Brazil

Vbox7

Yes

Bulgarian

Bulgaria

Veoh

Yes

United
States

Viddler

Yes

United
States

Videojug

Yes

United
States

Videolog

Yes

Vidoosh

Yes

United
States

Vidyard

Yes

United
States

Vimeo

Yes

United
States

Vuze

Yes

United
States

Vzaar

Yes

United
States

Wildscreen.tv

Yes

Wistia

Yes

United
States

Yahoo! Video

No

United
Kingdom

Youku

Yes

YouTube

Yes

Portuguese

Over 1 million
videos(January
2014)

Enterprise video
hosting

United
States

Privacy controls

Germany

Chinese

China
United

Largest and most

Notable video hosting services


Location of
Available
Language
main server

Hoster

States

Notes
popular

Pornographic websites
Hoster Available Language Notes
Redtube

Yes

Xvideos

Yes

Pornhub

Yes

Hoster

Offline Websites
Available Language

HD share

No

MaYoMo

No

Revver

No

Rambler Vision

No

Notes
Focus on HD videos

Russian

White-label providers
White-label providers sell the technology to various parties that allow them to create the services
of the aforementioned "User Generated Video Sharing" websites with the client's brand. Just as
Akamai and other companies host and manage video/image/audio for many companies, these
white-labels "host video content". Many of these companies also offer their own user-generated
video sharing website both for commercial purposes and to show off their platform. Websites in
this category include:

DaCast
Dailymotion Cloud
HD share

Enterprise providers
Listed here are video hosting providers exclusively serving businesses wanting to share video
content internally with employees or externally with customers, partners, or prospects. Features
may include limiting access to authenticated users, tracking of user actions, integration with
single sign-on services and a lack of the advertisements normally present on public sites. Among
sites in this category are:

Brightcove
DaCast
Dailymotion Cloud

Kewego
MediaCore
MetaCDN
Ooyala
thePlatform
Ustream
ViaStreaming
Viddler
Kaltura
Cambridge Imaging

Open source

GNU MediaGoblin (software)


Kaltura
Plumi (software to create video sharing site)

Web-based video editing


Web based video editing sites generally offer the "user generated video sharing" website in
addition to some form of editing application. Some of these applications simply allow the user to
crop a video into a smaller clip. Other services have invested much time and effort into
replicating the same functionality that has previously only been available via Windows Movie
Maker, iMovie and other client-side applications that run outside of a web page. Some of these
applications are based in AJAX and others in Flash. Some of these websites may additionally
offer downloadable editors, however this is not a desktop- but a web-based video editor list.
Websites in this category include:

Animoto
Clesh
FORscene
Jaycut (No longer available for PC)
Magisto
Pixorial
YouTube

This is a list of online databases accessible via the Internet.

Contents

1A-B
2C-F
3G-I
4J-N
5O-S

6T-Z
7 See also
8 References

A-B
A

Abandoned & Little-Known Airfields


Acronym Finder
Aeiou Encyclopedia
African American Registry
Airdisaster.com
Airiti Inc
Airliners.net
All Media Guide
Allgame
Allmovie
Allmusic
American National Corpus
Amiga Games Database
Animal Diversity Web
Animal Genome Size Database
Arachne (archaeological database)
ArchINFORM
Archive site
ArtCyclopedia

Bank of English
Beilstein database
BiblioPage.com
Bibliotek.dk
Big Cartoon DataBase
Big Comic Book DataBase
Bioinformatic Harvester
BoardGameGeek

C-F
C

CAMPUS (database)
Caspio

Catholic-Hierarchy.org
CellarTracker
ChEBI
Chemical Abstracts Service
Chessgames.com
China Pollution Map Database
CIDOB Foundation
Cinema and Science
CiteSeer
Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies
Comic book price guide
Comics Buyer's Guide
Credo Reference
Croatian National Corpus
Current Biography

DBLP
DIALOG
Dictionary of Canadian Biography

Earth Human STR Allele Frequencies Database


EMBASE
Encyclopedia Astronautica
Encyclopedia Mythica
English Short Title Catalogue
Entrez
Everyone's a Critic

Factiva
Facts on File
Fashion Model Directory
Filmarchives online
Find a Grave
FINDbase (the Frequency of INherited Disorders database)
FishBase
Flags of the World
Flora Europaea

G-I

Gallica
GameRankings
GeneNetwork
GEO-LEO
Gesamtkatalog der Wiegendrucke
GetCITED
Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
Golm Metabolome Database
Google
Grand Comics Database

Hoover's
HotPads.com

INDUCKS
IBISWorld
Incunabula Short Title Catalogue
IndexMaster
Indian Railways Fan Club
Inorganic Crystal Structure Database
Interment.net
International Directory of Philosophy
Internet Archive
The Internet Book Database
The Internet Book Database of Fiction
Internet Broadway Database
Internet Movie Database
Internet Movie Firearms Database
Internet Off-Broadway Database
Internet Public Library
Internet Speculative Fiction Database
Internet Theatre Database
ISBNdb.com

J-N
J

JibJab

Kdo byl kdo


Killer List of Videogames

Lesson Planet
LexisNexis
The Literary Encyclopedia

Maven Semantic Healthcare Database


MedlinePlus
Metacritic
Metropolitan Travel Survey Archive
MICAD
Mindat.org
MobyGames
Movie Review Query Engine
MovieTome
MSDSonline

Names Database
NEO CANDO
Newsknowledge
Nichigai WHO
NNDB
NoorderSoft Waterways Database

O-S
O

On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences


Open Source Vulnerability Database

Paradisec
PHI-base
Philosophy Research Index
Plant DNA C-values Database

Plants for a Future


Price guide
ProQuest
Proteomics Identifications Database
Psephos
PsycINFO
PubChem
Public Radio Fan
PubMed Central

RedLightGreen
Roud Folk Song Index

Scots Law Times


SeatGuru
Sherdog
Sing365.com
SmealSearch
Svenskt Diplomatarium

Q
R

T-Z
T

TCM Movie Database


Textfiles.com
Tocsearch
TOSEC
The Simpsons Archive
Transterm
TV.com

Uchronia: The Alternate History List


Ultimate Guitar Archive

VET-Bib
Virtuoso Universal Server

Vastari

Web of Science
Who's Who (UK)
WinCustomize
Wind ENergy Data & Information (WENDI) Gateway
Wikipedia
World Biographical Information System Online
WorldCat
WorldWide Molecular Matrix

Zabasearch.com
Zillow
ZINC database

List of open access journals


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from List of open-access journals)
This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific
problem is: List is supposed to contain selected particularly notable journals but, in
fact, many that are of marginal notability only.. Please help improve this article if you
can. (December 2011)
This article is outdated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly
available information. (December 2014)
This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
Main article: Open access journal
Main category: Open access journals
This is a list of open-access journals, by field. The list contains selected, particularly notable
journals with at least some free content, available through all forms of open access, including
delayed open access, and hybrid open access. It only includes individual journals, not collections
or indexing services.

Contents

1 Astronomy
2 Agriculture
3 Biology
4 Computer science

5 Chemistry
6 Dance
7 Educational technology
8 Engineering
9 Environmental studies
10 Finance
11 General science
12 Higher education
13 Materials science
14 Mathematics
15 Music theory
16 Nutrition
17 Medicine
18 Pharmaceutical sciences
19 Philosophy
20 Physics
21 Political science
22 Social science
23 Humanities and other journals
24 See also
25 External links
o 25.1 Multidisciplinary lists of open-access journals
o 25.2 Subject-specific lists of open-access journals
25.2.1 Physical sciences
25.2.2 Social Sciences
25.2.3 Applied sciences
25.2.4 Other

Astronomy

Journal of the Korean Astronomical Society

Agriculture

Open Access Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

Biology

Cell Reports
Check List
eLife
F1000Research
International Journal of Biological Sciences
Oncotarget
Open Biology

PeerJ
PLOS Biology
PLOS Computational Biology
PLOS Genetics
ZooKeys

Computer science

Computational Linguistics (journal)


INFOCOMP Journal of Computer Science
JOT: Journal of Object Technology
Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
Journal of Formalized Reasoning
Journal of Machine Learning Research
Journal of Statistical Software
Logical Methods in Computer Science
Theory of Computing (journal)

Chemistry

Arkivoc
Molecules
Organic Syntheses

Dance

Contact Quarterly

Educational technology

Australasian Journal of Educational Technology


Educational Technology & Society
International Journal of Educational Technology

Engineering

Advances in Production Engineering & Management

Environmental studies

Conservation and Society


Ecology and Society
Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental Research Letters

Finance

The Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance

General science

PLOS ONE

Higher education

Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement

Materials science

Materials Today
Science and Technology of Advanced Materials

Mathematics

Ars Mathematica Contemporanea


Electronic Journal of Combinatorics
Electronic Journal of Probability
Electronic Journal of Statistics

Music theory

Gamut: The Journal of the Music Theory Society of the Mid-Atlantic

Nutrition

Journal of Nutrition

Medicine

Annals of Saudi Medicine


Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology
Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal
BMC Medicine
British Medical Journal
British Columbia Medical Journal

Canadian Medical Association Journal


F1000Research
International Journal of Medical Sciences
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
The New England Journal of Medicine
PeerJ
PLOS Medicine
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
PLOS Pathogens

Pharmaceutical sciences

Scientia Pharmaceutica

Philosophy

Philosophers' Imprint
Journal of Ethics & Social Philosophy

Physics

New Journal of Physics


Physical Review X

Political science

European Political Economy Review


Central European Journal of International and Security Studies
Caucasian Review of International Affairs
Journal of Politics & Society
Michigan Journal of Political Science
International Socialism journal

Social science

Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation


Journal of Political Ecology
Journal of Pan African Studies
Journal of World-Systems Research

Humanities and other journals

Anamesa

The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus


continent
First Monday
GHLL
Digital Humanities Quarterly
Culture Machine
Journal of Evolution and Technology
Studia Humaniora Tartuensia

See also

arXiv
Directory of Open Access Journals
Geoscience e-Journals
List of scientific journals
List of health care journals
PlanetMath
SciELO

External links

Directory of Open Access Journals


JURN Directory (arts and humanities)

Multidisciplinary lists of open-access journals

Die Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek (English version) (EZB)


J-STAGE Japanese journals; not all content is open access
Genamics JournalSeek
Journals4Free - Journals4Free is a directory of full or partial open-access journals (i.e.,
with an embargo period). Results may be limited to titles included in PubMed, Scopus,
and ISI databases.
LivRe!
JURN directory (arts & humanities ejournals)
Open Access Journals Search Engine (OAJSE)
Revistas CSIC, Scientific Journals published by CSIC, Spain
University of Nevada Collection of Free Electronic Journals
Directory of Open Access Journals
African Journals OnLine (AJOL) - A portal for electronic journals from African
countries; not all content is open access.
Hrak - Hrak: Portal of scientific journals of Croatia; along with scientific and technical
journals; this resource includes humanities journals.
PANDORA - PANDORA, Australia's Web Archive, is a growing collection of Australian
online publications, established initially by the National Library of Australia in 1996,
including open-access journals.

Hong Kong Journals Online - Hong Kong Journals Online (HKJO) is a full-text image
database providing access to selected academic and professional journals, both in English
and Chinese, published in Hong Kong.
SciELO - SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online is a collection of open-access
journals and a model for cooperative electronic publishing of scientific journals on the
Internet - especially for developing countries.
Arastirmax - Arastirmax Scientific Publication Index Journal List (especially Turkish
Journals)

Subject-specific lists of open-access journals


Physical sciences

Alphabetical list of Open Access Journals in Ecology and closely related topics
ABC-Chemistry: Directory of Free Journals in Chemistry

Social Sciences

Alphabetical list of Open Access Journals in Ancient Studies


Alphabetical list of Open Access Journals in East Asian Studies
Alphabetical list of Open Access Journals in Judaism Studies
Alphabetical list of Open Access Journals in Middle Eastern Studies
Alphabetical list of Open Access Journals in Theology

Applied sciences

Open Access Journals in the Field of Education (American Education Research


Association)
FreeMedicalJournals (FreeMedicaljournals lists health open-access journals and journals
with open access after an embargo period)

Other

Perspectivia.net
List of questionable, scholarly open-access journals - predatory open-access publishingrelated list by Jeffrey Beall

[hide]

v
t
e

Open access

Concepts

Open access
statements

Strategies for
implementing
open access

Organizations
associated
with open
access

List of open
access
projects

Gratis ("free to read")


Gratis versus libre
Subscription business model
Paywall
Academic journal
Scientific journal

Budapest Open Access Initiative


Berlin Declaration
Bethesda Statement
Durham Statement
NIH Public Access Policy
Research Works Act

Open-access journal ("gold OA")


Self-archiving ("green OA")
Open-access mandate
Institutional repository
Hybrid open-access journal
Delayed open-access journal

Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition


Public Library of Science
Registry of Open Access Repositories
ROARMAP
Open Knowledge Foundation
Open Society Foundations
Creative Commons

Access2Research
Cost of Knowledge
Access to knowledge movement
List of open-access journals

Categories:

Internet-related lists
Open access journals
Lists of academic journals

Search engine marketing

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Part of a series on

Internet marketing

Search engine optimization

Social media marketing

Email marketing

Referral marketing

Content marketing

Native advertising

Search engine marketing

Pay per click

Cost per impression

Search analytics
Web analytics

Display advertising

Contextual advertising

Behavioral targeting

Affiliate marketing

Cost per action


Revenue sharing

Mobile advertising

v
t
e

Search engine marketing (SEM) is a form of Internet marketing that involves the promotion of
websites by increasing their visibility in search engine results pages (SERPs) through
optimization and advertising.[1] SEM may use search engine optimization (SEO), which adjusts
or rewrites website content to achieve a higher ranking in search engine results pages, or use pay
per click (PPC) listings.[2]

Contents

1 Market
2 History
3 Methods and metrics
4 Paid inclusion
5 Comparison with SEO
6 Ethical questions
7 Examples
8 See also
9 References

Market
In 2012, North American advertisers spent US$19.51 billion on search engine marketing. The
largest search engine marketing (SEM) vendors were Google AdWords, Bing Ads,[3] and Baidu.
As of 2006, SEM was growing much faster than traditional advertising and even other channels
of online marketing.[4] Managing search campaigns is either done directly with the SEM vendor
or through an SEM tool provider. It may also be self-serve or through an advertising agency.

History
As the number of sites on the Web increased in the mid-to-late 1990s, search engines started
appearing to help people find information quickly. Search engines developed business models to
finance their services, such as pay per click programs offered by Open Text[5] in 1996 and then
Goto.com[6] in 1998. Goto.com later changed its name[7] to Overture in 2001, was purchased by
Yahoo! in 2003, and now offers paid search opportunities for advertisers through Yahoo! Search
Marketing. Google also began to offer advertisements on search results pages in 2000 through
the Google AdWords program. By 2007, pay-per-click programs proved to be primary
moneymakers[8] for search engines. In a market dominated by Google, in 2009 Yahoo! and
Microsoft announced the intention to forge an alliance. The Yahoo! & Microsoft Search Alliance
eventually received approval from regulators in the US and Europe in February 2010.[9]
Search engine optimization consultants expanded their offerings to help businesses learn about
and use the advertising opportunities offered by search engines, and new agencies focusing
primarily upon marketing and advertising through search engines emerged. The term "Search
Engine Marketing" was proposed by Danny Sullivan in 2001[10] to cover the spectrum of
activities involved in performing SEO, managing paid listings at the search engines, submitting
sites to directories, and developing online marketing strategies for businesses, organizations, and
individuals.

Methods and metrics

There are four categories of methods and metrics used to optimize websites through search
engine marketing.[11]
1. Keyword research and analysis involves three "steps": ensuring the site can be indexed
in the search engines, finding the most relevant and popular keywords for the site and its
products, and using those keywords on the site in a way that will generate and convert
traffic. A follow-on effect of keyword analysis and research is the search perception
impact.[12] Search perception impact describes the identified impact of a brand's search
results on consumer perception, including title and meta tags, site indexing, and keyword
focus. As online searching is often the first step for potential consumers/customers, the
search perception impact shapes the brand impression for each individual.
2. Website saturation and popularity, or how much presence a website has on search
engines, can be analyzed through the number of pages of the site that are indexed on
search engines (saturation) and how many backlinks the site has (popularity). It requires
pages to contain keywords people are looking for and ensure that they rank high enough
in search engine rankings. Most search engines include some form of link popularity in
their ranking algorithms. The following are major tools measuring various aspects of
saturation and link popularity: Link Popularity, Top 10 Google Analysis, and
Marketleap's Link Popularity and Search Engine Saturation.
3. Back end tools, including Web analytic tools and HTML validators, provide data on a
website and its visitors and allow the success of a website to be measured. They range
from simple traffic counters to tools that work with log files and to more sophisticated
tools that are based on page tagging (putting JavaScript or an image on a page to track
actions). These tools can deliver conversion-related information. There are three major
tools used by EBSCO: (a) log file analyzing tool: WebTrends by NetiQ; (b) tag-based
analytic tool: WebSideStory's Hitbox; and (c) transaction-based tool: TeaLeaf RealiTea.
Validators check the invisible parts of websites, highlighting potential problems and
many usability issues and ensuring websites meet W3C code standards. Try to use more
than one HTML validator or spider simulator because each one tests, highlights, and
reports on slightly different aspects of your website.
4. Whois tools reveal the owners of various websites, and can provide valuable information
relating to copyright and trademark issues.

Paid inclusion
Paid inclusion involves a search engine company charging fees for the inclusion of a website in
their results pages. Also known as sponsored listings, paid inclusion products are provided by
most search engine companies either in the main results area, or as a separately identified
advertising area.
The fee structure is both a filter against superfluous submissions and a revenue generator.
Typically, the fee covers an annual subscription for one webpage, which will automatically be
catalogued on a regular basis. However, some companies are experimenting with nonsubscription based fee structures where purchased listings are displayed permanently. A per-click
fee may also apply. Each search engine is different. Some sites allow only paid inclusion,
although these have had little success. More frequently, many search engines, like Yahoo!,[13]

mix paid inclusion (per-page and per-click fee) with results from web crawling. Others, like
Google (and as of 2006, Ask.com[14][15]), do not let webmasters pay to be in their search engine
listing (advertisements are shown separately and labeled as such).
Some detractors of paid inclusion allege that it causes searches to return results based more on
the economic standing of the interests of a web site, and less on the relevancy of that site to endusers.
Often the line between pay per click advertising and paid inclusion is debatable. Some have
lobbied for any paid listings to be labeled as an advertisement, while defenders insist they are not
actually ads since the webmasters do not control the content of the listing, its ranking, or even
whether it is shown to any users. Another advantage of paid inclusion is that it allows site owners
to specify particular schedules for crawling pages. In the general case, one has no control as to
when their page will be crawled or added to a search engine index. Paid inclusion proves to be
particularly useful for cases where pages are dynamically generated and frequently modified.
Paid inclusion is a search engine marketing method in itself, but also a tool of search engine
optimization, since experts and firms can test out different approaches to improving ranking and
see the results often within a couple of days, instead of waiting weeks or months. Knowledge
gained this way can be used to optimize other web pages, without paying the search engine
company.

Comparison with SEO


SEM is the wider discipline that incorporates SEO. SEM includes both paid search results (using
tools like Google Adwords or Bing Ads, formerly known as Microsoft adCenter) and organic
search results (SEO). SEM uses paid advertising with AdWords or Bing Ads, pay per click
(particularly beneficial for local providers as it enables potential consumers to contact a company
directly with one click), article submissions, advertising and making sure SEO has been done. A
keyword analysis is performed for both SEO and SEM, but not necessarily at the same time.
SEM and SEO both need to be monitored and updated frequently to reflect evolving best
practices.
In some contexts, the term SEM is used exclusively to mean pay per click advertising,[2]
particularly in the commercial advertising and marketing communities which have a vested
interest in this narrow definition. Such usage excludes the wider search marketing community
that is engaged in other forms of SEM such as search engine optimization and search retargeting.
Another part of SEM is social media marketing (SMM). SMM is a type of marketing that
involves exploiting social media to influence consumers that one companys products and/or
services are valuable.[16] Some of the latest theoretical advances include search engine marketing
management (SEMM). SEMM relates to activities including SEO but focuses on return on
investment (ROI) management instead of relevant traffic building (as is the case of mainstream
SEO). SEMM also integrates organic SEO, trying to achieve top ranking without using paid
means to achieve it, and pay per click SEO. For example, some of the attention is placed on the
web page layout design and how content and information is displayed to the website visitor. SEO

& SEM are two pillars of one marketing job and they both run side by side to produce much
better results than focusing on only one pillar.

Ethical questions
Paid search advertising has not been without controversy, and the issue of how search engines
present advertising on their search result pages has been the target of a series of studies and
reports[17][18][19] by Consumer Reports WebWatch. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) also
issued a letter[20] in 2002 about the importance of disclosure of paid advertising on search
engines, in response to a complaint from Commercial Alert, a consumer advocacy group with
ties to Ralph Nader.
Another ethical controversy associated with search marketing has been the issue of trademark
infringement. The debate as to whether third parties should have the right to bid on their
competitors' brand names has been underway for years. In 2009 Google changed their policy,
which formerly prohibited these tactics, allowing 3rd parties to bid on branded terms as long as
their landing page in fact provides information on the trademarked term.[21] Though the policy
has been changed this continues to be a source of heated debate.[22]
On April 24, 2012 many started to see that Google has started to penalize companies that are
buying links for the purpose of passing off the rank. The Google Update was called Penguin.
Since then, there has been several different [23]Penguin / Panda updates rolled out by Google.
SEM has, however, nothing to do with link buying and focuses on organic SEO and PPC
management. As of October 20th, 2014 Google has released three official revisions of their
Pengiun Update.

Examples
AdWords is recognized as a web-based advertising utensil since it adopts keywords which can
deliver adverts explicitly to web users looking for information in respect to a certain product or
service. This project is highly practical for advertisers as the project hinges on cost per click
(CPC) pricing, thus the payment of the service only applies if their advert has been clicked on.
SEM companies have embarked on AdWords projects as a way to publicize their SEM and SEO
services. This promotion has helped their business elaborate, offering added value to consumers
who endeavor to employ AdWords for promoting their products and services. One of the most
successful approaches to the strategy of this project was to focus on making sure that PPC
advertising funds were prudently invested. Moreover, SEM companies have described AdWords
as a fine practical tool for increasing a consumers investment earnings on Internet advertising.
The use of conversion tracking and Google Analytics tools was deemed to be practical for
presenting to clients the performance of their canvas from click to conversion. AdWords project
has enabled SEM companies to train their clients on the utensil and delivers better performance
to the canvass. The assistance of AdWord canvass could contribute to the huge success in the
growth of web traffic for a number of its consumers websites, by as much as 250% in only nine
months.[24]

Another way search engine marketing is managed is by contextual advertising. Here marketers
place ads on other sites or portals that carry information relevant to their products so that the ads
jump into the circle of vision of browsers who are seeking information from those sites. A
successful SEM plan is the approach to capture the relationships amongst information searchers,
businesses, and search engines. Search engines were not important to some industries in the past,
but over the past years the use of search engines for accessing information has become vital to
increase business opportunities.[25] The use of SEM strategic tools for businesses such as tourism
can attract potential consumers to view their products, but it could also pose various
challenges.[25] These challenges could be the competition that companies face amongst their
industry and other sources of information that could draw the attention of online consumers.[25]
To assist the combat of challenges, the main objective for businesses applying SEM is to
improve and maintain their ranking as high as possible on SERPs so that they can gain visibility.
Therefore search engines are adjusting and developing algorithms and the shifting criteria by
which web pages are ranked sequentially to combat against search engine misuse and spamming,
and to supply the most relevant information to searchers.[25] This could enhance the relationship
amongst information searchers, businesses, and search engines by understanding the strategies of
marketing to attract business.

See also

Internet marketing
Dynamic keyword insertion
Search engine reputation management
Search engine optimization
Web marketing

Search engines with SEM programs

Google
Yahoo!
Bing
Ask.com
Soso.com - China
Baidu - China
Seznam.cz - Czech Republic
Yandex - Russia
Rambler - Russia
Timway - Hong Kong
Onkosh - Arabic search - Middle East
Ana - Arabic search - Middle East and North Africa
Leit.is - Iceland
justdial.com - India

References

1. "The State of Search Engine Marketing 2006". Search Engine Land. February 8, 2007.
Retrieved 2007-06-07.
2. "Does SEM = SEO + CPC Still Add Up?". searchengineland.com. Retrieved 2010-03-05.
3. "Yahoo! Microsoft Alliance". Microsoft. Feb 18, 2012. Retrieved 2010-02-18.
4. Elliott, Stuart (March 14, 2006). "More Agencies Investing in Marketing With a Click".
New York Times. Retrieved 2007-06-07.
5. "Engine sells results, draws fire". news.cnet.com. June 21, 1996. Retrieved 2007-06-09.
6. "GoTo Sells Positions". searchenginewatch.com. March 3, 1998. Retrieved 2007-06-09.
7. "GoTo gambles with new name". news.cnet.com. September 10, 2001. Retrieved 200706-09.
8. Jansen, B. J. (May 2007). "The Comparative Effectiveness of Sponsored and
Nonsponsored Links for Web E-commerce Queries" (PDF). ACM Transactions on the
Web,. Retrieved 2007-06-09.
9. "Microsoft-Yahoo Deal Gets Green Light". informationweek.com. February 18, 2010.
Retrieved 2010-07-15.
10. "Does SEM = SEO + CPC Still Add Up?". searchengineland.com. March 4, 2010.
Retrieved 2013-10-06.
11. Otis, Rebecca (November 2013). "Use These Tools for Smart Digital Marketing". Digital
Third Coast. Retrieved 2014-01-20.
12. "Search Perception Impact". Retrieved 27 March 2014.
13. Zawodny, Jeremy (2004-03-01). "Defending Paid Inclusions".
14. Ulbrich, Chris (2004-07-06). "Paid Inclusion Losing Charm?". Wired News.
15. "FAQ #18: How do I register my site/URL with Ask so that it will be indexed?".
Ask.com. Retrieved 2008-12-19.
16. Susan Ward (2011). "Social Media Marketing". About.com. Retrieved 2011-04-22.
17. "False Oracles: Consumer Reaction to Learning the Truth About How Search Engines
Work (Abstract)". consumerwebwatch.org. June 30, 2003. Retrieved 2007-06-09.
18. "Searching for Disclosure: How Search Engines Alert Consumers to the Presence of
Advertising in Search Results". consumerwebwatch.org. November 8, 2004. Retrieved
2007-06-09.
19. "Still in Search of Disclosure: Re-evaluating How Search Engines Explain the Presence
of Advertising in Search Results". consumerwebwatch.org. June 9, 2005. Retrieved 200706-09.
20. "Re: Complaint Requesting Investigation of Various Internet Search Engine Companies
for Paid Placement or (Pay per click)". ftc.gov. June 22, 2002. Retrieved 2007-06-09.
21. "Update to U.S. ad text trademark policy". adwords.blogspot.com. May 14, 2009.
Retrieved 2010-07-15.
22. Rosso, Mark; Jansen, Bernard (Jim) (August 2010), "Brand Names as Keywords in
Sponsored Search Advertising", Communications of the Association for Information
Systems 27 (1): 8198
23. "Google Penguin Update". Jennifer Rodino. April 24, 2012.Penguin
24. "Google Adwords Case Study". AccuraCast. 2007. Retrieved 2011-03-30. |first1=
missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
25. Zheng Xiang, Bing Pan, Rob Law, and Daniel R. Fesenmaier (June 7, 2010). "Assessing
the Visibility of Destination Marketing Organizations in Google: A Case Study of

Convention and Visitor Bureau Websites in the United States". Journal of Travel and
Tourism Marketing. Retrieved 2011-04-22.

Social media marketing


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[hide]This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these
issues on the talk page.
This article is written like a personal reflection or opinion essay that states the
Wikipedia editor's particular feelings about a topic, rather than the opinions
of experts. (June 2010)
This article appears to be written like an advertisement. (August 2013)
Part of a series on

Internet marketing

Search engine optimization

Social media marketing

Email marketing

Referral marketing

Content marketing

Native advertising

Search engine marketing

Pay per click

Cost per impression

Search analytics
Web analytics

Display advertising

Contextual advertising

Behavioral targeting

Affiliate marketing

Cost per action

Revenue sharing

Mobile advertising

v
t
e

Social media marketing is the process of gaining website traffic or attention through social
media sites.[1]
Social media marketing programs usually center on efforts to create content that attracts attention
and encourages readers to share it across their social networks. The resulting electronic word of
mouth (eWoM) refers to any statement consumers share via the Internet (e.g., web sites, social
networks, instant messages, news feeds) about an event, product, service, brand or company.[2]
When the underlying message spreads from user to user and presumably resonates because it
appears to come from a trusted, third-party source, as opposed to the brand or company itself,[3]
this form of marketing results in earned media rather than paid media.[4]

Contents

1 Social media platforms


o 1.1 Social networking websites
o 1.2 Mobile phones
2 Approaches
o 2.1 The passive approach
o 2.2 The active approach
3 Engagement
4 Campaigns
o 4.1 Betty White
o 4.2 2008 US presidential election
o 4.3 Local businesses
o 4.4 Kony 2012
o 4.5 Nike #MakeItCount
o 4.6 Lay's-Do Us a Flavor
5 Purposes and Tactics
o 5.1 Twitter
o 5.2 Facebook
o 5.3 Google+
o 5.4 LinkedIn
o 5.5 Yelp
o 5.6 Foursquare
o 5.7 Instagram

o
o
o
o

5.8 YouTube
5.9 Social Bookmarking Sites
5.10 Blogs
5.11 Tumblr
[60]
5.11.1 Ad formats
5.11.2 Advertising Campaign on Tumblr
6 Marketing techniques
o 6.1 Targeting, COBRAs, and eWOM
7 Tools
8 Implications on traditional advertising
o 8.1 Minimizing use
o 8.2 Leaks
o 8.3 Social media marketing mishaps
o 8.4 Ethics of Social Media Marketing
9 Metrics for Social Media Marketing
o 9.1 Channel Reports
o 9.2 Return on Investment Data
o 9.3 Customer response rates
o 9.4 Reach and virality
10 See also
11 References
12 External links

Social media platforms


Social networking websites
Social networking websites allow individuals to interact with one another and build
relationships. When companies join these social channels, consumers can interact with them
directly. That interaction can be more personal to users than traditional methods of outbound
marketing & advertising.[5]
Social networking sites act as word of mouth. Social networking sites and blogs allow followers
to retweet or repost comments made by others about a product being promoted. By repeating
the message, the user's connections are able to see the message, therefore reaching more people.
Because the information about the product is being put out there and is getting repeated, more
traffic is brought to the product/company.[5]
Through social networking sites, companies can interact with individual followers. This personal
interaction can instill a feeling of loyalty into followers and potential customers. Also, by
choosing whom to follow on these sites, products can reach a very narrow target audience.[5]
Social networking sites also include a vast amount of information about what products and
services prospective clients might be interested in. Through the use of new Semantic Analysis
technologies, marketers can detect buying signals, such as content shared by people and

questions posted online. Understanding of buying signals can help sales people target relevant
prospects and marketers run micro-targeted campaigns.
In order to integrate Social Networks within their marketing strategies, companies have to
develop a marketing model. In [6] a marketing model (SNeM2S) based on Social Networks is
provided. The model includes the following steps:

selection of potential Social Networks to use;


definition of a financial plan;
definition of organisational structures to manage the Social Network in the market;
selection of target;
promotion of products and services;
performance measures

Social Networking is used by 76% of businesses today. Business retailers have seen 133%
increases in their revenues from social media marketing.[7]

Mobile phones
Mobile phone usage has also become beneficial for social media marketing. Today, most cell
phones have social networking capabilities: individuals are notified of any happenings on social
networking sites through their cell phones, in real-time. This constant connection to social
networking sites means products and companies can constantly remind and update followers
about their capabilities, uses, importance, etc. Because cell phones are connected to social
networking sites, advertisements are always in sight. Also many companies are now putting QR
codes along with products for individuals to access the company website or online services with
their smart-phones.

Approaches
The passive approach
Social media can be a useful source of market information. Blogs, content communities and
forums are common nowadays where individuals share their reviews and recommendations of
brands, products and services. As a result, social media has become an inexpensive source of
market intelligence which can be used by marketers to track problems and market opportunities.
For example, the internet erupted with videos and pictures of iPhone 6 bend test which showed
that the coveted phone would bend merely by hand. The so-called bendgate controversy[8]
created confusion amongst customers who had waited months for the launch of the latest
rendition of the iPhone. However apple promptly issued a statement saying that the problem was
extremely rare and that the company had taken several steps to make the mobile device robust.
Unlike traditional market research methods such as surveys, focus groups and data mining which
are time consuming and costly, marketers can now utilize social media to obtain live
information about consumer behavior. This can be extremely useful in a highly dynamic market
structure in which we now live in.

The active approach


Social media can be used as a public relations and direct marketing tool. There are several
examples of firms initiating some form of online dialog with the public to foster relations with
customers. Business executives like Jonathan Swartz, President and CEO of Sun Microsystems,
Steve Jobs CEO of Apple Computers, and McDonalds Vice President Bob Langert post regularly
in their CEO blogs, encouraging customers to interact and freely express their feelings, ideas,
suggestions or remarks. Narendra Modi current prime minister of India ranks only second after
President Barack Obama in number of fans on his official Facebook page at 21.8 million and
counting.[9]Modi employed social media platforms to circumvent traditional media channels to
reach out to the young and urban population of India which is estimated to be 200 million. His
appeal was further buttressed by the recent crowd turnout at Madison square garden.[10]

Engagement
In the context of the social web, engagement means that customers and stakeholders are
participants rather than viewers. Social media in business allows anyone and everyone to express
and share an opinion or an idea somewhere along the businesss path to market. Each
participating customer becomes part of the marketing department, as other customers read their
comments or reviews. The engagement process is then fundamental to successful social media
marketing.[11]
With the advent of social media marketing it has become increasingly important to gain customer
interest which can eventually be translated into buying behavior. New online marketing concepts
of engagement and loyalty have emerged which aim to build customer participation and
reputation. [12]
Engagement in social media for the purpose of your social media strategy is divided into two
parts:
1. Proactive posting of both new content and conversations, as well as the sharing of content and
information from others
2. Reactive conversations with social media users responding to those who reach out to your
social media profiles through commenting or messaging[13]
Traditional media is limited to one way interaction with customers or push and tell where only
specific information is given to the customer without any mechanism to obtain customer
feedback. On the other hand, social media is participative where customer are able to share their
views on brands, products and services. Traditional media gives the control of message to the
marketer whereas social media shifts the balance to the consumer.

Campaigns
Betty White

Social networking sites can have a large impact on the outcome of events. In 2010, a Facebook
campaign surfaced in the form of a petition. Users virtually signed a petition asking NBC
Universal to have actress Betty White host Saturday Night Live.[14][15] Once signed, users
forwarded the petition to all of their followers. The petition went viral and on May 8, 2010, Betty
White hosted SNL.[16]

2008 US presidential election


The 2008 US presidential campaign had a huge presence on social networking sites. Barack
Obama, a Democratic candidate for US President, used Twitter and Facebook to differentiate his
campaign. His social networking profile pages were constantly being updated and interacting
with followers. The use of social networking sites gave Barack Obamas campaign access to email addresses, as posted on social network profile pages. This allowed the Democratic Party to
launch e-mail campaigns asking for votes and campaign donations.

Local businesses
Small businesses also use social networking sites as a promotional technique. Businesses can
follow individuals social networking site uses in the local area and advertise specials and deals.
These can be exclusive and in the form of get a free drink with a copy of this tweet. This type
of message encourages other locals to follow the business on the sites in order to obtain the
promotional deal. In the process, the business is getting seen and promoting itself (brand
visibility).

Kony 2012
A short film released on March 5, 2012, by humanitarian group Invisible Children, Inc. This 29
minute video aimed at making Joseph Kony, an International Criminal Court fugitive, famous
worldwide in order to have support for his arrest by December 2012; the time when the
campaign ends.[17] The video went viral within the first six days after its launch, reaching 100
million views on both YouTube and Vimeo.[18] According to research done by Visible Measures,
the Kony 2012 short film became the fastest growing video campaign, and most viral video, to
reach 100 million views in 6 days followed by Susan Boyle performance on Britains Got Talent
that reached 70 million views in 6 days.[19][20]

Nike #MakeItCount
In early 2012, Nike introduced its Make It Count social media campaign. The campaign kickoff
began YouTubers Casey Neistat and Max Joseph launching a YouTube video, where they
traveled 34,000 miles to visit 16 cities in 13 countries. They promoted the #makeitcount hashtag,
which millions of consumers shared via Twitter and Instagram by uploading photos and sending
tweets.[21] The #MakeItCount YouTube video went viral and Nike saw an 18% increase in profit
in 2012, the year this product was released.

Lay's-Do Us a Flavor

In 2012, Lays created a social media campaign that allowed fans to create their own flavor for a
$1 million prize for whatever flavor was voted the best. After 3.8 million submissions from fans
who participated, the top three choices were Cheesy Garlic Bread, Chicken & Waffles, and
Sriracha. The fans were now able to purchase the three flavors in stores then cast their vote on
Facebook or Twitter for the best flavor. Lays gained a 12% increase in sales during the contest.
Garlic Cheesy Bread was eventually named the winner of the contest.[22]

Purposes and Tactics


One of the main purposes in employing Social Media in marketing is as a communications tool
that makes the companies accessible to those interested in their product and make them visible to
those who have no knowledge of their products.[23] These companies use social media to create
buzz, learn from and target customers. It's the only form of marketing that can finger consumers
at each and every stage of the consumer decision journey.[24] Marketing through social media has
other benefits as well. Of the top 10 factors that correlate with a strong Google organic search,
seven are social media dependent. This means that if brands are less or non active on social
media, they tend to show up less on Google searches.[25] While platforms such as Twitter,
Facebook and Google+ have a larger amount of monthly users, The visual media sharing based
mobile platforms however, garner a higher interaction rate in comparison and have registered the
fastest growth and have changed the ways in which consumers engage with brand content.
Instagram has an interaction rate of 1.46% with an average of 130 million users monthly as
opposed to Twitter which has a .03% interaction rate with an average of 210 million monthly
users.[25] Unlike traditional media that are often cost-prohibitive to many companies, a social
media strategy does not require astronomical budgeting.[26] To this end, companies make use of
platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Instagram in order to reach audiences much
wider than through the use of traditional print/TV/radio advertisements alone at a fraction of the
cost, as most social networking sites can be used at no cost. This has changed the ways that
companies approach interact with customers, as a substantial percentage of consumer
interactions are now being carried out over online platforms with much higher visibility.
Customers can now post reviews of products and services, rate customer service and ask
questions or voice concerns directly to companies through social media platforms. Thus social
media marketing is also used by businesses in order to build relationships of trust with
consumers.[27] To this aim, companies may also hire personnel to specifically handle these social
media interactions, who usually report under the title of Online community managers. Handling
these interactions in a satisfactory manner can result in an increase of consumer trust. To both
this aim and to fix the public's perception of a company, 3 steps are taken in order to address
consumer concerns, identifying the extent of the social chatter, engaging the influencers to help,
and developing a proportional response.[28]

Twitter
Twitter allows companies to promote their products in short messages limited to 140 characters
which appear on followers home pages. Messages can link to the products website, Facebook
profile, photos, videos, etc.[29]

Facebook

Facebook pages are far more detailed than Twitter accounts. They allow a product to provide
videos, photos, and longer descriptions, and testimonials as other followers can comment on the
product pages for others to see. Facebook can link back to the products Twitter page as well as
send out event reminders.
A study from 2011 attributed 84% of "engagement" or clicks to Likes that link back to Facebook
advertising.[30] By 2014 Facebook had restricted the content published from businesses' and
brands' pages. Adjustments in Facebook algorithms have reduced the audience for non-paying
business pages (that have at least 500,000 "Likes") from 16 percent in 2012 down to 2 percent in
February 2014.[31] [32][33]

Google+
Google+, in addition to providing pages and some features of Facebook, is also able to integrate
with the Google search engine. Other Google products are also integrated, such as Google
Adwords and Google Maps. With the development of Google Personalized Search and other
location-based search services, Google+ allows for targeted advertising methods, navigation
services, and other forms of location-based marketing and promotion. Google+ can also be
beneficial for other digital marketing campaigns, as well as social media marketing. Google+
authorship was known to have a significant benefit on a website's search engine optimisation,
before the relationship was removed by Google. Google+ is one of the fastest growing social
media networks and can benefit almost any business.

LinkedIn
LinkedIn, a professional business-related networking site, allows companies to create
professional profiles for themselves as well as their business to network and meet others.[34]
Through the use of widgets, members can promote their various social networking activities,
such as Twitter stream or blog entries of their product pages, onto their LinkedIn profile page.[35]
LinkedIn provides its members the opportunity to generate sales leads and business partners.[36]
Members can use Company Pages similar to Facebook pages to create an area that will allow
business owners to promote their products or services and be able to interact with their
customers.[37][38] Due to spread of spam mail sent to job seeker, leading companies prefer to use
LinkedIn for employee's recruitment instead using different job portals. Additionally, companies
have voiced a preference for the amount of information that can be gleaned from LinkedIn
profile, versus a limited email.[39]

Yelp
Yelp consists of a comprehensive online index of business profiles. Businesses are searchable by
location, similar to Yellow Pages. The website is operational in seven different countries,
including the United States and Canada. Business account holders are allowed to create, share,
and edit business profiles. They may post information such as the business location, contact
information, pictures, and service information. The website further allows individuals to write,
post reviews about businesses and rate them on a five-point scale. Messaging and talk features

are further made available for general members of the website, serving to guide thoughts and
opinions.[40]

Foursquare
Foursquare is a location based social networking website, where users can check into locations
via a Swarm app on their smartphones. Foursquare allows businesses to create a page or create a
new/claim an existing venue.[41] A good marketing strategy for businesses to increase foot traffic
or retain loyal customers includes offering incentives such as discounts or free food/beverages
for people checking into their location.[42]

Instagram
In May 2014, Instagram had over 200 million users. The user engagement rate of Instagram was
15 times higher than of Facebook and 25 times higher than that of Twitter.[43] According to Scott
Galloway, the founder of L2 and a professor of marketing at New York Universitys Stern
School of Business, latest studies estimate that 93 percent of prestige brands have an active
presence on Instagram and include it in their marketing mix.[44] When it comes to brands and
businesses, Instagram's goal is to help companies to reach their respective audiences through
captivating imagery in a rich, visual environment.[45] Moreover, Instagram provides a platform
where user and company can communicate publicly and directly, making itself an ideal platform
for companies to connect with their current and potential customers.[46]
Many brands are now heavily using this mobile app to boost their visual marketing strategy.
Instagram can be used to gain the necessary momentum needed to capture the attention of the
market segment that has an interest in the product offering or services.[47] As Instagram is
supported by Apple and android system, it can be easily accessed by smart phone users.
Moreover, it can be accessed by Internet as well. Thus, the marketers see it as a potential
platform to expand their brands exposure to the public, especially the younger target group. On
top of this, marketers do not only use social media for traditional Internet advertising, but they
also encourage users to create attention for a certain brand. This generally create an opportunity
for greater brand exposure.[48] Furthermore, marketers are also using the platform to drive social
shopping and inspire people to collect and share pictures of their favorite products. Many big
names have already jumped on board: Starbucks, MTV, Nike, Marc Jacobs, Red Bull are a few
examples of multinationals that adopted the mobile photo app early.
Instagram has proven itself a powerful platform for marketers to reach their customers and
prospects through sharing pictures and brief messages. According to a study by Simply
Measured, 71 percent of the worlds largest brands are now using Instagram as a marketing
channel.[49] For companies, Instagram can be used as a tool to connect and communicate with
current and potential customers. The company can present a more personal picture of their brand,
and by doing so the company conveys a better and true picture of itself. The idea of Instagram
pictures lies on on-the-go, a sense that the event is happening right now, and that adds another
layer to the personal and accurate picture of the company. Another option Instagram provides the
opportunity for companies to reflect a true picture of the brand through the perspective of the
customers, for instance, using the user-generated contents thought the hashtags

encouragement.[50] Other than the filters and hashtags functions, the Instagrams 15-second
videos and the recently added ability to send private messages between users have opened new
opportunities for brands to connect with customers in a new extent, further promoting effective
marketing on Instagram.

YouTube
YouTube is another popular avenue; advertisements are done in a way to suit the target audience.
The type of language used in the commercials and the ideas used to promote the product reflect
the audience's style and taste.
Also, the ads on this platform are usually in sync with the content of the video requested, this is
another advantage YouTube brings for advertisers. Certain ads are presented with certain videos
since the content is relevant. Promotional opportunities such as sponsoring a video is also
possible on YouTube, "for example, a user who searches for a YouTube video on dog training
may be presented with a sponsored video from a dog toy company in results along with other
videos."[51] YouTube also enable publishers to earn money through its YouTube Partner
Program.

Social Bookmarking Sites


Websites such as Delicious, Digg, Slashdot and Reddit are popular social bookmarking sites
used in social media promotion. Each of these sites is dedicated to the collection, curation, and
organization of links to other websites. This process is crowdsourced, allowing members to sort
and prioritize links by relevance and general category. Due to the large user bases of these
websites, any link from one of them to another, smaller website usually results in a flash crowd.
In addition to user generated promotion, these sites also offer advertisements within individual
user communities and categories.[52] Because ads can be placed in designated communities with a
very specific target audience and demographic, they have far greater potential for traffic
generation than ads selected simply through cookie and browser history.[53] Additionally, some
of these websites have also implemented measures to make ads more relevant to users by
allowing users to vote on which ones will be shown on pages they frequent.[54] The ability to
redirect large volumes of web traffic and target specific, relevant audiences makes social
bookmarking sites a valuable asset for social media marketers.

Blogs
Platforms like LinkedIn create an environment for companies and clients to connect online.[55]
Companies that recognize the need for information, originality, and accessibility employ blogs to
make their products popular and unique, and ultimately reach out to consumers who are privy to
social media.[56]
Blogs allow a product or company to provide longer descriptions of products or services, can
include testimonials and can link to and from other social network and blog pages. Blogs can be
updated frequently and are promotional techniques for keeping customers, and also for acquiring
followers and subscribers who can then be directed to social network pages.

Online communities can enable a business to reach the clients of other businesses using the
platform. To allow firms to measure their standing in the corporate world, sites like Glassdoor
enable employees to place evaluations of their companies.[55] Some businesses opt out of
integrating social media platforms into their traditional marketing regimen. There are also
specific corporate standards that apply when interacting online.[55] To maintain an advantage in a
business-consumer relationship, businesses have to be aware of four key assets that consumers
maintain: information, involvement, community, and control.[57]

Tumblr
Tumblr first launched ad products on May 29, 2012.[58] Rather than relying on simple banner ads,
Tumblr requires advertisers to create a Tumblr blog so the content of those blogs can be featured
through the site.[59] In one year, four native ad formats were created on web and mobile, and had
more than 100 brands advertising on Tumblr with 500 cumulative sponsored posts.
Ad formats[60]

Sponsored Mobile Post Advertisements (Advertisers blog posts) will show up on


users Dashboard when the user is on a mobile device such as smartphones and tablets,
allowing them to like, reblog, and share the sponsored post.
Sponsored Web Post Largest in-stream ad unit on the web that catches the users
attention when looking at their Dashboard through their computer or laptop. It also allows
the viewers to like, reblog, and share it.
Sponsored Radar Radar picks up exceptional posts from the whole Tumblr
community based on their originality and creativity. It is placed on the right side next to
the Dashboard, and it typically earns 120 million daily impressions. Sponsored radar
allows advertisers to place their posts there to have an opportunity to earn new followers,
Reblogs, and Likes.
Sponsored Spotlight Spotlight is a directory of some of the popular blogs throughout
the community and a place where users can find new blogs to follow. Advertisers can
choose one category out of fifty categories that they can have their blog listed on there.

These posts can be one or more of the following: images, photo sets, animated GIFs, video,
audio, and text posts. For the users to differentiate the promoted posts to the regular users posts,
the promoted posts have a dollar symbol on the corner. On May 6, 2014 Tumblr announced
customization and theming on mobile apps for brands to advertise.[61]
Advertising Campaign on Tumblr

Disney/Pixars Monsters University:Created a tumblr account, MUGrumblr, saying that


the account is maintained by a Monstropolis transplant and self-diagnosed coffee
addict who is currently a sophomore at Monsters University.[62] A student from
Monsters University uploaded memes, animated GIFs, and Instagram-like photos that are
related to the movie.
Apples iPhone 5c: Created a tumblr page, labeling it Every color has a story with the
website name: ISee5c. As soon as you visit the website, the page is covered with

different colors representing the iPhone 5c phone colors and case colors. When you click
on one of the colored section, a 15 second video plays a song and showcases the dots
featured on the rear of the iPhone 5c official cases and on the iOS 7 dynamic
wallpapers...,[63] concluding with words that are related to the videos theme.

Marketing techniques
Targeting, COBRAs, and eWOM
Social media marketing involves the use of social networks, COBRAs and eWOM to
successfully advertise online. Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter provide advertisers
with information about the likes and dislikes of their consumers.[51] This technique is crucial, as
it provides the businesses with a target audience.[51] With social networks, information relevant
to the users likes is available to businesses; who then advertise accordingly.
Consumers online brand related activities (COBRAs) is another method used by advertisers to
promote their products. Activities such as uploading a picture of your new Converse sneakers to
Facebook[64] is an example of a COBRA.[64] Another technique for social media marketing is
electronic word of mouth (eWOM).[64] Electronic recommendations and appraisals are a
convenient manner to have a product promoted via consumer-to-consumer interactions[64].[64]
An example of eWOM would be an online hotel review;[65] the hotel company can have two
possible outcomes based on their service. A good service would result in a positive review which
gets the hotel free advertising via social media, however a poor service will result in a negative
consumer review which can potentially harm the company's reputation.

Tools
Besides research tools, various companies provide specialized platforms and tools for social
media marketing:[66]

Social media measurement


Social network aggregation
Social bookmarking
Social analytics
Automation
Social media
Blog marketing
Validation
Brand ambassador

Implications on traditional advertising


Minimizing use

Traditional advertising techniques include print and television advertising. The Internet has
already overtaken television as the largest advertising market.[67] Websites often include banner
or pop-up ads. Social networking sites dont always have ads. In exchange, products have entire
pages and are able to interact with users. Television commercials often end with a spokesperson
asking viewers to check out the product website for more information. Print ads are also starting
to include QR codes on them. These QR codes can be scanned by cell phones and computers,
sending viewers to the product website. Advertising is beginning to move viewers from the
traditional outlets to the electronic ones.[citation needed]

Leaks
Internet and social networking leaks are one of the issues facing traditional advertising. Video
and print ads are often leaked to the world via the Internet earlier than they are scheduled to
premiere. Social networking sites allow those leaks to go viral, and be seen by many users more
quickly. Time difference is also a problem facing traditional advertisers. When social events
occur and are broadcast on television, there is often a time delay between airings on the east
coast and west coast of the United States. Social networking sites have become a hub of
comment and interaction concerning the event. This allows individuals watching the event on the
west coast (time-delayed) to know the outcome before it airs. The 2011 Grammy Awards
highlighted this problem. Viewers on the west coast learned who won different awards based on
comments made on social networking sites by individuals watching live on the east coast.[68]
Since viewers knew who won already, many tuned out and ratings were lower. All the
advertisement and promotion put into the event was lost because viewers didnt have a reason to
watch. [according to whom?]

Social media marketing mishaps


Social media marketing provides organizations with a way to connect with their customers.
However, organizations must protect their information as well as closely watch comments and
concerns on the social media they use. A flash poll done on 1225 IT executives from 33
countries revealed that social media mishaps caused organizations a combined $4.3 million in
damages in 2010.[69] The top three social media incidents an organization faced during the
previous year included employees sharing too much information in public forums, loss or
exposure of confidential information, and increased exposure to litigation.[69] Due to the viral
nature of the internet, a mistake by a single employee has in some cases shown to result in
devastating consequences for organizations.
An example of a social media mishap includes designer Kenneth Cole's Twitter mishap in 2011.
When Kenneth Cole tweeted, "Millions are in uproar in #Cairo. Rumor is they heard our new
spring collection is now available online at [Kenneth Cole's website]".[70] This reference to the
2011 Egyptian Revolution drew objection from the public; it was widely objected to on the
Internet.[70] Kenneth Cole realized his mistake shortly after and responded with a statement
apologizing for the tweet.[71]

In 2012 during Hurricane Sandy, Gap sent out a tweet to its followers telling them to stay safe
but encouraged them to shop online and offered free shipping.[72] The tweet was deemed
insensitive and Gap eventually took it down and apologized.[73]
Numerous additional online marketing mishap examples exist. Examples include a YouTube
video of a Domino's Pizza employee violating health code standards, which went viral on the
internet and later resulted in felony charges against two employees.[69][74] A Twitter hashtag
posted by McDonald's in 2012 attracting attention due to numerous complaints and negative
events customers experienced at the chain store; and a 2011 tweet posted by a Chrysler Group
employee that no one in Detroit knows how to drive.[75] When the Link REIT opened a Facebook
page to recommend old-style restaurants, the page was flooded by furious comments criticising
the REIT for having forced a lot of restaurants and stores to shut down; it had to terminate its
campaign early amid further deterioration of its corporate image.[76]

Ethics of Social Media Marketing


The code of ethics that is affiliated with traditional marketing can also be applied to social
media, however with social media being so personal and international, there is another list of
complications and challenges that comes along with being ethical online. With the invention of
social media, the marketer no longer has to focus solely on the basic demographics and
psychographics given from television and magazines, but now they can see what consumers like
to hear from advertisers, how they engage online, and what their needs and wants are.[77] The
general concept of being ethical while marking on social network sites is to be honest with the
intentions of the campaign, avoid false advertising, be aware of user privacy conditions (which
means not using consumers' private information for gain),respect the dignity of persons in the
shared online community, and claim responsibility of any mistakes or mishaps that are results of
your marketing campaign.[78] Most social network marketers use websites like Facebook and
MySpace to try to drive traffic to another website.[79] While it is ethical to use social networking
websites to spread a message to people who are genuinely interested, many people game the
system with auto-friend adding programs and spam messages and bulletins. Social networking
websites are becoming wise to these practices, however, and are effectively weeding out and
banning offenders.
In addition, social media platforms have become extremely aware of their users and collect
information about their viewers to connect with them in various ways. Social-networking web
site Facebook Inc. is quietly working on a new advertising system that would let marketers target
users with ads based on the massive amounts of information people reveal on the site about
themselves [80] This may be an unethical or ethical feature to some individuals. Some people may
react negatively because they believe it is an invasion of privacy. On the other hand, some
individuals may enjoy this feature because their social network recognizes their interests and
sends them particular advertisements pertaining to those interests. Consumers like to network
with people who have interests and desires that are similar to their own [81] Individuals who agree
to have their social media profile public, should be aware that advertisers have the ability to take
information that interests them to be able to send them information and advertisements to boost
their sales. Managers invest in social media to foster relationships and interact with customers [82]

This is an ethical way for managers to send messages about their advertisements and products to
their consumers.

Metrics for Social Media Marketing


Channel Reports
This involves tracking the volume of visits, leads and customers each individual social channel is
generating. Google analytics [83] is a new tool that allows marketers to see how effective their
social media efforts or social activities have been. Furthermore, websites such as HubSpot
Partner and IMPACT branding help you to choose social media channels most suitable for your
business.

Return on Investment Data


The end goal of any marketing effort is to generate sales. Although social media is a useful
marketing tool, it is often difficult to quantify to what extent it is contributing to profit. ROI can
be measured by comparing marketing analytic value to contact database or CRM and connect
marketing efforts directly to sales activity.

Customer response rates


Several customers are turning towards social media to express their appreciation or frustration
with brands, product or services. Therefore marketers can measure the frequency of which
customers are discussing their brand and judge how effective their SMM strategies are.

Reach and virality


Popular social media such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and other social networks can provide
marketers with a hard number of how large their audience is nevertheless a large audience may
not always translate into a large sales volumes. Therefore an effective SMM cannot be measured
by a large audience but rather by vigorous audience activity such as social shares, retweets
etc.[84]

See also

Social media optimization


Marketing
Internet marketing
Integrated marketing communications
Web 2.0
Visual marketing

References

Email marketing
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Part of a series on

Internet marketing

Search engine optimization

Social media marketing

Email marketing

Referral marketing

Content marketing

Native advertising

Search engine marketing

Pay per click

Cost per impression

Search analytics
Web analytics

Display advertising

Contextual advertising

Behavioral targeting

Affiliate marketing

Cost per action


Revenue sharing

Mobile advertising

t
e

Email marketing is directly marketing a commercial message to a group of people using email.
In its broadest sense, every email sent to a potential or current customer could be considered
email marketing. It usually involves using email to send ads, request business, or solicit sales or
donations, and is meant to build loyalty, trust, or brand awareness. Email marketing can be done
to either sold lists or a current customer database. Broadly, the term is usually used to refer to
sending email messages with the purpose of enhancing the relationship of a merchant with its
current or previous customers, to encourage customer loyalty and repeat business, acquiring new
customers or convincing current customers to purchase something immediately, and adding
advertisements to email messages sent by other companies to their customers.
The Madison Logic company posted global data in April 2014 that claimed 122 billion emails
are sent every hour.[1]

Contents

1 Types of email marketing


o 1.1 Transactional emails
o 1.2 Direct emails
2 Comparison to traditional mail
o 2.1 Advantages
o 2.2 Disadvantages
3 Opt-in email advertising
4 Legal requirements
o 4.1 Canada
o 4.2 European Union (E.U.)
o 4.3 United States (U.S.)
5 See also
6 References

Types of email marketing


Email marketing can be carried out through different types of emails:

Transactional emails
Transactional emails are usually triggered based on a customers action with a company. To be
qualified as transactional or relationship messages, these communications' primary purpose must
be "to facilitate, complete, or confirm a commercial transactions that the recipient has previously
agreed to enter into with the sender", along with a few other narrow definitions of transactional
messaging. [2] Triggered transactional messages include dropped basket messages, password

reset emails, purchase or order confirmation emails, order status emails, reorder emails and email
receipts.
The primary purpose of a transactional email is to convey information regarding the action that
triggered it. But, due to its high open rates (51.3% compared to 36.6% for email newsletters),
transactional emails are an opportunity to engage customers: to introduce or extend the email
relationship with customers or subscribers, to anticipate and answer questions or to cross-sell or
up-sell products or services.[3][unreliable source?]
Many email newsletter software vendors offer transactional email support, which gives
companies the ability to include promotional messages within the body of transactional emails.
There are also software vendors that offer specialized transactional email marketing services,
which include providing targeted and personalized transactional email messages and running
specific marketing campaigns (such as customer referral programs).

Direct emails
Direct email or interruption based marketing involves sending an email solely to communicate a
promotional message (for example, an announcement of a special offer or a catalog of products).
Companies usually collect a list of customer or prospect email addresses to send direct
promotional messages to, or they can also rent a list of email addresses from service companies,
but safe mail marketing is also used.

Comparison to traditional mail


There are both advantages and disadvantages to using email marketing in comparison to
traditional advertising mail.

Advantages
Email marketing (on the Internet) is popular with companies for several reasons:

An exact return on investment can be tracked ("track to basket") and has proven to be
high when done properly. Email marketing is often reported as second only to search
marketing as the most effective online marketing tactic.[4]
Email marketing is significantly cheaper and faster than traditional mail, mainly because
of high cost and time required in a traditional mail campaign for producing the artwork,
printing, addressing and mailing.
Advertisers can reach substantial numbers of email subscribers who have opted in (i.e.,
consented) to receive email communications on subjects of interest to them.
Almost half of American Internet users check or send email on a typical day,[5] with
email blasts that are delivered between 1 am and 5 am local time outperforming those
sent at other times in open and click rates.[6][7]
Email is popular with digital marketers, rising an estimated 15% in 2009 to 292 m in the
UK.[8]

If compared to standard email, direct email marketing produces higher response rate and
higher average order value for e-commerce businesses.[9]

Disadvantages
A report issued by the email services company Return Path, as of mid-2008 email deliverability
is still an issue for legitimate marketers. According to the report, legitimate email servers
averaged a delivery rate of 56%; twenty percent of the messages were rejected, and eight percent
were filtered.[10]
Companies considering the use of an email marketing program must make sure that their
program does not violate spam laws such as the United States' Controlling the Assault of NonSolicited Pornography and Marketing Act (CAN-SPAM),[11] the European Privacy and
Electronic Communications Regulations 2003, or their Internet service provider's acceptable use
policy.

Opt-in email advertising


Opt-in email advertising, or permission marketing, is a method of advertising via email whereby
the recipient of the advertisement has consented to receive it. This method is one of several
developed by marketers to eliminate the disadvantages of email marketing.[12]
Opt-in email marketing may evolve into a technology that uses a handshake protocol between the
sender and receiver.[12] This system is intended to eventually result in a high degree of
satisfaction between consumers and marketers. If opt-in email advertising is used, the material
that is emailed to consumers will be "anticipated." It is assumed that the consumer wants to
receive it, which makes it unlike unsolicited advertisements sent to the consumer. Ideally, opt-in
email advertisements will be more personal and relevant to the consumer than untargeted
advertisements.
A common example of permission marketing is a newsletter sent to an advertising firm's
customers. Such newsletters inform customers of upcoming events or promotions, or new
products.[13] In this type of advertising, a company that wants to send a newsletter to their
customers may ask them at the point of purchase if they would like to receive the newsletter.
With a foundation of opted-in contact information stored in their database, marketers can send
out promotional materials automatically using autorespondersknown as Drip Marketing. They
can also segment their promotions to specific market segments.[14]

Legal requirements
Canada

The "Canada Anti-Spam Law" (CASL) went into effect on July 1, 2014. CASL requires an
explicit or implicit opt-in from users, and the maximum fines for noncompliance are CA$1
million for individuals and $10 million for businesses.[15]

European Union (E.U.)


In 2002 the European Union (EU) introduced the Directive on Privacy and Electronic
Communications. Article 13 of the Directive prohibits the use of personal email addresses for
marketing purposes. The Directive establishes the opt-in regime, where unsolicited emails may
be sent only with prior agreement of the recipient, this does not apply to business email
addresses.
The directive has since been incorporated into the laws of member states. In the UK it is covered
under the Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003[16] and
applies to all organizations that send out marketing by some form of electronic communication.

United States (U.S.)


The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 was passed by Congress as a direct response of the growing
number of complaints over spam e-mails. Congress determined that the US government was
showing an increased interest in the regulation of commercial electronic mail nationally, that
those who send commercial e-mails should not mislead recipients over the source or content of
them, and that all recipients of such emails have a right to decline them.The act authorizes a US
$16,000 penalty per violation for spamming each individual recipient.[17] However, it does not
ban spam emailing outright, but imposes laws on using deceptive marketing methods through
headings which are "materially false or misleading". In addition there are conditions which email
marketers must meet in terms of their format, their content and labeling. As a result, many
commercial email marketers within the United States utilize a service or special software to
ensure compliance with the Act. A variety of older systems exist that do not ensure compliance
with the Act. To comply with the Act's regulation of commercial email, services also typically
require users to authenticate their return address and include a valid physical address, provide a
one-click unsubscribe feature, and prohibit importing lists of purchased addresses that may not
have given valid permission.
In addition to satisfying legal requirements, email service providers (ESPs) began to help
customers establish and manage their own email marketing campaigns. The service providers
supply email templates and general best practices, as well as methods for handling subscriptions
and cancellations automatically. Some ESPs will provide insight/assistance with deliverability
issues for major email providers. They also provide statistics pertaining to the number of
messages received and opened, and whether the recipients clicked on any links within the
messages.
The CAN-SPAM Act was updated with some new regulations including a no fee provision for
opting out, further definition of "sender", post office or private mail boxes count as a "valid
physical postal address" and definition of "person". These new provisions went into effect on
July 7, 2008.[18]

See also

CAUCE Coalition Against Unsolicited Commercial Email


Customer engagement
Suppression list

References
1. "10 Email Best Practices". Madison Logic. Madison Logic. April 2014. Retrieved 21
June 2014.
2. "PUBLIC LAW 108187DEC. 16, 2003 117 STAT. 2699". U.S Government GPO.
3. McDonald, Loren (April 23, 2009) Transactional Emails: Make Your First Impression
Count. mediapost.com
4. "New Survey Data: Email's ROI Makes Tactic Key for Marketers in 2009 ",
MarketingSherpa, January 21, 2009
5. Pew Internet & American Life Project, "Tracking surveys", March 2000 March 2009
6. How Scheduling Affects Rates. Mailermailer.com (July 2012). Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
7. BtoB Magazine, "Early Email Blasts Results in Higher Click & Open Rates", September
2011
8. UK e-mail marketing predicted to rise 15%. MediaWeek.co.uk (13 October 2009)
9. Why Email Marketing is King. Harvard Business Review (21 August 2012)
10. Bannan, Karen J. (July 31, 2008) "5 ways to increase deliverability", BtoB Magazine
11. The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 online at ftc.gov or PDF Version
12. Fairhead, N. (2003) All hail the brave new world of permission marketing via email
(Media 16, August 2003)
13. Dilworth, Dianna. (2007) Ruth's Chris Steak House sends sizzling e-mails for special
occasions, DMNews retrieved on February 19, 2008
14. O'Brian J. & Montazemia, A. (2004) Management Information Systems (Canada:
McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.)
15. "Canada's law on spam". Government of Canada. Retrieved 19 July 2014..
16. The Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003.
Opsi.gov.uk. Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
17. "CAN-SPAM Act: A Compliance Guide for Business". BCP Business Center. Retrieved
September 2009.
18. "FTC Approves New Rule Provision Under The CAN-SPAM Act". Ftc.gov. 24 June
2011. Retrieved

2.Referral marketing
3. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
4. Not to be confused with multi-level marketing, which is also sometimes called referral
marketing
5. Referral marketing is a method of promoting products or services to new customers
through referrals, usually word of mouth. Such referrals often happen spontaneously but
businesses can influence this through appropriate strategies.

6. Overview

This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section
by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (March 2014)
7. Referral marketing is a process to increase word of mouth marketing by encouraging
customers and contacts to talk as much as possible about a brand or product.
8. Online referral marketing, using digital marketing as a platform, is the internet based
approach to traditional referral marketing. By tracking customer behavior online through
the use of web browser cookies and similar technology, online referral marketing can
potentially provide a higher degree of accountability than offline models.
9. Offline referral marketers sometimes use trackable business cards. Trackable business
cards typically contain QR codes linking them to online content for sale while providing
a way to track that sale back to the person whose card was scanned.

10.

Benefits of referral programs

11. A study conducted by the Goethe University Frankfurt and the University of
Pennsylvania, on referral programs and customer value which followed the customer
referral program of a German bank that paid customers 25 euro for bringing in a new
customer, was released in July 2010. [1] According to Professor Van den Bulte, this is the
first ever study published on the financial evaluation of customer referral programs.[2]
The study found that referred customers were both more profitable and loyal than normal
customers. Referred customers had a higher contribution margin, a higher retention rate
and were more valuable in both the short and long run.
12. On whether customer referral programs are worth the cost, the study says that it records
"a positive value differential, both in the short term and long term, between customers
acquired through a referral program and other customers. Importantly, this value
differential is larger than the referral fee. Hence, referral programs can indeed pay off."[3]

Content marketing
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article uses bare URLs for citations, which may be threatened by link rot. Please
consider adding full citations so that the article remains verifiable. Several templates and
the Reflinks tool are available to assist in formatting. (Reflinks documentation) (July 2014)
Part of a series on

Internet marketing

Search engine optimization

Social media marketing

Email marketing
Referral marketing
Content marketing

Native advertising

Search engine marketing

Pay per click

Cost per impression

Search analytics
Web analytics

Display advertising

Contextual advertising

Behavioral targeting

Affiliate marketing

Cost per action


Revenue sharing

Mobile advertising

v
t
e

Content marketing is any marketing that involves the creation and sharing of media and
publishing content in order to acquire and retain customers. This information can be presented in
a variety of formats, including news, video, white papers, e-books, infographics, case studies,
how-to guides, question and answer articles, photos, etc.[1][2][3]

History

10g Backin package (1902)


Advertising has long used content to disseminate information about a brand, and build a brand's
reputation. In 1891, August Oetker sold small packages of his Backin baking powder to
households with recipes printed on the back. In 1911 he started publishing his very successful
cookbook. It went through major updates over past 100 years and is one of the most successful
cookbooks, globally reaching 19 million printed copies. All recipes originated from the test
kitchen of the Oetker company, and the book was carefully written as a textbook to teach
cooking from scratch. Oetker was very aware of the need for good marketing, practical
communication and use of his doctor title to lend authority to his marketing.
In 1895, John Deere launched the magazine The Furrow, providing information to farmers on
how to become more profitable. The magazine, considered the first custom publication, is still in
circulation, reaching 1.5 million readers in 40 countries in 12 different languages.[4]
Michelin developed the Michelin Guide in 1900, offering drivers information on auto
maintenance, accommodations, and other travel tips. 35,000 copies were distributed for free in
this first edition.[5]
Jell-O salesmen went door-to-door, distributing their cookbook for free in 1904. Touting the
dessert as a versatile food, the company saw its sales rise to over $1 million by 1906.[6]
The phrase "content marketing" was used as early as 1996,[7] when John F. Oppedahl led a
roundtable for journalists at the American Society for Newspaper Editors. In 1998, Jerrell
Jimerson held the title of "director of online and content marketing" at Netscape.[8] In 1999,
author Jeff Cannon wrote,In content marketing, content is created to provide consumers with
the information they seek.[9]
Recently, content marketing has become more prominent, especially where digital and online
marketing is concerned. Seth Godin, American author and Marketeer stated in 2008 that 'content
marketing was the only marketing left.'[10]
By 2014, Forbes Magazine's website had written about the 7 most popular ways companies use
content marketing.[11] In it, the columnist points out that by 2013, use of content marketing had

jumped across corporations from 60% a year or so before, to 93%[12] as part of their overall
marketing strategy. Despite the fact that 70% of organizations are creating more content, only
21% of marketers think they are successful at tracking ROI.[13]

Earned media
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Earned media (or free media) refers to publicity gained through promotional efforts other than
advertising, as opposed to paid media, which refers to publicity gained through advertising.[1]

Contents

1 Background
2 Impact of Earned Media
3 References
4 External links

Background
There are many types of media available to online marketers and fit into the broad categories:
owned, paid, and earned media. Owned media is defined as communication channels that are
within one's control, such as websites, blogs, or email; while paid media refers mostly to
traditional advertising. Earned media, on the other hand, is generated when content receives
recognition and a following outside of traditional paid advertising, through communication
channels such as social media and word of mouth.[2]
Earned media often refers specifically to publicity gained through editorial influence, whereas
social media refers to publicity gained through grassroots action, particularly on the Internet. The
media may include any mass media outlets, such as newspaper, television, radio, and the
Internet, and may include a variety of formats, such as news articles or shows, letters to the
editor, editorials, and polls on television and the Internet. Critically, earned media cannot be
bought or owned, it can only be gained organically, hence the term 'earned'.

Impact of Earned Media


A Nielsen study in 2013 found that earned media (also described in the report as word-of-mouth)
is the most trusted source of information in all countries it surveyed worldwide. It also found that
earned media is the channel most likely to stimulate the consumer to action. Other authorities
make the distinction between online and offline earned media / word-of-mouth, and have shown
that offline word-of-mouth has been found to be more effective than online word-of-mouth.

Many consider earned media to be the most cost effective method of marketing. As a result,
many companies are investing in earned media. The increased use of earned media is converging
traditional owned and paid methods of marketing.[3]
Examples of paid, owned and earned media[4]
Type
Definition
Offline Examples
Online Examples
Display/banner
advertising
Traditional advertising
Search advertising (e.g.
Media activity related
(e.g., television, radio,
Google AdWords)
to a company or brand
print, outdoor)
Social network
Paid that is generated by
Sponsorships
advertising (e.g. Facebook
the company or its
Direct Mail
ads)
agents
Electronic direct mail
(e.g., email advertising)

Media activity related


to a company or brand
that is generated by
Owned
the company or its
agents in channels it
controls

Media activity related


to a company or brand
that is not directly
generated by the
Earned company or its agents
but rather by other
entities such as
customers or
journalists

Retail in-store visual


merchandising or
displays
Brochures
Company press
releases

Traditional publicity
mentions in
professional media
outlets
Ratings and reviews in
TMOs (e.g., movie
reviews)
Consumer-toconsumer WOM
conversations about
products, including
advice and referrals
Consumers showing or
demonstrating
products to each other

Company/brand website
Company/brand blog
Company-owned
pages/accounts in online
social networks (e.g.,
Twitter account, Facebook
brand page)

Traditional publicity
mentions in digital media
outlets (e.g., professional
blogs)
Online WOM referrals
(e.g., invitations to join a
website)
Post in online
communities or social
networks (e.g., status
updates, tweets)
Online ratings and
reviews (e.g., Yelp.com
for restaurants,
Amazon.com for
products)

The increasing use of earned media has provided marketers with new ways in which to interact
and engage their customers. These innovative approaches are replacing traditional marketing

methods such as email and banner ads, and provide innovative methods to find, optimize, and
measure return on earned media investments.[5]
Custom media (or, customer media) is a marketing term referring broadly to the development,
production and delivery of media (print, digital, audio, video, events) designed to strengthen the
relationship between the sponsor of the medium and the medium's audience. It is also called
branded media, customer media, member media, content marketing, and custom
publishing in the US; contract publishing and customer publishing in the UK. In-flight
magazines, sponsored by airlines, were one of the first custom media and remain typical of the
genre. While other channels have had significant success, the customer magazine is the most
successful example of the genre.[1]
Typically, custom media is sponsored by a single marketer (a company, brand, association or
institution) and is designed to reach a tightly focused audience of customers, members, alumni or
other constituency. Custom media can be produced "in-house" by such organizations. Over the
past two decades, a growing number of specialized publishing and media firms have emerged,
called "custom media" or "custom publishing" companies in the US, and "customer publishers'"
or '"publishing agencies" in the UK. Like advertising and other marketing services firms, the
companies or divisions of traditional media companies, provide professional marketing and
communications services to clients for a fee. Such out-sourced services can be limited to design
and editorial responsibilities or include the complete production and distribution process. In
addition, many of the companies sell advertising space within custom publications to third
parties; this subsizes the cost of publication; creates a more authentic editorial environment; and
allows third parties to purchase and publicizes an association with the media's sponsor, while
reaching that sponsor's customers (e.g. food suppliers may purchase advertising space within a
supermarket's custom media).[citation needed]
Custom media aims to build a relationship of trust and loyalty with the sponsor's customers, so
they regard the sponsor as the vendor of choice when they make purchases. This is accomplished
by providing information and, often, advice, that meets the needs and suits the preferences of the
sponsor's target market. It serves the interests of the audience, rather than overtly plugging
products and services the way ads do.[citation needed]
Brand language is the body of words, phrases, and terms that an organization uses to describe
its purpose or in reference to its products. Brand language is used in marketing to help
consumers connect specific words or ideas to specific companies or products.[1] When
developing a brand language word choice and tone are the two fundamental components. Word
choice is the vocabulary that is used in the marketing or advertising, while tone refers to the
attitude of the advertisement. Tone is not limited to language, it can also be incorporated through
visual elements as well as delivery.[2]
Brand language is a part of verbal brand identity, includes naming of both corporation and the
products they sell as well as taglines, voice, and tone.[3] Another benefit of developing a brand
language is the ability for a corporation or product to be recognizable across international
borders, while other advertising codes can be misinterpreted, words can be translated to ensure
brand unity.[4]

Contents

1 Primary goal
2 Examples
3 Delivery channels
4 Areas and authorities that offer brand language
o 4.1 Brand agencies
o 4.2 Specialist brand language consultancies
o 4.3 Digital and social media companies
o 4.4 Brand writers
o 4.5 Copywriters
5 Political uses
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References

Primary goal
As a part of the advertising world brand language's primary function is to identify a company or
product and also differentiate that company/product from competitors. The language is used to
get the attention of the consumer and then to relay information about what is being advertised. It
is also used to ensure that when people communicate about the product there are fewer
misunderstandings and more clarity about purpose and the role that this commodity wants to play
in the lives of the consumer.[5]
The brand language can also be associated with competing for investors, recruiting talent, or
acquiring business partners[citation needed].
Brand language is also often used internally within a company. For motivational and leadership
situations, branding language helps to promote the brand values and is treated as a commodity
alongside the actual products and/or company.[5]

Examples
When positive words become strongly associated with particular brands, these words can
become assetsto the point that competing brands may find the words difficult to use. For
example, in his book Brand Sense (Kogan Page, 2005) Martin Lindstrom quotes extensive word
association research carried out by Millward Brown demonstrating the strong link between the
words magic and kingdom and Disney. Disney appears to have made a successful
investment in owning these words. Lindstroms studies found that Disney has the highest
number of words that are associated with one specific brand (among brands that were surveyed).
Along with magic and kingdom Disney has been shown to have branded the words:
dreams, creativity, fantasy, smiles and generation. The study that he conducted asked
people to associate those words with a brand and over 80% of people asked said that they
thought of Disney. Part of the reason that Disney has been so successful is that they are able to

seamlessly integrate traditional and new media markets in a way that allows them to reach large
audiences with a stable continuous message.[1]
Other campaigns that have powerful brand language recognition are Kelloggs and Gillette. Part
of the idea with branded language is to go beyond just a slogan and to imbue ordinary words
with the idea or essence of a particular brand. With Kelloggs the word that is associated with
them is crunch. With Gillette the word that consumers see as synonymous with the brand is
masculine. In this case the word masculine also conjures socially constructed ideologies,
which helps the brand become a more stable construction in the mind of consumers.[1]
The disadvantage of very strong brand language associations is that they may prove a hindrance
if a brand wishes to position itself differently[citation needed].

Delivery channels
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this
article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged
and removed. (December 2012)
In Brand Sense, Lindstrom says brand language starts from the bottom up and not suddenly
placed on top like a piece of decorative icing. So, as well as being competitive, brand language
should be delivered as consistently as possible through all formal delivery channels.
With the expansion of social media, there is a new market for advertising and the use of branding
language. Social media allows for companies to move beyond the more traditional forms of
advertising and into a new arena. However, it is important that the language of the advertising
remain consistent throughout a campaign no matter what the platform.[6] Different social media
sites offer various audiences and come with particular and differing platforms. Using the right
language and jargon is important so that companies seem engaged and are able to spread their
message to multiple audiences.[7]
Brand recognition can inspire an influx of followers or friends, but if the social media content is
seen as lacking then it can cause audiences to negatively perceive a company.[8] When
employing social media resources it is crucial that a company begin to view their brand as a
personality.[6] It is important for companies to know why they are using these social media sites
it might be education, a playful persona, or a desire to attract more people to an online store.
Clarity of focus will allow companies to build their sites around this one particular point, which
helps consumers recognize the brand and follow it. Knowing the purpose of the social media site
also allows for the company to tailor the site to the specific needs of the commodity. Here tone
becomes important as it allows for audiences to better understand how to engage with the site
and through that, the company or product.[7]
One of the facets that is unique to new media, and specifically social media, is the dialogue that
is expected to take place between a company and the consumers. Unlike traditional marketing
formats, which send information one way, social media enables immediate and direct feedback
from a myriad of users. Many companies find that it challenging to move from faceless

corporation to friend.[8] Because of this some choose not to engage in social media or only do so
marginally. Companies must be able to assess the brand attributes and translate that into a
personality so that online users feel that they can form a relationship with these companies and
products.[8]
Brand language is delivered externally through formal marketing communications, such as
advertising and public relations. It is present wherever written and spoken language is used to
communicate a proposition. This includes recruitment, corporate communications, investor
relations, sales presentations, conference speaking, retail staff and whenever an individual
answers the telephone on behalf of the brand[citation needed].
Internally, brand language is delivered primarily[citation needed] through internal presentations, staff
conferences and through intranet sites[citation needed].
Because brand language is so widespread[citation needed], it has many internal and external
contributors[citation needed]. This diversity of sources and contributors makes it very difficult to
control[citation needed]. Visual identity is produced from a central source, usually[citation needed] a design
agency. It is usually[citation needed] delivered with a set of design guidelines produced to ensure the
consistent delivery of design. Variations from these guidelines can be identified relatively easily
by the brands managers[citation needed]. This is much more difficult with language[citation needed].

Areas and authorities that offer brand language


Brand agencies
Brand design agencies have diversified beyond their roots in brand logo and packaging design
into corporate identity and brand language.[citation needed] They are global businesses with the scope
to ensure that brand naming and brand language works in different languages.[citation needed]

Specialist brand language consultancies


Since the early 2000s, a few specialist brand language consultancies (also known as tone of voice
consultancies) have emerged, with the ability to roll out brand tone of voice.

Digital and social media companies


Brands are tracking social media in order to understand how people are talking about them.[citation
needed]
The corollary is that they contribute to how brands are talking about themselves.

Brand writers
This new emphasis on brand language has led to the emergence of a new breed of writers - these
are a hybrid of brand consultant and word expert, with a good dose of consumer psychology and
change management know-how in the mix. This new breed are brand writers - the kind of people

who can take corporate and brand strategy and create a style of communication that supports and
accelerates those business goals.

Copywriters
There are large numbers of freelance copywriters that have repositioned themselves as brand
language experts.[citation needed]

Political uses
Brand language is a strategy that has been used to further political agendas and campaigns. In his
book Language and Politics, Noam Chomsky makes the argument that language is used to shape
the way in which political events and people are seen and remembered. He views this is practice
as mostly negative and believes that politicians reword events to cover failed actions.[9]
More recently campaigns have made concerted efforts to brand certain language in an effort to
have constituents link phrases and ideas with a particular candidate or political party. There are
two ways of exploring brand language as it relates to politics. One way is to research the key
positive and negative traits voters look for on candidates and then ask which of these seems
linked to one candidate or the other. This examines the way in which political strategists position
their candidates and how much of the message is getting across and which audiences are most
responsive to them.[10] Another way of examining brand language in politics is to look at the
actual words that the candidates say in order to determine their branding of language.[11]
Brooklyn Art Project compiled a list of the most commonly used words during the 2008
presidential campaign and made a visual representation of them to showcase how each candidate
branded certain words

Inbound marketing
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For a related term coined by Seth Godin, see Permission marketing. For the product
management sense of Inbound Marketing, see Product management.
Inbound marketing is promoting a company through blogs, podcasts, video, eBooks,
enewsletters, whitepapers, SEO, social media marketing, and other forms of content marketing
which serve to attract customers.[1][2][3] In contrast, buying attention,[1] cold-calling, direct paper
mail, radio, TV advertisements,[2] sales flyers, spam, telemarketing[3] and traditional
advertising[4] are considered "outbound marketing". Inbound marketing refers to marketing
activities that bring visitors in, rather than marketers having to go out to get prospects' attention.
Inbound marketing earns the attention of customers,[1] makes the company easy to be found,[2]
and draws customers to the website[4] by producing interesting content.[3] Inbound marketing
methodologies are used to reach potential customers at various levels of brand awareness. These
tactics require a commitment in order to steer marketing efforts into increased opportunities, as it
provides the prospect to both learn about potential customers and have potential customers learn
about the business.[5]

David Meerman Scott recommends that marketers "earn their way in" (via publishing helpful
information on a blog etc.) in contrast to outbound marketing, where they "buy, beg, or bug their
way in" (via paid advertisements, issuing press releases, or paying commissioned sales people,
respectively).[6] The term is synonymous with the concept of permission marketing, which is the
title of a book by Seth Godin.[3] The inbound marketing term was coined by HubSpots Brian
Halligan,[2][3][7] in 2005.[8][9] According to HubSpot, inbound marketing is especially effective for
small businesses[10][11] that deal with high dollar values, long research cycles and knowledgebased products. In these areas prospects are more likely to get informed and hire someone who
demonstrates expertise.[11]

Permission marketing
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Permission marketing is a relatively new term, which was coined and developed by the
entrepreneur, Seth Godin.[1] Traditional methods of marketing often revolves around the idea of
attracting the customers attention away from whatever they are doing whether it is a television
advert that cuts into a TV show, or an internet pop-up that interferes with a website. According
to Seth Godin, such traditional methods of advertising (often referred to as Interruption
marketing), has become less effective in the modern world, where information is overloaded.[2]
Therefore, Godin has developed the idea of permission marketing. Permission marketing is the
opposite of interruption marketing; instead of interrupting the customer with unrequested
information, permission marketing aims to sell goods and services only when the prospect gives
consent in advance to receive the marketing information.[3]
Opt-in email is a prime example of Permission marketing, where Internet users sign-up (in other
words give permission) to receive information about a certain product or a service.[4] Supporters
of Permission marketing claims it to be effective, as the potential client would be more interested
in an information that was requested in advance. Furthermore, it is also more cost-efficient in
comparison to the traditional methods, as businesses will only need to target consumers who
have expressed an interest in their product.[5]

Contents

1 Permission marketing vs. Interruption marketing


2 The 5 Levels of Permission Marketing
3 Examples of Permission marketing
o 3.1 Huffington Post
o 3.2 YouTube
4 History
5 Benefits and Limitations of Permission Marketing
o 5.1 Benefits
o 5.2 Limitations
6 References

Permission marketing vs. Interruption marketing


Interruption marketing is essentially a competition to win peoples attention. Thirty years ago,
when the internet was not as common, it was relatively easier to win peoples attention.
However, in todays world of mass-marketing, people are consistently overloaded with adverts
that compete for their limited time and attention span. The average consumer is said to come into
contact with 1 million advertisements per year which is nearly 3000 per day. When there is an
overflow of interruptions, peoples inevitable response would be to disregard them, tune out, and
refuse to respond. Such traditional methods of marketing has thus become more difficult and
costly increasing the number of exposures will be required to attain the same outcome.[6]
Permission Marketing in contrast, offers an opportunity for the consumers to agree to be
marketed to. By only targeting such volunteers, Permission Marketing assures that the consumers
pay more attention to the marketing message. Permission Marketing thus encourages consumers
to engage in a long-standing, cooperative marketing campaign.[7]

The 5 Levels of Permission Marketing


From the lowest to the highest effectiveness, there are 5 levels of permission in Permission
Marketing.
1. Situational Permission: The prospect permits the business to come into contact by
providing their personal information.
2. Brand Trust: The prospect permits the business to continue supplying their needs.
3. Personal Relationship: The prospects permission is granted because of a personal
relationship that he/she has with someone in the provider organization.
4. Points Permission: At this stage, the customer has agreed to receive goods or services and
has allowed the business to collect their personal data. This is usually because they are
provided with incentives, such as exchangeable points or an opportunity to earn a prize.
5. Intravenous Permission: The supplier has now taken over the supply function for a
specific good or a service; the customer is completely dependent on the business.
At each successive level of the permission framework, the business achieves a higher efficiency
state, with a decrease in the marketing cost. Thus, businesses usually aim to achieve the
intravenous permission level. However, the 5 levels of permission should not be considered as
a necessary sequential process, as more than one level could apply simultaneously depending on
the nature of the business.[8]

Examples of Permission marketing


After Permission Marketing was first introduced in 1999, as of today, it has inspired a large
number of firms and companies to establish permission-based marketing agencies, campaigns,
and platforms. It has also largely contributed to the development and the expansion of the social
media, which heavily utilizes the methods of permission marketing; friending, liking, and
following, all closely associates to the idea of Permission Marketing. Facebook is a prime

example whether it is to post, to share, or to amplify, the marketer would have to send a friend
request (or a permission) to the potential prospects.[9] Other notable examples of permission
marketing are listed below:

Huffington Post
Huffington Post is an American online news aggregator and blog which offers original content
including the areas of politics, business, entertainment, environment, technology, etc. The
Huffington Post has a clear permission marketing-based approach; the readers will be required to
register on the site using their social media (such as Facebook, Twitter, etc). The registration
implies that readers have given the permission for Huffington Post to send them with marketing
information, such as their newsletters.[10]

YouTube
YouTube is a video-sharing website which enables its users to upload, view, and share videos.
Many firms utilizes YouTube as part of their social-media marketing strategy to promote their
products and services. Firms specifically make use of the subscribing feature to establish a
permission-based relationship with their customers. Subscription would imply that viewers have
given permission for the business to market them with updated information, campaign, etc.[11]

History
Permission marketing was first publicized in Seth Godins book, Permission Marketing:
Turning Strangers into Friends and Friends into Customers, published on May 6, 1999. Seth
Godin is the founder of the Yoyodyne Entertainment, and his experience as an entrepreneur was
what cemented his idea of Permission Marketing. He witnessed that successful campaigns were
the ones that first sought for customers consent. From such observation, Godin believed that
marketing strategies should be based on the following elements anticipated, personal, and
relevant. The three elements were then put together to define Permission marketing.[12]

Anticipated: people will anticipate the service/product information from the company.
Personal: the marketing information explicitly relates to the customer.
Relevant: the marketing information is something that the consumer is interested in.

Benefits and Limitations of Permission Marketing


Benefits

Cost Efficient: Permission Marketing employs low cost online tools social media,
search engine optimization, e-mails, etc. Furthermore, by only marketing to consumers
who has expressed an interest, businesses can lower their marketing costs.

High Conversion Rate: As the targeting audience are those who has expressed an interest
to the product, it is easier to convert the leads into sales.

Personalization: Permission marketing allows businesses to run personalized campaigns;


it allows them to target specific audiences according to their age, gender, geographical
location, etc.

Establish Long-Term Relationships with the Customer: Through the usage of social
media and e-mails, businesses can interact and build long-term relationships with the
customers.

Maintains Marketing Reputation: Unlike Interruption marketing where consumers are


bombarded with marketing messages, Permission marketing only sends information to
those who are anticipating the information. Therefore, prospects who receive the
information do not feel discomfort.[13]

Limitations

Though supporters of Permission marketing claims it to be effective over Interruption


Marketing, there is a paradox; Permission marketing is inevitably initiated with
Interruption Marketing. To develop a permission-based relationship with a prospect, the
very first step is always in the form of traditional marketing, where the marketer has to
win the prospects attention.[14]

Native advertising
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Native advertising is a form of online advertising that matches the form and function of the
platform on which it appears. The word "native" refers to the content's coherence with other
media on the platform.

Contents

1 Forms
2 Platforms
3 See also
4 References
5 External links

Forms
One form of native advertising, publisher-produced brand content, is similar in concept to a
traditional advertorial, which is a paid placement attempting to look like an article. [1]
Formats for native advertising include promoted videos, images, articles, commentary, music
and other media. Examples of the technique include Search advertising (ads appearing alongside

search results are native to the search experience) and Twitter with promoted Tweets, trends and
people. Other examples include Facebook's promoted stories or Tumblr's promoted posts.
Content marketing is another form of native advertising, placing sponsor-funded content
alongside editorial content [2] or showing "other content you might be interested in" which is
sponsored by a marketer alongside editorial recommendations.[3]In addition, it is important to
note that the earliest form of native advertising was Hallmark, with its Hall of Fame series which
began airing in 1951 (and still airs today). According to Grensing- Pophal, The award-winning
series is arguably one of the earliest examples of native advertisingadvertising that is
secondary to the message being delivered, but impactful through its association with valued
content [4] Moreover, Amazon and many other companies advertise their content to users based
on their previous search histories, but the difference between native advertising and other types
of marketing techniques is that such ads can be promoted through Facebook, Twitter and other
social media.[5] It is about how brands now work with online publications to reach people
Some problems that arise with this tool is that consumers view these advertisements as
annoying instead of useful because according to Quigley, reason why native advertising carries
a negative perception may be from the days of the in-your-face advertorial [however,] if the
content is useful and presents something your audience didnt know before, theyre likely to trust
it and refer back. [6]

Platforms
The types of platforms and websites that participate in native advertising can be split into two
categories, "open" and "closed" platforms:[7][8][9] Mobile platforms such as Hubbl have also been
developed.[10][11]

Closed platforms are brands creating profiles and/or content within a platform, then
promoting that content within the confines of that same closed platform. Examples
include Promoted Tweets on Twitter, Sponsored Stories on Facebook, City, Vivas and
TrueView Video Ads on YouTube. Large publishers, such as Washington Post, have
recently started introducing their own native advertising formats.[12]
Open platforms are defined by promoting the same piece of branded content across
multiple platforms within native ad formats. Unlike closed platforms, the branded content
asset lives outside the platform.
Hybrid platforms allow publishers to install a private marketplace, while having the
option to allow advertisers from other platforms to bid on the same inventory either
through direct sales or programmatically through Real-Time Bidding (RTB).

See also

Contextual advertising
Content marketing

References

1. "This Infographic Explains What Native Advertising Is". mashable.com. December 13,
2012.
2. "Why Content Marketing Should Be Going Native".
3. Hallett, Tony. "What is native advertising anyway?". http://www.theguardian.com.
Retrieved 1 November 2014.
4. GRENSING-POPHAL, Lin (2014). "Consumers Coming to Accept Native Advertising
Done Right". Econtent 6: 8.
5. Hallett, Tony. "What is native advertising anyway?". http://www.theguardian.com.
Retrieved 1 November 2014.
6. GRENSING-POPHAL, Lin (2014). "Consumers Coming to Accept Native Advertising
Done Right". Econtent 6: 8.
7. "Native Advertising: A Powerful Performance Driver". Retrieved November 23, 2014.
8. "What is native advertising?". March 6, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
9. Mark Chu Cheong (September 7, 2014). "Native Ads Part Deux: The Growth of Open
Native Advertising". Retrieved November 23, 2014.
10. Barry Levine (October 16, 2013). "Ad Network Airpush Buys Hubbl, Promises 1st
Native Ad Platform". Retrieved November 23, 2014.
11. "Startup of the Week Hubbl". October 18, 2012. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
12. Bercovici, Jeff. "The Washington Post Dives Into Native Advertising". Forbes. Retrieved
3 April 2014.

External links

Khan, Fahad, Toward (Re) Defining Native Advertising, Huffington Post, 3 September
2013.
Joel, Mitch (13 February 2013). "We Need a Better Definition of "Native Advertising"".
Harvard Business Review Blog.
Salmon, Felix, "The disruptive potential of native advertising", Reuters blogpost, 9 April
2013.
Rice, Andrew, Does BuzzFeed know the secret?, New York Magazine, 7 April 2013.
Gensing- Pophal, Lin, [1]

Pay per click


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Part of a series on

Internet marketing

Search engine optimization

Social media marketing

Email marketing

Referral marketing

Content marketing

Native advertising

Search engine marketing

Pay per click


Cost per impression

Search analytics
Web analytics

Display advertising

Contextual advertising

Behavioral targeting

Affiliate marketing

Cost per action


Revenue sharing

Mobile advertising

v
t
e

Pay per click (PPC), also called cost per click, is an internet advertising model used to direct
traffic to websites, in which advertisers pay the publisher (typically a website owner) when the
ad is clicked. It is defined simply as the amount spent to get an advertisement clicked.[1]
With search engines, advertisers typically bid on keyword phrases relevant to their target market.
Content sites commonly charge a fixed price per click rather than use a bidding system. PPC
"display" advertisements, also known as "banner" ads, are shown on web sites or search engine
results with related content that have agreed to show ads.
In contrast to the generalized portal, which seeks to drive a high volume of traffic to one site,
PPC implements the so-called affiliate model, which provides purchase opportunities wherever

people may be surfing. It does this by offering financial incentives (in the form of a percentage
of revenue) to affiliated partner sites. The affiliates provide purchase-point click-through to the
merchant. It is a pay-for-performance model: If an affiliate does not generate sales, it represents
no cost to the merchant. Variations include banner exchange, pay-per-click, and revenue sharing
programs.
Websites that utilize PPC ads will display an advertisement when a keyword query matches an
advertiser's keyword list, or when a content site displays relevant content. Such advertisements
are called sponsored links or sponsored ads, and appear adjacent to, above, or beneath organic
results on search engine results pages, or anywhere a web developer chooses on a content site.[2]
The PPC advertising model is open to abuse through click fraud, although Google and others
have implemented automated systems[3] to guard against abusive clicks by competitors or corrupt
web developers.[4]

Contents

1 Purpose
2 Construction
o 2.1 Flat-rate PPC
o 2.2 Bid-based PPC
3 History
4 Legal
5 See also
6 References
7 External links

Purpose
Pay-per-click, along with cost per impression and cost per order, are used to assess the cost
effectiveness and profitability of internet marketing. Pay-per-click has an advantage over cost
per impression in that it tells us something about how effective the advertising was. Clicks are a
way to measure attention and interest. If the main purpose of an ad is to generate a click, then
pay-per-click is the preferred metric. Once a certain number of web impressions are achieved,
the quality and placement of the advertisement will affect click through rates and the resulting
pay-per-click.[1]

Construction
Pay-per-click is calculated by dividing the advertising cost by the number of clicks generated by
an advertisement. The basic formula is:
Pay-per-click ($) = Advertising cost ($) Ads clicked (#)[1]

There are two primary models for determining pay-per-click: flat-rate and bid-based. In both
cases, the advertiser must consider the potential value of a click from a given source. This value
is based on the type of individual the advertiser is expecting to receive as a visitor to his or her
website, and what the advertiser can gain from that visit, usually revenue, both in the short term
as well as in the long term. As with other forms of advertising targeting is key, and factors that
often play into PPC campaigns include the target's interest (often defined by a search term they
have entered into a search engine, or the content of a page that they are browsing), intent (e.g., to
purchase or not), location (for geo targeting), and the day and time that they are browsing.

Flat-rate PPC
In the flat-rate model, the advertiser and publisher agree upon a fixed amount that will be paid
for each click. In many cases the publisher has a rate card that lists the pay-per-click (PPC)
within different areas of their website or network. These various amounts are often related to the
content on pages, with content that generally attracts more valuable visitors having a higher PPC
than content that attracts less valuable visitors. However, in many cases advertisers can negotiate
lower rates, especially when committing to a long-term or high-value contract.
The flat-rate model is particularly common to comparison shopping engines, which typically
publish rate cards.[5] However, these rates are sometimes minimal, and advertisers can pay more
for greater visibility. These sites are usually neatly compartmentalized into product or service
categories, allowing a high degree of targeting by advertisers. In many cases, the entire core
content of these sites is paid ads.

Bid-based PPC
The advertiser signs a contract that allows them to compete against other advertisers in a private
auction hosted by a publisher or, more commonly, an advertising network. Each advertiser
informs the host of the maximum amount that he or she is willing to pay for a given ad spot
(often based on a keyword), usually using online tools to do so. The auction plays out in an
automated fashion every time a visitor triggers the ad spot.
When the ad spot is part of a search engine results page (SERP), the automated auction takes
place whenever a search for the keyword that is being bid upon occurs. All bids for the keyword
that target the searcher's geo-location, the day and time of the search, etc. are then compared and
the winner determined. In situations where there are multiple ad spots, a common occurrence on
SERPs, there can be multiple winners whose positions on the page are influenced by the amount
each has bid. The ad with the highest bid generally shows up first, though additional factors such
as ad quality and relevance can sometimes come into play (see Quality Score).The predominant
three match types for both Google and Bing are broad, exact and phrase. Google also offers the
broad modifier match type.[6]
In addition to ad spots on SERPs, the major advertising networks allow for contextual ads to be
placed on the properties of 3rd-parties with whom they have partnered. These publishers sign up
to host ads on behalf of the network. In return, they receive a portion of the ad revenue that the
network generates, which can be anywhere from 50% to over 80% of the gross revenue paid by

advertisers. These properties are often referred to as a content network and the ads on them as
contextual ads because the ad spots are associated with keywords based on the context of the
page on which they are found. In general, ads on content networks have a much lower clickthrough rate (CTR) and conversion rate (CR) than ads found on SERPs and consequently are less
highly valued. Content network properties can include websites, newsletters, and e-mails.[7]
Advertisers pay for each click they receive, with the actual amount paid based on the amount bid.
It is common practice amongst auction hosts to charge a winning bidder just slightly more (e.g.
one penny) than the next highest bidder or the actual amount bid, whichever is lower.[8] This
avoids situations where bidders are constantly adjusting their bids by very small amounts to see
if they can still win the auction while paying just a little bit less per click.
To maximize success and achieve scale, automated bid management systems can be deployed.
These systems can be used directly by the advertiser, though they are more commonly used by
advertising agencies that offer PPC bid management as a service. These tools generally allow for
bid management at scale, with thousands or even millions of PPC bids controlled by a highly
automated system. The system generally sets each bid based on the goal that has been set for it,
such as maximize profit, maximize traffic at breakeven, and so forth. The system is usually tied
into the advertiser's website and fed the results of each click, which then allows it to set bids. The
effectiveness of these systems is directly related to the quality and quantity of the performance
data that they have to work with low-traffic ads can lead to a scarcity of data problem that
renders many bid management tools useless at worst, or inefficient at best.

History
In 1996, the first known and documented version of a PPC was included in a web directory
called Planet Oasis. This was a desktop application featuring links to informational and
commercial web sites, and it was developed by Ark Interface II, a division of Packard Bell NEC
Computers. The initial reactions from commercial companies to Ark Interface II's "pay-per-visit"
model were skeptical, however.[9] By the end of 1997, over 400 major brands were paying
between $.005 to $.25 per click plus a placement fee.[citation needed]
In February 1998 Jeffrey Brewer of Goto.com, a 25-employee startup company (later Overture,
now part of Yahoo!), presented a pay per click search engine proof-of-concept to the TED
conference in California.[10] This presentation and the events that followed created the PPC
advertising system. Credit for the concept of the PPC model is generally given to Idealab and
Goto.com founder Bill Gross.
Google started search engine advertising in December 1999. It was not until October 2000 that
the AdWords system was introduced, allowing advertisers to create text ads for placement on the
Google search engine. However, PPC was only introduced in 2002; until then, advertisements
were charged at cost-per-thousand impressions or Cost per mille (CPM). Overture has filed a
patent infringement lawsuit against Google, saying the rival search service overstepped its
bounds with its ad-placement tools.[11]

Although GoTo.com started PPC in 1998, Yahoo! did not start syndicating GoTo.com (later
Overture) advertisers until November 2001.[12] Prior to this, Yahoo's primary source of SERPS
advertising included contextual IAB advertising units (mainly 468x60 display ads). When the
syndication contract with Yahoo! was up for renewal in July 2003, Yahoo! announced intent to
acquire Overture for $1.63 billion.[13] Today, companies such as adMarketplace, ValueClick and
adknowledge offer PPC services, as an alternative to AdWords and AdCenter.
Among PPC providers, Google AdWords, Yahoo! Search Marketing, and Microsoft adCenter
had been the three largest network operators, all three operating under a bid-based model.[2] In
2010, Yahoo and Microsoft launched their combined effort against Google and Microsoft's Bing
began to be the search engine that Yahoo used to provide its search results.[14] Since they joined
forces, their PPC platform was renamed AdCenter. Their combined network of third party sites
that allow AdCenter ads to populate banner and text ads on their site is called BingAds.[15]

Legal
In 2012 Google was ruled to have engaged in misleading and deceptive conduct by the
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission in possibly the first legal case of its kind.
The Commission ruled unanimously that Google was responsible for the content of its sponsored
AdWords ads that had shown links to a car sales website CarSales. The Ads had been shown by
Google in response to a search for Honda Australia. The ACCC said the ads were deceptive, as
they suggested CarSales was connected to the Honda company. The ruling was later overturned
when Google appealed to the Australian High Court. Google was found not liable for the
misleading advertisements run through AdWords despite the fact that the ads were served up by
Google and created using the companys tools.[16]

See also

Cost per impression


Cost per order
Clickthrough rate

References
1. Farris, Paul W.; Neil T. Bendle; Phillip E. Pfeifer; David J. Reibstein (2010). Marketing
Metrics: The Definitive Guide to Measuring Marketing Performance. Upper Saddle
River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 0-13-705829-2. The Marketing
Accountability Standards Board (MASB) endorses the definitions, purposes, and
constructs of classes of measures that appear in Marketing Metrics as part of its ongoing
Common Language in Marketing Project.
2. "Customers Now", David Szetela, 2009.
3. Shuman Ghosemajumder (March 18, 2008). "Using data to help prevent fraud". Google
Blog. Retrieved May 18, 2010.
4. How Google prevents invalid activity Google AdSense Help Center, Accessed November
17, 2014

5. Card Shopping.com Merchant Enrollment Shopping.com, Accessed June 12, 2007


6. "Keyword Matching Options Article: Keyword Matching Options Bing Ads". Google
Support. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
7. Yahoo! Search Marketing (May 18, 2010). "Sponsored Search". Website Traffic Yahoo!
Search Marketing (formerly Overture). Retrieved May 18, 2010.
8. The cost of AdWords Google AdWords Help, Accessed May 18, 2012
9. and documented Planet Oasis gives web sites promotion clout, Advertising Age July 8,
1996, retrieved December 5, 2012
10. Overture and Google: Internet Pay Per Click (PPC) Advertising Auctions, London
Business School, Accessed June 12, 2007
11. Stefanie Olsen and Gwendolyn Mariano (April 5, 2002). "Overture sues Google over
search patent". CNET. Retrieved Jan 28, 2011.
12. Yahoo! Inc. (2002). "Yahoo! and Overture Extend Pay-for-Performance Search
Agreement". Yahoo! Press Release. Retrieved May 18, 2010.
13. Stefanie Olsen (July 14, 2003). "Yahoo to buy Overture for $1.63 billion". CNET.
Retrieved May 18, 2010.
14. Singel, Ryan (18 February 2010). "Yahoo and Microsoft Join Search Forces". Retrieved
26 September 2012.
15. "Link to Webpronews.com Article: Yahoo And Microsoft Introduce The Yahoo Bing
Network, adCenter Becomes Bing Ads". WebProNews. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
16. "Link to citywebguide.com.au Article: Google Wins Legal Battle at ACCC".
TheCityWebGuide. Retrieved 17 June 2013.

Cost per impression


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
{{Internet
Cost per impression, often abbreviated CPI, is a term used in online advertising and marketing
related to web traffic.[1] It refers to the cost of internet marketing or email advertising campaigns
where advertisers pay each time an ad is displayed. Specifically, it is the cost or expense incurred
for marketing potential customers who view the advertisement(s).[2]

Contents

1 Purpose
o 1.1 Impression versus Pageview
2 Construction
3 See also
4 References
5 Further reading
6 External links

Purpose
Cost per impression, along with cost per click and cost per order, is used to assess the cost
effectiveness and profitability of online advertising.[2] CPI is the closest online advertising
strategy to those offered in other media such as television or print, which sell advertising based
on estimated viewership or readership. CPI provides a comparable measure to contrast internet
advertising with other media.

Impression versus Pageview


An impression is the display of an ad to a user while viewing a web page. A single web page
may contain multiple ads. In such cases, a single pageview would result in one impression for
each ad displayed. In order to count the impressions served as accurately as possible and prevent
fraud, an ad server may exclude certain non-qualifying activities such as page-refreshes or other
user actions from counting as impressions. When advertising rates are described as CPM or CPI,
this is the amount paid for every thousand qualifying impressions served at cost.

Construction
Cost per impression is derived from advertising cost and the number of impressions.
Cost per impression ($) = Advertising cost ($) Number of Impressions (#)
Cost per impression is often expressed as Cost per Thousand Impressions (CPM) to make the
numbers easier to manage.[2]

See also

Cost per click (CPC)/Pay per click (PPC)


Cost per order
Cost per mille (CPM)
Effective cost per mille (eCPM)
Cost per action (CPA)
Effective cost per action (eCPA)
Click-through rate (CTR)
Internet marketing
Compensation methods
Performance-based advertising
Conversion rate (CVR)

References
1. What Is CPM-Based Web Advertising?

2. Farris, Paul W.; Neil T. Bendle; Phillip E. Pfeifer; David J. Reibstein (2010). Marketing
Metrics: The Definitive Guide to Measuring Marketing Performance. Upper Saddle
River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 0-13-705829-2. The Marketing
Accountability Standards Board (MASB) endorses the definitions, purposes, and
constructs of classes of measures that appear in Marketing Metrics as part of its ongoing
Common Language in Marketing Project.

Further reading

Chaffey, Dave; et al. (2006). Internet Marketing: Strategy, Implementation and Practice
(3rd ed.). Harlow, England: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-273-69405-7.

External links

MASB Official Website

Categories:

Marketing terminology
Internet terminology
Compensation methods

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Search analytics
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article
by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (November 2009)
Search analytics is the analysis and aggregation of search engine statistics for use in search
engine marketing (SEM) and search engine optimization (SEO). In other words, search analytics
helps website owners understand and improve their performance on search engines. Search
analytics includes search volume trends and analysis, reverse searching (entering websites to see
their keywords), keyword monitoring, search result and advertisement history, advertisement

spending statistics, website comparisons, affiliate marketing statistics, multivariate ad testing, et


al.

Contents

1 Services
2 Data collection
3 Accuracy
4 Market conditions
5 See also
6 References

Services
Sea
Dat
Rev
rch
Data Data
Sear
erse
Vol
Servic e Cost
Colle Verifi
ch
Sta
/mo
Sea
.
e
ction cation
Vol.
rted
rch
His
tory

Keyw
ord
Monit
oring

Res
Websit Affi
Adverti Ad
ult
e
liate
sement Spen
His
Compa Stat
History ding
tory
risons s

Multiv
ariate
Testin
g

Google 200
$0
Trends 4

Own Not
Top Rela
s
applic
Yes
10 tive
Data able

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

Google 200
Insight 8- $0
s
8-5

Own Not
Rela
s
applic No
Yes
tive
Data able

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

No

200
Compe 8- $50
ISP
te.com 7- 0
4[1]
200
4Adgoor
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10- $90
oo
ing
14[2

No

Yes Yes No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Yes Yes No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Cache
d
Yes Yes No
SERP
s

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

200
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SpyFu
$60
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[3]
5
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110[4

Yes

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Sea
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Data Data
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Servic e Cost
Colle Verifi
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Sta
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His
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Keyw
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Monit
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Last updated: 2014-10-16

Data collection
Search analytics data can be collected in several ways. Search engines provide access to their
own data with services such as Google Trends and Google Insights. Third party services must
collect their data from ISP's, phoning home software, or from scraping search engines. Getting
traffic statistics from ISP's and phone homes provides for broader reporting of web traffic in
addition to search analytics. Services that perform keyword monitoring only scrape a limited set
of search results depending on their clients' needs. Services providing reverse search however,
must scrape a large set of keywords from the search engines, usually in the millions, to find the
keywords that everyone is using.
Since search results, especially advertisements, differ depending on where you are searching
from, data collection methods have to account for geographic location. Keyword monitors do
this more easily since they typically know what location their client is targeting. However, to get
an exhaustive reverse search, several locations need to be scraped for the same keyword.

Accuracy
Search analytics accuracy depends on service being used, data collection method, and data
freshness. Google releases its own data, but only in an aggregated way and often without
assigning absolute values such as number of visitors to its graphs.[5] ISP logs and phone home
methods are accurate for the population they sample, so sample size and demographics must be
adequate to accurately represent the larger population. Scraping results can be highly accurate,
especially when looking at the non-paid, organic search results. Paid results, from Google
Adwords for example, are often different for the same search depending on the time, geographic
location, and history of searches from a particular computer. This means that scraping advertisers
can be hit or miss.

Market conditions
Taking a look at Google Insights to gauge the popularity of these services shows that compared
to searches for the term Adwords (Google's popular search ad system), use of search analytics
services is still very low, around 1-25% as of Oct. 2009.[6] This could point to a large opportunity

for the users and makers of search analytics given that services have existed since 2004 with
several new services being started since.

See also

Search engine optimization


Keyword research
Search engine marketing
Google Adwords
Internet marketing

References
1. "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. Retrieved 2012-07-09.
2. "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 2007-07-28. Retrieved 2012-0709.
3. "GoogSpy really serious competitor research". AssociatePrograms.com. Retrieved 201212-30.
4. "Positionly Raises $300,000 For Search Engine Ranking From Point Nine, Others".
techcrunch.com/. Retrieved 2012-05-16.
5. "About Google Trends Google Trends". Google.com. Retrieved 2012-07-09.
6. "Google Trends". Google.com. Retrieved 2012-12-30.

Web analytics
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article
by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (October 2008)
Part of a series on

Internet marketing

Search engine optimization

Social media marketing

Email marketing

Referral marketing

Content marketing

Native advertising

Search engine marketing

Pay per click

Cost per impression

Search analytics

Web analytics

Display advertising

Contextual advertising

Behavioral targeting

Affiliate marketing

Cost per action


Revenue sharing

Mobile advertising

v
t
e

Web analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of web data for purposes of
understanding and optimizing web usage.
Web analytics is not just a tool for measuring web traffic but can be used as a tool for business
and market research, and to assess and improve the effectiveness of a website. Web analytics
applications can also help companies measure the results of traditional print or broadcast
advertising campaigns. It helps one to estimate how traffic to a website changes after the launch
of a new advertising campaign. Web analytics provides information about the number of visitors
to a website and the number of page views. It helps gauge traffic and popularity trends which is
useful for market research.
There are two categories of web analytics; off-site and on-site web analytics.
Off-site web analytics refers to web measurement and analysis regardless of whether you own or
maintain a website. It includes the measurement of a website's potential audience (opportunity),
share of voice (visibility), and buzz (comments) that is happening on the Internet as a whole.
On-site web analytics measure a visitor's behavior once on your website. This includes its drivers
and conversions; for example, the degree to which different landing pages are associated with
online purchases. On-site web analytics measures the performance of your website in a
commercial context. This data is typically compared against key performance indicators for

performance, and used to improve a website or marketing campaign's audience response.


Google Analytics is the most widely used on-site web analytics service; although new tools are
emerging that provide additional layers of information, including heat maps and session replay.
Historically, web analytics has referred to on-site visitor measurement. However in recent years
this has blurred, mainly because vendors are producing tools that span both categories.

Contents

1 On-site web analytics technologies


o 1.1 Web server logfile analysis
o 1.2 Page tagging
o 1.3 Logfile analysis vs page tagging
1.3.1 Advantages of logfile analysis
1.3.2 Advantages of page tagging
1.3.3 Economic factors
o 1.4 Hybrid methods
o 1.5 Geolocation of visitors
o 1.6 Click analytics
o 1.7 Customer lifecycle analytics
o 1.8 Other methods
2 On-site web analytics - definitions
3 Off-site web analytics
4 Common sources of confusion in web analytics
o 4.1 The hotel problem
o 4.2 New visitors + Repeat visitors unequal to total visitors
5 Web analytics methods
o 5.1 Problems with cookies
6 Secure analytics (metering) methods
7 See also
8 References
9 Bibliography
10 External links

On-site web analytics technologies


Many different vendors provide on-site web analytics software and services. There are two main
technical ways of collecting the data. The first and older method, server log file analysis, reads
the logfiles in which the web server records file requests by browsers. The second method, page
tagging, uses JavaScript embedded in the site page code to make image requests to a third-party
analytics-dedicated server, whenever a page is rendered by a web browser or, if desired, when a
mouse click occurs. Both collect data that can be processed to produce web traffic reports.

In addition, other data sources may be added to augment the website behavior data described
above. For example: e-mail open and click-through rates, direct mail campaign data, sales and
lead history, or other data types as needed.

Web server logfile analysis


Web servers record some of their transactions in a logfile. It was soon realized that these logfiles
could be read by a program to provide data on the popularity of the website. Thus arose web log
analysis software.
In the early 1990s, website statistics consisted primarily of counting the number of client
requests (or hits) made to the web server. This was a reasonable method initially, since each
website often consisted of a single HTML file. However, with the introduction of images in
HTML, and websites that spanned multiple HTML files, this count became less useful. The first
true commercial Log Analyzer was released by IPRO in 1994.[1]
Two units of measure were introduced in the mid-1990s to gauge more accurately the amount of
human activity on web servers. These were page views and visits (or sessions). A page view was
defined as a request made to the web server for a page, as opposed to a graphic, while a visit was
defined as a sequence of requests from a uniquely identified client that expired after a certain
amount of inactivity, usually 30 minutes. The page views and visits are still commonly displayed
metrics, but are now considered[by whom?] rather rudimentary.
The emergence of search engine spiders and robots in the late 1990s, along with web proxies and
dynamically assigned IP addresses for large companies and ISPs, made it more difficult to
identify unique human visitors to a website. Log analyzers responded by tracking visits by
cookies, and by ignoring requests from known spiders.[citation needed]
The extensive use of web caches also presented a problem for logfile analysis. If a person revisits
a page, the second request will often be retrieved from the browser's cache, and so no request
will be received by the web server. This means that the person's path through the site is lost.
Caching can be defeated by configuring the web server, but this can result in degraded
performance for the visitor and bigger load on the servers.[citation needed]

Page tagging
Concerns about the accuracy of logfile analysis in the presence of caching, and the desire to be
able to perform web analytics as an outsourced service, led to the second data collection method,
page tagging or 'Web bugs'.
In the mid-1990s, Web counters were commonly seen these were images included in a web
page that showed the number of times the image had been requested, which was an estimate of
the number of visits to that page. In the late 1990s this concept evolved to include a small
invisible image instead of a visible one, and, by using JavaScript, to pass along with the image
request certain information about the page and the visitor. This information can then be
processed remotely by a web analytics company, and extensive statistics generated.

The web analytics service also manages the process of assigning a cookie to the user, which can
uniquely identify them during their visit and in subsequent visits. Cookie acceptance rates vary
significantly between websites and may affect the quality of data collected and reported.
Collecting website data using a third-party data collection server (or even an in-house data
collection server) requires an additional DNS look-up by the user's computer to determine the IP
address of the collection server. On occasion, delays in completing a successful or failed DNS
look-ups may result in data not being collected.
With the increasing popularity of Ajax-based solutions, an alternative to the use of an invisible
image is to implement a call back to the server from the rendered page. In this case, when the
page is rendered on the web browser, a piece of Ajax code would call back to the server and pass
information about the client that can then be aggregated by a web analytics company. This is in
some ways flawed by browser restrictions on the servers which can be contacted with
XmlHttpRequest objects. Also, this method can lead to slightly lower reported traffic levels,
since the visitor may stop the page from loading in mid-response before the Ajax call is made.

Logfile analysis vs page tagging


Both logfile analysis programs and page tagging solutions are readily available to companies that
wish to perform web analytics. In some cases, the same web analytics company will offer both
approaches. The question then arises of which method a company should choose. There are
advantages and disadvantages to each approach.[2]
Advantages of logfile analysis
The main advantages of logfile analysis over page tagging are as follows:

The web server normally already produces logfiles, so the raw data is already available.
No changes to the website are required.
The data is on the company's own servers, and is in a standard, rather than a proprietary,
format. This makes it easy for a company to switch programs later, use several different
programs, and analyze historical data with a new program.
Logfiles contain information on visits from search engine spiders, which generally do not
execute JavaScript on a page and are therefore not recorded by page tagging. Although
these should not be reported as part of the human activity, it is useful information for
search engine optimization.
Logfiles require no additional DNS lookups or TCP slow starts. Thus there are no
external server calls which can slow page load speeds, or result in uncounted page views.
The web server reliably records every transaction it makes, e.g. serving PDF documents
and content generated by scripts, and does not rely on the visitors' browsers cooperating.

Advantages of page tagging


The main advantages of page tagging over logfile analysis are as follows:

Counting is activated by opening the page (given that the web client runs the tag scripts),
not requesting it from the server. If a page is cached, it will not be counted by the server.
Cached pages can account for up to one-third of all pageviews. Not counting cached
pages seriously skews many site metrics. It is for this reason server-based log analysis is
not considered suitable for analysis of human activity on websites.
Data is gathered via a component ("tag") in the page, usually written in JavaScript,
though Java can be used, and increasingly Flash is used. Ajax can also be used in
conjunction with a server-side scripting language (such as PHP) to manipulate and
(usually) store it in a database, basically enabling complete control over how the data is
represented.[dubious discuss]
The script may have access to additional information on the web client or on the user, not
sent in the query, such as visitors' screen sizes and the price of the goods they purchased.
Page tagging can report on events which do not involve a request to the web server, such
as interactions within Flash movies, partial form completion, mouse events such as
onClick, onMouseOver, onFocus, onBlur etc.
The page tagging service manages the process of assigning cookies to visitors; with
logfile analysis, the server has to be configured to do this.
Page tagging is available to companies who do not have access to their own web servers.
Lately page tagging has become a standard in web analytics.[3]

Economic factors
Logfile analysis is almost always performed in-house. Page tagging can be performed in-house,
but it is more often provided as a third-party service. The economic difference between these two
models can also be a consideration for a company deciding which to purchase.

Logfile analysis typically involves a one-off software purchase; however, some vendors
are introducing maximum annual page views with additional costs to process additional
information. In addition to commercial offerings, several open-source logfile analysis
tools are available free of charge.
For Logfile analysis you have to store and archive your own data, which often grows very
large quickly. Although the cost of hardware to do this is minimal, the overhead for an IT
department can be considerable.
For Logfile analysis you need to maintain the software, including updates and security
patches.
Complex page tagging vendors charge a monthly fee based on volume i.e. number of
pageviews per month collected.

Which solution is cheaper to implement depends on the amount of technical expertise within the
company, the vendor chosen, the amount of activity seen on the websites, the depth and type of
information sought, and the number of distinct websites needing statistics.
Regardless of the vendor solution or data collection method employed, the cost of web visitor
analysis and interpretation should also be included. That is, the cost of turning raw data into
actionable information. This can be from the use of third party consultants, the hiring of an
experienced web analyst, or the training of a suitable in-house person. A cost-benefit analysis

can then be performed. For example, what revenue increase or cost savings can be gained by
analysing the web visitor data?

Hybrid methods
Some companies produce solutions that collect data through both logfiles and page tagging and
can analyze both kinds. By using a hybrid method, they aim to produce more accurate statistics
than either method on its own. An early hybrid solution was produced in 1998 by Rufus
Evison.[citation needed]

Geolocation of visitors
With IP geolocation, it is possible to track visitors location. Using IP geolocation database or
API, visitors can be geolocated to city, region or country level.[4]
IP Intelligence, or Internet Protocol (IP) Intelligence, is a technology that maps the Internet and
catalogues IP addresses by parameters such as geographic location (country, region, state, city
and postcode), connection type, Internet Service Provider (ISP), proxy information, and more.
The first generation of IP Intelligence was referred to as geotargeting or geolocation technology.
This information is used by businesses for online audience segmentation in applications such
online advertising, behavioral targeting, content localization (or website localization), digital
rights management, personalization, online fraud detection, localized search, enhanced analytics,
global traffic management, and content distribution.

Click analytics

Clickpath Analysis with referring pages on the left and arrows and rectangles differing in
thickness and expanse to symbolize movement quantity.
Click analytics is a special type of web analytics that gives special attention to clicks.
Commonly, click analytics focuses on on-site analytics. An editor of a website uses click
analytics to determine the performance of his or her particular site, with regards to where the
users of the site are clicking.

Also, click analytics may happen real-time or "unreal"-time, depending on the type of
information sought. Typically, front-page editors on high-traffic news media sites will want to
monitor their pages in real-time, to optimize the content. Editors, designers or other types of
stakeholders may analyze clicks on a wider time frame to aid them assess performance of
writers, design elements or advertisements etc.
Data about clicks may be gathered in at least two ways. Ideally, a click is "logged" when it
occurs, and this method requires some functionality that picks up relevant information when the
event occurs. Alternatively, one may institute the assumption that a page view is a result of a
click, and therefore log a simulated click that led to that page view.

Customer lifecycle analytics


Customer lifecycle analytics is a visitor-centric approach to measuring that falls under the
umbrella of lifecycle marketing.[citation needed] Page views, clicks and other events (such as API
calls, access to third-party services, etc.) are all tied to an individual visitor instead of being
stored as separate data points. Customer lifecycle analytics attempts to connect all the data points
into a marketing funnel that can offer insights into visitor behavior and website
optimization.[citation needed]

Other methods
Other methods of data collection are sometimes used. Packet sniffing collects data by sniffing
the network traffic passing between the web server and the outside world. Packet sniffing
involves no changes to the web pages or web servers. Integrating web analytics into the web
server software itself is also possible.[5] Both these methods claim to provide better real-time data
than other methods.

On-site web analytics - definitions


This section requires expansion. (September 2011)
There are no globally agreed definitions within web analytics as the industry bodies have been
trying to agree on definitions that are useful and definitive for some time. The main bodies who
have had input in this area have been JICWEBS (The Joint Industry Committee for Web
Standards in the UK and Ireland), ABCe (Audit Bureau of Circulations electronic, UK and
Europe), The DAA (Digital Analytics Association), formally known as the WAA (Web
Analytics Association, US) and to a lesser extent the IAB (Interactive Advertising Bureau).
However, many terms are used in consistent ways from one major analytics tool to another, so
the following list, based on those conventions, can be a useful starting point. Both the WAA and
the ABCe provide more definitive lists for those who are declaring their statistics as using the
metrics defined by either.

Hit - A request for a file from the web server. Available only in log analysis. The number
of hits received by a website is frequently cited to assert its popularity, but this number is

extremely misleading and dramatically overestimates popularity. A single web-page


typically consists of multiple (often dozens) of discrete files, each of which is counted as
a hit as the page is downloaded, so the number of hits is really an arbitrary number more
reflective of the complexity of individual pages on the website than the website's actual
popularity. The total number of visits or page views provides a more realistic and
accurate assessment of popularity.
Page view - A request for a file, or sometimes an event such as a mouse click, that is
defined as a page in the setup of the web analytics tool. An occurrence of the script being
run in page tagging. In log analysis, a single page view may generate multiple hits as all
the resources required to view the page (images, .js and .css files) are also requested from
the web server.
Event - A discrete action or class of actions that occurs on a website. A page view is a
type of event. Events also encapsulate clicks, form submissions, keypress events, and
other client-side user actions.
Visit / Session - A visit or session is defined as a series of page requests or, in the case of
tags, image requests from the same uniquely identified client. A visit is considered ended
when no requests have been recorded in some number of elapsed minutes. A 30 minute
limit ("time out") is used by many analytics tools but can, in some tools, be changed to
another number of minutes. Analytics data collectors and analysis tools have no reliable
way of knowing if a visitor has looked at other sites between page views; a visit is
considered one visit as long as the events (page views, clicks, whatever is being recorded)
are 30 minutes or less closer together. Note that a visit can consist of one page view, or
thousands.
First Visit / First Session - (also called 'Absolute Unique Visitor' in some tools) A visit
from a uniquely identified client that has theoretically not made any previous visits. Since
the only way of knowing whether the uniquely identified client has been to the site before
is the presence of a persistent cookie that had been received on a previous visit, the First
Visit label is not reliable if the site's cookies have been deleted since their previous visit.
Visitor / Unique Visitor / Unique User - The uniquely identified client that is generating
page views or hits within a defined time period (e.g. day, week or month). A uniquely
identified client is usually a combination of a machine (one's desktop computer at work
for example) and a browser (Firefox on that machine). The identification is usually via a
persistent cookie that has been placed on the computer by the site page code. An older
method, used in log file analysis, is the unique combination of the computer's IP address
and the User Agent (browser) information provided to the web server by the browser. It is
important to understand that the "Visitor" is not the same as the human being sitting at
the computer at the time of the visit, since an individual human can use different
computers or, on the same computer, can use different browsers, and will be seen as a
different visitor in each circumstance. Increasingly, but still somewhat rarely, visitors are
uniquely identified by Flash LSO's (Local Shared Object), which are less susceptible to
privacy enforcement.
Repeat Visitor - A visitor that has made at least one previous visit. The period between
the last and current visit is called visitor recency and is measured in days.
Return Visitor - A Unique visitor with activity consisting of a visit to a site during a
reporting period and where the Unique visitor visited the site prior to the reporting
period. The individual is counted only once during the reporting period.

New Visitor - A visitor that has not made any previous visits. This definition creates a
certain amount of confusion (see common confusions below), and is sometimes
substituted with analysis of first visits.
Impression - The most common definition of "Impression" is an instance of an
advertisement appearing on a viewed page. Note that an advertisement can be displayed
on a viewed page below the area actually displayed on the screen, so most measures of
impressions do not necessarily mean an advertisement has been viewable.
Single Page Visit / Singleton - A visit in which only a single page is viewed (a 'bounce').
Bounce Rate - The percentage of visits that are single page visits.
Exit Rate / % Exit - A statistic applied to an individual page, not a web site. The
percentage of visits seeing a page where that page is the final page viewed in the visit.
Page Time Viewed / Page Visibility Time / Page View Duration - The time a single
page (or a blog, Ad Banner...) is on the screen, measured as the calculated difference
between the time of the request for that page and the time of the next recorded request. If
there is no next recorded request, then the viewing time of that instance of that page is not
included in reports.
Session Duration / Visit Duration - Average amount of time that visitors spend on the
site each time they visit. This metric can be complicated by the fact that analytics
programs can not measure the length of the final page view.[6]
Average Page View Duration - Average amount of time that visitors spend on an
average page of the site.
Active Time / Engagement Time - Average amount of time that visitors spend actually
interacting with content on a web page, based on mouse moves, clicks, hovers and
scrolls. Unlike Session Duration and Page View Duration / Time on Page, this metric can
accurately measure the length of engagement in the final page view, but it is not available
in many analytics tools or data collection methods.
Average Page Depth / Page Views per Average Session - Page Depth is the
approximate "size" of an average visit, calculated by dividing total number of page views
by total number of visits.
Frequency / Session per Unique - Frequency measures how often visitors come to a
website in a given time period. It is calculated by dividing the total number of sessions
(or visits) by the total number of unique visitors during a specified time period, such as a
month or year. Sometimes it is used interchangeable with the term "loyalty."
Click path - the chronological sequence of page views within a visit or session.
Click - "refers to a single instance of a user following a hyperlink from one page in a site
to another".[7]
Site Overlay is a report technique in which statistics (clicks) or hot spots are
superimposed, by physical location, on a visual snapshot of the web page.

Off-site web analytics


This section requires expansion. (September 2014)
Off-site web analytics is based on open data analysis, social media exploration, share of voice on
web properties. It is usually used to understand how to market your site by identifying the
keywords tagged to your site, either from social media or from other websites.

By using HTTP Referer, webpage owners will be able to trace which are the referrer sites that
helps bring in traffic to their own site.

Common sources of confusion in web analytics


The hotel problem
The hotel problem is generally the first problem encountered by a user of web analytics. The
problem is that the unique visitors for each day in a month do not add up to the same total as the
unique visitors for that month. This appears to an inexperienced user to be a problem in whatever
analytics software they are using. In fact it is a simple property of the metric definitions.
The way to picture the situation is by imagining a hotel. The hotel has two rooms (Room A and
Room B).
Day 1 Day 2 Day 3
Total
Room A John John Mark 2 Unique Users
Room B Mark Jane Jane 2 Unique Users
2
2
?
Total 2
As the table shows, the hotel has two unique users each day over three days. The sum of the
totals with respect to the days is therefore six.
During the period each room has had two unique users. The sum of the totals with respect to the
rooms is therefore four.
Actually only three visitors have been in the hotel over this period. The problem is that a person
who stays in a room for two nights will get counted twice if you count them once on each day,
but is only counted once if you are looking at the total for the period. Any software for web
analytics will sum these correctly for the chosen time period, thus leading to the problem when a
user tries to compare the totals.

New visitors + Repeat visitors unequal to total visitors


Another common misconception in web analytics is that the sum of the new visitors and the
repeat visitors ought to be the total number of visitors. Again this becomes clear if the visitors
are viewed as individuals on a small scale, but still causes a large number of complaints that
analytics software cannot be working because of a failure to understand the metrics.
Here the culprit is the metric of a new visitor. There is really no such thing as a new visitor when
you are considering a website from an ongoing perspective. If a visitor makes their first visit on a
given day and then returns to the website on the same day they are both a new visitor and a
repeat visitor for that day. So if we look at them as an individual which are they? The answer has
to be both, so the definition of the metric is at fault.

Web analytics methods


Problems with cookies
Historically, vendors of page-tagging analytics solutions have used third-party cookies sent from
the vendor's domain instead of the domain of the website being browsed. Third-party cookies can
handle visitors who cross multiple unrelated domains within the company's site, since the cookie
is always handled by the vendor's servers.
However, third-party cookies in principle allow tracking an individual user across the sites of
different companies, allowing the analytics vendor to collate the user's activity on sites where he
provided personal information with his activity on other sites where he thought he was
anonymous. Although web analytics companies deny doing this, other companies such as
companies supplying banner ads have done so. Privacy concerns about cookies have therefore
led a noticeable minority of users to block or delete third-party cookies. In 2005, some reports
showed that about 28% of Internet users blocked third-party cookies and 22% deleted them at
least once a month.[8] Most vendors of page tagging solutions have now moved to provide at
least the option of using first-party cookies (cookies assigned from the client subdomain).
Another problem is cookie deletion. When web analytics depend on cookies to identify unique
visitors, the statistics are dependent on a persistent cookie to hold a unique visitor ID. When
users delete cookies, they usually delete both first- and third-party cookies. If this is done
between interactions with the site, the user will appear as a first-time visitor at their next
interaction point. Without a persistent and unique visitor id, conversions, click-stream analysis,
and other metrics dependent on the activities of a unique visitor over time, cannot be accurate.
Cookies are used because IP addresses are not always unique to users and may be shared by
large groups or proxies. In some cases, the IP address is combined with the user agent in order to
more accurately identify a visitor if cookies are not available. However, this only partially solves
the problem because often users behind a proxy server have the same user agent. Other methods
of uniquely identifying a user are technically challenging and would limit the trackable audience
or would be considered suspicious. Cookies are the selected option[who?] because they reach the
lowest common denominator without using technologies regarded as spyware.[9]

Secure analytics (metering) methods


It may be good to be aware that the third-party information gathering is subject to any network
limitations and security applied. Countries, Service Providers and Private Networks can prevent
site visit data to go to third parties. All the methods described above (and some other methods
not mentioned here, like sampling) have the central problem of being vulnerable to manipulation
(both inflation and deflation). This means these methods are imprecise and insecure (in any
reasonable model of security). This issue has been addressed in a number of papers [10] [11] [12] ,[13]
but to-date the solutions suggested in these papers remain theoretic, possibly due to lack of
interest from the engineering community, or because of financial gain the current situation
provides to the owners of big websites. For more details, consult the aforementioned papers.

See also

Clickstream
Hit (Internet)
HTTP cookie
Internet traffic
IP Address
Internet Protocol
Eurocrypt
Geolocation
Geolocation software
Geotargeting
List of web analytics software
Mobile Web Analytics
Online video analytics
Page view
Post-click marketing
Unique user
Web bug
Website correlation
Website localization
Web log analysis software
Web traffic
Web traffic generation model

References
1. Web Traffic Data Sources and Vendor Comparison by Brian Clifton and Omega Digital
Media Ltd
2. Increasing Accuracy for Online Business Growth - a web analytics accuracy whitepaper
3. "Revisiting log file analysis versus page tagging": McGill University Web Analytics blog
article (CMIS 530) Archived July 6, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
4. IPInfoDB (2009-07-10). "IP geolocation database". IPInfoDB. Retrieved 2009-07-19.
5. Web analytics integrated into web software itself
6. ClickTale Blog Blog Archive What Google Analytics Can't Tell You, Part 1
7. Clicks - Analytics Help
8. McGann, Rob. "Study: Consumers Delete Cookies at Surprising Rate". Retrieved 3 April
2014.
9. "Home News Access the Guide Tools Education Shopping Internet Cookies- Spyware or
Neutral Technology?". CNET. February 2, 2005. |first1= missing |last1= in Authors
list (help)
10. Naor, M.; Pinkas, B. (1998). "Secure and efficient metering". Advances in Cryptology
EUROCRYPT'98. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1403. p. 576.
doi:10.1007/BFb0054155. ISBN 3-540-64518-7. edit

11. Naor, M.; Pinkas, B. (1998). "Secure accounting and auditing on the Web". Computer
Networks and ISDN Systems 30: 541. doi:10.1016/S0169-7552(98)00116-0. edit
12. Franklin, M. K.; Malkhi, D. (1997). "Auditable metering with lightweight security".
Financial Cryptography. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1318. p. 151.
doi:10.1007/3-540-63594-7_75. ISBN 978-3-540-63594-9. edit
13. Johnson, R.; Staddon, J. (2007). "Deflation-secure web metering". International Journal
of Information and Computer Security 1: 39. doi:10.1504/IJICS.2007.012244. edit

Bibliography

Clifton, Brian (2010) Advanced Web Metrics with Google Analytics, 2nd edition, Sybex
(Paperback.)
Kaushik, Avinash (2009) Web Analytics 2.0 - The Art of Online Accountability and
Science of Customer Centricity. Sybex, Wiley.
Mortensen, Dennis R. (2009) Yahoo! Web Analytics. Sybex.
Farris, P., Bendle, N.T., Pfeifer, P.E. Reibstein, D.J. (2009) Key Marketing Metrics The
50+ Metrics Every Manager needs to know, Prentice Hall, London.
Plaza, B (2009) Monitoring web traffic source effectiveness with Google Analytics: An
experiment with time series. Aslib Proceedings, 61(5): 474482.
Arikan, Akin (2008) Multichannel Marketing. Metrics and Methods for On and Offline
Success. Sybex.
Tullis, Tom & Albert, Bill (2008) Measuring the User Experience. Collecting, Analyzing
and Presenting Usability Metrics. Morgan Kaufmann, Elsevier, Burlington MA.
Kaushik, Avinash (2007) Web Analytics: An Hour a Day, Sybex, Wiley.
Bradley N (2007) Marketing Research. Tools and Techniques. Oxford University Press,
Oxford.
Burby, Jason and Atchison, Shane (2007) Actionable Web Analytics: Using Data to
Make Smart Business Decisions.
Davis, J. (2006) Marketing Metrics: How to create Accountable Marketing plans that
really work John Wiley & Sons (Asia).
Peterson Eric T (2005) Web Site Measurement Hacks. O'Reilly ebook.
Peterson Eric T (2004) Web Analytics Demystified: A Marketers Guide to
Understanding How Your Web Site Affects Your Business. Celilo Group Media
Lenskold, J. (2003) Marketing ROI: how to plan, Measure and Optimise strategies for
Profit London: McGraw Hill Contemporary
Sterne, J. (2002) Web metrics, Proven Methods for Measuring Web Site Success,
London: John Wiley & Sons.
Srinivasan, J .(2001) E commerce Metrics, Models and Examples, London: Prentice Hall.

External links

Contextual advertising
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Part of a series on

Internet marketing

Search engine optimization

Social media marketing

Email marketing

Referral marketing

Content marketing

Native advertising

Search engine marketing

Pay per click

Cost per impression

Search analytics
Web analytics

Display advertising

Contextual advertising

Behavioral targeting

Affiliate marketing

Cost per action


Revenue sharing

Mobile advertising

v
t
e

Contextual advertising is a form of targeted advertising for advertisements appearing on


websites or other media, such as content displayed in mobile browsers. The advertisements
themselves are selected and served by automated systems based on the identity of the user and
the content displayed.

Contents

1 How contextual advertising works


2 Service providers
3 Impact
4 Agency roles
5 See also
6 Notes
7 Further references

How contextual advertising works


A contextual advertising system scans the text of a website for keywords and returns
advertisements to the webpage based on those keywords. [1] The advertisements may be
displayed on the webpage or as pop-up ads. For example, if the user is viewing a website
pertaining to sports and that website uses contextual advertising, the user may see advertisements
for sports-related companies, such as memorabilia dealers or ticket sellers. Contextual
advertising is also used by search engines to display advertisements on their search results pages
based on the keywords in the user's query.
Contextual advertising is a form of targeted advertising in which the content of an ad is in direct
correlation to the content of the web page the user is viewing. For example, if you are visiting a
website concerning travelling in Europe and see that an ad pops up offering a special price on a
flight to Italy, thats contextual advertising. Contextual advertising is also called In-Text
advertising or In-Context technology.
Apart from that when a visitor doesn't click on the ad in a go through time (a minimum time a
user must click on the ad) the ad is automatically changed to next relevant ad showing the option
below of going back to the previous ad.

Service providers
Google AdSense was the first major contextual advertising network.[citation needed] It works by
providing webmasters with JavaScript code that, when inserted into webpages, displays relevant
advertisements from the Google inventory of advertisers. The relevance is calculated by a
separate Google bot, Mediabot, that indexes the content of a webpage. Recent technology/service
providers have emerged with more sophisticated systems that use language-independent
proximity pattern matching algorithm to increase matching accuracy.[2]
Since the advent of AdSense, Yahoo! Bing Network Contextual Ads, Microsoft adCenter,
Advertising.com, ads.hsoub.com Sponsored Listings (formerly Quigo) and others have been
gearing up to make similar offerings.

Impact
Contextual advertising has made a major impact on earnings of many websites. Because the
advertisements are more targeted, they are more likely to be clicked, thus generating revenue for

the owner of the website (and the server of the advertisement). A large part of Google's earnings
is from its share of the contextual advertisements served on the millions of webpages running the
AdSense program.
Contextual advertising has attracted some controversy through the use of techniques such as
third-party hyperlinking, where a third-party installs software onto a user's computer that
interacts with the web browser.[3] Keywords on a webpage are displayed as hyperlinks that lead
to advertisers.

Agency roles
There are several advertising agencies that help brands understand how contextual advertising
options affect their advertising plans. There are three main components to online advertising:[3]
1. creation what the advertisement looks like
2. media planning where the advertisements are to be run
3. media buying how the advertisements are paid for
Contextual advertising replaces the media planning component. Instead of humans choosing
placement options, that function is replaced with computers facilitating the placement across
thousands of websites.

See also

Browser security
Advertising network
Editorial-related advertising
In-text advertising
In-image advertising
Semantic targeting
Native advertising

Notes
1. "Contextual Marketing Definition". PC Magazine. Retrieved 2008-07-21.
2. "Proximic Signs Deals With Yahoo and eBay To Turn Product Listings Into Contextual
Ads; Taking on AdSense". Retrieved 2008-01-15.
3. "Customers Now", David Szetela, 2009[not specific enough to verify]

Further references

Ferguson, Renee Boucher. "A Battle Is Brewing Over Online Behavioral Advertising".
www.eweek.com. Retrieved 2008-10-20.

Ostrow, Adam. "When Contextual Advertising Goes Horribly Wrong - Mashable".


mashable.com. Retrieved 2008-10-20.
"FTC Staff Proposes Online Behavioral Advertising Privacy Principles". www.ftc.gov.
Retrieved 2008-10-20.
Kenny, D. and Marshall, J. (NovemberDecember 2000). "Contextual Marketing: The
Real Business of the Internet". Harvard Business Review. Retrieved 2008-07-22.

Categories:

Contextual advertising
Internet advertising methods
Internet marketing
Internet marketing terminology
Advertising by type

Behavioral targeting
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Behavioral targeting comprises a range of technologies and techniques used by online website
publishers and advertisers aimed at increasing the effectiveness of advertising using user webbrowsing behavior information. In particular, "behavioral targeting uses information collected
from an individuals web-browsing behavior (e.g., the pages that they have visited or the
searches they have conducted) to select advertisements to display".[1]
When a consumer visits a web site, the pages they visit, the amount of time they view each page,
the links they click on, the searches they make and the things that they interact with, allow sites
to collect that data, and other factors, create a 'profile' that links to that visitor's web browser. As
a result, site publishers can use this data to create defined audience segments based upon visitors
that have similar profiles. When visitors return to a specific site or a network of sites using the
same web browser, those profiles can be used to allow advertisers to position their online ads in
front of those visitors who exhibit a greater level of interest and intent for the products and
services being offered. On the theory that properly targeted ads will fetch more consumer
interest, the publisher (or seller) can charge a premium for these ads over random advertising or
ads based on the context of a site.
Behavioral marketing can be used on its own or in conjunction with other forms of targeting
based on factors like geography, demographics or contextual web page content. It's worth noting
that many practitioners also refer to this process as "Audience Targeting".

Contents

1 Onsite behavioral targeting


2 Network behavioral targeting
3 Theoretical research on behavioral targeting

4 Privacy and security concerns


5 Case law
6 See also
7 Notes and references

Onsite behavioral targeting


See also: FTC regulation of behavioral advertising
Behavioral targeting techniques may also be applied to any online property on the premise that it
either improves the visitor experience or it benefits the online property, typically through
increased conversion rates or increased spending levels. The early adopters of this
technology/philosophy were editorial sites such as HotWired,[2][3] online advertising[4] with
leading online ad servers,[5] retail or other e-commerce website as a technique for increasing the
relevance of product offers and promotions on a visitor by visitor basis. More recently,
companies outside this traditional e-commerce marketplace have started to experiment with these
emerging technologies.
The typical approach to this starts by using web analytics to break-down the range of all visitors
into a number of discrete channels. Each channel is then analyzed and a virtual profile is created
to deal with each channel. These profiles can be based around Personas that gives the website
operators a starting point in terms of deciding what content, navigation and layout to show to
each of the different personas. When it comes to the practical problem of successfully delivering
the profiles correctly this is usually achieved by either using a specialist content behavioral
platform or by bespoke software development. Most platforms identify visitors by assigning a
unique id cookie to each and every visitor to the site thereby allowing them to be tracked
throughout their web journey, the platform then makes a rules-based decision about what content
to serve.
Again, this behavioral data can be combined with known demographic data and a visitor's past
purchase history in order to produce a greater degree of data points that can be used for targeting.
Self-learning onsite behavioral targeting systems will monitor visitor response to site content and
learn what is most likely to generate a desired conversion event. Some good content for each
behavioral trait or pattern is often established using numerous simultaneous multivariate tests.
Onsite behavioral targeting requires relatively high level of traffic before statistical confidence
levels can be reached regarding the probability of a particular offer generating a conversion from
a user with a set behavioral profile. Some providers have been able to do so by leveraging its
large user base, such as Yahoo!. Some providers use a rules based approach, allowing
administrators to set the content and offers shown to those with particular traits.

Network behavioral targeting


Advertising networks use behavioral targeting in a different way than individual sites. Since they
serve many advertisements across many different sites, they are able to build up a picture of the

likely demographic makeup of internet users.[6] Data from a visit to one website can be sent to
many different companies, including Microsoft and Google subsidiaries, Facebook, Yahoo,
many traffic-logging sites, and smaller ad firms.[7] This data can sometimes be sent to more than
100 websites. The data is collected by using cookies, web beacons and similar technologies,
and/or a third-party ad serving software, to automatically collect information about site users and
site activity.[8] This data is collected without attaching the peoples names, address, email address
or telephone number, but it may include device identifying information such as the IP address,
MAC address, cookie or other device-specific unique alphanumerical ID of your compute, but
some stores may create guest IDs to go along with the data. This data is used by companies to
infer peoples age, gender, and possible purchase interests so that they could make customized
ads that you would be more likely to click on.[9] An example would be a user seen on football
sites, business sites and male fashion sites. A reasonable guess would be to assume the user is
male. Demographic analyses of individual sites provided either internally (user surveys) or
externally (Comscore \ netratings) allow the networks to sell audiences rather than sites.[10]
Although advertising networks used to sell this product, this was based on picking the sites
where the audiences were. Behavioral targeting allows them to be slightly more specific about
this.

Theoretical research on behavioral targeting


In 2006, BlueLithium (now Yahoo! Advertising) in a large online study, examined the effects of
behavior targeted advertisements based on contextual content. The study used 400 million
"impressions," or advertisements conveyed across behavioral and contextual borders.
Specifically, nine behavioral categories (such as "shoppers" or "travelers" [11])with over 10
million "impressions" were observed for patterns across the content.[12] All measures for the
study were taken in terms of click-through rates (CTR) and "action-through rates," (ATR) or
conversions. So, for every impression that someone gets, the number of times they "clickthrough" to it will contribute to CTR data, and every time they go through with or convert on the
advertisement the user adds "action-through" data. Results from the study show that advertisers
looking for traffic on their advertisements should focus on behavioral targeting in context.
Likewise, if they are looking for conversions on the advertisements, behavioral targeting out of
context is the most effective process.[11] The data was helpful in determining an "across-theboard rule of thumb,[11]" however results fluctuated widely by content categories. Overall results
from the researchers indicate that the effectiveness of behavioral targeting is dependent on the
goals of the advertiser and the primary target market the advertiser is trying to reach.
In the work titled An Economic Analysis of Online Advertising Using Behavioral Targeting,[1]
Chen and Stallaert (2014) study the economic implications when an online publisher engages in
behavioral targeting. They consider that the publisher auctions off an advertising slot and is paid
on a cost-per-click basis. Chen and Stallaert (2014) identify the factors that affect the publishers
revenue, the advertisers payoffs, and social welfare. They show that revenue for the online
publisher in some circumstances can double when behavioral targeting is used. However,
increased revenue for the publisher is not guaranteed: in some cases, the prices of advertising and
hence the publishers revenue can be lower, depending on the degree of competition and the
advertisers valuations. They identify two effects associated with behavioral targeting: a
competitive effect and a propensity effect. The relative strength of the two effects determines

whether the publishers revenue is positively or negatively affected. Chen and Stallaert (2014)
also demonstrate that, although social welfare is increased and small advertisers are better off
under behavioral targeting, the dominant advertiser might be worse off and reluctant to switch
from traditional advertising.

Privacy and security concerns


Main article: Browser security
Many online users and advocacy groups are concerned about privacy issues around doing this
type of targeting. This is a controversy that the behavioral targeting industry is trying to contain
through education, advocacy and product constraints to keep all information non-personally
identifiable or to obtain permission from end-users.[13] AOL created animated cartoons in 2008 to
explain to its users that their past actions may determine the content of ads they see in the
future.[14] Canadian academics at the University of Ottawa Canadian Internet Policy and Public
Interest Clinic have recently demanded the federal privacy commissioner to investigate online
profiling of Internet users for targeted advertising.[15]
The European Commission (via commissioner Meglena Kuneva) has also raised a number of
concerns related to online data collection (of personal data), profiling and behavioral targeting,
and is looking for "enforcing existing regulation".[16]
In October 2009 it was reported that a recent survey carried out by University of Pennsylvania
and the Berkeley Center for Law and Technology found that a large majority of US internet users
rejected the use of behavioral advertising.[17] Several research efforts by academicians and others
have demonstrated that data that supposedly anonymized can be used to identify real individuals.
In March 2011, it was reported that the online ad industry would begin working with the Council
of Better Business Bureaus to start policing itself as part of its program to monitor and regulate
how marketers track consumers online, also known as behavioral advertising.[18]

Case law

In re DoubleClick
FTC regulation of behavioral advertising

See also

Personalization
Profiling
Digital traces
Reality mining

Notes and references

1. Chen, Jianqing; Jan Stallaert (2014). "An Economic Analysis of Online Advertising
Using Behavioral Targeting". MIS Quarterly 38 (2): 429449.
2. Ad Age, Affinicast unveils personalization tool, Dec 4, 1996
3. Chip Bayers, Cover Story: The Promise of One to One (A Love Story), Wired, May 1998
4. Carol Emert, Web Advertisers Get New Tool SF Chronicle, Oct 19, 1998
5. Beth Cox, AdKnowledge Offers Millward Brown Interactive's Voyager Profile ClickZ,
June 8, 1999
6. Wall Street Journal, On the Web's Cutting Edge, Anonymity in Name Only, August 4,
2010
7. The Atlantic, "I'm Being Followed: How Googleand 104 Other CompaniesAre
Tracking Me on the Web", February 29, 2012
8. KiiTV South Texas, "Data Collected in Connection with Ad Serving and Targeting"
9. TrustE, "What is Behavioral Advertising"
10. iMedia Connection article on Behavioral Targeting for Networks in the USA [1]
11. Newcomb, K. (2006, October 16). Study: Behavioral ads convert better out of context.
Retrieved from http://www.clickz.com/
12. Habeshian, V. (2006, October 17). Study: Out-of-context behavioral ads convert better.
Marketingprofs. Retrieved from http://www.marketingprofs.com/
13. "ISP Behavioral Targeting versus You". 2008-09-26.
14. Story, Louise (March 10, 2008). "AOL Brings Out the Penguins to Explain Ad
Targeting". The New York Times. in Story, Louise (March 10, 2008). "To Aim Ads, Web
Is Keeping Closer Eye on You". The New York Times (The New York Times Company).
Retrieved 2008-03-09.
15. "Academics want watchdog to probe online profiling". 2008-07-28.
16. Behavioural targeting at the European Consumer Summit, 8 April 2009,
17. "US web users reject behavioural advertising, study finds". OUT-LAW News. 2009-0930.
18. adage.com
Categories:

Internet advertising
Internet marketing terminology

Cost per action


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[hide]This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these
issues on the talk page.
This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (August
2011)

This article possibly contains original research. (August 2011)

Part of a series on

Internet marketing

Search engine optimization

Social media marketing

Email marketing

Referral marketing

Content marketing

Native advertising

Search engine marketing

Pay per click

Cost per impression

Search analytics
Web analytics

Display advertising

Contextual advertising

Behavioral targeting

Affiliate marketing

Cost per action

Revenue sharing

Mobile advertising

v
t
e

Cost Per Action or CPA (sometimes known as Pay Per Action or PPA; also Cost Per
Conversion) is an online advertising pricing model, where the advertiser pays for each specified
action - for example, an impression, click, form submit (e.g., contact request, newsletter sign up,
registration etc.), double opt-in or sale.

Direct response advertisers consider CPA the optimal way to buy online advertising, as an
advertiser only pays for the ad when the desired action has occurred. The desired action to be
performed is determined by the advertiser. Radio and TV stations also sometimes offer unsold
inventory on a cost per action basis, but this form of advertising is most often referred to as "per
inquiry". Although less common, print media will also sometimes be sold on a CPA basis.

Contents

1 CPA as "Cost Per Acquisition"


o 1.1 Formula to calculate Cost Per Acquisition
2 PPL as "Pay Per Lead"
3 Differences between CPA and CPL advertising
4 PPC or CPC campaigns
5 Tracking CPA campaigns
6 Effective cost per action
7 References

CPA as "Cost Per Acquisition"


CPA is sometimes referred to as "Cost Per Acquisition", which has to do with the fact that many
CPA offers by advertisers are about acquiring something (typically new customers by making
sales).

Formula to calculate Cost Per Acquisition


Cost Per Acquisition (CPA) is calculated as: cost divided by the number of acquisitions. So for
example, if you spend 100 on a campaign and get 10 acquisitions this would give a cost per
acquisition of 10.

PPL as "Pay Per Lead"


PPL is a form of CPA (Cost Per Action), with the action in this case being the delivery of a
lead. Online and Offline advertising payment model in which fees are charged based solely on
the delivery of leads.
In a pay per lead agreement, the advertiser only pays for leads delivered under the terms of the
agreement. No payment is made for leads that don't meet the agreed upon criteria.
Leads may be delivered by phone under the pay per call model. Conversely, leads may be
delivered electronically, such as by email, SMS or a ping/post of the data directly to a database.
The information delivered may consist of as little as an email address, or it may involve a
detailed profile including multiple contact points and the answers to qualification questions.

There are numerous risks associated with any Pay Per Lead campaign, including the potential for
fraudulent activity by incentivized marketing partners. Some fraudulent leads are easy to spot.
Nonetheless, it is advisable to make a regular audit of the results.

Differences between CPA and CPL advertising


In CPL campaigns, advertisers pay for an interested lead (hence, Cost Per Lead) i.e. the
contact information of a person interested in the advertiser's product or service. CPL campaigns
are suitable for brand marketers and direct response marketers looking to engage consumers at
multiple touch points by building a newsletter list, community site, reward program or
member acquisition program.
In CPA campaigns, the advertiser typically pays for a completed sale involving a credit card
transaction.
There are other important differentiators:
1. CPA and affiliate marketing campaigns are publisher-centric. Advertisers cede control
over where their brand will appear, as publishers browse offers and pick which to run on
their websites. Advertisers generally do not know where their offer is running.
2. CPL campaigns are usually high volume and light-weight. In CPL campaigns, consumers
submit only basic contact information. The transaction can be as simple as an email
address. On the other hand, CPA campaigns are usually low volume and complex.
Typically, a consumer has to submit a credit card and other detailed information.

PPC or CPC campaigns


Pay Per Click (PPC) and Cost per Click (CPC) are both forms of CPA (Cost per Action) with the
action being a click. PPC is generally used to refer to paid search marketing such as AdSense
from Google.
Cost per click on the other hand is generally used for everything else including, email marketing,
display, contextual and more.
Also, Pay Per Download (PPD) is another form of CPA, where the user completes an action to
download a specified file.

Tracking CPA campaigns


With payment of CPA campaigns being on an action being delivered, accurate tracking is of
prime importance to media owners.
This is a complex subject in itself, however if usually performed in three main ways: 1) Cookie
tracking when a media owner drives a click a cookie is dropped on the prospects computer
which is linked back to the media owner when the action is performed. 2) Telephone tracking

unique telephone numbers are used per instance of a campaign. So media owner XYZ would
have their own unique phone number for an offer and when this number is called any resulting
actions are allocated to media owner XYZ. Often payouts are based on a length of call
(commonly 90 seconds) if a call goes over 90 seconds it is viewed that there is a genuine
interest and a lead is paid for. 3) Promotional codes promotional or voucher codes are
commonly used for tracking retail campaigns. The prospect is asked to use a code at the
checkout to qualify for an offer. The code can then be matched back to the media owner who
drove the sale.

Effective cost per action


A related term, eCPA or Effective Cost Per Action, is used to measure the effectiveness of
advertising inventory purchased (by the advertiser) via a CPC, CPI, or CPM basis.
In other words, the eCPA tells the advertiser what they would have paid if they had purchased
the advertising inventory on a Cost Per Action basis (instead of a Cost Per Click, Cost Per
Impression, or Cost Per Mille/Thousand basis).

References

Revenue sharing
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Part of a series on

Internet marketing

Search engine optimization

Social media marketing

Email marketing

Referral marketing

Content marketing

Native advertising

Search engine marketing

Pay per click

Cost per impression

Search analytics
Web analytics

Display advertising

Contextual advertising

Behavioral targeting

Affiliate marketing

Cost per action


Revenue sharing

Mobile advertising

v
t
e

Revenue sharing has multiple, related meanings depending on context: In business, revenue
sharing refers to the distribution of profits and losses between stakeholders, who could be
general partners (and limited partners in a limited partnership), a company's employees, or
between companies in a business alliance.

In business
Revenue sharing in Internet marketing is also known as cost per sale, in which the cost of
advertising is determined by the revenue generated as a result of the advertisement itself. This
scheme accounts for about 80% of affiliate marketing programs.[1]
Web-based companies including HubPages, Squidoo, Helium and Infobarrel also practice a form
of revenue sharing, in which a company invites writers to create content for a website in
exchange for a share of its advertising revenue giving the authors the possibility of ongoing
income from a single piece of work, and guaranteeing to the commissioning company that it will
never pay more for content than it generates in advertising revenue. Pay rates vary dramatically
from site to site, depending on the success of the site and the popularity of individual articles.
In professional sports league, "revenue sharing" commonly refers to the distribution of proceeds
generated by ticket sales to a given event: The amount of money distributed to a visiting team
can significant impact a team's total revenue, which in turn affects the team's ability to attract
(and pay for) talent and resources. In 1981, for example, the Scottish Premier League changed its
policy from splitting a match's receipts evenly between its two competing football teams over to
a system in which the hosting team could keep all of the proceeds from matches hosted at its
facilities. The move is generally believed to have negatively affected the league's parity and
enhanced the dominance of Celtic F.C. and Rangers F.C.[2]

In taxation
The United States government implemented revenue sharing between 1972 and 1986, in the form
of congressional appropriation of federal tax revenue to states, cities, counties and townships.
Revenue sharing was extremely popular with state officials, but lost federal support during the
Reagan administration. In 1987, it was replaced with block grants in smaller amounts to reduce
federal revenues given to states.[citation needed]
In Canada, "revenue sharing" refers to the practice in which one level of government shares its
revenues with a sub-jurisdictional government. For example, the canadian federal government
has an agreement to share gasoline tax revenue with its provinces.
E-procurement (electronic procurement, sometimes also known as supplier exchange) is the
business-to-business or business-to-consumer or business-to-government purchase and sale of
supplies, work, and services through the Internet as well as other information and networking
systems, such as electronic data interchange and enterprise resource planning..[1]
The e-procurement value chain consists of indent management, e-Tendering, e-Auctioning,
vendor management, catalogue management, Purchase Order Integration, Order Status, Ship
Notice, e-Invoicing, e-Payment, and contract management.[citation needed] Indent management is the
workflow involved in the preparation of tenders. This part of the value chain is optional, with
individual procuring departments defining their indenting process. In works procurement,
administrative approval and technical sanction are obtained in electronic format. In goods
procurement, indent generation activity is done online. The end result of the stage is taken as
inputs for issuing the NIT.[citation needed]
Elements of e-procurement include request for information, request for proposal, request for
quotation, RFx (the previous three together), and eRFx (software for managing RFx projects).

Contents

1 In the public sector


2 Vendors
3 E-procurement systems
4 See also
5 References

In the public sector


Main article: Public eProcurement
Public sector organizations use e-procurement for contracts to achieve benefits such as increased
efficiency and cost savings (faster and cheaper) in government procurement[2] and improved
transparency (to reduce corruption) in procurement services.[3] E-procurement in the public

sector has seen rapid growth in recent years. Act 590 of Louisiana's 2008 Regular Legislative
Session requires political subdivisions to make provisions for the receipt of electronic bids.
E-procurement in the public sector is emerging internationally. Hence, initiatives have been
implemented in Singapore, UK, USA, Malaysia, Australia, European Union [4] and Kazakhstan
[5]

E-procurement projects are often part of the countrys larger e-Government efforts to better serve
its citizens and businesses in the digital economy. For example, Singapores GeBIZ was
implemented as one of the programmes under its e-Government masterplan.[6] The Procurement
G6 leads the use of e-procurement instruments in Public procurement.

Vendors
This field is populated by two types of vendors: big enterprise resource planning (ERP) providers
which offer e-procurement as one of their services, and the more affordable services focused
specifically of e-procurement.

E-procurement systems
An e-procurement system manages tenders through a web site. This can be accessed anywhere
globally and has greatly improved the accessibility of tenders.[citation needed] An example is the
System for Acquisition Management (SAM), which on July 30, 2013 combined information
from the former Central Contractor Registration and Online Representations and Certifications
Application (ORCA),[7] in the United States.[8]

See also

Complex sales
Construction bidding
Contract A
Proposal
Reverse auction
Tender notification
Tendering
Strategic sourcing
Outsourcing
Public eProcurement
Purchase-to-pay

Purchase-to-pay
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article
by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (June 2009)
Purchase-to-pay, often abbreviated to P2P and also called req to cheque, refers to the business
processes that cover activities of requesting (requisitioning), purchasing, receiving, paying for
and accounting for goods and services. Also commonly referred to as procure-to-pay.

Contents

1 Automation
2 History
3 A discipline in its own right
4 References

Automation
Purchase-to-pay systems automate the full purchase-to-payment process, connecting
procurement and invoicing operations through an intertwined business flow that automates the
process from identification of a need, planning and budgeting, through to procurement and
payment.
Key benefits are increased financial and procurement visibility, efficiency, cost savings and
control. Automation allows for reduced processing times and straight-through processing where
the incoming invoices are handled without any manual intervention.
Purchase-to-pay systems are designed to provide organizations with control and visibility over
the entire lifecycle of a transaction from the way an item is ordered to the way that the final
invoice is processed providing full insight into cashflow and financial commitments and is now
deemed an important tool for proper implementation of Resource Accounting and Budgeting, not
least by UK Government Departments such as HM Treasury. Financial commitments are
understood at the point they are committed to rather than when invoiced.
Organizations automate invoice processing and purchasing policies and procedures to bring
financial rigor and process efficiency to the business of buying.
Both purchase order (PO) and non-PO spending, capital, credit card and reimbursable spending
can be captured and controlled through automated P2P systems. Finance departments can also
enforce internal spending controls and have instant access to data that tells them who is
spending, what they are buying and paying for, and with which vendors.
As a result, efficiency and cost saving benefits can be substantial.

History

The term emerged in the 1990s and is one of a number of buzz phrases (like B2B, B2C, G2C
etc.) that emerged as Internet applications became used more widely in business. Although it
does not necessarily refer directly to the application of technology to the purchasing process, it is
most often used in relation to applications like e-procurement and ERP purchasing and payment
modules.

A discipline in its own right


Following the maturation of Internet-supported supply chain processes, the case emerged for
identifying opportunities to further streamline business processes across the whole of the
procure-to-pay value chain. This was driven primarily by the supply chain software vendors and
consultants as well as by governments who had recognised and enthusiastically embraced
concepts like e-procurement. The publication of the Gershon Review in the UK in 2004 for
example, gave the British public sector the mandate to direct significant resource and effort
toward creating efficiency and in particular in all aspects purchasing.
As a consequence, once disparate business functions, such as accounts payable and purchasing,
have in some organisations been brought together, and the concept of purchase-to-pay has
evolved from a buzz phrase to a recognised discipline.[citation needed] (Some organisations have
changed the reporting line of the payables function from finance to purchasing.)
A 2009 Basware research report The Cost of Control: The Real Price of Cost Cutting[1]
identified this growing trend of increased levels of finance and procurement collaboration to
overcome finance and purchasing challenges and highlighted that there is a clear emerging
trend toward using technology as a way of overcoming operational challenges and harmonising
buyers and payers within the business. Mark Frohlich, associate professor of operations
management at the Kelley School of Business commented at the time on the findings:
"A resounding majority of those interviewed have woken up to the negative realities of supply
chain risk and the crucial positive role supply chains will have in transforming their businesses
for years to come. Clearly such changes to the business landscape will require a coordinated and
collaborative response between functional departments, in particular finance and procurement, as
well as the intelligent implementation of appropriate integrative knowledge sharing tools and
systems. This is something we must all prepare for."
Procure-to-pay is the start of the procurement process from the point where the purchasing
department starts working until the moment the invoices are paid.

References
1. Cost of Control research
Categories:

Transaction processing

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Call centre
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the contact centres in family law, see children's centre.

Part of a series on

E-commerce
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v
t
e

A 1970 police call centre in Brierley Hill, England


A call centre or call center is a centralised office used for receiving or transmitting a large
volume of requests by telephone. An inbound call centre is operated by a company to administer
incoming product support or information inquiries from consumers. Outbound call centers are
operated for telemarketing, solicitation of charitable or political donations, debt collection and
market research. A contact centre is a location for centralised handling of individual
communications, including letters, faxes, live support software, social media, instant message,
and e-mail.[1]
A call centre has an open workspace for call centre agents, with work stations that include a
computer for each agent, a telephone set/headset connected to a telecom switch, and one or more

supervisor stations. It can be independently operated or networked with additional centres, often
linked to a corporate computer network, including mainframes, microcomputers and LANs.
Increasingly, the voice and data pathways into the centre are linked through a set of new
technologies called computer telephony integration.
The contact centre is a central point from which all customer contacts are managed. Through
contact centres, valuable information about company are routed to appropriate people, contacts
to be tracked and data to be gathered. It is generally a part of companys customer relationship
management.
A contact centre can be defined as a coordinated system of people, processes, technologies and
strategies that provides access to information, resources, and expertise, through appropriate
channels of communication, enabling interactions that create value for the customer and
organization.[2] Contact centres, along with call centres and communication centres all fall under
a larger umbrella labelled as the contact centre management industry. This is becoming a rapidly
growing recruitment sector in itself, as the capabilities of contact centres expand and thus require
ever more complex systems and highly skilled operational and management staff.[3]
The majority of large companies use contact centres as a means of managing their customer
interaction. These centres can be operated by either an in house department responsible or
outsourcing customer interaction to a third party agency (known as Outsourcing Call Centres).

Contents

1 History
2 Technology
o 2.1 Premise-based technology
o 2.2 Virtual call centre
o 2.3 Cloud computing
3 Description
o 3.1 Services
o 3.2 Dynamics
o 3.3 Outsourcing
4 Evaluation
o 4.1 Mathematical theory
o 4.2 Metrics
5 Criticism and performance
6 Unionization
7 Media portrayals
8 See also
9 References
10 Further reading
11 External links

History

This section requires expansion. (November 2014)


The earliest call centers were created during the 1960s, and were known as "Private Automated
Business Exchanges" (PABX). The coining of the term "call center" is more recent, with the first
published use of the term in 1983.[4]

Technology

Call centre desk environment in Lakeland, Florida, United States


Call centre technologies include speech recognition software to allow computers to handle first
level of customer support, text mining and natural language processing to allow better customer
handling, agent training by automatic mining of best practices from past interactions, support
automation and many other technologies to improve agent productivity and customer
satisfaction.[5] Automatic lead selection or lead steering is also intended to improve
efficiencies,[6] both for inbound and outbound campaigns. This allows inbound calls to be
directly routed to the appropriate agent for the task, whilst minimizing wait times and long lists
of irrelevant options for people calling in. For outbound calls, lead selection allows management
to designate what type of leads go to which agent based on factors including skill, socioeconomic
factors and past performance and percentage likelihood of closing a sale per lead.
The universal queue standardizes the processing of communications across multiple technologies
such as fax, phone, and email. The virtual queue provides callers with an alternative to waiting
on hold when no agents are available to handle inbound call demand.

A typical call centre telephone. Note: no handset, phone is for headset use only.

Premise-based technology

Historically, call centres have been built on Private branch exchange (PBX) equipment that is
owned, hosted, and maintained by the call centre operator themselves. The PBX can provide
functions such as automatic call distribution, interactive voice response, and skills-based routing.

Virtual call centre


See also: Software as a service and Telecommuting
In virtual call centre model, the call centre's operator pays a monthly or annual fee to a vendor
that hosts the call centre telephony equipment in their own data centre. In this model, the
operator does not own, operate or host the equipment that the call centre runs on. Agents connect
to the vendor's equipment through traditional PSTN telephone lines, or over voice over IP. Calls
to and from prospects or contacts originate from or terminate at the vendor's data centre, rather
than at the call centre operator's premise. The vendor's telephony equipment then connects the
calls to the call centre operator's agents.[7]
Virtual call centre technology allows people to work from home, instead of in a traditional,
centralised, call centre location, which increasingly allows people with physical or other
disabilities that prevent them from leaving the house, to work. The only thing that is mandatory
is to have an Internet access and a workstation.[8]

A predictive dialing system running out of phone numbers.

Cloud computing
Main article: Cloud computing
This section may be too technical for most readers to understand. Please help improve
this section to make it understandable to non-experts, without removing the technical
details. The talk page may contain suggestions. (November 2014)
Cloud computing for call centres extends cloud computing to software as a service, or hosted,
on-demand call centres by providing application programming interfaces (APIs) on the call
centre cloud computing platform that allow call centre functionality to be integrated with cloudbased customer relationship management, leads management, and other applications. Computer
telephony integration APIs provide developers with access to basic telephony controls and
sophisticated call handling on the call centre platform from a separate application. Configuration
APIs provide programmatic control of administrative functions of the call centre platform which
are typically accessed by a human administrator through a graphical user interface.

Description

Services

A very large call centre in Lakeland, Florida


Contact centers run support or help desks, which regularly answers technical questions from
customers and assists them using their equipment or software. Support desks are used by
companies in the computing, telecommunications and consumer electronics industries.
Customer service contact centres answer specific queries relating to customer issues, in the
banking and utility sectors these are frequently used to answer customer questions relating to
their account or payments, this type of service may even be used to respond to customer
complaints and undertake retention strategies for dissatisfied customers.
Contact centres also carry out sales and marketing activities; these can be performed through
cold calling strategies and increasingly through live chat applications on company websites.

Dynamics

Call centre worker confined to a small workstation/booth, using CallWeb Internet-based survey
software
A contact centre supports interaction with customers over a variety of media, including
telephony, e-mail, and internet chat. A telephone answering service is a more personalised
version of the call centre, where agents get to know more about their customers and their callers;
and therefore look after calls just as if based in their customers' office.[9]
Calls may be inbound or outbound. Inbound calls are made by consumers, for example to obtain
information, report a malfunction, or ask for help. In contrast, outbound calls are made by agents

to consumers, usually for sales purposes (telemarketing). A "blended" center combines both
inbound and outbound campaigns where each type of agent (inbound or outbound) can handle
the overflow of the other.[10]
Call centre staff are often organised into a multi-tier support system for more efficient handling
of calls. The first tier consists of operators, who initially answer calls and provide general
information. If a caller requires more assistance, the call is forwarded to the second tier (in the
appropriate department depending on the nature of the call). In some cases, there are three or
more tiers of support staff. Typically the third tier of support is formed of product
engineers/developers or highly skilled technical support staff for the product.

Outsourcing
See also: Outsourcing
In contrast to in house management, outsourced bureau contact centres are a model of contact
centre that provide services on a "pay per use" model. The overheads of the contact centre are
shared by many clients, thereby supporting a very cost effective model, especially for low
volumes of calls. Outsourced centers have grown in popularity. There is criticism of the
outsourcing model.[citation needed]
Companies that regularly utilise outsourced contact centre services include British Sky
Broadcasting and Orange (telecommunications)[11] in the telecommunications industry, Adidas in
the sports and leisure sector,[12] Audi in car manufacturing [13] and charities such as the RSPCA.
Outsourced call centers are often located in the developing countries, where wages are
significantly lower. The call center industry in the Philippines and call center industry in the
Bangladesh serve as good examples.

Evaluation
Mathematical theory
See also: Erlang distribution
Queueing theory is a branch of mathematics in which models of service systems have been
developed. A call centre can be seen as a queueing network and results from queueing theory
such as the probability an arriving customer needs to wait before starting service useful for
provisioning capacity.[14] (Erlang's C formula is such a result for an M/M/c queue and
approximations exist for an M/G/k queue.) Statistical analysis of call centre data has suggested
arrivals are governed by an inhomogeneous Poisson process and jobs have a log-normal service
time distribution.[15]
Call centre operations have been supported by mathematical models beyond queueing, with
operations research, which considers a wide range of optimisation problems seeking to reduce
waiting times while keeping server utilisation and therefore efficiency high.[16]

Metrics
Some vital call centre performance metrics [17][unreliable source] are listed below:

Customer Satisfaction: a measure of how products and services supplied by a company


meet or surpass customer expectation. C-SAT is based on customers experience with the
support or service. The scoring for this answer is most often based on a 0 to 10 scale.
Average Handling time: a key measure for any contact center planning system, as it tells
you how long a new item of work takes to be handled and not just the talk time.
Revenue Per Call: usually used in sales projects which calculates the effort of a
representative with respect to increasing sales. RPC can be calculated by dividing the
total amount of sale by total number of calls.
First Call Resolution: properly addressing the customers need the first time they call,
thereby eliminating the need for the customer to follow up with a second call.
Total Problem Resolution: percentage of time the problem has been completely resolved
from the customer point of view. This KPI is mostly used for: Operational Excellence.
This keeps troubleshooting time to a minimum, which, according to industry averages,
currently accounts for as much as 80 percent of total problem resolution time, and gets
the problem fixed.
Net Promoter Score: measures the loyalty that exists between a provider and a consumer.
NPS is based on a direct question: How likely is it that you would recommend our
company/product/service to a friend or colleague? The scoring for this answer is most
often based on a 0 to 10 scale.
Quality Scores: by far the most common metric used. It provides the ability to look at the
overall caller experience and the conversations that agents are using on their phone calls.
Service Level Agreement: an agreement between two or more parties where one is the
customer and the others are service providers. The contract may involve financial
penalties and the right to terminate the contract if the SLA metrics are consistently
missed.
Active & Waiting Calls measures current volume of active calls compared to the number
of callers waiting to be patched through to an agent. This is a real-time status metric that
should be shared with all the agents to offer them insight on their performance. Agents
should be encouraged to resolve calls on a timely basis in order to get to the next caller in
queue and not keep the callers on wait.
Call Abandonment: measures the number of calls that are disconnected before they can
be connected to one of your agents. This metric is closely related to Service Level and
Customer Satisfaction. Customers are not expected to be patient. They will hang up and
possibly switch their brand loyalties.
Forecast Accuracy: better described as forecasted contact load vs. actual contact load. It
is a performance metric that reflects the percent variance between the number of inbound
customer contacts forecasted for a particular time period and the number of said contacts
actually received by the center during that time period.
Staff Turnover/Retention: The best way to measure the satisfaction of your workforce is
to look at the percentage of staff that leaves. There can be some telling information in
these numbers and it is crucial to track and analyze the turnover rates in many ways.

Up-Sell/ Cross-Sell Rate: simply the success rate of generating revenue above the original
intention of the call. It is becoming an increasingly common practice, not just for pure
revenue-generating call centers but for customer service centers as well.
Staff Shrinkage: the percentage of time that employees are not available to handle calls. It
is classified as non-productive time, and is made up of meeting and training time, breaks,
paid time off, off-phone work, and general unexplained time where agents are not
available to handle customer interactions.
Blockage:a measure of accessibility that indicates what percentage of customers will not
be able to get in touch with the contact center at a given time due to insufficient network
facilities.
Cost Per Call: A major factor determining revenue is the cost of running the
organization. A common measure of operational efficiency is cost incurred for each
minute of handling the call workload, commonly referred to as Cost per Call. This cost
per call can be simply a labor cost per call, or it can be a fully loaded rate that includes
payroll in addition to telecommunications, facilities, and other services costs.

Criticism and performance


This article's Criticism or Controversy section may compromise the article's neutral
point of view of the subject. Please integrate the section's contents into the article as a
whole, or rewrite the material. (November 2010)
Some critics of call centres argue that the work atmosphere in such an environment is
dehumanising.[18] Others point to the low rates of pay and restrictive working practices of some
employers.[19][20] There has been much controversy over such things as restricting the amount of
time that an employee can spend in the toilet.[21] Call centres have also been the subject of
complaints by callers who find the staff often do not have enough skill or authority to resolve
problems,[22] while the staff sometimes appear apathetic.[23] Other research illustrates how call
center workers develop ways to counter or resist this environment by integrating local cultural
sensibilities or embracing a vision of a new life.[24]
Telephone calls are easily monitored, and the close monitoring of call centre staff is
widespread.[25] This has the benefit[26] of helping the company to plan the workload and time of
its employees. However, it has also been argued that such close monitoring breaches the human
right to privacy.[27] Most call centres provide electronic reports that outline performance metrics,
quarterly highlights and other information about the calls made and received.
Criticisms of call centres generally follow a number of common themes, from both callers and
call centre staff. From callers, common criticisms include:[28]

Operators working from a script


Non-expert operators (call screening)
Incompetent or untrained operators incapable of processing customers' requests
effectively[29]
Obsequious behavior by operators (e.g., relentless use of "sir", "ma'am" and "I'd be more
than happy to assist you")

Overseas location, with language and accent problems


Touch tone menu systems and automated queuing systems
Excessive waiting times to be connected to an operator
Complaints that departments of companies do not engage in communication with one
another
Deceit over location of call centre
Requiring the caller to repeat the same information multiple times

Common criticisms from staff include:[citation needed]

Close scrutiny by management (e.g. frequent random call monitoring)


Low compensation (pay and bonuses)
Restrictive working practices (some operators are required to follow a pre-written script)
High stress: a common problem associated with front-end jobs where employees deal
directly with customers
Repetitive job task
Poor working conditions (e.g. poor facilities, poor maintenance and cleaning, cramped
working conditions, management interference, lack of privacy and noisy)
Lack of support for employees with impaired vision and hearing problems
Rude and abusive customers
Lack of advancement opportunities (Most call center positions tend to be dead-end jobs
until the employee decides to leave the company, resulting in high turnover rates within
the call centre)

The net-net of these concerns is that call centres as a business process exhibit levels of
variability. The experience a customer gets and the results a company achieves on a given call
are almost totally dependent on the quality of the agent answering that call.[30] Call centres are
beginning to address this by using agent-assisted automation to standardise the process all agents
use.[31] Anton and Phelps have provided a detailed manual on how to conduct the performance
evaluation of the business,[32] whereas others are using various scientific technologies to do the
jobs.[33][34][35] However, more popular alternatives are using personality and skill based
approaches.[36][37] The various challenges encountered by call operators are discussed by several
authors.[38][39][40][41][42]

Unionization
Unions in North America have made some effort to gain members from this sector,[43] including
the Communications Workers of America[44] and the United Steelworkers. In Australia, the
National Union of Workers represents unionised workers; their activities form part of the
Australian labour movement.[45] In Europe, Uni Global Union of Switzerland is involved in
assisting unionisation in this realm [46] and in Germany Vereinte Dienstleistungsgewerkschaft
represents call centre workers.

Media portrayals

Indian call centres have been the focus several documentary films, the 2004 film Thomas L.
Friedman Reporting: The Other Side of Outsourcing, the 2005 films John and Jane, Nalini by
Day, Nancy by Night, and 1-800-India: Importing a White-Collar Economy, and the 2006 film
Bombay Calling, among others.[47] An Indian call centre is also the subject of the 2006 film
Outsourced (film) and a key location in the 2008 film, Slumdog Millionaire. BBC The Call
Centre is an often distorted although humorous view of life in a Welsh Call Centre.[48] There are
critics of call centres who argue that the working environment within call centre's are
dehumanising.[49] The Call Centre argues against this point, and tries to illustrate that you can
have high employee engagement within a call centre.[50]

See also

Automatic call distributor


Business process outsourcing
Call management
List of call centre companies
Predictive dialing
Operator messaging
Queue management system
Skills based routing
Virtual queue

References
1. "Contact Centre vs Communication Centre vs Call Centre". EWA Bespoke
Communications.
2. Cleveland, Brad, "Call Center Management on Fast Forward (Third Edition)", ICMI
Press, 2012
3. "Cactus Search - List of Call Centre Management Roles We Recruit". Cactus Search.
4. "The history of the call centre". Call Centre Helper Magazine. 19 Jan 2011. Retrieved 29
Nov 2014.
5. L Venkata Subramaniam (2008-02-01). "Call Centers of the Future" (PDF). i.t. magazine.
pp. 4851. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
6. "US Patent 7035699 - Qualified and targeted lead selection and delivery system". Patent
Storm. 2006-04-25. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
7. M. Popovic and V. Kovacevic. "An Approach to Internet-Based Virtual Call Center
Implementation". University of Novi Sad, Yugoslavia.
8. David S. Joachim. "Computer Technology Opens a World of Work to Disabled People".
New York Times.
9. Raik Stolletz (2003). Performance Analysis and Optimization of Inbound Call Centers.
Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-540-00812-5.
10. Freeman, Laura M; Whitfield, Hilary C (1996). "Setting up for integrated
inbound/outbound telemarketing". BNET. Retrieved 2008-06-05.
11. "Orange currently outsources work to Indian units of Convergys Corp". The Wall Street
Journal.

12. "adidas setup a dedicated customer care centre". Adidas.


13. "Audi chose Confero as an outsourced contact centre". Confero.
14. Gans, N.; Koole, G.; Mandelbaum, A. (2003). "Telephone Call Centers: Tutorial,
Review, and Research Prospects". Manufacturing & Service Operations Management 5
(2): 79. doi:10.1287/msom.5.2.79.16071. edit
15. Brown, L.; Gans, N.; Mandelbaum, A.; Sakov, A.; Shen, H.; Zeltyn, S.; Zhao, L. (2005).
"Statistical Analysis of a Telephone Call Center". Journal of the American Statistical
Association 100 (469): 36. doi:10.1198/016214504000001808. edit
16. Borst, S.; Mandelbaum, A.; Reiman, M. I. (2004). "Dimensioning Large Call Centers".
Operations Research 52: 17. doi:10.1287/opre.1030.0081. JSTOR 30036558. edit
17. 31West.net - Gregory Campbell. "Call Center Metrics".
18. "Working conditions and health in Swedish call centres". European Foundation for the
Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. 2005-06-05.
19. "Hourly Rate Survey Report for Industry: Call Center". PayScale. Retrieved 2008-06-05.
20. "Advice regarding call centre working practices" (PDF). Health and Safety Executive.
Archived from the original on 2009-02-20. Retrieved 2008-06-05.
21. "Hazards 81 extended briefing: Toilet breaks: Give us a break!". Hazards. Retrieved
2008-06-05.
22. Shaw, Russell (2006-01-30). "Tone-deaf to customer complaints, Dell opens yet another
call center in India". ZDNet. Retrieved 2008-06-05.
23. Ahmed, Zubair (2006-02-22). "Abuse rattles Indian call centre staff". BBC News.
Retrieved 2008-06-05.
24. Pal, Mahuya; Buzzanell, Patrice (2013). "Breaking the Myth of Indian Call Centers: A
Postcolonial Analysis of Resistance". Communication Monographs 80 (2): 199.
doi:10.1080/03637751.2013.776172.
25. "Call Centre Monitoring". Management. callcentrehelper.com. Retrieved 2008-06-05.
26. "The Call Center Answer Team reaches out to the industry for to crack a tough nut".
Q&A: How Many Calls Should I Monitor. callcentermagazine.com. 2003-07-30.
Retrieved 2008-06-05.
27. "Whos on the Line? Women in Call Centres Project" (PDF). Atlantic Centre of
Excellence for Women's Health. Health Canada. Retrieved 2008-06-05.
28. "If You Want to Scream, Press... - Preview". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 2012-01-28.
29. "nationalcallcenters". Retrieved 2012-02-09.
30. Fleming, J., Coffman, C., Harter, J. (2005) Manage Your Human Sigma, Harvard
Business Review
31. "NACC". Nationalcallcenters.org. Retrieved 2012-01-28.
32. Anton, Jon; Dru Phelps. "How to conduct a call center performance audit: A to Z" (PDF).
Retrieved 1 July 2008.
33. Paprzycki, Marcin et al. (2004). Data Mining Approach for Analyzing Call Center
Performance. Berlin: Springer. doi:10.1007/b97304. ISBN 978-3-540-22007-7.
34. "Evaluation of the Performance of customer service representatives in a call center using
DEA/Network Model/Fussy Sets". Retrieved 1 July 2008.
35. Srinivasan, Raj et al.; Talim, JRome; Wang, Jinting (2004). "Performance analysis of a
call center with interactive voice response units". TOP (Springer Berlin) 12 (1): 91110.
doi:10.1007/BF02578926.

36. Skyrme, Pamela et al. "Using personality to predict outbound call center job
performance" (PDF). Retrieved 1 July 2008.
37. Stolletz, Raik; Stefan Helber (2004). "Performance analysis of an inbound call center
with skills-based routing". OR Spectrum 26 (3): 331352. doi:10.1007/s00291-004-0161y.
38. Witt, L. A. et al. (2004). "When Conscientiousness Isnt Enough: Emotional Exhaustion
and Performance Among Call Center Customer Service Representatives". Journal of
Management 30 (1): 149160. doi:10.1016/j.jm.2003.01.007.
39. Aguir, Salah et al.; Karaesmen, Fikri; Aksin, O. Zeynep; Chauvet, Fabrice (2004). "The
impact of retrials on call center performance". OR Spectrum 26 (3): 353376.
doi:10.1007/s00291-004-0165-7.
40. Murthy, Nagesh N. et al.; Challagalla, G. N.; Vincent, L. H.; Shervani, T. A. (2008).
"The Impact of Simulation Training on Call Center Agent Performance: A Field-Based
Investigation". Management Science 54 (2): 384399. doi:10.1287/mnsc.1070.0818.
41. Armony, Mor; Itay Gurvich. "When promotions meet operations: cross-selling and its
effect on call-center performance" (PDF). Retrieved 1 July 2008.
42. Goldberg, L.S.; A.A. Grandey. "Display rules versus display autonomy: emotion
regulation, emotional exhaustion, and task performance in a call center simulation".
Retrieved 1 July 2008.
43. ed. by Pradeep Kumar ...; Pradeep Kumar, Christopher Robert Schenk (2006). Paths to
Union Renewal. Broadview Press. ISBN 1-55193-058-7.
44. "Improving Call Center Jobs a Top Priority for CWA Customer Service".
Communicattion Workers of America. Retrieved 2011-02-23.
45. "Call Centre Union Busters Get Wake-Up Call". Workers Online. Retrieved 2008-07-08.
46. "Uni Global Union's call centre organising campaigns". Uni Global Union. Retrieved
2008-07-08.
47. Hudson, Dale (2009), Undesirable Bodies and Desirable Labor: Documenting the
Globalization and Digitization of Transnational American Dreams in Indian Call Centers,
Cinema Journal 49 (1), pp. 82-102.
48. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p018vlpy
49. Call centre#Dynamics
50. http://www.callcentrehelper.com/what-lessons-could-a-call-centre-manager-learn-fromthe-bbc-tv-show-the-call-centre-42357.htm

Further reading

Cusack M., "Online Customer Care", American Society for Quality (ASQ) Press, 2000.
Cleveland B., "Call Center Management on Fast Forward", ICMI Press, 2006.
Kennedy I., Call centres, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of
the Witwatersrand, 2003.
Masi D.M.B., Fischer M.J., Harris C.M., Numerical Analysis of Routing Rules for Call
centres, Telecommunications Review, 1998, noblis.org
HSE website Psychosocial risk factors in call centres: An evaluation of work design and
well-being.

Reena Patel, Working the Night Shift: Women in India's Call Center Industry (Stanford
University Press; 2010) 219 pages; traces changing views of "women's work" in India
under globalization.
Fluss, Donna, "The Real-Time Contact centre", 2005 AMACOM
Wegge, J., van Dick, R., Fisher, G., Wecking, C., & Moltzen, K. (2006, January). Work
motivation, organisational identification, and well-being in call centre work. Work &
Stress, 20(1), 60-83.
Customer Operations Performance Center Inc. website for more information on the
COPC-2000 CSP Standard.

Help desk
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about technical support. For the webcomic, see Help Desk (webcomic). For
Wikipedia's help desk, see Wikipedia:Help desk.
A help desk is a resource intended to provide the customer or end user with information and
support related to a company's or institution's products and services. The purpose of a help desk
is usually to troubleshoot problems or provide guidance about products such as computers,
electronic equipment, food, apparel, or software. Corporations usually provide help desk support
to their customers through various channels such as toll-free numbers, websites, instant
messaging, or email. There are also in-house help desks designed to provide assistance to
employees.

Contents

1 Names and professional association


2 Functions
3 Organization
o 3.1 Desk side team
o 3.2 Network team
o 3.3 Server team
o 3.4 Other teams
4 See also
5 References
6 External links

Names and professional association


The Help Desk Institute (HDI) was formed by Ron Muns as a for-profit organization in 1989, its
purpose being to serve the industry as a professional association focused on the development of
technical support personnel and the sharing of optimal practices. It adopted the name HDI in
2004 to reflect the maturing of the support industry. Technical support was expanded to cover
desktop systems as well as provide other types of assistance for customers of organizations.

While the term "Help desk" initially implied the place where employees receive technical
support relating to their organization's IT infrastructure, the scope of the term has expanded in
meaning and use. In major academic institutions, "help desk" can also refer to help provided in
an academic library. The 2012 HDI Practices and Salary Report[1] reported that for the first time
in the 20 years since its inception, the name "service desk" (at 32.3%) is more frequently used
than "help desk" (at 26.6%) or other names (which total 40.1%). The primary reason is likely to
be the global adoption of the terminology of the Information Technology Infrastructure Library
(ITIL), which uses the term "Service Desk" to describe a one-stop function providing support
and assistance, replacing the concept of a "Help Desk" within the context of the provision of IT
support.

Functions
This section relies largely or entirely upon a single source. Relevant discussion may
be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to
additional sources. (June 2012)
A typical help desk can effectively perform several functions. It provides a single point of
contact for users to gain assistance in troubleshooting, get answers to questions, and solve known
problems. A help desk generally manages its requests through the use of software such as issue
tracking systems. These systems often involve the use of a "local bug tracker" (LBT). This
system allows the help desk to track and sort user requests with the help of a unique number, and
can frequently classify problems by user, computer program, or similar categories. Many
software applications are available to support the help desk function. Some target the enterprise
level help desk and some target departmental needs.
In the mid-1990s, research by Iain Middleton of Robert Gordon University[2] studied the value of
an organization's help desks. It found that value was derived not only from a reactive response to
user issues, but also from the help desk's unique position of communicating daily with numerous
customers or employees. Information gained in areas such as technical problems, user
preferences, and satisfaction can be valuable for the planning and development work of other
information technology units.

Organization
This section relies largely or entirely upon a single source. Relevant discussion may
be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to
additional sources. (June 2012)
Large help desks[3] are often structured into different levels to handle different types of
questions. For example, a first-level help desk may be prepared to answer the questions or
provide the information commonly found among the FAQ or in a knowledge base. If the issue is
not resolved at the first level, it can be forwarded to a second level with resources to handle more
complex issues. Organizations may also have a third line of support to deal with softwarespecific needs, such as updates and bug fixes that directly affect a specific client.

Large help desks have a person or team responsible for managing the incoming requests, called
"issues"; they are commonly called queue managers or queue supervisors. The queue manager is
responsible for the issue queues, which can be set up in various ways depending on the help desk
size or structure. Typically, large help desks have several teams that are experienced in working
on different issues. The queue manager will assign an issue to one of the specialized teams based
on the type of issue raised. Some help desks may have telephone systems with ACD splits
ensuring that calls about specific topics are put through to analysts with the requisite experience
or knowledge.
A large number of these help desks have strict rosters. Time is set aside for analysts to perform
tasks such as following up on problems, returning phone calls, and answering questions via
email. This roster system ensures that all analysts have enough time to follow up on calls and
also ensures that analysts are always available to take incoming phone calls. As the incoming
phone calls are random in nature, help desk agent schedules are often maintained using an Erlang
C calculation.

Desk side team


The desk side team (sometimes known as "desktop support") is responsible for issues related to
desktops, laptops, and peripherals, such as personal digital assistants. The help desk assigns the
desktop team the second-level desk side issues that the first level was not able to solve. They set
up and configure computers for new users and are typically responsible for any physical work
relating to the computers, such as repairing software or computer hardware issues and moving
workstations to another location.

Network team
The network team is responsible for the network software, hardware and infrastructure, such as
servers, switches, backup systems, and firewalls. They are also responsible for the network
services, such as email configuration, file management, and security issues. The help desk
assigns the network team issues that are in their field of responsibility. Networks often have
proprietary or open source monitoring devices that forward outage information to help desk
systems so that tickets may be automatically opened and primary contacts paged.

Server team
The server team is responsible for most or all of the servers within the organization. This
includes Domain Name System (DNS) servers, network authentication, network shares, network
resources, email accounts, and all aspects of server software. It may also include more advanced
services such as those related to databases, storage or content management systems, specialized
proprietary services, and other industry-specific server-based applications.

Other teams
Some companies have a telecom team that is responsible for telephone infrastructure such as
PBX, voicemail, VOIP, telephone sets, modems, and fax machines. They are responsible for

configuring and moving telephone numbers, voicemail setup and configuration, having been
assigned these types of issues by the help desk.
Companies with custom application software may also have an applications team who are
responsible for the development of in-house software. The help desk may assign to the
applications team such problems as finding software bugs. Requests for new features or
information about the capabilities of in-house software that come through the help desk are also
assigned to applications groups.
The help desk staff and supporting IT staff may not all work from the same location. With
remote access applications, technicians are able to solve many help desk issues from another
work location or their home office. While there is still a need for on-site support to effectively
collaborate on some issues, remote support provides greater flexibility.

Live support software


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Live chat" redirects here. For the specific live support software product, see LiveChat.
This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by
adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (April 2012)
Live support software (also called live chat, live help) is a popular term for online chat
applications designed specifically to provide online assistance to users of a website. Such
software is used to provide instant help to visitors on a website. Live chat is mainly used for text
based communication, however software providers bundle services like voice, video, helpdesk,
CRM systems along with text chat.

Technology
This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. No cleanup
reason has been specified. Please help improve this section if you can. (May 2010)
The system typically consists of 2 components:
1. A text box on the website.
2. An operator dashboard to allow the agent to respond to the chat.
The system is usually implemented by pasting a JavaScript code on the website of the user. The
Javascript code uses cookies to track user activity on the site.
There are two types of chats:

1. Pro-active chat - In this case, the text box pop-ups on its own and shows a message to the
visitor. This message is shown based on different criteria like the amount of time spent on
the website, the pages visited, etc. The visitor can then choose to respond to the message
displayed.
2. Broadcast- This is a chat initiated by the visitor.
Among the applications available, JavaScript, Java or Flash Player are used to run the application
directly inside the browser. These online applications differ from classic software mostly
because Website visitors don't have to install anything on their PCs and they can communicate
freely with website's online live chat agents. There are also live support software that goes
beyond basic text chat, and offer such advanced communication capabilities as true VoIP (Voice
over IP), application sharing, remote view, real-time website traffic monitoring, and remote form
filling.
Typically live support applications will open a window that connects the user to an agent. Some
software allow the users to be queued, so that one member of staff can deal with a customer and
then automatically move on to the next customer. The customer's position in the queue is
sometimes displayed.
Some live support applications are written in low-level languages (e.g., C++) and distributed as
compiled software that must be installed on a server. Others are written in languages, such as
PHP, and can be modified as desired. MySQL and Microsoft SQL Server are common database
engines used.

Web chat
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It has been suggested that this article be merged into Online chat. (Discuss) Proposed
since June 2014.

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article
by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (May 2014)

What is Chat? If you're browsing this module, chances are you're already aware of the medium
of online communication often referred to as "chat" and want to know more about it. In this
lesson, we'll explore the basic history of chat, give you some definitions to familiarize you with
the different types of chat, and explain the basic mechanics necessary to conduct a chat. The

table of contents page lists the contents of this lesson, so feel free to jump to the pages that are
most useful for you. Lesson 1 What is Chat will take you about 20 minutes to complete, and
you will end this session by locating some chat spaces and, if youre up for it, trying out a
chatroom for yourself.
A web chat is a system that allows users to communicate in real time using easily accessible
web interfaces. It is a type of internet online chat distinguished by its simplicity and accessibility
to users who do not wish to take the time to install and learn to use specialized chat software.[1]
This trait allows users instantaneous access and only a web browser is required to chat. Users
will always get the latest version of a chat service because no software installation or updates are
required.
History of web chat:
Web chats (also known as messengers, IM, or instant messengers) have been around for decades,
almost as long as email. The first major web chat client that was used worldwide was ICQ. ICQ
is a slang version of I seek you. ICQ was originally released in November 1996, and was
freely available to anyone with a computer and Internet connection. By 2001, ICQ had over 100
million users registered out of the 361 million Internet users there were worldwide (Pingdom,
2010). As the Internet grew, other web chat clients became to arise, became more popular and
eventually took over ICQ. These were messenger clients such as MSN messenger and AOL
messenger (AOL who acquired ICQ in 1998).

Web Chat Software


The following are standalone chat servers:

IBM Sametime
Blackboard IM

The following are web front ends (requires e.g. IRC chat server):

CGI:IRC (Perl, Ajax)


Mibbit (Java, Ajax)
PJIRC (Java)
qwebirc (Python, Ajax)

The following are web-based live chat applications, which enable website visitors to chat with
the sales or support people of the website in real time.[2][3] Webmasters only need to paste a piece
of code onto the web pages to get them working.

LivePerson
Comm100 Live Chat
LiveChat
Velaro

See also

[4]

Chat room
List of collaborative software
List of online chat software
Live support software
Online chat
Shoutbox

== References ==
1. Gao, Kevin. "5 Best Practices for Increasing Sales with Live Chat Software". SalesForce.
Retrieved 23 September 2014.
2. "2013 Best Live Chat Support Software Reviews". TopTenReviews. Retrieved 5 June
2013.
3. "Live Chat Software Comparison". SocialCompare. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
4. Pingdom, . (2010, October 22). The incredible growth of the Internet since 2000. In
Pingdom. Retrieved September 25, 2014, from
http://royal.pingdom.com/2010/10/22/incredible-growth-of-the-internet-since-2000/

External links

Internet Chat at DMOZ


[hide]

v
t
e

Computer-mediated communication

Online chat
Online discussion
Communication software
Collaborative software
Social network service
Virtual learning environment

Asynchronous
conferencing

Email
Electronic mailing list
FidoNet
Usenet
Internet forum
o Textboard

Synchronous
conferencing

Publishing

Imageboard
Shoutbox
Bulletin Board System
Online Guestbook

Data conferencing
Instant messaging
Internet Relay Chat
LAN messenger
Talker
Videoconferencing
Virtual conference
Voice chat
VoIP
Web chat
Web conferencing

Blog
Wiki
Microblogging

[1]

1. Pingdom, . (2010, October 22). The incredible growth of the Internet since 2000. In
Pingdom. Retrieved September 25, 2014, from
http://royal.pingdom.com/2010/10/22/incredible-growth-of-the-internet-since-2000/
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Online banking
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Online banking is an electronic payment system that enables customers of a financial institution
to conduct financial transactions on a website operated by the institution, such as a retail bank,
virtual bank, credit union or building society. Online banking is also referred as Internet
banking, e-banking, virtual banking and by other terms.
To access a financial institution's online banking facility, a customer with Internet access would
need to register with the institution for the service, and set up some password (under various
names) for customer verification. The password for online banking is normally not the same as
for telephone banking. Financial institutions now routinely allocate customers numbers (also
under various names), whether or not customers have indicated an intention to access their online
banking facility. Customers' numbers are normally not the same as account numbers, because a
number of customer accounts can be linked to the one customer number. The customer can link
to the customer number any account which the customer controls, which may be cheque,
savings, loan, credit card and other accounts. Customer numbers will also not be the same as any
debit or credit card issued by the financial institution to the customer.
To access online banking, a customer would go to the financial institution's secured website, and
enter the online banking facility using the customer number and password previously setup.
Some financial institutions have set up additional security steps for access to online banking, but
there is no consistency to the approach adopted.

Contents

1 Features
2 History
o 2.1 First online banking services in the United States
o 2.2 Online banking in the U.K.
o 2.3 Banks and the World Wide Web
o 2.4 Interactive banking on the Web
3 Regulations
4 Security
o 4.1 Attacks
o 4.2 Countermeasures
5 See also
6 References

7 External links

Features
This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section
by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (April 2013)
Online banking facilities offered by various financial institutions have many features and
capabilities in common, but also have some that are application specific.
The common features fall broadly into several categories:

A bank customer can perform non-transactional tasks through online banking, including o viewing account balances
o viewing recent transactions
o Downloading bank statements, for example in PDF format
o viewing images of paid cheques
o ordering cheque books
o Download periodic account statements
o Downloading applications for M-banking, E-banking etc.
Bank customers can transact banking tasks through online banking, including o Funds transfers between the customer's linked accounts
o Paying third parties, including bill payments (see, e.g., BPAY) and third party
fund transfers(see, e.g., FAST)
o Investment purchase or sale
o Loan applications and transactions, such as repayments of enrollments
o Credit card applications
o Register utility billers and make bill payments
Financial institution administration
Management of multiple users having varying levels of authority
Transaction approval process
the process of banking has become much faster

Some financial institutions offer unique Internet banking services, for example:

Personal financial management support, such as importing data into personal accounting
software. Some online banking platforms support account aggregation to allow the
customers to monitor all of their accounts in one place whether they are with their main
bank or with other institutions.

History

The precursor for the modern home online banking services were the distance banking services
over electronic media from the early 1980s. The term 'Online' became popular in the late '80s and
referred to the use of a terminal, keyboard and TV (or monitor) to access the banking system
using a phone line. 'Home banking' can also refer to the use of a numeric keypad to send tones
down a phone line with instructions to the bank. Online services started in New York in 1981
when four of the city's major banks (Citibank, Chase Manhattan, Chemical and Manufacturers
Hanover) offered home banking services.[1][2][3] using the videotex system. Because of the
commercial failure of videotex these banking services never became popular except in France
where the use of videotex (Minitel) was subsidised by the telecom provider and the UK, where
the Prestel system was used.
When the clicks-and-bricks euphoria hit in the late 1990s, many banks began to view Web-based
banking as a strategic imperative. The attraction of banks to online banking are fairly obvious:
diminished transaction costs, easier integration of services, interactive marketing capabilities,
and other benefits that boost customer lists and profit margins. Additionally, Web banking
services allow institutions to bundle more services into single packages, thereby luring customers
and minimizing overhead.
A mergers-and-acquisitions wave swept the financial industries in the mid-and late 1998s,
greatly expanding banks' customer bases. Following this, banks looked to the Web as a way of
maintaining their customers and building loyalty. A number of different factors are causing
bankers to shift more of their business to the virtual realm.
While financial institutions took steps to implement e-banking services in the mid-1990s, many
consumers were hesitant to conduct monetary transactions over the web. It took widespread
adoption of electronic commerce, based on trailblazing companies such as America Online,
Amazon.com and eBay, to make the idea of paying for items online widespread. By 2000, 80
percent of U.S. banks offered e-banking. Customer use grew slowly. At Bank of America, for
example, it took 10 years to acquire 2 million e-banking customers. However, a significant
cultural change took place after the Y2K scare ended. In 2001, Bank of America became the first
bank to top 3 million online banking customers, more than 20 percent of its customer base. In
comparison, larger national institutions, such as Citigroup claimed 2.2 million online
relationships globally, while J.P. Morgan Chase estimated it had more than 750,000 online
banking customers. Wells Fargo had 2.5 million online banking customers, including small
businesses. Online customers proved more loyal and profitable than regular customers. In
October 2001, Bank of America customers executed a record 3.1 million electronic bill
payments, totaling more than $1 billion. In 2009, a report by Gartner Group estimated that 47
percent of U.S. adults and 30 percent in the United Kingdom bank online.
The UK's first home online banking services known as Homelink was set up by Bank of
Scotland for customers of the Nottingham Building Society (NBS) in 1983. The system used was
based on the UK's Prestel viewlink system and used a computer, such as the BBC Micro, or
keyboard (Tandata Td1400) connected to the telephone system and television set. The system
allowed on-line viewing of statements, bank transfers and bill payments. In order to make bank
transfers and bill payments, a written instruction giving details of the intended recipient had to be
sent to the NBS who set the details up on the Homelink system. Typical recipients were gas,

electricity and telephone companies and accounts with other banks. Details of payments to be
made were input into the NBS system by the account holder via Prestel. A cheque was then sent
by NBS to the payee and an advice giving details of the payment was sent to the account holder.
BACS was later used to transfer the payment directly.
Stanford Federal Credit Union was the first financial institution to offer online internet banking
services to all of its members in October 1994.[4]
Today, many banks are internet only banks. Unlike their predecessors, these internet only banks
do not maintain brick and mortar bank branches. Instead, they typically differentiate themselves
by offering better interest rates and more extensive online banking features.

First online banking services in the United States


According to "Banking and Finance on the Internet," edited by Mary J. Cronin, online banking
was first introduced in the early 1980s in New York. Four major banks--Citibank, Chase
Manhattan, Chemical and Manufacturers Hanover--offered home banking services. Chemical
introduced its Pronto services for individuals and small businesses in 1983. It allowed individual
and small-business clients to maintain electronic checkbook registers, see account balances, and
transfer funds between checking and savings accounts. Pronto failed to attract enough customers
to break even and was abandoned in 1989. Other banks had a similar experience.

Online banking in the U.K.


Almost simultaneously with the United States, online banking arrived in the United Kingdom. It
was the Nottingham Building Society that in 1983 introduced Britain's first electronic home
banking service through a joint venture with Prestel, a computerized information service owned
by British Telecom.
The UK's first home online banking services known as Homelink was set up by Bank of
Scotland for customers of the Nottingham Building Society (NBS) in 1983. The system used was
based on the UK's Prestel viewlink system and used a computer, such as the BBC Micro, or
keyboard (Tandata Td1400) connected to the telephone system and television set. The system
allowed on-line viewing of statements, bank transfers and bill payments. In order to make bank
transfers and bill payments, a written instruction giving details of the intended recipient had to be
sent to the NBS who set the details up on the Homelink system. Typical recipients were gas,
electricity and telephone companies and accounts with other banks. Details of payments to be
made were input into the NBS system by the account holder via Prestel. A cheque was then sent
by NBS to the payee and an advice giving details of the payment was sent to the account holder.
BACS was later used to transfer the payment directly.
Stanford Federal Credit Union was the first financial institution to offer online internet banking
services to all of its members in October 1994.[5]

Today, many banks are internet only banks. Unlike their predecessors, these internet only banks
do not maintain brick and mortar bank branches. Instead, they typically differentiate themselves
by offering better interest rates and more extensive online banking features.

Banks and the World Wide Web


In the 1990s, banks realized that the rising popularity of the World Wide Web gave them an
added opportunity to advertise their services. Initially, they used the Web as another brochure,
without interaction with the customer. Early sites featured pictures of the bank's officers or
buildings, and provided customers with maps of branches and ATM locations, phone numbers to
call for further information and simple listings of products.

Interactive banking on the Web


Wells Fargo was the first U.S. bank to add account services to its website, in 1995. Other banks
quickly followed suit. That same year Presidential became the first bank in the United States to
open bank accounts over the Internet. According to research by Online Banking Report, by the
end of 1999, less than 0.4% of households in the U.S. were using online banking. At the
beginning of 2004, some 33 million U.S. households (31% of the market) were using one form
or another of online banking. Five years later, 47% of Americans were banking online, according
to a survey by Gartner Group.

Regulations
Since its inception, online banking in the US has been federally governed by the Electronic
Funds Transfer Act of 1978.

Security

Security token device for online banking.


Security of a customer's financial information is very important, without which online banking
could not operate. Financial institutions have set up various security processes to reduce the risk
of unauthorized online access to a customer's records, but there is no consistency to the various
approaches adopted...

The use of a secure website has become almost universally adopted.


Though single password authentication is still in use, it by itself is not considered secure enough
for online banking in some countries. Basically there are two different security methods in use
for online banking.

The PIN/TAN system where the PIN represents a password, used for the login and TANs
representing one-time passwords to authenticate transactions. TANs can be distributed in
different ways, the most popular one is to send a list of TANs to the online banking user
by postal letter. Another way of using TANs is to generate them by need using a security
token. These token generated TANs depend on the time and a unique secret, stored in the
security token (two-factor authentication or 2FA).
More advanced TAN generators (chipTAN) also include the transaction data into the
TAN generation process after displaying it on their own screen to allow the user to
discover man-in-the-middle attacks carried out by trojans trying to secretly manipulate
the transaction data in the background of the PC.[6]

Another way to provide TANs to an online banking user is to send the TAN of the
current bank transaction to the user's (GSM) mobile phone via SMS. The SMS text
usually quotes the transaction amount and details, the TAN is only valid for a short
period of time. Especially in Germany, Austria and The Netherlands, many banks have
adopted this "SMS TAN" service.
Usually online banking with PIN/TAN is done via a web browser using SSL secured
connections, so that there is no additional encryption needed.

Signature based online banking where all transactions are signed and encrypted digitally.
The Keys for the signature generation and encryption can be stored on smartcards or any
memory medium, depending on the concrete implementation. (see, e.g., the Spanish ID
card DNI electrnico[7])

Attacks
Attacks on online banking used today are based on deceiving the user to steal login data and
valid TANs. Two well known examples for those attacks are phishing and pharming. Cross-site
scripting and keylogger/Trojan horses can also be used to steal login information.
A method to attack signature based online banking methods is to manipulate the used software in
a way, that correct transactions are shown on the screen and faked transactions are signed in the
background.
A 2008 U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Technology Incident Report, compiled from
suspicious activity reports banks file quarterly, lists 536 cases of computer intrusion, with an
average loss per incident of $30,000. That adds up to a nearly $16-million loss in the second
quarter of 2007. Computer intrusions increased by 150 percent between the first quarter of 2007
and the second. In 80 percent of the cases, the source of the intrusion is unknown but it occurred
during online banking, the report states.[8]
Another kind of attack is the so-called Man in the Browser attack, where a Trojan horse permits
a remote attacker to modify the destination account number and also the amount.
As a reaction to advanced security processes allowing the user to cross check the transaction data
on a secure device there are also combined attacks using malware and social engineering to
persuade the user himself to transfer money to the fraudsters on the ground of false claims (like
the claim the bank would require a "test transfer" or the claim a company had falsely transferred
money to the user's account and he should "send it back").[9] [10] Users should therefore never
perform bank transfers they have not initiated themselves.

Countermeasures
There exist several countermeasures which try to avoid attacks. Digital certificates are used
against phishing and pharming, in signature based online banking variants (HBCI/FinTS) the use
of "Secoder" card readers is a measurement to uncover software side manipulations of the

transaction data.[11] To protect their systems against Trojan horses, users should use virus
scanners and be careful with downloaded software or e-mail attachments.
In 2001, the U.S. Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council issued guidance for
multifactor authentication (MFA) and then required to be in place by the end of 2006.[12]
In 2012, the European Union Agency for Network and Information Security advised all banks to
consider the PC systems of their users being infected by malware by default and therefore use
security processes where the user can cross check the transaction data against manipulations like
for example (provided the security of the mobile phone holds up) SMS TAN where the
transaction data is send along with the TAN number or standalone smartcard readers with an
own screen including the transaction data into the TAN generation process while displaying it
beforehand to the user (see chipTAN) to counter man-in-the-middle attacks.[13]

See also

Current account
Enhanced Telephone, (Citibank product about 1990)
Guide to E-payments
Mobile banking
On-line and off-line
SMS Banking
Single sign-on
Telephone banking

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DVD-by-mail
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Online video rental" redirects here. For rental of streaming or downloaded video, see video on
demand.

Part of a series on

E-commerce

Online goods and services

E-books

Software

Streaming media

Retail services

Banking
DVD-by-mail

Flower delivery

Food ordering

Pharmacy

Travel

Marketplace services

Advertising

Comparison shopping

Auctions

Social commerce
Trading communities

Wallet

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Payment

Ticketing

Customer service

Call centre

Help desk

Live support software

E-procurement
Purchase-to-pay

v
t

This article appears to be written like an advertisement. Please help improve it by


rewriting promotional content from a neutral point of view and removing any
inappropriate external links. (August 2012)
DVD-by-mail services allow a person to rent DVDs, Blu-ray Discs, video games and VCDs,
among other film media internet, for delivery by mail. Generally, all interaction between the
renter and the rental company takes place through the company's website.

Contents

1 Background
2 Types of plans
3 "Throttling"
4 Marketplace summaries
o 4.1 North and South America
4.1.1 United States
4.1.2 Canada
4.1.3 Mexico
4.1.4 Brazil
o 4.2 Europe
4.2.1 United Kingdom
o 4.3 Asia/Oceania
4.3.1 Australia
4.3.2 New Zealand
4.3.3 Singapore
4.3.4 India
4.3.5 Japan
o 4.4 Africa
4.4.1 South Africa
5 See also
6 References

Background
Most companies operate on the following model:

The customer joins the rental service and creates a list of titles they wish to watch, which
are ranked by priority.
Titles from the list are mailed to the customer.
The customer watches the films and then sends them back to the rental company.

Most companies will let customers keep the films for as long as they want; customers are,
however, limited to a set number of discs out at any one time. Commonly, once a disc is
returned, another is sent out. Some companies or plans may have a limit on the total number of
movies rented in a month. Memberships are usually billed monthly, and includes postage both
ways.
Variations exist; for example, Some companies also offer video game rentals while others offer
music. Redbox allows a user to reserve DVDs or Blu-ray discs online to retrieve and return the
DVD at Interactive kiosks located in various retail establishments. Netflix began an online
streaming program allowing for the online viewing of select movies and TV shows.
Comparison websites can be used to compare the features and price of various online rental
DVD companies.

Types of plans
Most companies provide variations on five basic types of membership plans:
"Unlimited"
These plans have no maximum on the number of movies one can rent per term, although
there is a limit on the number one may have out at any one time (the higher this limit, the
higher the monthly charge). "Unlimited" is something of a misnomer, since one will be
limited by the delivery time of the postal service involved, the distance between the
customer and the company's warehouse, etc. The company may also take active steps to
reduce the number of discs shippedsee the "Throttling" section below.
"Limited", "capped", "monthly maximum"
These plans have a limit on the number of discs customers may have out at any one time,
and also a maximum total of discs that can be rented during each billing period (usually
monthly). This provides a cost ceiling for the supplier, and these plans are usually
cheaper than unlimited plans. Some plans allow for additional shipments at extra cost
once the maximum has been reached. Usually no credit is given if usage is below the
maximum, although plans that allow this sort of "carry-over" are not completely
unknown.
"Package"
Instead of each disc being sent and returned independently, a "package" plan sends a
certain number of disks together, and one returns all the discs in a single package as well.
A common scenario allows for two packages to be outstanding, and subsequent packages
ship as a previous one is returned.
"Individual Rentals", "pay-as-you-go"
A plan of this type would allow individual rentals for a fixed fee (perhaps varying by
type/age/popularity of the title), with no monthly fee. Since companies rely on the
monthly fees of low-volume renters to make up for those whose shipping costs approach
or exceed what they are paying, there is little incentive to offer such a plan, and the rental
price would likely have to approach or exceed store costs. Still, it would be a useful
alternative for occasional or periodic renters who want access to the huge selection of

online companies or the advantages of mail rental, yet do not want the fixed monthly
cost.
"Peer to Peer Trading"
There is also a completely different variant which might be termed "peer-to-peer".
Individuals are able to exchange items directly with other consumers, using a company's
services to provide matching between customers, mailing envelopes, credit for items
traded, etc.
"Season Rental", "Series Rental"
These are company controlled package plans based on a set of predetermined settings by
the company. Season rental plans allow customers to rent entire seasons of television
shows in single shipments; the customer can not break up or modify the package.
Customers often can still queue various packages together for uninterrupted service;
returning the first package in order to have the next one shipped (i.e. Star Trek season 1
followed by season 2). Such plans are usually allotted either by show, or by season, for a
set price.
Series plans allow customers to rent entire television or film series in bulk; often in a
single shipment, (i.e. Friends TV show or the Baby Cart film series) but otherwise work
identically to Season Rental plans. (The terms Season and Series are reversed in the
UK.)

"Throttling"
Given sufficiently speedy mail delivery times, customers on "Unlimited" plans who turn around
their discs quickly enough can receive enough shipments in a month that the company's actual
cost of delivery exceeds the subscription fee, making the company unprofitable. Even below this
point, higher volume customers are by definition less profitable than customers who receive
fewer discs per month. If these customers become too numerous, there are various measures
which the rental company can take. One is the so-called "throttling" approach, which received a
fair amount of publicity with regard to Netflix (which refers to the practice as a "fairness
algorithm").[1] In this case, high-volume customers may experience a greater likelihood of
(slower) shipments from alternative warehouses, when the nearest shipment centre does not have
the requested disc. Also, if there is a high demand for a particular disc, it is more likely that an
infrequent renter will get priority over the frequent renters, with the latter receiving a movie
further down on their queue.[2] They are also less likely to receive replacement shipments on the
same day a disc is received. Similar "fair use" caveats can be found in the Terms and Conditions
of leading UK companies such as LOVEFiLM. In Canada, Zip.ca switched to "Capped" plans
(with additional shipping charges for rentals over the cap) in part to avoid implementing
"throttling".
LOVEFiLM came under scrutiny from users over its claim to offer "unlimited" movie rentals.
Some users reportedly found the company used long delays at the shipping stage to reduce the
number of films a month a customer can rent. The company was subject to a dispute by the
Advertising Standards Authority over the use of the word "unlimited" in their advertising. It was
revealed that they practiced throttling.[3] The company itself claimed that this "fair usage" policy
means all customers get a similar service.

On March 2, 2006, Blockbuster announced that their service does not implement throttling.[4]
"We don't prioritize our customers' movie fulfilment based on how often they use our service,
and we don't limit the number of movies a subscriber receives each month," according to Senior
Vice-President Shayne Evangelist. However, the Terms and Conditions each customer has to
agree to in order to subscribe to the service states "BLOCKBUSTER Online reserves the right to
determine product allocation among members in its sole discretion. In determining product
allocation, we use various factors including, but not limited to, (i) the historical rental volume for
each subscriber, (ii) historical number of outstanding rentals relative to the maximum number of
outstanding BLOCKBUSTER Online Rentals allowed under a subscriber's plan, and (iii) the
average rental queue position of BLOCKBUSTER Online Rentals that have shipped to a
subscriber in the past."[5] concerning their Selection and Allocation of Product, which could be
read as contradicting this announcement.

Marketplace summaries
This section appears to be written like an advertisement. Please help improve it by
rewriting promotional content from a neutral point of view and removing any
inappropriate external links. (August 2010)
This form of film rental is closely tied to the mode of delivery. The performance of the postal
service in various countries can differ, and delivery times also depend in part on a country's
geography. A relatively small, densely populated area such as Great Britain poses different
delivery challenges to a large area such as the United States (where the major companies have
developed a network of regional distribution centres). There are also country-specific
implications of the DVD region coding system / Blu-ray Disc region coding system, and even
studio distribution rights within regions. For these and other reasons online Blu-ray/DVD rental
companies tend to operate in a single country, and even should a company expand to multiple
markets, local delivery infrastructure would be required in most cases, as cross-border shipping
is impractical in all but speciality cases. Relative pricing levels may also vary depending on the
market, the local wholesale cost of Blu-ray/DVD product, etc. Following is a summary of the
main English-speaking markets.

North and South America


United States

Netflix envelope and inner sleeve with DVD

Blockbuster envelope
Netflix is the prototype for the entire industry and still the dominant company in the U.S.,[citation
needed]
ending 2008 with 9.39 million customers.[6] Blockbuster Video claimed 1 million online
customers in August 2005, 2 million by March 2006, and finished the first quarter of 2007 with 3
million.[7] There are no recent published numbers for Blockbuster Online since 2007. Walmart
briefly entered the market as well, but withdrew in 2005 and now has a cross-promotional
agreement with Netflix.[8]
There are a number of smaller companies, some of which target specific niches: eHit,[9] the first
such niche company, came online in 2000 targeting fans of Asian films; specifically Japan,
China, and Korea, expanding to include other countries films over time. eHit pioneered some
rental and user options later adopted by the majority of online rental companies: the ability to
filter previously rented films from standard browsing views and the ability to rate movies that
have not been rented from that company. eHit was also the first company to rent entire series as a
single, set price rental.
Adult DVDEmpire and GoFlix.com are examples of adult-only rental companies offering a wide
range of adult entertainment. CinFlix offers only imported films released outside of the United
States in non-region 1 coding, including some American films, targeting the vast English As
Second Language market. PuritanPicks.com and ChristianCinema both offer Christian
entertainment. BushidoDVD.com came online in 2005 and is an example of an instructional
DVD rental company offering martial arts training videos for rent. DanceFlix.com offers
instructional dance related DVDs. SmartFlix.com specializes in "how to" DVDs in a wide range
of subjects like welding, metal working and flying kites.
Canada
Estimates put the number of Canadian subscribers at 7080,000, with Zip.ca having around
50,000.[citation needed] Other competitors include Kaku.ca and DVDlink.ca. Cinemail.ca has
announced it will cease operations at the end of June 2013 as announced on their homepage. A
common feature in Canadian plans is a refill feature where a customer is mailed by the rental
company the replacement disc as soon as the customer has indicated that a DVD has been
returned in the post. The extent and availability of refill varies by company. Some companies
also have a vacation or suspension feature.
Mexico

Blockbuster Online started DVD Rentals in Mexico during 2007, after the chain acquired a local
startup called MovieNet. Initially, the service was only for condos & corporate offices; In 2008,
they are going to expand the coverage in open zones (home deliveries through motorcycles
personnel just like the former MovieNet did). Apparently the project was canceled due to the
results during the first year.[dated info]
Brazil
Blockbuster Online started DVD rentals in Brazil during 2006 and now offers Blu-ray plans as
well. The 3-disc unlimited rental plan costs R$49.90/month with unlimited exchanges.[10] Along
the decade, the number of online rental services in Brazil has rocketed up. Among the most
popular are NetMovies and Pipoca Online.

Europe
United Kingdom
Given the relatively small geographical area and high population density of the UK, online DVD
rentals have some differences from in the US, as a single shipping facility can serve the entire
country. There are a large number of companies, but many are actually separately branded
versions of the dominant company, LoveFilm, which provide the website, fulfilment and support
services. In most cases the partner is a company with access to a large existing customer base
(supermarket chains, newspapers, media companies, etc.) which it can direct to its branded site.
Each brand may have slight differences in price, quantity, website features or ancillary benefits,
but the actual DVD service will be from the same source.
In April 2006, LoveFilm merged with its major rival Video Island, which had operated
ScreenSelect and other brands,[11] and in February 2008, LoveFilm acquired Amazon's DVD
rental business in the UK and German markets. In return, Amazon became the largest
shareholder of LoveFilm.[12][13][14]
In January 2012, Netflix launched in the UK offering streaming only films instead of traditional
mail. This was launched as an unlimited service with a small but ever-growing library of Films
and TV shows, this was launched for 5.99 per month. Competitiveness in the UK is ever
growing[citation needed] and there are many companies that offer rental movies online but mainly
Lovefilm and Netflix. To compete with Netflix Lovefilm launched "Lovefilm unlimited" which
was unlimited streaming online for 4.99. Lovefilm had the biggest selection of films in the UK
giving them an advantage over Netflix.
In February 2014, Amazon rebranded Lovefilm Instant as Amazon Prime Instant Video, bringing
it inline with its American counterpart. The Lovefilm brandname is retained for the legacy DVD
by post service, titled Lovefilm By Post, which is now a part of Amazon's overall website.
On 9 September 2009 DVD rental comparison site 'Choose DVD Rental' pointed out that market
pressures were forcing many smaller UK online DVD rental sites to shut down.[15] Blockbuster
also offered this service via their website, in addition to their stores, until the UK division of the

business was liquidated in 2013. Cinema Paradiso are now the only other online company that
still rent discs by post.

Asia/Oceania
Australia
There are several providers in Australia, the most prominent being Quickflix (listed on the
Australian Stock Exchange) and BigPond Movies. BigPond Movies announced in June 2011 that
they will be pulling out of the DVD-by-mail market at the end of September 2011 and are,
instead, offering subscribers the option of downloading movies directly via their proprietary Tbox device.
New Zealand
There were three online DVD rental companies in New Zealand, all offering flat-rate packages.
The three companies were DVD Unlimited, Fatso and Movieshack.
On June 7, 2008 all three companies merged into Fatso, owned by SKY Network Television.
Singapore
Hollywoodclicks and Videohub are the two most established online DVD rental services in
Singapore. Hollywoodclicks was the first to market, followed by Video Ezy Online. Video Ezy
Online rental service was shut down at the start of 2009 and was converted to a home delivery
service.
India
There are several online DVD rental services in India, all running their own delivery systems and
logistics. Unlike online DVD rental companies in other countries, online DVD rental services in
India do not use the postal service as a means of delivery or exchange.
India's first online DVD rental service Clixflix started in 2004 - the date the site was registered.
The model has been tweaked in India to suit the local marketplace. Cinebox serves in
Ahmedabad city only with their own shipping service. Clixflix serves members through stores,
phones, SMS and the internet. Madhouse uses drop boxes. SeventyMM and Catchflix operate
wholly online models. Cinesprite operates a multiple delivery model.
Currently there are three national level companies providing online DVD rentals:

Bigflix: There are offline and online options. Bigflix has approximately over hundred
outlets at various locations across cities. The subscriber can visit the local store and rent
movies according to their plan. Subscribers who are not nearby any store can book

movies online and get the service from a centralized location (if there is any) in their city.
They only rent DVDs.
Seventymm operates from Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore. The subscriber can book the
movie online or by phone and they have their own delivery boys deliver the movies. They
only rent DVDs.
Moviemart is the online rental company serving the whole country using Blue Dart (a
DHL subsidiary) courier. The delivery and pickup charges are paid by Moviemart.
Moviemart is the only online rental company in India renting Blu-rays and PlayStation 3
games.

Cinesprite, Seventymm and Bigflix have closed their operations.[citation needed] Clixflix (the oldest)
is still in operation in Mumbai.
Japan
Major online rental Blu-ray Disc and DVD companies are Rakuten Rental, Tsutaya Discas, and
Posren.

Africa
South Africa
This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (March 2013)

See also

Automated teller machine


Blu-ray Disc
DVD
HD DVD
Interactive kiosk
VCD
VHS

References
1. [1][dead link]
2. What is "throttling" and does Netflix "throttle" its members?, Netflix, September 10,
2007, . Retrieved 2007-09-12.
3. "Advertising Standards Authority adjudication upholding a complaint against
LOVEFiLM". Asa.org.uk. August 9, 2006.[dead link]
4. "BLOCKBUSTER Online Doesn't Throttle Customers!". Blockbuster Inc. 2007-03-02.
Retrieved 2007-03-28.[dead link]
5. "Blockbuster Online - Terms and Conditions". Blockbuster Online. 2007-11-03.
Retrieved 2007-03-28.

6. "Netflix 2008 Annual Report". Netflix. 2009-05-28. Retrieved 2009-08-06.


7. "Blockbuster reports First Quarter 2007 results"[dead link]
8. "Walmart.com and Netflix Announce New Promotional Agreement". Netflix. 2005-0519. Retrieved 2007-03-28.
9. http://web.archive.org/web/20070727104024/http://www.ehit.com/welcome
10. blockbuster.com.br
11. "LoveFilm and Video Island merge to create Europes leading online home entertainment
group". LoveFilm. 2006-04-06. Retrieved 2007-03-28.
12. "LoveFilm to Acquire Amazons European DVD Rental Business - Amazon to become
largest shareholder of LoveFilm". Lovefilm.co.uk. 2010-05-24. Retrieved 2013-03-24.
13. "LoveFilm website". Lovefilm.com. 2010-05-24. Retrieved 2013-03-24.
14. Williams, Christopher (2008-02-05). "Amazon buys into Lovefilm". Theregister.co.uk.
Retrieved 2013-03-24.
15. "Online DVD Rental Little Guys Disappear". choosedvdrental.co.uk. 2007-09-09.
Categories:

E-commerce
Postal system
Video rental services

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Online food ordering

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Part of a series on

E-commerce
Online goods and services

E-books

Software

Streaming media

Retail services

Banking
DVD-by-mail

Flower delivery

Food ordering

Pharmacy

Travel

Marketplace services

Advertising

Comparison shopping

Auctions

Social commerce
Trading communities

Wallet

Mobile commerce

Payment

Ticketing

Customer service

Call centre

Help desk

Live support software

E-procurement
Purchase-to-pay

v
t
e

Online food ordering, is an internet e-commerce service/s with websites that feature interactive
menus, ratings and reviews allowing customers to place orders with local restaurants and food
cooperatives. Much like ordering consumer goods online, many of these allow customers to keep
accounts with them in order to make frequent ordering convenient. A customer will search for a
favorite restaurant, usually filtered via type of cuisine and choose from available items, and
choose delivery or pick-up. Payment can be amongst others either by credit card or cash, with the
restaurant returning a percentage to the online food company.

Contents

1 Service types
o 1.1 Restaurant-controlled
o 1.2 Independent
o 1.3 Food Cooperatives
2 Online menus
o 2.1 Advantages for Online Ordering
o 2.2 Disadvantage for Online Ordering
o 2.3 Online Ordering with Phone Apps
3 See also
4 References

Service types
Restaurant-controlled
The preexisting delivery infrastructure of these franchises was well suited for an online ordering
system, so much so that in 2008 Papa John's International announced that its online sales were
growing on average more than 50 percent each year and neared $400 million in 2007 alone.[1]
Local companies have teamed up with e-commerce companies to make ordering quicker and
more precise. Annie Maver, director of operations for The Original Pizza Pan, Inc. of Cleveland,
Ohio comments that "the system is good for customers who don't speak English."[2]

Some restaurants have adopted online ordering despite their lack of delivery systems, using it to
manage pick-up orders or to take reservations.

Independent
Independent online food ordering companies offer two solutions. One is a software service
whereby restaurants purchase database and account management software from the company and
manage the online ordering themselves. The other solution is a Net-based service whereby
restaurants sign contracts with an online food ordering website that may handle orders from
many restaurants in a regional or national area.

One difference between the systems is how the online menu is created and later updated.
Managed services do this via phone or email, while unmanaged services require the customer to
do it. Some websites use wizards to find the best-suited menu for the customer.

Food Cooperatives
Food cooperatives also allow consumers the ability to place an order of locally grown and/or
produced food online. Consumers place an order online based on what is available for the
ordering cycle (month, week) and then pick up and pay for their orders at a central location.

Online menus
Main article: Online menus
This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the
claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research
should be removed. (January 2014)

Advantages for Online Ordering


There are advantages for both the customer and for the restaurants who participate in online
ordering. First, a customer can order at will when they have time to. Also, the customer is able to
customize their order the way they like it without errors in communication between the customer
and the person taking the order. In addition to customer advantages, the restaurant is able to take
more orders with less staff. The restaurant does not need a waiter or hostess to be on the phone to
take the order. The order can go straight to the kitchen.

Disadvantage for Online Ordering


Customers are not able to ask about quality of food or ask for any specialized diet foods. It is
more difficult to ask for gluten free or allergy free foods with online ordering. Also, it is more
possible for a customer to place an order, but never pick up the order which can lead to waste of
food and possibly a loss of profits.

Online Ordering with Phone Apps


Today, many restaurants offer the technology to place an order with an app. Many restaurants
will offer a special if the order is placed online. Subway offers a free cookie while Papa Johns
offers specials only available on the app. Restaurants do this because they are able to reach a
larger market with this technology. They are able to reach a target market that is tech friendly.
Many people these days have a smart phone and that percentage continues to rise.

See also
Food portal

Dark store
List of restaurant terminology

References
1. Associated Press. "Papa John's hits online ordering milestone." 5 May 2008.
2. Soder, Chuck. Online Ordering System Will Get Bigger Slice of Case Students' Pie.
Crane's Cleveland Business News. 14 May 2007.
[hide]

v
t
e

Online food ordering

Services

Delivery.com
Delivery Hero
GrubHub
Foodler
Just-Eat
Seamless
OLO
Takeaway.com
Yemeksepeti

Category:Online food ordering


Portal:Food

Categories:

E-commerce
Online retailers
Restaurant terminology
Websites about food and drink
Online food ordering

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Online pharmacy
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It has been suggested that Online pharmacies in India be merged into this article.
(Discuss) Proposed since November 2014.

Part of a series on

E-commerce
Online goods and services

E-books

Software

Streaming media

Retail services

Banking

DVD-by-mail

Flower delivery

Food ordering

Pharmacy

Travel

Marketplace services

Advertising

Comparison shopping

Auctions

Social commerce
Trading communities

Wallet

Mobile commerce

Payment

Ticketing

Customer service

Call centre

Help desk

Live support software

E-procurement
Purchase-to-pay

v
t
e

Online pharmacies, Internet pharmacies, or Mail Order Pharmacies are pharmacies that
operate over the Internet and send the orders to customers through the mail or shipping
companies.
Online or internet pharmacies might include:

Pharmacy benefit manager - A large administrator of corporate prescription drug plans

Legitimate internet pharmacy in the same country as the person ordering.


Legitimate internet pharmacy in a different country than the person ordering. This
pharmacy usually is licensed by its home country and follows those regulations, not those
of the international orders.
Illegal or unethical internet pharmacy. The web page for an illegal pharmacy may contain
lies about its home country, procedures, or certifications. The "pharmacy" may send
outdated (expired shelf life ) or counterfeit medications and may not follow normal
procedural safeguards.

Contents

1 Home delivery
2 Risks and concerns
3 Discussion
4 International consumers
5 U.S. consumers
6 Overseas online pharmacies and U.S. law
o 6.1 Enforcement
6.1.1 Mail fraud
7 Canadian online pharmacies selling to United States customers
8 Bulgarian consumers
9 UK consumers
10 Indian consumers
11 See also
12 References
13 External links

Home delivery
Conventional stationary pharmacies usually have controlled distribution systems from the
manufacturer. Validation and good distribution practices are followed. Home delivery of
pharmaceuticals can be a desirable convenience but sometimes there can be problems.
The shipment of drugs through the mail and parcel post is sometimes a concern for temperaturesensitive pharmaceuticals. Uncontrolled shipping conditions can include high and low
temperatures outside of the listed storage conditions for a drug. For example, the US FDA found
the temperature in a mail box in the sun could reach 136 F (58 C) while the ambient air
temperature was 101 F (38 C)[1]
Shipment by express mail and couriers reduces transit time and often involves delivery to the
door, rather than a mail box. The use of insulated shipping containers also helps control drug
temperatures, reducing risks to drug safety and efficacy.

Risks and concerns

Illegal or unethical pharmacies sometimes send outdated, substituted, or counterfeit


medications[2][3][4]

Sometimes an online pharmacy may not be located in the country that is claimed. For
example, one study of drug shipments claiming to be from Canada revealed many
actually originated in several different countries and were often bogus medications[5]

Minors or children can order controlled substances without adult supervision.

Other concerns include potential lack of confidentiality, improper packaging, inability to


check for drug interactions, and several other issues.[6]

Many online pharmacies websites in India are controlled by underworld and organised
criminal networks.[7]

Discussion

Canisters containing pharmaceuticals are loaded into an automatic dispensing machine at a mail
order pharmacy.

Legitimate mail-order pharmacies are somewhat similar to community pharmacies; one primary
difference is the method by which the medications are requested and received. Some customers
consider this to be more convenient than traveling to a community drugstore, in the same way as
ordering goods online rather than going to a shop.[8]
While many internet pharmacies sell prescription drugs only with a prescription, some do not
require a pre-written prescription. In some countries, this is because prescriptions are not
required. Some customers order drugs from such pharmacies to avoid the cost and inconvenience
of visiting a doctor or to obtain medications their doctors were unwilling to prescribe. People
living in the United States and other countries where prescription medications are very expensive
may turn to online pharmacies to save money. Many of the reputable websites employ their own
in-house physicians to review the medication request and write a prescription accordingly. Some
websites offer medications without a prescription or a doctor review. This practice has been
criticized as potentially dangerous, especially by those who feel that only doctors can reliably
assess contraindications, risk/benefit ratios, and the suitability of a medication for a specific
individual.[9] Pharmacies offering medication without requiring a prescription and doctor review
or supervision are sometimes fraudulent and may supply counterfeitand ineffective and
possibly dangerousmedicines.

International consumers
International consumers sometimes purchase drugs online from online pharmacies in their own
countries, or those located in other countries. Some of these pharmacies require prescriptions,
while others do not. Of those that do not require prescriptions, some ask the customer to fill in a
health questionnaire with their order. Many drugs available at legitimate online pharmacies are
produced by well-known manufacturers such as Pfizer, Wyeth, Roche, and generic drugmakers
Cipla and Ranbaxy of India and Teva Pharmaceutical Industries of Israel. However, it remains
difficult for a patient to ascertain whether an online pharmacy is legitimate. Medicines obtained
from rogue online pharmacies come with no guarantees with regard to their identity, history and
source. A study in three cities in the Netherlands found that over 60% of the consumed sildenafil
was obtained from illegal sources.[10]

U.S. consumers
An attraction of online pharmacies is drug prices. Shoppers can sometimes obtain 50 to 80
percent or more savings on U.S. prices at foreign pharmacies[11] The Washington Post reported
that "...millions of Americans have turned to Mexico and other countries in search of bargain
drugs...U.S. Customs estimates 10 million U.S. citizens bring in medications at land borders each
year. An additional 2 million packages of pharmaceuticals arrive annually by international mail
from Thailand, India, South Africa and other points. Still more packages come from online
pharmacies in Canada."[12] According to a Wall Street Journal/Harris Online poll in 2006, 80
percent of Americans favor importing drugs from Canada and other countries.[13] President
Obamas budget supports a plan to allow people to buy cheaper drugs from other countries.[14] A
report in the journal Clinical Therapeutics found that U.S. consumers face a risk of getting

counterfeit drugs because of the rising Internet sales of drugs, with worldwide counterfeit drug
sales, offline and online, projected to reach $75 billion by 2010.[15]
Independent research published by the National Bureau of Economic Research demonstrates that
online pharmacies, U.S. and foreign, verified by certain credentialing entities, sell genuine
medication and require a prescription.[16] In that study, all tested prescription drug orders were
found to be authentic when ordered from online pharmacies, international and U.S.-only,
approved by PharmacyChecker.com, as well as U.S. online pharmacies approved by the National
Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS)
program or LegitScript, and Canadian-based online pharmacies approved by the Canadian
International Pharmacy Association. Nine percent of tested products ordered from noncredentialed online pharmacies were counterfeit.[17]
There are two verification programs for online pharmacies that are recognized by the National
Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP). One is VIPPS, which is operated by the NABP and
was created in 1999.[18] The Food and Drug Administration refers Internet users interested in
using an online pharmacy to the VIPPS program.[19] The other is LegitScript, which as of
September 2010 had approved over 340 Internet pharmacies as legitimate and identified over
47,000 "rogue" Internet pharmacies.[20] Canadian and all non-U.S. online pharmacies that sell
prescription medication to Americans, regardless of credentials, are not eligible for approval in
the VIPPS and LegitScript programs.[21]

Overseas online pharmacies and U.S. law


Legality and risks of purchasing drugs online depend on the specific kind and amount of drug
being purchased.

Enforcement
It is illegal to purchase controlled substances from an overseas pharmacy. A person purchasing a
controlled substance from such a pharmacy may be violating several federal laws that carry stiff
penalties.

Any package containing prescription drugs may be seized by US Customs and Border
Protection. The package may be held and eventually returned to the sender if the
addressee does not respond and provide proof that they are allowed to receive these drugs
(e.g., a valid prescription).[22] In practice, the number of packages containing prescription
drugs sent to United States on a daily basis far exceeds CBP's capabilities to inspect
them.[23] In the past, packages often passed through customs even if they were not sent
from Canada or otherwise didn't meet the requirements of section 844 of 21 USC. Until
recently, about 5 percent of prescription drug packages sent from Canada were being
seized.[24]
DEA and FDA[25] generally do not target consumers unless drugs are imported in large
quantities (suggesting intent to distribute) or represent a perceived danger to public health
(opiates, amphetamines).

Rarely, drug importation laws are enforced on the local level. For example, in June 2005
in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, a number of customers of online pharmacies were arrested by
local law enforcement officers and charged with possession of a controlled substance
without prescription.[26]

The act of importation of the controlled substance from overseas violates 21 USC,
Section 952 (up to 5 years in prison and $250,000 fine for importation of non-narcotic
Schedule III, IV, or V drugs; possibly more for narcotics and Schedule I and II drugs).
The act of simple possession of a controlled substance without a valid prescription
violates 21 USC, Section 844 (up to 1 year in prison and $1,000 fine). FDA does not
recognize online prescriptions; for a prescription to be valid there must be a face-to-face
relationship between the patient and the health-care professional prescribing the drug.
What exactly constitutes a "face-to-face" relationship is considered by many online
pharmacies to be a subjective definition that would allow them to operate as an adjunct to
the patient's own physician if the patient submits medical records documenting a
condition for which the requested medication is deemed appropriate for treatment.
Sections 956 and 1301 provide exemptions for travelers who bring small quantities of
controlled substances in or out of the country in person, but not by mail.
Importation of an unapproved prescription drug (not necessarily a controlled substance)
violates 21 USC, Section 301(aa), even for personal use.[27] The Food, Drug, and
Cosmetic Act does allow for the importation of drug products for unapproved new drugs
for which there is no approved American version. However, this allowance does not
allow for the importation of foreign-made versions of U.S. approved drugs.
The law further specifies that enforcement should be focused on cases in which the
importation by an individual poses a threat to public health, and discretion should be
exercised to permit individuals to make such importations in circumstances in which the
prescription drug or device imported does not appear to present an unreasonable risk to
the individual.[28]
It is also illegal to import non-approved drugs (21 USC sections 331(d) and 355(a));
however, FDA policies suggest that, under certain circumstances, patients may be
allowed to keep these drugs.[29]
Individual U.S. states may implement their own laws regulating importation, possession,
and trafficking in prescription drugs and/or controlled substances.[citation needed]
For several years, the states of Nevada,[30] Minnesota, Illinois and Wisconsin have run
official state programs to help their residents order lower-cost drugs from abroad to save
money.

Mail fraud
All online pharmacies sell through the internet but must ship the product usually via the mail.
The selling of many class (schedule)[31] drugs without a valid prescription (also called Rx-only
drugs or legend drugs) is illegal and companies shipping them by mail can be prosecuted for mail
fraud (Postal Inspection service) as well as investigations and Federal charges by the DEA, IRS,
Homeland Security, Food and Drug Administrations Office of Criminal Investigations,
Department of Justice, INTERPOL,[32] and the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
(ICE),[33] and it is common practice for many agencies to jointly investigate alleged crimes.[34]

Canadian online pharmacies selling to United States


customers
Buying prescription drugs from even the most well respected internet pharmacies in Canada
often results in a prescription filled from drugs sourced not from Canada but rather Caribbean
nations or from eastern Europe. The Canadian online pharmacy that sells the drugs offers a
Canadian price but buys at a still cheaper rate from third parties overseas. This has led to
problems with prescriptions being filled with counterfeit drugs, which sometimes have no
activity whatsoever. Some pharmacists have exited this business because of the ethical problems
involved, and some less established internet sites may be knowingly selling fake drugs. In 2014,
the largest online Canada drug retailer was forbidden by Health Canada from selling wholesale
drug. Of the three primary entrepreneurs of online Canadian drugs sold to the United States, one
is in jail, one exited the industry entirely, and the third is under investigation for criminal
wrongdoing. [35][36] [37]

Bulgarian consumers
All Bulgarian online pharmacies must be registered with the Bulgarian drug agency (BDA).
BDA controls the trade with medicines and makes analysis when doubting the quality and safety
of drugs. A special BDA logo and a Certificate for registration of pharmacy proves the
accreditation and the legitimacy of the store. When clicking on the logo, the consumer will be
taken to the official page of the Bulgarian drug agency. The web page must deliver an
information about the pharmacy's name, address, registration number and it's manager.

UK consumers
In the UK more than 2 million people buy drugs regularly over the internet from online
pharmacies; some are legitimate but others have "dangerous practices" that could endanger
children.[38] In 2008, the RPSGB introduced a green cross logo to help identify accredited online
pharmacies (from 2010 the internet pharmacy logo scheme is run by the GPhC).[39]
European registered pharmacists have reciprocal agreements allowing them to practice in the UK
by simply getting registered with the General Pharmaceutical Council.
The first internet pharmacy in the UK was Pharmacy2U, which started operating in 1999.[40] The
UK is a frontline leader in internet pharmacy since a change to NHS pharmacy regulations in
2005 that made it legal for pharmacies to fill NHS prescriptions over the internet.[41] Drugs
supplied in this way tend to be medicines which doctors refuse to prescribe for patients, or would
charge a private prescription fee, as all patients treated under the National Health Service pay
either a flat price or nothing for prescribed medicine (except for medicine classed as lifestyle
medicine, e.g. anti-malarials for travel), and medical equipment.[citation needed]
In the UK, online pharmacies often link up with online clinic doctors. Doctors carry out online
consultations and issue prescriptions.[42] The company employing the doctors must be registered

with the Care Quality Commission. Online clinics only prescribe a limited number of medicines
and do not replace regular doctors working from surgeries. There are various ways the doctors
carry out the online consultations; sometimes it is done almost entirely by questionnaire.
Customers usually pay one fee which includes the price of the consultation, prescription and the
price of the medicine.

Indian consumers
Main article: Online pharmacies in India
There is no specific law to deal with online pharmacies in India but multiple laws govern online
pharmacies in an indirect manner. [43] These laws collectively govern the food, health, cosmetics,
drugs, medicines and nutraceuticals in India. [44] These laws are also too old to deal with the
advancements in technology and is currently a grey area. [45] For instance, the Drugs and
Cosmetics Act, 1940, and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945, have guidelines on the sale of
Schedule H and Schedule X drugs. These can be sold only on prescription and there are specific
rules, including for labelling [46] and bar coding. [47] It is only a matter of time when all these
pharmacies would be brought under the ambit of an amended law.[48]

Travel website
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A travel website is a website on the world wide web that is dedicated to travel. The site may be
focused on travel reviews, the booking of travel, or a combination of both. Approximately
seventy million consumers researched travel plans online in July 2006.[1] Travel bookings are the
single largest component of e-commerce, according to Forrester Research.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Travelogues
2 Service providers
3 Online travel agencies
4 Fare aggregators and metasearch engines
5 Bargain sites
6 Travel and tourism guides
7 Student travel agencies
8 See also
9 References

Travelogues
Many travel websites are online travelogues or travel journals, usually created by individual
travelers and hosted by companies that generally provide their information to consumers for

free.[2] These companies generate revenue through advertising or by providing services to other
businesses. This medium produces a wide variety of styles, often incorporating graphics,
photography, maps, and other unique content. Some examples of websites that use a combination
of travel reviews and the booking of travel are TripAdvisor, Virtualtourist, GLOBOsapiens,
IgoUgo, and Cruise Critic.

Service providers
Individual airlines, hotels, bed and breakfasts, cruise lines, automobile rental companies, and
other travel-related service providers often maintain their own web sites providing retail sales.
Many with complex offerings include some sort of search engine technology to look for
bookings within a certain timeframe, service class, geographic location, or price range.

Online travel agencies


An online travel agency (OTA) specializes in offering planning sources and booking
capabilities.[3] Major OTAs include:

Voyages-sncf.com - revenue 2.23 billion (2008)[4]


Expedia, Inc., including Expedia.com, Hotels.com, Hotwire.com, and others - revenue
US$2.937 billion (2008)[5]
Sabre Holdings, including Travelocity, lastminute.com, and others - revenue US$2.9
billion (2008)[6]
Opodo - revenue 1.3 billion (2008)[7]
Priceline.com - revenue US$1.9 billion (2008)[8]
Orbitz Worldwide, Inc., including Orbitz.com, CheapTickets, ebookers, and others revenue US$870 million (2008)[9]
Wotif.com - revenue A$145 million (2012)[10]
Webjet - revenue A$59.3 million (2012)[11]

Fare aggregators and metasearch engines


The average consumer visits 3.6 sites when shopping for an airline ticket online, according to
PhoCusWright, a Sherman, CT-based travel technology firm.[citation needed] Yahoo claims 76% of
all online travel purchases are preceded by some sort of search function, according to
Malcolmson, director of product development for Yahoo Travel.[citation needed] The 2004 Travel
Consumer Survey published Jupiter Research noted that "nearly two in five online travel
consumers say they believe that no one site has the lowest rates or fares." Thus a niche was
created for aggregate travel search which seek to find the lowest rates from multiple travel sites,
obviating the need for consumers to cross-shop from site to site.
Metasearch engines are so named conduct searches across multiple independent search engines.
Metasearch engines often make use of "screen scraping" to get live availability of flights. Screen
scraping is a way of crawling through the airline websites, getting content from those sites by
extracting data from the same human-readable HTML feed (rather than a Semantic Web or

database feed designed to be machine-readable). Metasearch engines usually process incoming


data to eliminate duplicate entries, but may not expose "advanced search" options in the
underlying databases (because not all databases support the same options).[citation needed]
Fare aggregators redirect the users to an airline, cruise, hotel, or car rental site or Online Travel
Agent for the final purchase of a ticket. Aggregators' business models include getting feeds from
major OTAs, then displaying to the users all of the results on one screen. The OTA then fulfills
the ticket. Aggregators generate revenues through advertising and charging OTAs for referring
clients.[citation needed] Examples of aggregate sites are Bravofly,[12] Cheapflights, Dohop,
Kayak.com, JetRadar, Mobissimo, Momondo, CheapOair, Ixigo.com, SideStep, Wego.com,
Skyscanner, and Webjet.[13] Kayak.com is unusual in linking to online travel agencies and hotel
web sites alike, allowing the customer to choose whether to book directly on the hotel web site or
through an online travel agency. Google Hotel Finder is an experiment that allows to find hotel
prices with Google, however it does not offer to book hotels, merely to compare rates.
The difference between a "fare aggregator" and "metasearch engine" is unclear, though different
terms may imply different levels of cooperation between the companies involved.
In 2008, Ryanair threatened to cancel all bookings made on Ryanair flights made through
metasearch engines, but later allowed the sites to operate as long as they did not resell tickets or
overload Ryanair's servers.[14]

Bargain sites
Travel bargain websites collect and publish bargain rates by advising consumers where to find
them online (sometimes but not always through a direct link). Rather than providing detailed
search tools, these sites generally focus on offering advertised specials, such as last-minute sales
from travel suppliers eager to deplete unused inventory; therefore, these sites often work best for
consumers who are flexible about destinations and other key itinerary components.

Travel and tourism guides


Many websites take the form of a digital version of a traditional guide book, aiming to provide
advice on which destinations, attractions, accommodations, and so on, are worth a visit and
providing information on how to access them.
Most states, provinces and countries have their own convention and visitor bureaus, which
usually sponsor a website dedicated to promoting tourism in their respective regions. Cities that
rely on tourism also operate websites promoting their destinations, such as VEGAS.com for Las
Vegas, Nevada.

Student travel agencies


Some travel websites cater specifically to the college student audience and list exclusive airfare
deals and travel products.

StudentUniverse offers exclusive airfare for college student and faculty, as well as 18-25 yearold youth travelers. Members must verify that they are enrolled or are faculty at an accredited
college or university.[citation needed]

Software
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Software (disambiguation).
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article
by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (September 2013)
Computer software, or simply software is any set of machine-readable instructions that directs
a computer's processor to perform specific operations. Computer software contrasts with
computer hardware, which is the physical component of computers. Computer hardware and
software require each other and neither can be realistically used without the other. Using a
musical analogy, hardware is like a musical instrument and software is like the notes played on
that instrument.
Computer software includes computer programs, libraries and their associated documentation.
The word software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software
only. Software is stored in computer memory and is intangible, i.e. it cannot be touched.[1]
At the lowest level, executable code consists of machine language instructions specific to an
individual processor typically a central processing unit (CPU). A machine language consists of
groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer
from its preceding state. For example, an instruction may change the value stored in a particular
storage location inside the computer an effect that is not directly observable to the user. An
instruction may also (indirectly) cause something to appear on a display of the computer system
a state change which should be visible to the user. The processor carries out the instructions in
the order they are provided, unless it is instructed to "jump" to a different instruction, or
interrupted.
Software written in a machine language is known as "machine code". However, in practice,
software is usually written in high-level programming languages that are easier and more
efficient for humans to use (closer to natural language) than machine language.[2] High-level
languages are translated, using compilation or interpretation or a combination of the two, into
machine language. Software may also be written in a low-level assembly language, essentially, a
vaguely mnemonic representation of a machine language using a natural language alphabet.
Assembly language is translated into machine code using an assembler.

Contents

1 History
2 Types of software

o
o
o

2.1 Purpose, or domain of use


2.2 Nature, or domain of execution
2.3 Programming tools
3 Software topics
o 3.1 Architecture
o 3.2 Execution
o 3.3 Quality and reliability
o 3.4 License
o 3.5 Patents
4 Design and implementation
5 Industry and organizations
6 See also
7 References
8 External links

History
Main article: History of software
The first piece of software was arguably created by Ada Lovelace in the 19th century, for the
planned analytical engine. However, it was never executed.
The first theory about software - prior to the creation of computers as we know them today - was
proposed by Alan Turing in his 1935 essay Computable numbers with an application to the
Entscheidungsproblem (decision problem).
This eventually led to the creation of the twin academic fields of computer science and software
engineering, which both study software and its creation. Computer science is more theoretical
(Turing's essay is an example of computer science), whereas software engineering is focused on
more practical concerns.
However, prior to 1946, software as we now understand it - programs stored in the memory of
stored-program digital computers - did not yet exist. The very first electronic computing devices
were instead rewired in order to "reprogram" them.

Types of software
See also: List of software categories

A diagram showing how the operating system software and application software are layered on a
typical desktop computer. The arrows indicate information flow.
On virtually all computer platforms, software can be grouped into a few broad categories.

Purpose, or domain of use


Based on the goal, computer software can be divided into:

Application software, which uses the computer system to perform special functions or
provide entertainment functions beyond the basic operation of the computer itself. There
are many different types of application software, because the range of tasks that can be
performed with a modern computer is so large - see list of software.
System software, which is designed to directly operate the computer hardware, to
provide basic functionality needed by users and other software, and to provide a platform
for running application software.[3] System software includes:
o Operating systems, which are essential collections of software that manage
resources and provides common services for other software that runs "on top" of
them. Supervisory programs, boot loaders, shells and window systems are core
parts of operating systems. In practice, an operating system comes bundled with
additional software (including application software) so that a user can potentially
do some work with a computer that only has an operating system.
o Device drivers, which operate or control a particular type of device that is
attached to a computer. Each device needs at least one corresponding device
driver; because a computer typically has at minimum at least one input device and
at least one output device, a computer typically needs more than one device
driver.
o Utilities, which are computer programs designed to assist users in maintenance
and care of their computers.

Malicious software or malware, which are computer programs developed to harm and
disrupt computers. As such, malware is undesirable. Malware is closely associated with
computer-related crimes, though some malicious programs may have been designed as
practical jokes.

Nature, or domain of execution

Desktop applications such as web browsers and Microsoft Office, as well as smartphone
and tablet applications (called "apps"). (There is a push in some parts of the software
industry to merge desktop applications with mobile apps, to some extent. Windows 8, and
later Ubuntu Touch, tried to allow the same style of application user interface to be used
on desktops and laptops, mobile devices, and hybrid tablets.)
JavaScript scripts are pieces of software traditionally embedded in web pages that are run
directly inside the web browser when a web page is loaded without the need for a web
browser plugin. Software written in other programming languages can also be run within
the web browser if the software is either translated into JavaScript, or if a web browser
plugin that supports that language is installed; the most common example of the latter is
ActionScript scripts, which are supported by the Adobe Flash plugin.
Server software, including:
o Web applications, which usually run on the web server and output dynamically
generated web pages to web browsers, using e.g. PHP, Java or ASP.NET, or even
JavaScript that runs on the server. In modern times these commonly include some
JavaScript to be run in the web browser as well, in which case they typically run
partly on the server, partly in the web browser.
Plugins and extensions are software that extends or modifies the functionality of another
piece of software, and require that software be used in order to function;
Embedded software resides as firmware within embedded systems, devices dedicated to a
single use or a few uses such as cars and televisions (although some embedded devices
such as wireless chipsets can themselves be part of an ordinary, non-embedded computer
system such as a PC or smartphone).[4] In the embedded system context there is
sometimes no clear distinction between the system software and the application software.
However, some embedded systems run embedded operating systems, and these systems
do retain the distinction between system software and application software (although
typically there will only be one, fixed, application which is always ran).
Microcode is a special, relatively obscure type of embedded software which tells the
processor itself how to execute machine code, so it is actually a lower level than machine
code.[5] It is typically proprietary to the processor manufacturer, and any necessary
correctional microcode software updates are supplied by them to users (which is much
cheaper than shipping replacement processor hardware). Thus an ordinary programmer
would not expect to ever have to deal with it.

Programming tools
Main article: Programming tool

Programming tools are also software in the form of programs or applications that software
developers (also known as programmers, coders, hackers or software engineers) use to create,
debug, maintain (i.e. improve or fix), or otherwise support software. Software is written in one or
more programming languages; there are many programming languages in existence, and each
has at least one implementation, each of which consists of its own set of programming tools.
These tools may be relatively self-contained programs such as compilers, debuggers, interpreters,
linkers, and text editors, that can be combined together to accomplish a task; or they may form
an integrated development environment (IDE), which combines much or all of the functionality
of such self-contained tools. IDEs may do this by either invoking the relevant individual tools or
by re-implementing their functionality in a new way. An IDE can make it easier to do specific
tasks, such as searching in files in a particular project. Many programming language
implementations provide the option of using both individual tools or an IDE.

Software topics
Architecture
See also: Software architecture
Users often see things differently from programmers. People who use modern general purpose
computers (as opposed to embedded systems, analog computers and supercomputers) usually see
three layers of software performing a variety of tasks: platform, application, and user software.

Platform software: Platform includes the firmware, device drivers, an operating system,
and typically a graphical user interface which, in total, allow a user to interact with the
computer and its peripherals (associated equipment). Platform software often comes
bundled with the computer. On a PC one will usually have the ability to change the
platform software.
Application software: Application software or Applications are what most people think of
when they think of software. Typical examples include office suites and video games.
Application software is often purchased separately from computer hardware. Sometimes
applications are bundled with the computer, but that does not change the fact that they
run as independent applications. Applications are usually independent programs from the
operating system, though they are often tailored for specific platforms. Most users think
of compilers, databases, and other "system software" as applications.
User-written software: End-user development tailors systems to meet users' specific
needs. User software include spreadsheet templates and word processor templates. Even
email filters are a kind of user software. Users create this software themselves and often
overlook how important it is. Depending on how competently the user-written software
has been integrated into default application packages, many users may not be aware of
the distinction between the original packages, and what has been added by co-workers.

Execution
Main article: Execution (computing)

Computer software has to be "loaded" into the computer's storage (such as the hard drive or
memory). Once the software has loaded, the computer is able to execute the software. This
involves passing instructions from the application software, through the system software, to the
hardware which ultimately receives the instruction as machine code. Each instruction causes the
computer to carry out an operation moving data, carrying out a computation, or altering the
control flow of instructions.
Data movement is typically from one place in memory to another. Sometimes it involves moving
data between memory and registers which enable high-speed data access in the CPU. Moving
data, especially large amounts of it, can be costly. So, this is sometimes avoided by using
"pointers" to data instead. Computations include simple operations such as incrementing the
value of a variable data element. More complex computations may involve many operations and
data elements together.

Quality and reliability


Main articles: Software quality, Software testing and Software reliability
Software quality is very important, especially for commercial and system software like Microsoft
Office, Microsoft Windows and Linux. If software is faulty (buggy), it can delete a person's
work, crash the computer and do other unexpected things. Faults and errors are called "bugs."
Software is often also a victim to what is known as software aging, the progressive performance
degradation resulting from a combination of unseen bugs. Many bugs are discovered and
eliminated (debugged) through software testing. However, software testing rarely if ever
eliminates every bug; some programmers say that "every program has at least one more bug"
(Lubarsky's Law).[6] All major software companies, such as Microsoft, Novell and Sun
Microsystems, have their own software testing departments with the specific goal of just testing.
Software can be tested through unit testing, regression testing and other methods, which are done
manually, or most commonly, automatically, since the amount of code to be tested can be quite
large. For instance, NASA has extremely rigorous software testing procedures for many
operating systems and communication functions. Many NASA-based operations interact and
identify each other through command programs called software. This enables many people who
work at NASA to check and evaluate functional systems overall. Programs containing command
software enable hardware engineering and system operations to function much easier together.

License
Main article: Software license
The software's license gives the user the right to use the software in the licensed environment,
and in the case of free software licenses, also grants other rights such as the right to make copies.
Proprietary software can be divided into two types:

freeware, which includes the historical category shareware. As the name suggests,
freeware can be used for free, although in the case of shareware, this is sometimes only

true for a limited period of time. However, the term shareware has fallen out of use, as
the original name "shareware" was coined in a pre-internet age, and even larger, wellestablished software companies such as Microsoft commonly offer free trial versions of
some or all of their software.
software available for a fee, often inaccurately termed "commercial software", which can
only be legally used on purchase of a license.

Open source software, on the other hand, comes with a free software license, granting the
recipient the rights to modify and redistribute the software.

Patents
Main articles: Software patent and Software patent debate
Software patents, like other types of patents, are theoretically supposed to give an inventor an
exclusive, time-limited license for a detailed idea (e.g. an algorithm) on how to implement a
piece of software, or a component of a piece of software. Ideas for useful things that software
could do, and user requirements, are not supposed to be patentable, and concrete
implementations (i.e. the actual software packages implementing the patent) are not supposed to
be patentable either - the latter are already covered by copyright, generally automatically. So
software patents are supposed to cover the middle area, between requirements and concrete
implementation. In some countries, a requirement for the claimed invention to have an effect on
the physical world may also be part of the requirements for a software patent to be held valid although since all useful software has effects on the physical world, this requirement may be
open to debate.
Software patents are controversial in the software industry with many people holding different
views about them. One of the sources of controversy is that the aforementioned split between
initial ideas and patent does not seem to be honored in practice by patent lawyers - for example
the patent for Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP), which purported to claim rights over any
programming tool implementing the idea of AOP, howsoever implemented. Another source of
controversy is the effect on innovation, with many distinguished experts and companies arguing
that software is such a fast-moving field that software patents merely create vast additional
litigation costs and risks, and actually retard innovation. In the case of debates about software
patents outside the US, the argument has been made that large American corporations and patent
lawyers are likely to be the primary beneficiaries of allowing or continue to allow software
patents.

Design and implementation


Main articles: Software development, Computer programming and Software engineering
Design and implementation of software varies depending on the complexity of the software. For
instance, design and creation of Microsoft Word software will take much more time than
designing and developing Microsoft Notepad because of the difference in functionalities in each
one.

Software is usually designed and created (coded/written/programmed) in integrated development


environments (IDE) like Eclipse, Emacs and Microsoft Visual Studio that can simplify the
process and compile the program. As noted in different section, software is usually created on
top of existing software and the application programming interface (API) that the underlying
software provides like GTK+, JavaBeans or Swing. Libraries (APIs) are categorized for different
purposes. For instance, JavaBeans library is used for designing enterprise applications, Windows
Forms library is used for designing graphical user interface (GUI) applications like Microsoft
Word, and Windows Communication Foundation is used for designing web services. Underlying
computer programming concepts like quicksort, hash table, array, and binary tree can be useful
to creating software. When a program is designed, it relies on the API. For instance, if a user is
designing a Microsoft Windows desktop application, he/she might use the .NET Windows Forms
library to design the desktop application and call its APIs like Form1.Close() and
Form1.Show()[7] to close or open the application and write the additional operations him/herself
that it need to have. Without these APIs, the programmer needs to write these APIs him/herself.
Companies like Sun Microsystems, Novell, and Microsoft provide their own APIs so that many
applications are written using their software libraries that usually have numerous APIs in them.
Computer software has special economic characteristics that make its design, creation, and
distribution different from most other economic goods.[specify][8][9]
A person who creates software is called a programmer, software engineer or software developer,
terms that all have a similar meaning.

Industry and organizations


Main article: Software industry
A great variety of software companies and programmers in the world comprise a software
industry. Software can be quite a profitable industry: Bill Gates, the founder of Microsoft was
the richest person in the world in 2009 largely due to his ownership of a significant number of
shares in Microsoft, the company responsible for Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Office
software products.
Non-profit software organizations include the Free Software Foundation, GNU Project and
Mozilla Foundation. Software standard organizations like the W3C, IETF develop software
standards so that most software can interoperate through standards such as XML, HTML and
HTTP.
Other well-known large software companies include Oracle, Novell, SAP, Symantec, Adobe
Systems, and Corel, while small companies often provide innovation.

See also

Software release life cycle


List of software

Software portal

Free software portal

Information technology portal

References
1. "'Software' from Collins Concise English Dictionary". Wordreference.com. Princeton,
NJ: Princeton University. Retrieved 2007-08-19.
2. "Compiler construction".
3. "System Software". The University of Mississippi.
4. "Embedded SoftwareTechnologies and Trends". IEEE Computer Society. Retrieved
MayJune 2009.
5. "Microcode". Princeton University.
6. "scripting intelligence book examples".
7. "MSDN Library". Retrieved 2010-06-14.
8. v. Engelhardt, Sebastian (2008). "The Economic Properties of Software". Jena Economic
Research Papers 2 (2008045.).

Streaming media
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A typical webcast, streaming in an embedded media player


Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user
while being delivered by a provider. The verb "to stream" refers to the process of delivering
media in this manner; the term refers to the delivery method of the medium rather than the
medium itself.
A client media player can begin playing the data (such as a movie) before the entire file has been
transmitted. Distinguishing delivery method from the media distributed applies specifically to
telecommunications networks, as most of the delivery systems are either inherently streaming
(e.g., radio, television) or inherently nonstreaming (e.g., books, video cassettes, audio CDs). For
example, in the 1930s, elevator music was among the earliest popularly available streaming

media; nowadays Internet television is a common form of streamed media. The term "streaming
media" can apply to media other than video and audio such as live closed captioning, ticker tape,
and real-time text, which are all considered "streaming text". The term "streaming" was first used
in the early 1990s as a better description for video on demand on IP networks; at the time such
video was usually referred to as "store and forward video",[1] which was misleading
nomenclature.

A Live Stream from a camera pointed at a fish tank, Schou FishCam http://fish.schou.me
Live streaming, which refers to content delivered live over the Internet, requires a form of
source media (e.g. a video camera, an audio interface, screen capture software), an encoder to
digitize the content, a media publisher, and a content delivery network to distribute and deliver
the content.

Contents

1 History
o 1.1 New technologies
o 1.2 Business developments
o 1.3 Consumerization of streaming
2 Bandwidth and storage
3 Protocols
4 Protocol problems
5 Applications and marketing
6 Recording
7 Copyright
8 See also
9 References
10 Further reading
11 External links

History
In the early 1920s, George O. Squier was granted patents for a system for the transmission and
distribution of signals over electrical lines[2] which was the technical basis for what later became
Muzak, a technology streaming continuous music to commercial customers without the use of
radio.

Attempts to display media on computers date back to the earliest days of computing in the mid20th century. However, little progress was made for several decades, primarily due to the high
cost and limited capabilities of computer hardware. From the late 1980s through the 1990s,
consumer-grade personal computers became powerful enough to display various media. The
primary technical issues related to streaming were:

having enough CPU power and bus bandwidth to support the required data rates
creating low-latency interrupt paths in the operating system to prevent buffer underrun.

However, computer networks were still limited, and media were usually delivered over nonstreaming channels, such as by downloading a digital file from a remote server and then saving it
to a local drive on the end user's computer or storing it as a digital file and playing it back from
CD-ROMs.

New technologies
During the late 1990s and early 2000s, Internet users saw:

greater network bandwidth, especially in the last mile


increased access to networks, especially the Internet
use of standard protocols and formats, such as TCP/IP, HTTP, HTML
commercialization of the Internet.

"Severe Tire Damage" was the first band to perform live on the Internet. On June 24, 1993, the
band was playing a gig at Xerox PARC while elsewhere in the building, scientists were
discussing new technology (the Mbone) for broadcasting on the Internet using multicasting. As
proof of their technology, the band was broadcast and could be seen live in Australia and
elsewhere.
Microsoft Research developed Microsoft TV application which was compiled under MS
WIndows Studio Suite and tested in conjunction with Connectix QuickCam.
RealNetworks was also a pioneer in the streaming media markets, when it broadcast a baseball
game between the New York Yankees and the Seattle Mariners over the Internet in 1995.[3]
The first symphonic concert on the internet took place at the Paramount Theater in Seattle,
Washington on November 10, 1995.[4][verification needed] The concert was a collaboration between
The Seattle Symphony and various guest musicians such as Slash (Guns 'n Roses, Velvet
Revolver), Matt Cameron (Soundgarden, Pearl Jam), and Barrett Martin (Screaming Trees).
When Word Magazine launched in 1995, they featured the first-ever streaming soundtracks on
the Internet. Using local downtown musicians the first music stream was "Big Wheel" by
Karthik Swaminathan and the second being "When We Were Poor" by Karthik Swaminathan
with Marc Ribot and Christine Bard.[citation needed]

Business developments

Microsoft developed a media player known as ActiveMovie in 1995 that allowed streaming
media and included a proprietary streaming format, which was the precursor to the streaming
feature later in Windows Media Player 6.4 in 1999. In June 1999 Apple also introduced a
streaming media format in its QuickTime 4 application. It was later also widely adopted on
websites along with RealPlayer and Windows Media streaming formats. The competing formats
on websites required each user to download the respective applications for streaming and
resulted in many users having to have all three applications on their computer for general
compatibility.
Around 2002, the interest in a single, unified, streaming format and the widespread adoption of
Adobe Flash prompted the development of a video streaming format through Flash, which is the
format used in Flash-based players on many popular video hosting sites today such as YouTube.
Increasing consumer demand for live streaming has prompted YouTube to implement a new live
streaming service to users.[5] Presently the company also offers a (secured) link returning the
available connection speed of the user.[6]

Consumerization of streaming
These advances in computer networking, combined with powerful home computers and modern
operating systems, made streaming media practical and affordable for ordinary consumers.
Stand-alone Internet radio devices emerged to offer listeners a no-computer option for listening
to audio streams. These audio streaming services have become increasingly popular over recent
years, as streaming music hit a record of 118.1 billion streams in 2013. [7] In general, multimedia
content has a large volume, so media storage and transmission costs are still significant. To
offset this somewhat, media are generally compressed for both storage and streaming.
Increasing consumer demand for streaming of high definition (HD) content has led the industry
to develop a number of technologies such as WirelessHD or ITU-T G.hn, which are optimized
for streaming HD content without forcing the user to install new networking cables. In 1996,
digital pioneer Marc Scarpa produced the first large-scale, online, live broadcast in history, the
Adam Yauch-led Tibetan Freedom Concert, an event that would define the format of social
change broadcasts. Scarpa continued to pioneer in the streaming media world with projects such
as Woodstock '99, Townhall with President Clinton, and more recently Covered CA's campaign
Tell A Friend Get Covered which was live streamed on YouTube.
Today, a media stream can be streamed either live or on demand. Live streams are generally
provided by a means called "true streaming". True streaming sends the information straight to the
computer or device without saving the file to a hard disk. On-demand streaming is provided by a
means called progressive streaming or progressive download. Progressive streaming saves the
file to a hard disk and then is played from that location. On-demand streams are often saved to
hard disks and servers for extended amounts of time; while the live streams are only available at
one time only (e.g., during the football game).[8]
Streaming media is increasingly being coupled with use of social media. For example, sites such
as YouTube encourage social interaction in webcasts through features such as live chat, online

surveys, etc. Furthermore, streaming media is increasingly being used for social business and elearning.[9]

Bandwidth and storage


A broadband speed of 2.5 Mbit/s or more is recommended for streaming movies, for example to
a Roku, Apple TV, Google TV or a Sony TV Blu-ray Disc Player, 10 Mbit/s for High Definition
content.[10]

Unicast connections require multiple connections from the same streaming server even when it
streams the same content
Streaming media storage size is calculated from the streaming bandwidth and length of the media
using the following formula (for a single user and file):
storage size (in megabytes) = length (in seconds) bit rate (in bit/s) / (8 1024 1024)
Real world example:
One hour of video encoded at 300 kbit/s (this was a typical broadband video in 2005 and it was
usually encoded in a 320 240 pixels window size) will be:
(3,600 s 300,000 bit/s) / (810241024) requires around 128 MB of storage.
If the file is stored on a server for on-demand streaming and this stream is viewed by
1,000 people at the same time using a Unicast protocol, the requirement is:
300 kbit/s 1,000 = 300,000 kbit/s = 300 Mbit/s of bandwidth
This is equivalent to around 135 GB per hour. Using a multicast protocol the server sends out
only a single stream that is common to all users. Therefore such a stream would only use
300 kbit/s of serving bandwidth. See below for more information on these protocols.
The calculation for live streaming is similar.
Assumptions: speed at the encoder, is 500 kbit/s.

If the show lasts for 3 hours with 3,000 viewers, then the calculation is:
Number of MBs transferred = encoder speed (in bit/s) number of seconds number of
viewers / (8*1024*1024)
Number of MBs transferred = 500 x 1024 (bit/s) 3 3,600 ( = 3 hours) 3,000
(number of viewers) / (8*1024*1024) = 1,977,539 MB

Protocols
The audio stream is compressed using an audio codec such as MP3, Vorbis or AAC.
The video stream is compressed using a video codec such as H.264 or VP8.
Encoded audio and video streams are assembled in a container bitstream such as MP4, FLV,
WebM, ASF or ISMA.
The bitstream is delivered from a streaming server to a streaming client using a transport
protocol, such as MMS or RTP. Newer technologies such as HLS, Microsoft's Smooth
Streaming, Adobe's HDS and finally MPEG-DASH have emerged to enable adaptive bitrate
streaming over HTTP as an alternative to using proprietary transport protocols.
The streaming client may interact with the streaming server using a control protocol, such as
MMS or RTSP.

Protocol problems
Designing a network protocol to support streaming media raises many problems, such as:

Datagram protocols, such as the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), send the media stream
as a series of small packets. This is simple and efficient; however, there is no mechanism
within the protocol to guarantee delivery. It is up to the receiving application to detect
loss or corruption and recover data using error correction techniques. If data is lost, the
stream may suffer a dropout.
The Real-time Streaming Protocol (RTSP), Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) and the
Real-time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP) were specifically designed to stream media
over networks. RTSP runs over a variety of transport protocols, while the latter two are
built on top of UDP.
Another approach that seems to incorporate both the advantages of using a standard web
protocol and the ability to be used for streaming even live content is adaptive bitrate
streaming. HTTP adaptive bitrate streaming is based on HTTP progressive download, but
contrary to the previous approach, here the files are very small, so that they can be
compared to the streaming of packets, much like the case of using RTSP and RTP.[11]
Reliable protocols, such as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), guarantee correct
delivery of each bit in the media stream. However, they accomplish this with a system of
timeouts and retries, which makes them more complex to implement. It also means that

when there is data loss on the network, the media stream stalls while the protocol
handlers detect the loss and retransmit the missing data. Clients can minimize this effect
by buffering data for display. While delay due to buffering is acceptable in video on
demand scenarios, users of interactive applications such as video conferencing will
experience a loss of fidelity if the delay that buffering contributes to exceeds 200 ms.[12]
Unicast protocols send a separate copy of the media stream from the server to each
recipient. Unicast is the norm for most Internet connections, but does not scale well when
many users want to view the same television program concurrently.

Multicasting broadcasts the same copy of the multimedia over the entire network to a group of
clients

Multicast protocols were developed to reduce the server/network loads resulting from
duplicate data streams that occur when many recipients receive unicast content streams
independently. These protocols send a single stream from the source to a group of
recipients. Depending on the network infrastructure and type, multicast transmission may
or may not be feasible. One potential disadvantage of multicasting is the loss of video on
demand functionality. Continuous streaming of radio or television material usually
precludes the recipient's ability to control playback. However, this problem can be
mitigated by elements such as caching servers, digital set-top boxes, and buffered media
players.
IP Multicast provides a means to send a single media stream to a group of recipients on a
computer network. A multicast protocol, usually Internet Group Management Protocol, is
used to manage delivery of multicast streams to the groups of recipients on a LAN. One
of the challenges in deploying IP multicast is that routers and firewalls between LANs
must allow the passage of packets destined to multicast groups. If the organization that is
serving the content has control over the network between server and recipients
(i.e., educational, government, and corporate intranets), then routing protocols such as
Protocol Independent Multicast can be used to deliver stream content to multiple Local
Area Network segments.
As in mass delivery of content, multicast protocols need much less energy and other
resources, widespread introduction of reliable multicast (broadcast-like) protocols and
their preferential use, wherever possible, is a significant ecological and economic
challenge.[citation needed]
Peer-to-peer (P2P) protocols arrange for prerecorded streams to be sent between
computers. This prevents the server and its network connections from becoming a

bottleneck. However, it raises technical, performance, security, quality, and business


issues.

Applications and marketing


Useful - and typical - applications of the "streaming" concept are, for example, long video
lectures performed "online" on the Internet.[13] An advantage of this presentation is that these
lectures can be very long, indeed, although they can always be interrupted or repeated at
arbitrary places.
There are also new marketing concepts. For example the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra sells
Internet live streams of whole concerts, instead of several CDs or similar fixed media, by their
so-called "Digital Concert Hall" [14] using YouTube for "trailing" purposes only. These "online
concerts" are also spread over a lot of different places - cinemas - at various places on the globe.
A similar concept is used by the Metropolitan Opera in New York.
Many startups have based their business on streaming media. The most successful company to
date whose business is based on streaming media is Netflix.[citation needed]

Recording
It is possible to record any streamed media through certain media players, for instance VLC
player.[15]

Copyright
See also: Copyright aspects of downloading and streaming
Streaming copyrighted content can can involve making infringing copies of the works in
question. Streaming, or looking at content on the Internet, is legal in Europe, even if that material
is copyrighted.[16]

See also

Comparison of streaming media systems


Comparison of video streaming aggregators
Comparison of video services
Content delivery platform
Copyright aspects of downloading and streaming
Destreaming
Digital television
DLNA
HTTP Live Streaming
IPTV

List of music streaming services


List of streaming media systems
Multicast
P2PTV
Protection of Broadcasts and Broadcasting Organizations Treaty
Push technology
Real-time
Stream processing
Web syndication

References
1. "On buffer requirements for store-and-forward video on demand service circuits". IEEE.
Retrieved 1991.
2. "US Patent 1,641,608". Google Patents. Retrieved 2007.
3. "RealNetworks Inc.". Funding Universe. Retrieved 2011-07-23.
4. http://www.seattlepi.com/archives/1995/9511130063.asp[dead link]
5. Josh Lowensohn (2008). "YouTube to Offer Live Streaming This Year". Retrieved 201107-23.
6. https://www.youtube.com/my_speed#[dead link]
7.
8. Grant and Meadows. (2009). Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals 11th
Edition. pp.114
9. Kellner, Scott (28 February 2013). "The Future of Webcasting". INXPO. Retrieved 15
May 2013.
10. Mimimum requirements for Sony TV Blu-ray Disc Player, on advertisement attached to a
NetFlix DVD[not specific enough to verify]
11. Ch. Z. Patrikakis, N. Papaoulakis, Ch. Stefanoudaki, M. S. Nunes, Streaming

Online auction
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Part of a series on

E-commerce
Online goods and services

E-books

Software

Streaming media

Retail services

Banking
DVD-by-mail

Flower delivery

Food ordering

Pharmacy

Travel

Marketplace services

Advertising

Comparison shopping

Auctions

Social commerce
Trading communities

Wallet

Mobile commerce

Payment

Ticketing

Customer service

Call centre

Help desk

Live support software

E-procurement
Purchase-to-pay

v
t
e

An online auction is an auction which is held over the internet. Online auctions come in many
different formats, but most popularly they are ascending English auctions, descending Dutch
auctions, first-price sealed-bid, Vickrey auctions, or sometimes even a combination of multiple
auctions, taking elements of one and forging them with another. The scope and reach of these
auctions have been propelled by the Internet to a level beyond what the initial purveyors had
anticipated.[1] This is mainly because online auctions break down and remove the physical
limitations of traditional auctions such as geography, presence, time, space, and a small target
audience.[1] This influx in reachability has also made it easier to commit unlawful actions within
an auction.[2] In 2002, online auctions were projected to account for 30% of all online ecommerce due to the rapid expansion of the popularity of the form of electronic commerce.[3]

Contents

1 History
2 Types of online auctions
o 2.1 English auctions
o 2.2 Dutch auctions
o 2.3 First-price sealed-bid
o 2.4 Vickrey auction
o 2.5 Reverse auction
o 2.6 Bidding fee auction
3 Legalities
o 3.1 Shill bidding
o 3.2 Fraud
o 3.3 Sale of stolen goods
4 Bidding techniques
o 4.1 Auction sniping
5 See also
6 References

History
Online auctions were taking place even before the release of the first web browser for personal
computers, NCSA Mosaic. Instead of users selling items through the Web they were instead
trading through text-based newsgroups and email discussion lists. However, the first Web-based
commercial activity regarding online auctions that made significant sales began in May 1995
with the company Onsale. In September that same year eBay also began trading.' Both of these
companies used ascending bid. The Web offered new advantages such as the use of automated
bids via electronic forms, a search engine to be able to quickly find items and the ability to allow
users to view items by categories.
Online auctions have greatly increased the variety of goods and services that can be bought and
sold using auction mechanisms along with expanding the possibilities for the ways auctions can
be conducted and in general created new uses for auctions. In the current web environment there
are hundreds, if not thousands, of websites dedicated to online auction practices.

Types of online auctions


There are six different basic types of online auctions:

English auctions
In live terms, English auctions are where bids are announced by either an auctioneer or by the
bidders and winners pay what they bid to receive the object. English auctions are claimed to be
the most common form of third-party on-line auction format used and is deemed to appear the
most simplistic of all the forms.[4] The common operational method of the format is that it is an
ascending bid auction in which bids are open for all to see. The winner is the highest bidder and
the price is the highest bid.[4] The popularity of the English auction is due to the fact that it uses a
mechanism that people find familiar and intuitive and therefore reduces transaction costs. It also
transcends the boundaries of a traditional English auction where physical presence is required by
the bidders, making it increasingly popular even though there is a susceptibility to various forms
of cheating.[4]

Dutch auctions
Dutch auctions are the reverse of English auctions whereby the price begins high and is
systematically lowered until a buyer accepts the price.Dutch auction services are usually
misleading and the term 'Dutch' tends to have become common usage for the use of a uniformprice rule in a single unit auction as opposed to how it is originally intended for that of a
declining price auction.However, with actual on-line Dutch auctions where the price is
descending, it was found that auctions have on average a 30% higher ending price than first-price
auctions with speculation pointing to bidder impatience or the effect of endogenous entry on the
Dutch auction.

First-price sealed-bid
First-price sealed-bid auctions are when a single bid is made by all bidding parties and the single
highest bidder wins, and pays what they bid. The main difference between this and English
auctions is that bids are not openly viewable or announced as apposed to the competitive nature
which is generated by public bids. From the game-theoretic point of view, the first-price sealedbid auction is strategically equivalent to the Dutch auction; that is, in both auctions the players
will be using the same bidding strategies.[5]

Vickrey auction
A Vickrey auction, sometimes known as a second-price sealed-bid auction, uses very much the
same principle as a first-price sealed bid. However, the highest bidder and winner will only pay
what the second highest bidder had bid. The Vickrey auction is suggested to prevent the
incentive for buyers to bid strategically, due to the fact it requires them to speak the truth by
giving their true value of the item.

Reverse auction
Reverse auctions are where the roles of buyer and seller are reversed. Multiple sellers compete to
obtain the buyer's business and prices typically decrease over time as new offers are made. They
do not follow the typical auction format in that the buyer can see all the offers and may choose
which they would prefer. Reverse auctions are used predominantly in a business context for
procurement.[6] Reverse auctions bring buyers and sellers together in a transparent marketplace.
The practice has even been implemented for private jet travel on the online auction site
Marmalade Skies.
The term reverse auction is often confused with unique bid auctions, which are more akin to
traditional auctions as there is only one seller and multiple buyers. However, they follow a
similar price reduction concept except the lowest unique bid always wins, and each bid is
confidential.[7]

Bidding fee auction


A bidding fee auction (also known as a penny auction) requires customers to pay for bids, which
they can increment an auction price one unit of currency at a time. On English auctions for
example, the price goes up in 1 pence (0.01 GBP) increments. There has been criticism that
compares this type of auction to gambling, as users can spend a considerable amount of money
without receiving anything in return (other than the spent bids trying to acquire the
item).[8][9][10][11][12] The auction owner (typically the owner of the website) makes money in two
ways, the purchasing of bids and the actual amount made from the final cost of the item. [13]

Legalities
Shill bidding
Placing fake bids that benefits the seller of the item is known as shill bidding. This is a method
often used in Online auctions but can also happen in standard auctions. This is seen as an
unlawful act as it unfairly raises the final price of the auction, so that the winning bidder pays
more than they should have. If the shill bid is unsuccessful, the item owner needs to pay the
auction fees. In 2011, a member of eBay became the first individual to be convicted of shill
bidding on an auction.[14] By taking part in the process, an individual is breaking the European
Union fair trading rules which carries out a fine of up to 5,000 in the United Kingdom.[15]

Fraud
The increasing popularity of using online auctions has led to an increase in fraudulent activity.[2]
This is usually performed on an auction website by creating a very appetising auction, such as a
low starting amount. Once a buyer wins an auction and pays for it, the fradulent seller will either
not pursue with the delivery,[16] or send a less valuable version of the purchased item (replicated,
used, refurbished, etc.). Protection to prevent such acts has become readily available, most

notably Paypal's buyer protection policy. As Paypal handles the transaction, they have the ability
to hold funds until a conclusion is drawn whereby the victim can be compensated.[17]

Sale of stolen goods


Online auction websites are used by thieves or fences to sell stolen goods to unsuspecting
buyers.[18] According to police statistics there were over 8000 crimes involving stolen goods,
fraud or deception reported on eBay in 2009.[19] It has become common practice for organised
criminals to steal in-demand items, often in bulk. These items are then sold online as it is a safer
option due to the anonymity and worldwide market it provides.[20] Auction fraud makes up a
large percentage of complaints received by the FBIs Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3).
This was around 45% in 2006 and 63% in 2005.[21]

Bidding techniques
Auction sniping
Auction sniping is a controversial bidding technique used in timed online auctions.[22] It is the
practice of placing a bid in the final stages of an auction with the aim of removing other bidder's
ability to place another bid before the auction ends. These bids can either be placed by the bidder
manually or automatically with the use of a tool.[23] There are tools available that have been
developed for this purpose. However, the use of these tools is the subject of much
controversy.[24]
There are two different approaches employed by sniping tools.

Online: These are hosted on a remote server and are a service run by a third
party.
Local: This type is a script which can be downloaded onto the users computer
which is then activated and run locally.

See also

Visual merchandising
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article
by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (July 2008)

Marketing
Key concepts

Product marketing

Pricing

Distribution

Service

Brand management

Retail

Brand licensing

Account-based marketing

Effectiveness

Research

Segmentation

Strategy

Activation

Management

Ethics

Dominance

Marketing operations

Social marketing

Identity

Digital marketing

Promotional contents

Advertising

Branding

Underwriting spot

Direct marketing

Personal sales
Product placement

Propaganda

Publicity

Sales promotion

Sex in advertising

Loyalty marketing

Mobile marketing

Premiums

Prizes

Corporate anniversary

On-hold messaging

Promotional media

Publication

Broadcasting

Out-of-home advertising

Internet

Point of sale

Merchandise

In-game advertising
Product demonstration

Word-of-mouth
Brand ambassador

Printing

Drip marketing

Visual merchandising

v
t
e

Visual merchandising is the activity and profession of developing the floor plans and threedimensional displays in order to maximise sales.[1]
Both goods or services can be displayed to highlight their features and benefits. The purpose of
such visual merchandising is to attract, engage, and motivate the customer towards making a
purchase.
Visual merchandising commonly occurs in retail spaces such as retail stores and trade shows.

Contents

1 History
2 Methodology
o 2.1 Techniques
o 2.2 Tools
3 Forms
o 3.1 Shelving
o 3.2 POS Display

o
o
o

3.3 Properties
3.4 Window displays
3.5 Food merchandising
4 References
5 Further reading

History
When the giant nineteenth century dry goods establishments like Marshall Field & Co. shifted
their business from wholesale to retail, the visual display of goods became necessary to attract
the general consumers. The store windows were often used to attractively display the store's
merchandise. Over time, the design aesthetic used in window displays moved indoors and
became part of the overall interior store design, eventually reducing the use of display windows
in many suburban malls.[citation needed]
In the twentieth century, well-known artists such as Salvador Dal[2] and Andy Warhol [3][4]
created window displays.
In the beginning of twenty-first century visual merchandising is forming as a sience. Nowadays,
Visual Merchandising became one of the major tool of business promotion which is widely used
to attract customers and increase sales.[5]

Example of Summer indoor display.

Methodology
Techniques
Visual merchandising builds upon or augments the retail design of a store. It is one of the final
stages in setting out a store in a way customers find attractive and appealing.
Many elements can be used by visual merchandisers in creating displays including color,[6]
lighting, space, product information, sensory inputs (such as smell, touch, and sound), as well as
technologies such as digital displays and interactive installations.

As methods of visual merchandising [7] can be used color and style, symmetry and rhythm, face
and side presentation etc.[8]

Tools
A floor map helps visual merchandisers to find the best place for garments, color stories of
clothes and footwear in the shop.[9] It is a kind of floor plan with merchandise marked.

Forms
Shelving
In order to evaluate the product thoroughly it is necessary to deploy the folded product. Besides,
it takes time to expand the A 4 format formed product. In addition, there is a psychological fear
among customers to release the product as an indication of breaking the order, especially if there
is a paper gasket in the folded product.[10]

POS Display
See also: Point of sale display

Properties
Window displays
See also: Display window and Window dresser
Window displays can communicate style, content, and price.
Display windows may also be used to advertise seasonal sales or inform passers-by of other
current promotions.
WindowsWear is a website that chronographs window displays from major cities around the
world.

Food merchandising
Restaurants, grocery stores, convenience stores, etc. use visual merchandising as a tool to
differentiate themselves in a saturated market.

References
1. "Visual Merchandiser". The Job Guide. Department of Education, Employment and
Workplace Relations. Retrieved 5 October 2011.

2. "How Much is that Dali in the Window", On This Day in Fashion, Kristine Lloyd, On
This Day in Fashion, 16 March 2011, http://onthisdayinfashion.com/?p=12135
3. "Andy Warhol, 'Window Display for the Bonwit Teller Department Store', New York,
1960 " Photograph by Mike Kelley, http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/kelley-andywarhol-window-display-for-the-bonwit-teller-deprtment-store-new-york-1960-l02640
4. "Andy Warhol" Gagosian Gallery, retrieved 5 December 2013,
http://www.gagosian.com/artists/andy-warhol/
5. Dmitry Galun. "Visual Merchandising. Psychological Aspects of the Technical Science".
6. Dmitry Galun. "The value of the color spot in the clothes visual presentation".
7. Galun Dmitry. "Methods of the Clothes Visual Presentation".
8. Dmitry Galun. "Color Combinations in the Clothes Visual Merchandising".
9. Dmitry Galun. "The entrance areas in the clothes visual merchandising".
10. Dmitry Galun. "Shelves in the clothes visual mercandising".

Drip marketing
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Marketing
Key concepts

Product marketing

Pricing

Distribution

Service

Brand management

Retail

Brand licensing

Account-based marketing

Effectiveness

Research
Segmentation

Strategy
Activation

Management

Ethics

Dominance

Marketing operations

Social marketing

Identity

Digital marketing

Promotional contents

Advertising

Branding

Underwriting spot

Direct marketing

Personal sales

Product placement

Propaganda

Publicity

Sales promotion

Sex in advertising

Loyalty marketing

Mobile marketing

Premiums

Prizes

Corporate anniversary

On-hold messaging

Promotional media

Publication

Printing
Broadcasting

Out-of-home advertising

Point of sale

Merchandise

In-game advertising

Product demonstration

Internet

Word-of-mouth
Brand ambassador
Drip marketing
Visual merchandising

t
e

Drip marketing is a communication strategy that sends, or "drips," a pre-written set of messages
to customers or prospects over time. These messages often take the form of email marketing,
although other media can also be used. Drip marketing is distinct from other database marketing
in two ways: (1) the timing of the messages follow a pre-determined course; (2) the messages are
dripped in a series applicable to a specific behavior or status of the recipient. It is also typically
automated.[1]

Contents

1 Media
2 Lead generation
3 Sales process
4 Etymology
5 References

Media
Email. The most commonly used form of drip marketing is email marketing, due to the low cost
associated with sending multiple messages over time. Email drip marketing is often used in
conjunction with a Form (web) in a method called an autoresponder.
Direct mail. Although more costly, direct mail software has been developed that enables drip
marketing techniques using standard postal mail. This technology relies on digital printing,
where low-volume print runs are cost justifiable, and the variable data can be merged to
personalize each drip message.
Social media. The principles of drip marketing have been applied in many social media
marketing tools to schedule a series of updates.

Lead generation
Drip marketing can be used as a function of the lead generation and qualification process.
Specifically, drip marketing constitutes an automated follow-up method that can augment or
replace personal lead follow-up.[citation needed] Often called Autoresponders, new leads are
automatically enrolled into a drip marketing campaign with messaging relevant to the call-toaction from which the lead came. This is also known as lead nurturing.
Advantages include the automation and efficiency, as well as the continued ability for direct
response. Intelligent e-commerce sites, such as Dell,[2] have integrated this form of drip
campaign with un-purchased shopping carts. The continued messaging is relevant to the contents

that the shopper stopped short of purchasing, and continue to include direct response actions (i.e.
buy now).
Disadvantages include the impersonal manner of follow-up. If not augmented with a traditional
and personal follow-up method, this automated follow-up has a lower response rate than does
personal sales. The lowered response rate is often justified by the volume and efficiency with
which leads can be generated and converted.

Sales process
Drip marketing is popularly applied as a sales tool, particularly in long sales-cycles (large ticket
items or enterprise-level sales).[citation needed] Whereas persistent follow-up can become a deterrent
to closing the sale, Drip Marketing methods offer the ability to remain top-of-mind, and even
prompt action, without jeopardizing the relationship.

Etymology
The phrase "drip marketing" is said to be derived from "drip irrigation", an agriculture/gardening
technique in which small amounts of water are fed to plants over long periods of time.[3]

References
1. Drip Marketing: Slow and Steady Wins the Customer
2. Dell Privacy Policy
3. McFedries, Paul (2004). Word spy: the word lover's guide to modern culture. Broadway
Books. p. 90. ISBN 0-7679-1466-X.
Categories:

Marketing techniques

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Brand ambassador

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Marketing
Key concepts

Product marketing

Pricing

Distribution

Service

Brand management

Retail

Brand licensing

Account-based marketing

Effectiveness

Research
Segmentation

Strategy
Activation

Management

Ethics

Dominance

Marketing operations

Social marketing

Identity

Digital marketing

Promotional contents

Advertising

Branding

Underwriting spot

Direct marketing

Personal sales
Product placement

Propaganda

Publicity

Sales promotion
Sex in advertising

Loyalty marketing

Mobile marketing

Premiums

Prizes

Corporate anniversary

On-hold messaging

Promotional media

Publication

Printing
Broadcasting

Out-of-home advertising

Internet

Point of sale

Merchandise

In-game advertising
Product demonstration

Word-of-mouth

Brand ambassador

Drip marketing

Visual merchandising

v
t
e

Brand ambassador (celebrity spokesman) is a marketing term for a person employed by an


organization or company to promote its products or services within the activity known as
branding. The brand ambassador is meant to embody the corporate identity in appearance,
demeanor, values and ethics.[1] The key element of brand ambassadors lies in their ability to use
promotional strategies that will strengthen the customer-product/service relationship and
influence a large audience to buy and consume more. Predominantly, a brand ambassador is
known as a positive spokesperson appointed as an internal or external agent to boost
product/service sales and create brand awareness. Today, brand ambassador as a term has
expanded beyond celebrity branding to self branding or personal brand management.
Professional figures such as good-will and non-profit ambassadors, promotional models,
testimonials and brand advocates have formed as an extension of the same concept, taking into
account the requirements of every company.

Contents

1 History
o 1.1 Rise of brand managers
o 1.2 Era of change
o 1.3 Evolution of brand managers to brand ambassadors
2 Contemporary terms
o 2.1 Celebrity branding
o 2.2 Self-branding
3 Professional figures
o 3.1 Goodwill ambassador
o 3.2 Promotional model
o 3.3 Testimonial
o 3.4 Brand advocate
4 See also
5 References

History
Rise of brand managers
The concept of brands and brand marketing have evolved over decades. Traditionally, consumers
were familiar with only a few products that were available in the market. Beginning from the
1870s a number of companies began pushing 'branded products,' which familiarized consumers
with more brands. From 1915 through the 1920s, manufacturer brands were established and
developed further, which increased companies' reliance on brand advertising and marketing.
However, the Great Depression led to a severe drawback in brand progress, as companies were
left with few ways to increase revenue and get their business back on track. For the sake of their
brand and survival in a hopeless market, companies such as Procter and Gamble, General Foods
and Unilever developed the discipline of brand management.[2] The "brand manager system"
refers to the type of organizational structure in which brands or products are assigned to
managers who are responsible for their performance.[3] They not only aim towards creating brand
awareness within the consumer market but also coordinating corporate resources.

Era of change
From the early- to mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, more firms moved toward adopting brand
managers. The sudden boom in the economy, followed by a growing middle class population and
birth rate, increased the demand for products within the market. This led to a steady competition
among a number of manufacturers who found it hard to get their products noticed amidst the preexisting brands. By the year 1967, 84% of large consumer packaged goods manufacturers had
brand managers.[3] Brand managers were also being referred to as "product managers" whose
sole priority shifted from simply brand building to boosting up the company's sales and profit
margin. "The product manager is man of the hour in marketing organizations.... Modern
marketing needs the product manager," raved one 1960's article.[4] Because so many marketing

gurus recommended this strategy, it spread among a large number of corporations, eventually
becoming an overused managerial fad. For several years to follow, many companies recklessly
hired brand/product managers using the traditional P&G exemplar. Even though employing a
brand manager played an essential role in an effective marketing strategy, it was often mandated
in haste with unrealistic expectations of prompt results.
Over the course of several years, brand managers continued to exist as a medium that would help
boost company revenue. In the 1990s, Marketing UK highlighted that brand managers are a part
of an "outdated organizational system" while "the brand manager system has encouraged brand
proliferation, which in tum has led to debilitating cannibalization and resource constraints."[5] As
a result, this system ran its course and was termed as ill-suited for the current environment.

Evolution of brand managers to brand ambassadors


From the 1990s to early 2000s, brand management itself evolved as brand asset management.
Davis defined Brand Asset Management Strategy as a balanced investment approach for
building the meaning of the brand, communicating it internally and externally, and leveraging it
to increase brand profitability, brand asset value, and brand returns over time.[6] Traditional
marketing strategies that included brand management focused on brand managers as the primary
spokespersons for the brand. However, Davis maintains that this model never died down.
In fact, from during the 1990s, this model changed to incorporate brand champions and
ambassadors in place of brand managers. Thus, brand asset management included a reformed
version of brand managers known as brand ambassadors. A brand ambassador was mainly
employed by an organization to document its products and services in a positive light. Apart
from being an important aspect of marketing and branding strategies, a brand ambassador has the
ability to serve versatile functions as per the need of the company. Often, they form the face of
the company, business or organization they work for and are looked upon as a reliable source of
information regarding the product. Much like its predecessor, brand ambassadors need to be
carefully selected in order to serve optimum function for the brand. Since their inception, brand
ambassadors have acted more as "endorsers" or "brand champions" which is still a relative and
evolving term. They serve multiple functions to a brand and have integrated into various forms
that companies can use and customize according to their needs.
Along with profitability, brand ambassadors focus on establishing credibility of a product or
service amongst the target audience. This concept is also known as customer engagement; by
keeping the customers satisfied with their product or service experience, a brand ambassador
ensures that these customers will be loyal to the brand. As a number of marketing strategies have
moved into the digital sphere, so have brand ambassadors.

Contemporary terms
Celebrity branding
Using celebrities as brand ambassadors is hardly a new concept. Creswell highlights that, "film
stars in the 1940s posed for cigarette companies, and Bob Hope pitched American Express in the

late 1950s. Joe Namath slipped into Hanes pantyhose in the 1970s, and Bill Cosby jiggled for
Jell-O for three decades. Sports icons like Michael Jordan and Tiger Woods elevated the
practice, often scoring more in endorsement and licensing dollars than from their actual sports
earnings."[7]
Large corporations realized that the overall image of a brand ambassador within society is an
integral element to attract consumer attention. As a result, there was a substantial increase in
celebrities as brand ambassadors, it was assumed that integrating a celebrity to a brand would
increase chances of it being sold, which made companies value the business ideal of a 'brand
ambassador.' The case study of the famous watch brand Omega, illustrates that the brand faced a
severe crash in sales in the 1970s due to the Japanese Quartz phenomenon. Michault believes
that, "by the time Omega had seen the error of its ways, the damage to its reputation was done.
From the 1970s to the end of the 1990s, it was no longer seen as a luxury watch company."[8] It
was then for the first time in 1995, that Ms. Cindy Crawford became the new face of Omega,
introducing the age of the celebrity brand ambassador. The man behind this marketing ploy was
believed to be Jean-Claude Biver, whose strategy changed the entire landscape for branding in
the future. During this time, many companies expanded their annual budgets to meet the
financial liabilities that came with celebrity endorsing.
Celebrities are popular and followed by many people so it makes sense that marketers benefit
from using them in order to get their message across. A celebrity can capture consumers'
attention link the brand with their own personal image and associate their positive attributes with
those of the product concerned. However, in some cases celebrity branding could go terribly off
the script and affect product revenue.For example, recent doping charges on Lance Armstrong
cost him $30 million in endorsements. Celebrity, world-famous athlete, he stepped down as the
chairman of Livestrong. On the other hand, Nike sponsor to the athlete and U.S cycling team
stated in a press release,"due to the seemingly insurmountable evidence that Lance Armstrong
participated in doping and misled Nike for more than a decade, it is with great sadness that we
have terminated our contract with him."[9]

Self-branding
According to Giriharidas,"the personal-branding field or self-brand traces its origins to the 1997
essay The Brand Called You, by the management expert Tom Peters."[10] Contemporary
theories of branding suggest that brand ambassadors do not need to have a formal relationship
with a company in order to promote its products/services. In particular the Web 2.0 allows all
individuals to choose a brand and come up with their own strategies to represent it. Biro believes
that "everyone owns their own personal brand. Companies and leadership must see the value of
this concept for a successful social workplace recipe. If a brand ambassador chooses to represent
the company and/or its brands, the individual should do so in a transparent way." [11] Selfbranding is an effective way to help new businesses save the hassle of hiring brand ambassadors,
training them and then realizing they are not good enough for the company. In addition, it is an
effective tool in order to target a niche audience and allows one to take sole control of their own
brand representation. On the other hand, branding one's own product/service creates an instant
connection with the audience and helps the brand stand out in comparison to other known brands
that use popular celebrities or hire brand ambassadors. Reis propagates her branding mantra,

"think about other people. Think about the impressions you are making on friends, neighbors,
business associates. Think about your brand."[12] Creating a personal branding strategy is an
effective way to attract audience attention. She gives the example of Marissa Mayer, CEO
Yahoo. According to Laura Ries, Marissa is successful because she has what most people dont
"she has a brand."

Professional figures
Goodwill ambassador
A Goodwill ambassador is an honorary title and often linked with non-profit related causes.
Their primary function is to help non-profit organizations spread their message across.
Predominantly, goodwill ambassadors are celebrity advocates or known personalities, who use
their fame and talent to get funding, donations, encourage volunteers to participate and raise
awareness towards the organization's cause. In the past many organizations such as UNESCO
have endorsed their cause through UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador. These celebrities or known
personalities are picked according to the organizations' intended audience and if fully invested in
the cause they are promoting they can greatly influence the process of persuading others.
Goodwill ambassadors make widely publicized visits to the world's most troubled regions, and
make appeals on behalf of their people and the organization. For example, the United Nations
Goodwill Ambassadors include famous celebrities like Angelina Jolie for UNHCR, David
Beckham, Shakira for UNICEF, Christina Aguilera for WFP and Nicole Kidman for UN
Women.

Promotional model
A promotional model exists in the form of a spokesmodel, trade show model and convention
model. Each of these models carry out functions beyond representation of the company in a
positive light. The main difference between a brand ambassador and a promotional model is in
the way they represent the product/service. In many cases, unlike brand ambassadors, a
promotional model may give the audience a live experience that reflects the product or service
being branded. They may be required to promote the brand at simply one to many occasions
while a brand ambassador is often tied down to one particular brand through the means of a
contract over a period of time.Promotional models are required to be physically present at the
venue as per the requirements of the marketing campaign, however brand ambassadors are most
often referred to as the face of the brand. Promotional models are most often found in trade
shows exhibits (in some cases referred to as "booth babes"), conventions and in print, digital or
selected advertisements for the brand from time to time. The employment of so-called "booth
babe" models at trade show exhibits and conventions has been criticised by some.[13]

Testimonial
Testimonial is simply a way of conveying assurance, in this case assurance is provided by the
testimonial of the company or product/service in question in a written or spoken manner. A
testimonial does not advertise the product freely unlike the role of the brand ambassador. A

brand ambassador performs the function of a testimonial but a testimonial is not a brand
ambassador. By simply providing a testimonial for a product/service, one need not be an
ambassador for the same. For example, a customer can be a testimonial, since a testimony could
be formal or informal "word of mouth" advocating the positive facets of the product. On the
other hand, a consumer could not always be brand ambassador, since the latter is more
commercial and is often considered as a position bound by monetary and professional liabilities.
To a certain degree, celebrity endorsements provide testimonials for the product/service they are
marketing. However, with the advent of the digital age testimonials have reached an all time
high. A large number of websites feature a "go to" tab where one can put down reviews or
testimonials for the product/service. This has led to an increase in fake reviews, where
companies have chosen to pay people to get their positive feedback. According to a study
conducted by the research firm Gartner, "one in seven reviews/testimonials posted online by the
end of next year is likely to be false. Other estimates put the number as high as one in three."[14]

Brand advocate
Fuggetta highlights that a brand advocate is a marketing term for "highly satisfied customers and
others who go out of their way to actively promote the products they love and care about, they
are a different breed altogether.[15] " Further, he states that they are 50% more influential than an
average customer. Often a positive experience with a brand, successful customer-service
relationship motivates a brand advocate to express their positive feelings towards a brand.
Traditionally, a brand advocate would sing praises of a brand and this would circulate through
'word of mouth' or other similar channels. However, in the digital age social media tools have
allowed brand advocates to express themselves on forums such as Twitter, Facebook by
'tweeting' about a brand experience or 'liking' the brand itself. Rubin believes, "when customers
seek you out via social, theyre looking for an opportunity to build an emotional connection. So
give it to them."[16] This will help enhance customer engagement and increase brand awareness
among the customers. A brand advocate performs functions higher than that of a testimonial and
much lower than that of a promotional model or brand ambassador, since brand advocacy
implies active participation with the brand involved. Advocates if formally hired by a company
must be placed in a higher position and looked upon as co-leads; using their insight, thoughtful
marketing approaches, will ensure that a brand gains recognition in the market.

Word-of-mouth marketing
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Not to be confused with Referral marketing.

Marketing
Key concepts

Product marketing

Pricing

Distribution

Service

Brand management

Retail

Brand licensing

Account-based marketing

Effectiveness

Research

Segmentation

Strategy

Activation

Management

Ethics

Dominance

Marketing operations

Social marketing

Identity

Digital marketing

Promotional contents

Advertising

Branding

Underwriting spot

Direct marketing

Personal sales
Product placement

Propaganda

Publicity

Sales promotion

Sex in advertising

Loyalty marketing

Mobile marketing

Premiums

Prizes

Corporate anniversary

On-hold messaging

Promotional media

Publication

Printing
Broadcasting

Out-of-home advertising

Point of sale

Merchandise

In-game advertising

Product demonstration

Word-of-mouth

Brand ambassador

Internet

Drip marketing

Visual merchandising

v
t
e

Word-of-mouth marketing (WOMM, WOM marketing), also called word of mouth


advertising, differs from naturally occurring WOM, in that it is actively influenced or
encouraged by organisations (e.g. 'seeding' a message in a network, rewarding regular consumers
to enage in WOM, employing WOM 'agents'). While it is difficult to truly control WOM,
research [1] has shown that there are three generic avenues to 'manage' WOM for the purpose of
WOMM: 1) Build a strong WOM foundation (e.g. sufficient levels of satisfaction, trust and
commitment), 2) Indirect WOMM management which implies that managers only have a
moderate amount of control (e.g. controverisal advertising, teaser campaigns, customer
membership clubs), 3) Direct WOMM management, which has higher levels of control (e.g. paid
WOM 'agents', "friend get friend" schemes). Proconsumer WOM has been suggested as a
counterweight to commercially motivated word of mouth. [2]

Contents

1 History
2 Concepts
o 2.1 Buzz
o 2.2 Viral effects
o 2.3 Analyzing WOM
3 See also
4 References

History
George Silverman, a psychologist, pioneered word-of-mouth marketing when he created what he
called "teleconferenced peer influence groups" in order to engage physicians in dialogue about
new pharmaceutical products. Silverman noticed an interesting phenomenon while conducting
focus groups with physicians in the early 1970s. "One or two physicians who were having good
experiences with a drug would sway an entire group of skeptics. They would even sway a
dissatisfied group of ex-prescribers who had had negative experiences!"[3]
With the emergence of Web 2.0, many web start-ups like Facebook, YouTube, MySpace, and
Digg have used buzz marketing by merging it with the social networks that they have
developed.[citation needed][clarification needed] With the increasing use of the Internet as a research and
communications platform, word of mouth has become an even more powerful and useful
resource for consumers and marketers.[further explanation needed]
In October 2005, the advertising watchdog group Commercial Alert petitioned the United States
FTC to issue guidelines requiring paid word-of-mouth marketers[contradiction] to disclose their
relationship and related compensation with the company whose product they are marketing. The
United States FTC stated that it would investigate situations in which the relationship between
the word-of-mouth marketer of a product and the seller is not revealed and could influence the
endorsement. The FTC stated that it would pursue violators on a case-by-case basis.
Consequences for violators may include cease-and-desist orders, fines or civil penalties.[4]
Research firm PQ Media estimated that in 2008, companies spent $1.54 billion on word-ofmouth marketing. While spending on traditional advertising channels was slowing, spending on
word-of-mouth marketing grew 14.2 percent in 2008, 30 percent of that for food and drink
brands.[5]
Despite the belief that most word of mouth is now online (or on mobile) the truth is the very
opposite. The Ehrenberg-Bass Institute for Marketing Science has shown that to achieve growth,
brands must create word of mouth beyond core fan groups - meaning marketers should not focus
solely on communities such as Facebook.[citation needed] According to Deloite further research has
shown that 'most advocacy takes place offline' - instead it happens in person. According to the
Journal of Advertising Research, 75% of all consumer conversations about brands happen faceto-face, 15% happen over the phone and just 10% online.

Concepts
Buzz
Marketing buzz or simply "buzz" is a term used in word-of-mouth marketingthe interaction of
consumers and users of a product or service serve to amplify the original marketing message.[6]
Some describe buzz as a form of hype among consumers,[7] a vague but positive association,
excitement, or anticipation about a product or service. Positive "buzz" is often a goal of viral
marketing, public relations, and of advertising on Web 2.0 media. The term refers both to the

execution of the marketing technique, and the resulting goodwill that is created. Examples of
products with strong marketing buzz upon introduction were Harry Potter, the Volkswagen New
Beetle, Pokmon, Beanie Babies, and the Blair Witch Project.[7]

Viral effects
Viral marketing and viral advertising are buzzwords referring to marketing techniques that use
pre-existing social networks to produce increases in brand awareness or to achieve other
marketing objectives (such as product sales) through self-replicating viral processes, analogous
to the spread of virus or computer viruses. It can be word-of-mouth delivered or enhanced by the
network effects of the Internet.[8] Viral promotions may take the form of video clips, interactive
Flash games, advergames, ebooks, brandable software, images, or even text messages. The goal
of marketers interested in creating successful viral marketing programs is to identify individuals
with high Social Networking Potential (SNP) and have a high probability of being taken by
another competitor and create viral messages that appeal to this segment of the population.
The term "viral marketing" has also been used pejoratively to refer to stealth marketing
campaignsthe unscrupulous use of astroturfing on-line combined with undermarket advertising
in shopping centers to create the impression of spontaneous word-of-mouth enthusiasm.[9]

Analyzing WOM
Consumers may promote brands by word-of-mouth due to social, functional, and emotional
factors.[10] Research has identified thirteen brand characteristics that stimulate WOM, namely:
[11]

1. age of the brand in the marketplace


2. type of good
3. complexity
4. knowledge about a brand
5. differentiation
6. relevance of a brand to a broad audience
7. quality - esteem given to a brand
8. premium
9. visibility
10. excitement
11. satisfaction
12. perceived risk
13. involvement
This research also found that while social and functional drivers are the most important for
promotion via WOM online, the emotional driver predominates offline.

See also

Word of Mouth
Proconsumer WOM

Two-step flow of communication


Electronic word-of-mouth
Visual marketing

References
1. Lang, Bodo; Hyde, Ken (2013). [Available through ProQuest database. ProQuest
document ID: 1478021321 "Word of mouth: what we know and what we have yet to
learn"]. Journal of consumer satisfaction, dissatisfaction and complaining behavior 26:
118. Retrieved January 2014.
2. Lang, Bodo; Lawson, Rob (2013). "Dissecting Word-of-Mouth's Effectiveness and How
to Use It as a Proconsumer Tool". Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing 25
(4): 374399. doi:10.1080/10495142.2013.845419. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
3. http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+history+of+word+of+mouth+marketing.a0134908667
4. Shin, Annys (December 12, 2006). "FTC Moves to Unmask Word-of-Mouth Marketing".
The Washington Post. Retrieved 2009-01-10.
5. http://www.brandweek.com/bw/content_display/news-andfeatures/direct/e3ida92fc8ee6e8266300bfc3a21f882935
6. Thomas Jr, Greg (2006-07-11). "Building the buzz in the hive mind". Journal of
Consumer Behaviour 4 (1): 6472. doi:10.1002/cb.158. Retrieved 2009-06-08.
7. Rene Dye (2001-01-29). "the Buzz on Buzz". Harvard Business Review.
8. Howard, Theresa (2005-06-23). "USAToday: Viral advertising spreads through
marketing plans". USA Today. Retrieved 2010-05-27. June 23, 2005, 2005
9. "Wired: Commentary: Sock Puppets Keep It Shill on YouTube". 2007-05-08. May 8,
2007
10. Lovett, Mitchell; Peres, Renana; Shachar, Ron. "On brands and word-of-mouth". Journal
of Marketing Research 50 (4): 427-444. doi:10.1509/jmr.11.0458. [...] this empirical
analysis [...] argues that consumers spread the word on brands as a result of three drivers:
social, emotional, and functional.
11. Lovett, Mitchell; Peres, Renana; Shachar, Ron. "On brands and word-of-mouth". Journal
of Marketing Research.
[show]

v
t
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Media manipulation
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Promotion and marketing communications

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Promotional merchandise
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article
by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (April 2011)

Marketing
Key concepts

Product marketing

Pricing

Distribution

Service

Brand management

Retail

Brand licensing

Account-based marketing

Effectiveness

Research
Segmentation

Ethics

Strategy
Activation
Management

Dominance

Marketing operations

Social marketing

Identity

Digital marketing

Promotional contents

Advertising

Branding

Underwriting spot

Direct marketing

Personal sales

Product placement

Propaganda

Publicity

Sales promotion

Sex in advertising

Loyalty marketing

Mobile marketing

Premiums

Prizes

Corporate anniversary

On-hold messaging

Promotional media

Publication

Printing
Broadcasting

Out-of-home advertising

Internet
Point of sale
Merchandise

In-game advertising
Product demonstration

Word-of-mouth
Brand ambassador

Drip marketing

Visual merchandising

v
t
e

Promotional merchandise, promotional items, promotional products, promotional gifts, or


advertising gifts, sometimes nicknamed swag or schwag, are articles of merchandise (often
branded with a logo) used in marketing and communication programs. They are given away to
promote a company, corporate image, brand, or event. These items are usually imprinted with a
company's name, logo or slogan, and given away at trade shows, conferences, and as part of
guerrilla marketing campaigns.

Contents

1 History
2 Sourcing
3 Products and uses
4 Trade associations
5 Top promotional products companies in the United States in 2013
6 UK market statistics
7 Australian and New Zealand market statistics
8 See also
9 References

History
The first known promotional products in the United States are commemorative buttons dating
back to the election of George Washington in 1789. During the early 19th century, there were
some advertising calendars, rulers, and wooden specialties, but there wasnt an organized
industry for the creation and distribution of promotional items until later in the 19th century.
Jasper Meeks, a printer in Coshocton, Ohio, is considered by many to be the originator of the
industry when he convinced a local shoe store to supply book bags imprinted with the store name
to local schools. Henry Beach, another Coshocton printer and a competitor of Meeks, picked up
on the idea, and soon the two men were selling and printing bags for marbles, buggy whips, card
cases, fans, calendars, cloth caps, aprons, and even hats for horses.[1]
In 1904, 12 manufacturers of promotional items got together to found the first trade association
for the industry. That organization is now known as the Promotional Products Association
International or PPAI, which currently has more than 10,000 global members.[2] PPAI represents

the promotional products industry of more than 22,000 distributors and approximately 4,800
manufacturers.
The UK & Ireland promotional merchandise industry formally emerged as corporate marketing
became more sophisticated during the late 1950s. Before this companies may have provided
occasional gifts, but there was no recognised promotional merchandise industry. The real
explosion in the growth of the promotional merchandise industry took place in the 1970s. At this
time an ever increasing number of corporate companies recognised the benefits gained from
promoting their corporate identity, brand or product, with the use of gifts featuring their own
logo. In the early years the range of products available were limited; however, in the early 1980s
demand grew from distributors for a generic promotional product catalogue they could brand as
their own and then leave with their corporate customers.
In later years these catalogues could be over-branded to reflect a distributors corporate image
and distributors could then give them to their end user customers as their own. In the early years
promotional merchandise catalogues were very much sales tools and customers would buy the
products offered on the pages.
In the 1990s new catalogue services emerged for distributors from various sources. In the
nineties there was also the creation of Catalogue Groups who offered a unique catalogue to a
limited geographical group of promotional merchandise distributor companies. Membership of a
Catalogue Group could also offer improved buying terms, a network of fellow distributor
companies, & provide other support services. A current example of a Catalogue Group is the
Envoy Group, offering discounted products to a select group of distributors who have all been in
the industry for over three years. Members of the Envoy Group have regional exclusivity as one
of their perks.
Up until the 1990s the industry had a peak season in which the majority of promotional products
were sold. The season featured around Christmas & the giving of gifts. This changed
significantly in the early 1990s as Christmas gifts became less appropriate in a multicultural
Britain. Corporate companies were also becoming more inventive in their marketing and were
now using promotional merchandise throughout the year to support the promotion of brands,
products & events. In the early 21st century the role of a promotional merchandise catalogue
started to change, as it could no longer fully represent the vast range of products in the market
place. By 2007 catalogues were being mailed to targeted customer lists, rather than the blanket
postal mailings that had taken place before. The catalogue had now become seen more as a
business card demonstrating the concept of what a company did, rather than a critical sales
tool. In 2009 published results from research involving a representative group of distributor
companies, which indicated the usage of hard copy catalogues was expected to fall up to 25% in
2010.
Distributor companies are experts in sourcing creative promotional products.[3] Traditionally, to
ensure that they had an effective manufacturer network, they kept themselves aware of the trade
product ranges available by attending exhibitions across the world (namely the Trade Only
National Show in the UK, PSI in Europe and the PPAI Show in Las Vegas, NV) & from
mailings received from manufacturers themselves. In 2004 the way the trade sourced

promotional products began to change with the launch an online trade sourcing service which
united distributors with manufacturers worldwide. This service is purely for vetted trade
promotional merchandise distributor companies & is not available to corporate end user
companies.
By 2008 almost every distributor had a website demonstrating a range of available promotional
products. Very few offer the ability to order products online mainly due to the complexities
surrounding the processes to brand the promotional products required.

Sourcing
Promotional merchandise is mainly purchased by corporate companies in USA, Canada, the UK
& Ireland through promotional merchandise distributor companies. In the United States and
Canada, these distributors are called "Promotional Consultants" or "promotional product
distributors".
Distributors have the ability to source & supply tens of thousands of products from across the
globe. Even with the advent and growth of the Internet this supply chain has not changed, for a
few reasons:
Promotional products by definition are custom printed with a logo, company name or message
usually in specific PMS colors. Distributors help end-users gather artwork in the correct format
and in some cases, distributors might create artwork for end-users. Distributors then interface
with manufacturers, printers or suppliers, forwarding artwork in the correct format and correct
size for the job. Since good distributors are well aware of several manufacturers' capabilities,
they can save an end-user time and money searching for a printer or manufacturer who can
produce and ship the end-user's products on time, on specification and in the required quantities.
Many distributors operate on the internet and/or in person. Many suppliers wish not to invest in
the staffing to service end-users' needs, which is the purpose of merchandise distributor
companies.

Products and uses

Swiss parking disk (early 1970s). Selected arrival time shows at the left window, departure at the
right. Other side of disk is used for afternoon parking. Disk was a sales promotion for UBS bank.
Promotional merchandise is used globally to promote brands, products, and corporate identity.
They are also used as giveaways at events, such as exhibitions and product launches.
Promotional products can be used for non-profit organizations to promote their cause, as well as
promote certain events that they hold, such as walks or any other event that raises money for a
cause.
Almost anything can be branded with a companys name or logo and used for promotion.
Common items include t-shirts, caps, keychains, posters, bumper stickers, pens, mugs, or mouse
pads. The largest product category for promotional products is wearable items, which make up
more than 30% of the total. Eco-friendly promotional products such as those created from
recycled materials and bamboo, a renewable resource, are also experiencing a significant surge
in popularity.
Most promotional items are relatively small and inexpensive, but can range to higher-end items;
for example celebrities at film festivals and award shows are often given expensive promotional
items such as expensive perfumes, leather goods, and electronics items. Companies that provide
expensive gifts for celebrity attendees often ask that the celebrities allow a photo to be taken of
them with the gift item, which can be used by the company for promotional purposes. Other
companies provide luxury gifts such as handbags or scarves to celebrity attendees in the hopes
that the celebrities will wear these items in public, thus garnering publicity for the company's
brand name and product.
Brand awareness is the most common use for promotional items. Other objectives that marketers
use promotional items to facilitate include employee relations and events, tradeshow trafficbuilding, public relations, new customer generation, dealer and distributor programs, new
product introductions, employee service awards, not-for-profit programs, internal incentive
programs, safety education, customer referrals, and marketing research.[4]
Promotional items are also used in politics to promote candidates and causes. Promotional items
as a tool for non-commercial organizations, such as schools and charities are often used as a part
of fund raising and awareness-raising campaigns. A prominent example was the livestrong
wristband, used to promote cancer awareness and raise funds to support cancer survivorship
programs and research.
Using Promotional Merchandise in Guerrilla Marketing is a recent and popular phenomenon.
Items are branded in such a way as to create a unique visual effect, attracting more attention and
displaying a strong marketing message. Promotional products become particularly useful in this
type of marketing, due to the wide range of products that can be tailored to specific campaigns
and the various ways in which they may be printed.[5]
The giving of corporate gifts vary across international borders and cultures, with the type of
product given often varying from country to country.

Promotional merchandise is rarely bought directly by corporate companies from the actual
manufacturers of the promotional products. A manufacturer's expertise lies in the physical
production of the products, but getting a product in front of potential customers is a completely
different skill set and a complex process. Within the UK & Ireland promotional merchandise
industry a comprehensive network of promotional merchandise distributor companies exist. A
promotional merchandise distributor is defined as a company who "has a dedicated focus to the
sale of promotional merchandise to end users". (An 'end user' is a corporate company or
organisation that purchases promotional merchandise for their own use.) These distributor
companies have the expertise to not only take the product to market, but are also to provide the
expert support required. The unique aspect of promotional merchandise is that on most occasions
the product is printed with the logo, or brand, of a corporate organisation. The actual
manufacturers rarely have the set up to actually print the item. Promotional merchandise
distributor companies are expert in artwork and printing processes. In addition to this the
promotional merchandise distributors also provide full support in processing orders, artwork,
proofing, progress chasing & delivery of promotional products from multiple manufacturing
sources.

Trade associations
In the UK, the industry has two main trade bodies, Promota (Promotional Merchandise Trade
Association) founded in 1958, and the BPMA (British Promotional Merchandise Association)
established in 1965. These trade associations represent the industry and provide services to both
manufacturers & distributors of promotional merchandise.
In the United States, PPAI (the Promotional Products Association International) is the not for
profit association, offering the industry's largest tradeshow (The PPAI Expo), as well as training,
online member resources, and legal advocacy. Another organization, the Advertising Specialty
Institute, promotes itself as the largest media and marketing organization serving the advertising
specialty industry.[6]

Top promotional products companies in the United States in


2013
According to the Advertising Specialty Institute's Counselor Magazine Awards, 2013's top 40
promotional product distributors are as follows:[7]
2013 Rank
Distributors
1
Staples Promo Products
2
Proforma (Business)
3
BDA
4
Group II Communications/IMS
5
4imprint
6
Halo Branded Solutions

2013 North American Sales


$409.4 million
$322.6 million
$286.4 million
$257 million
$256.5 million
$186.2 million

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Geiger
$184.8 million
National Pen Corp.
$153 million
Cintas
$145 million
AIA Corporation
$136 million
Branders.com
$131.1 million
Inner Workings
$114.1 million
WorkFlowOne
$100.6 million
American Solutions for Business
$99.5 million
Kaeser & Blair
$89.9 million
Tic Toc
$89.6 million
Banyan Incentives
$89.5 million
iPROMOTEu
$88.8 million
Summit Group
$88 million
EmbroidMe
$84.9 million
Jack Nadel International
$72.8 million
Myron
$71.3 million
Accolade Reaction Promotion Group $70.7 million
MTM Recognition/Mid West Trophy $69.1 million
G & G Outfitters
$66 million
The Vernon Company
$62.7 million
Brown & Bigelow
$60.8 million
Newton Manufacturing
$53.0 million
Boundless Network
$53 million
Artcraft Promotional Concepts
$52.8 million
Brand Allliance
$49.7 million
GMPC LLC
$44.2 million
Axis Promotions
$38.7 million
Safeguard Business Systems
$38.4 million
Touchstone
$35.8 million
Robertson Marketing Group
$34.2 million
Promo Shop
$34.1 million
CSE
$33.9 million
Positive Promotions
$33.7 million
Genumark Promotional Merchandise $33.6 million

UK market statistics

According to research completed and published in 2008 the UK and Ireland promotional
merchandise industry had an overall value of 850m. By mid 2009 the market had decreased to
712m as the UKs worst ever recession took grip. In July 2009 published research demonstrated
that the top 10 promotional merchandise products were promotional pens, bags, clothing, plastic
items, USB memory sticks, mugs, leather items, polyurethane conference folders, and umbrellas.
The July research from a representation industry focus group also found that the current fastest
growing product was hand sanitiser, which at the time coincided with the outbreak & growth of
swine flu in the UK.

Australian and New Zealand market statistics


The Australasian Promotional Products Association (APPA) has conducted research to show the
value of the Promotional Merchandise Industry in Australia and New Zealand. According to
APPA the Industry has a turnover of AUD$1340m in Australia and NZ$144m in New Zealand [8]
The effectiveness of promotional merchandise is also demonstrated by APPA, research
specifically shows that: 52% of recipients of promotional merchandise say their impression of a
company is more positive after receiving a promotional product. 76% recall the name advertised
on the product. 55% keep the item for more than one year. Nearly 50% of recipients use them
daily. 52% of people do business with a company after receiving a promotional product. Further
research has listed other considerations and benefits of this marketing medium: Product
Definition, Residual Value Marketing, Accountability, The Power of Purpose, Product Types,
Printing and Artwork [9]

See also

Point of sale
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about checkout technology. For managed care, see point of service plan.

Points of sale at a Target store

Marketing
Key concepts

Product marketing

Pricing

Distribution

Service

Brand management

Retail

Brand licensing

Account-based marketing

Effectiveness

Research

Segmentation

Strategy

Activation

Management

Ethics

Dominance

Marketing operations

Social marketing

Identity

Digital marketing

Promotional contents

Advertising

Branding

Underwriting spot

Direct marketing

Personal sales
Product placement

Propaganda

Publicity

Sales promotion

Sex in advertising

Loyalty marketing

Mobile marketing

Premiums

Prizes

Corporate anniversary

On-hold messaging

Promotional media

Publication

Printing
Broadcasting

Out-of-home advertising

Point of sale

Merchandise

In-game advertising
Product demonstration

Word-of-mouth

Brand ambassador

Internet

Drip marketing

Visual merchandising

v
t
e

Point of sale (also called POS or checkout, during computerization later becoming electronic
point of sale or EPOS) is the place where a retail transaction is completed. It is the point at
which a customer makes a payment to the merchant in exchange for goods or services. At the
point of sale the retailer would calculate the amount owed by the customer and provide options
for the customer to make payment. The merchant will also normally issue a receipt for the
transaction.
The POS in various retail industries uses customized hardware and software as per their
requirements. Retailers may utilize weighing scales, scanners, electronic and manual cash
registers, EFTPOS terminals, touch screens and any other wide variety of hardware and software
available for use with POS. For example, a grocery or candy store uses a scale at the point of
sale, while bars and restaurants use software to customize the item or service sold when a
customer has a special meal or drink request.
The modern point of sale is often referred to as the point of service because it is not just a point
of sale but also a point of return or customer order. Additionally it includes advanced features to
cater to different functionality, such as inventory management, CRM, financials, warehousing,
etc., all built into the POS software. Prior to the modern POS, all of these functions were done
independently and required the manual re-keying of information, which can lead to entry errors.

Contents

1 Terminology
2 History
o 2.1 Software prior to the 1990s
o 2.2 Modern software (post 1990s)
o 2.3 Hardware interface standardization (post 1980s)
o 2.4 Cloud-based POS (post 2000s)
3 Retail industry
4 Hospitality industry
5 Accounting forensics
6 See also
7 References
8 External links

Terminology
The most common term used is the Point of Sale, particularly when talking about this area from
the customer's perspective. However retailers and marketers will often refer to the area around
the checkout instead as the Point of Purchase (POP) when they are discussing it from the
retailer's perspective. This is particularly the case when discussing planning and design of the
area as well as marketing strategy and offers, such as chocolate displays at point of
purchase.[citation needed]

History
Software prior to the 1990s

McDonald's POS device by Brobeck


Early electronic cash registers (ECR) were controlled with proprietary software and were limited
in function and communications capability. In August 1973 IBM released the IBM 3650 and

3660 store systems that were, in essence, a mainframe computer used as a store controller that
could control up to 128 IBM 3653/3663 point of sale registers. This system was the first
commercial use of client-server technology, peer-to-peer communications, local area network
(LAN) simultaneous backup, and remote initialization. By mid-1974, it was installed in
Pathmark stores in New Jersey and Dillard's department stores.
One of the first microprocessor-controlled cash register systems was built by William Brobeck
and Associates in 1974, for McDonald's Restaurants.[1] It used the Intel 8008, a very early
microprocessor. Each station in the restaurant had its own device which displayed the entire
order for a customerfor example: [2] Vanilla Shake, [1] Large Fries, [3] BigMacusing
numeric keys and a button for every menu item. By pressing the [Grill] button, a second or third
order could be worked on while the first transaction was in progress. When the customer was
ready to pay, the [Total] button would calculate the bill, including sales tax for almost any
jurisdiction in the United States. This made it accurate for McDonald's and very convenient for
the servers and provided the restaurant owner with a check on the amount that should be in the
cash drawers. Up to eight devices were connected to one of two interconnected computers so that
printed reports, prices, and taxes could be handled from any desired device by putting it into
Manager Mode. In addition to the error-correcting memory, accuracy was enhanced by having
three copies of all important data with many numbers stored only as multiples of 3. Should one
computer fail, the other could handle the entire store.

ViewTouch POS widget-driven touch screen GUI


In 1986, Gene Mosher[2] introduced the first graphical point of sale software under the
ViewTouch[3] trademark on the 16-bit Atari 520ST color computer.[4] It featured a color
touchscreen widget-driven interface that allowed configuration of widgets representing menu
items without low level programming.[5] The ViewTouch point of sale software was first
demonstrated in public at Fall Comdex, 1986,[6] in Las Vegas Nevada to large crowds visiting
the Atari Computer booth. This was the first commercially available POS system with a widgetdriven color graphic touch screen interface and was installed in several restaurants in the USA
and Canada.

Modern software (post 1990s)


In 1992 Martin Goodwin and Bob Henry created the first point of sale software that could run on
the Microsoft Windows platform named IT Retail.[7] Since then a wide range of POS

applications have been developed on platforms such as Windows and Unix. The availability of
local processing power, local data storage, networking, and graphical user interface made it
possible to develop flexible and highly functional POS systems. Cost of such systems has also
declined, as all the components can now be purchased off-the-shelf.
The key requirements that must be met by modern POS systems include: high and consistent
operating speed, reliability, ease of use, remote supportability, low cost, and rich functionality.
Retailers can reasonably expect to acquire such systems (including hardware) for about $4000
US (as of 2009) per checkout lane.

Hardware interface standardization (post 1980s)


Vendors and retailers are working to standardize development of computerized POS systems and
simplify interconnecting POS devices. Two such initiatives are OPOS and JavaPOS, both of
which conform to the UnifiedPOS standard led by The National Retail Foundation.
OPOS (OLE for POS) was the first commonly adopted standard and was created by Microsoft,
NCR Corporation, Epson and Fujitsu-ICL. OPOS is a COM-based interface compatible with all
COM-enabled programming languages for Microsoft Windows. OPOS was first released in
1996. JavaPOS was developed by Sun Microsystems, IBM, and NCR Corporation in 1997 and
first released in 1999. JavaPOS is for Java what OPOS is for Windows, and thus largely platform
independent.
There are several communication ways POS systems use to control peripherals such as:

Logic Controls
Epson Esc/POS
UTC Standard
UTC Enhanced
AEDEX
ICD 2002
Ultimate
CD 5220
DSP-800
ADM 787/788
HP

There are also nearly as many proprietary protocols as there are companies making POS
peripherals. Most POS peripherals, such as displays and printers, support several of these
command protocols in order to work with many different brands of POS terminals and
computers.

Cloud-based POS (post 2000s)


The advent of cloud computing gave birth to the possibility of POS systems to be deployed as
Software as a service, which can be accessed directly from the Internet, using any internet

browser. Using the previous advances in the communication protocols for POS's control of
hardware, cloud-based POS systems are independent from platform and operating system
limitations. Cloud-based POS systems are also created to be compatible with a wide range of
POS hardware and sometimes tablets such as Apple's IPad. Thus cloud-based POS also helped
expand POS systems to mobile devices.
Cloud-based POS systems are different from traditional POS largely because user data, including
sales and inventory, are not stored locally, but in a remote server. The POS system is also not run
locally, so there is no installation required.[8]
The advantages of a cloud-based POS are instant centralization of data (important especially to
chain stores), ability to access data from anywhere there is internet connection, and lower startup costs.[8][9]
Although start-up cost is definitely attractive to end-users, it is still not clear given the
subscription fee involved whether a cloud-based POS is more cost-effective in the mid and long
term compared to on-premise type of POS System. Any cost-benefit analysis would have to take
into account the advantage of continual update of software versions by the provider and the costsaving in on-premise IT management.
Perhaps one critical concern to address is the disruptive effects of incidental loss Internet
connection. For this reason it is imperative that a cloud-based POS system should be bundled
with a local implementation of the software such that business processes - sales in particular can continue with little disruption when there is dropped connection. Furthermore upon
restoration of Internet connection it is also important that the local sale records can be
subsequently and easily uploaded to the cloud database without messing up previous and
subsequent sale records. Some cloud-based point of sale systems have an offline processing
mode to handle these situations, such as 1stPayPOS or Revel Systems' "Always On" mode.
Vivonet was the original provider of cloud based POS solutions for restaurants. Vivonet's cloud
based POS products prioritize insights through data and reporting and came to the market as
Halo POS in early 2005.

Retail industry
Main article: Retail
The retailing industry is one of the predominant users of POS terminals.
A retail point of sale system typically includes a cash register (which in recent times comprises a
computer, monitor, cash drawer, receipt printer, customer display and a barcode scanner) and the
majority of retail POS systems also include a debit/credit card reader. It can also include a
conveyor belt, weight scale, integrated credit card processing system, a signature capture device
and a customer pin pad device. More and more POS monitors use touch-screen technology for
ease of use and a computer is built into the monitor chassis for what is referred to as an all-in-one
unit. All-in-one POS units liberate counter space for the retailer. The POS system software can
typically handle myriad customer based functions such as sales, returns, exchanges, layaways,

gift cards, gift registries, customer loyalty programs, promotions, discounts and much more. POS
software can also allow for functions such as pre-planned promotional sales, manufacturer
coupon validation, foreign currency handling and multiple payment types.
The POS unit handles the sales to the consumer but it is only one part of the entire POS system
used in a retail business. "Back-office" computers typically handle other functions of the POS
system such as inventory control, purchasing, receiving and transferring of products to and from
other locations. Other typical functions of a POS system are to store sales information for
enabling customer returns, reporting purposes, sales trends and cost/price/profit analysis.
Customer information may be stored for receivables management, marketing purposes and
specific buying analysis. Many retail POS systems include an accounting interface that "feeds"
sales and cost of goods information to independent accounting applications.
Retail operations such as Hardware stores (Lumber Yards), Electronic stores and so called
multifaceted super-stores need specialized additional features compared to other stores. POS
software in these cases handle special orders, purchase orders, repair orders, service and rental
programs as well as typical point of sale functions. Rugged hardware is required for point-of-sale
systems used in outdoor environments. Wireless devices, battery powered devices, all-in-one
units, and Internet-ready machines are typical in this industry.
Recently new applications have been introduced, enabling POS transactions to be conducted
using mobile phones and tablets. According to a recent study, Mobile POS (mPOS) terminals are
expected to replace the contemporary payment techniques because of various features including
mobility, upfront low cost investment and better user experience. Convenience of conducting
remote financial transactions is expected to augment the demand from small and medium
businesses for mPOS.[12]
The blind community in the United States engaged in Structured Negotiations in the mid-2000s
to ensure that retail point of sale devices had tactile keypads. Without keys that can be felt, a
blind person cannot independently enter her or his PIN. In the mid-2000s retailers began using
'flat screen' or 'signature capture' devices that eliminated tactile keypads. Blind people were
forced to share their confidential PIN with store clerks in order to use their debit and other PINbased cards. The blind community reached agreement with Walmart, Target, CVS and eight
other retailers that required real keys so blind people could use the devices.

Hospitality industry
Main article: Hospitality industry

Reception desk POS

Restaurant POS

Tablet-based POS
Hospitality point-of-sales systems are computerized systems incorporating registers, computers
and peripheral equipment, usually on a computer network to be used in restaurants, hair salons or
hotels. Like other point-of-sale systems, these systems keep track of sales, labor and payroll, and
can generate records used in accounting and book keeping. They may be accessed remotely by
restaurant corporate offices, troubleshooters and other authorized parties.
Point-of-sales systems have revolutionized the restaurant industry, particularly in the fast food
sector. In the most recent technologies, registers are computers, sometimes with touch screens.
The registers connect to a server, often referred to as a "store controller" or a "central control

unit". Printers and monitors are also found on the network. Additionally, remote servers can
connect to store networks and monitor sales and other store data.
Typical restaurant POS software is able to create and print guest checks, print orders to kitchens
and bars for preparation, process credit cards and other payment cards, and run reports. In
addition, some systems implement wireless pagers and electronic signature-capture devices.
In the fast food industry, displays may be at the front counter, or configured for drive-through or
walk-through cashiering and order taking. Front counter registers take and serve orders at the
same terminal, while drive-through registers allow orders to be taken at one or more drivethrough windows, to be cashiered and served at another. In addition to registers, drive-through
and kitchen displays are used to view orders. Once orders appear they may be deleted or recalled
by the touch interface or by bump bars. Drive-through systems are often enhanced by the use of
drive-through wireless (or headset) intercoms. The efficiency of such systems has decreased
service times and increased efficiency of orders.
Another innovation in technology for the restaurant industry is Wireless POS. Many restaurants
with high volume use wireless handheld POS to collect orders which are sent to a server. The
server sends required information to the kitchen in real time. Wireless systems consist of drivethrough microphones and speakers (often one speaker will serve both purposes), which are wired
to a "base station" or "center module." This will, in turn broadcast to headsets. Headsets may be
an all-in-one headset or one connected to a belt pack.
In hotels POS software allows for transfer of meal charges from dining room to guest room with
a button or two. It may also need to be integrated with property management software.
Newer, more sophisticated, systems are getting away from the central database "file server" type
system and going to what is called a "cluster database". This eliminates any crashing or system
downtime that can be associated with the back office file server. This technology allows 100% of
the information to not only be stored, but also pulled from the local terminal, thus eliminating the
need to rely on a separate server for the system to operate.
Tablet POS systems popular for retail solutions are now available for the restaurant industry.
Initially these systems were not sophisticated and many of the early systems did not support a
remote printer in the kitchen. Tablet systems today are being used in all types of restaurants
including table service operations. Most tablet systems upload all information to the Internet so
managers and owners can view reports from anywhere with a password and Internet connection.
Smartphone Internet access has made alerts and reports from the POS very accessible. Tablets
have helped create the Mobile POS system and Mobile POS applications also include payments,
loyalty, online ordering, table side ordering by staff and table top ordering by customers. Mobile
POS, AKA mPOS is growing quickly with new developers entering the market almost on a daily
basis. An updated list of developers is maintained and available for downloading at no charge.[10]
POS systems are often designed for a variety of clients, and can be programmed by the end users
to suit their needs. Some large clients write their own specifications for vendors to implement. In

some cases, POS systems are sold and supported by third-party distributors, while in other cases
they are sold and supported directly by the vendor.
The selection of a restaurant POS system is critical to the restaurant's daily operation and is a
major investment that the restaurant's management and staff must live with for many years. The
restaurant POS system interfaces with all phases of the restaurant operation and with everyone
that is involved with the restaurant including guests, suppliers, employees, managers and owners.
The selection of a restaurant POS system is a complex process that should be undertaken by the
restaurant owner and not delegated to an employee. The purchase process can be summarized
into three steps: Design, Compare and Negotiate. The Design step requires research to determine
which restaurant POS features are needed for the restaurant operation. With this information the
restaurant owner or manager can Compare various restaurant POS solutions to determine which
POS systems meet their requirements. The final step is to Negotiate the price, payment terms,
included training, initial warranty and ongoing support costs.[11]

Broadcasting
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Broadcast" redirects here. For other uses, see Broadcast (disambiguation).
This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has
insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more
precise citations. (November 2010)

Broadcasting antenna in Stuttgart


Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video content to a dispersed audience via any
electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum
(radio waves), in a one-to-many model.[1] The term "broadcasting," derived from the method of
sowing seeds in a field by casting them broadly about, was originated in the early days of radio
to distinguish radio broadcasting from methods using wired transmission (as in telegraph and
telephone) or that were intended as person-to-person communication.[2] Broadcasting is usually
associated with radio and television, though in practice radio and television transmissions take
place using both wires and radio waves. The receiving parties may include the general public or
a relatively small subset; the point is that anyone with the appropriate receiving technology can
receive the signal. The field of broadcasting includes a wide range of practices, from relatively
private exchanges such as amateur (ham) radio and amateur television (ATV) and closed-circuit

TV, to more general uses such as public radio, community radio and commercial radio, public
television, and commercial television.
Transmission of radio and television programs from a radio or television station to home
receivers over the spectrum is referred to as OTA (over the air) or terrestrial broadcasting and in
most countries requires a broadcasting license. Transmissions using a combination of satellite
and wired transmission, like cable television (which also retransmits OTA stations with their
consent), are also considered broadcasts, and do not require a license. Transmissions of
television and radio via streaming digital technology have increasingly been referred to as
broadcasting as well, though strictly speaking this is incorrect.

Contents

1 History
2 Methods of broadcasting
3 Economic models
4 Recorded broadcasts and live broadcasts
5 Social impact
6 See also
7 Notes and references
8 Bibliography
9 Further reading
10 External links

History
Main article: History of broadcasting
The earliest broadcasting consisted of sending telegraph signals over the airwaves, using Morse
code. This was particularly important for ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore communication, but it
became increasingly important for business and general news reporting, and as an arena for
personal communication by radio amateurs (Douglas, op. cit.). Audio broadcasting began
experimentally in the first decade of the 20th century. By the early 1920s radio broadcasting
became a household medium, at first on the AM band and later on FM. Television broadcasting
started experimentally in the 1920s and became widespread after World War II, using VHF and
UHF spectrum. Satellite broadcasting was initiated in the 1960s and moved into general industry
usage in the 1970s, with DBS (Direct Broadcast Satellites) emerging in the 1980s.
Originally all broadcasting was composed of analog signals using analog transmission
techniques but more recently broadcasters have switched to digital signals using digital
transmission. In general usage, broadcasting most frequently refers to the transmission of
information and entertainment programming from various sources to the general public.

Analog audio vs. HD Radio


Analog television vs. Digital television

Wireless

The world's technological capacity to receive information through one-way broadcast networks
more than quadrupled during the two decades from 1986 to 2007, from 432 exabytes of
(optimally compressed) information, to 1.9 zettabytes.[3] This is the information equivalent of 55
newspapers per person per day in 1986, and 175 newspapers per person per day by 2007.[4]

Methods of broadcasting
Historically, there have been several methods used for broadcasting electronic media audio
and/or video to the general public:

Telephone broadcasting (18811932): the earliest form of electronic broadcasting (not


counting data services offered by stock telegraph companies from 1867, if ticker-tapes
are excluded from the definition). Telephone broadcasting began with the advent of
Thtrophone ("Theatre Phone") systems, which were telephone-based distribution
systems allowing subscribers to listen to live opera and theatre performances over
telephone lines, created by French inventor Clment Ader in 1881. Telephone
broadcasting also grew to include telephone newspaper services for news and
entertainment programming which were introduced in the 1890s, primarily located in
large European cities. These telephone-based subscription services were the first
examples of electrical/electronic broadcasting and offered a wide variety of
programming.[citation needed]
Radio broadcasting (experimentally from 1906, commercially from 1920); audio signals
sent through the air as radio waves from a transmitter, picked up by an antenna and sent
to a receiver. Radio stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast common radio
programs, either in broadcast syndication, simulcast or subchannels.
Television broadcasting (telecast), experimentally from 1925, commercially from the
1930s: an extension of radio to include video signals.
Cable radio (also called "cable FM", from 1928) and cable television (from 1932): both
via coaxial cable, originally serving principally as transmission media for programming
produced at either radio or television stations, but later expanding into a broad universe
of cable-originated channels.
Direct-broadcast satellite (DBS) (from circa 1974) and satellite radio (from circa 1990):
meant for direct-to-home broadcast programming (as opposed to studio network uplinks
and downlinks), provides a mix of traditional radio or television broadcast programming,
or both, with dedicated satellite radio programming. (See also: Satellite television)
Webcasting of video/television (from circa 1993) and audio/radio (from circa 1994)
streams: offers a mix of traditional radio and television station broadcast programming
with dedicated internet radio

Economic models
There are several means of providing financial support for continuous broadcasting:

Commercial broadcasting: for-profit, usually privately owned stations, channels,


networks, or services providing programming to the public, supported by the sale of time
to advertisers for radio or television advertisements during or in breaks between
programs, often in combination with cable or pay cable subscription fees.
Public broadcasting: usually non-profit, publicly owned stations or networks supported
by license fees, government funds, grants from foundations, corporate underwriting, and
audience memberships and/or contributions, or a combination of these.
Community broadcasting

Broadcasters may rely on a combination of these business models. For example, in the United
States, National Public Radio (NPR) and the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS, television)
supplement public membership subscriptions and grants with funding from the Corporation for
Public Broadcasting (CPB), which is allocated bi-annually by Congress.
US public broadcasting corporate and charitable grants are generally given in consideration of
underwriting spots which differ from commercial advertisements in that they are governed by
specific FCC restrictions, which prohibit the advocacy of a product or a "call to action".

Recorded broadcasts and live broadcasts

A television studio production control room in Olympia, Washington, August 2008.


The first regular television broadcasts started in 1937. Broadcasts can be classified as "recorded"
or "live". The former allows correcting errors, and removing superfluous or undesired material,
rearranging it, applying slow-motion and repetitions, and other techniques to enhance the
program. However, some live events like sports television can include some of the aspects
including slow-motion clips of important goals/hits, etc., in between the live television telecast.
American radio-network broadcasters habitually forbade prerecorded broadcasts in the 1930s and
1940s requiring radio programs played for the Eastern and Central time zones to be repeated
three hours later for the Pacific time zone (See: Effects of time on North American
broadcasting). This restriction was dropped for special occasions, as in the case of the German
dirigible airship Hindenburg disaster at Lakehurst, New Jersey, in 1937. During World War II,
prerecorded broadcasts from war correspondents were allowed on U.S. radio. In addition,
American radio programs were recorded for playback by Armed Forces Radio radio stations
around the world.

A disadvantage of recording first is that the public may know the outcome of an event from
another source, which may be a "spoiler". In addition, prerecording prevents live radio
announcers from deviating from an officially approved script, as occurred with propaganda
broadcasts from Germany in the 1940s and with Radio Moscow in the 1980s.
Many events are advertised as being live, although they are often "recorded live" (sometimes
called "live-to-tape"). This is particularly true of performances of musical artists on radio when
they visit for an in-studio concert performance. Similar situations have occurred in television
production ("The Cosby Show is recorded in front of a live television studio audience") and news
broadcasting.
A broadcast may be distributed through several physical means. If coming directly from the
radio studio at a single station or television station, it is simply sent through the
studio/transmitter link to the transmitter and hence from the television antenna located on the
radio masts and towers out to the world. Programming may also come through a communications
satellite, played either live or recorded for later transmission. Networks of stations may simulcast
the same programming at the same time, originally via microwave link, now usually by satellite.
Distribution to stations or networks may also be through physical media, such as magnetic tape,
compact disc (CD), DVD, and sometimes other formats. Usually these are included in another
broadcast, such as when electronic news gathering (ENG) returns a story to the station for
inclusion on a news programme.
The final leg of broadcast distribution is how the signal gets to the listener or viewer. It may
come over the air as with a radio station or television station to an antenna and radio receiver, or
may come through cable television[5] or cable radio (or "wireless cable") via the station or
directly from a network. The Internet may also bring either internet radio or streaming media
television to the recipient, especially with multicasting allowing the signal and bandwidth to be
shared.
The term "broadcast network" is often used to distinguish networks that broadcast an over-the-air
television signals that can be received using a tuner (television) inside a television set with a
television antenna from so-called networks that are broadcast only via cable television
(cablecast) or satellite television that uses a dish antenna. The term "broadcast television" can
refer to the television programs of such networks.

Social impact
This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section
by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (April 2010)

Radio station WTUL studio, Tulane University, New Orleans


The sequencing of content in a broadcast is called a schedule. As with all technological
endeavors, a number of technical terms and slang have developed. A list of these terms can be
found at List of broadcasting terms. Television and radio programs are distributed through radio
broadcasting or cable, often both simultaneously. By coding signals and having a cable converter
box with decoding equipment in homes, the latter also enables subscription-based channels, paytv and pay-per-view services.
In his essay, John Durham Peters wrote that communication is a tool used for dissemination.
Durham stated, "Dissemination is a lenssometimes a usefully distorting onethat helps us
tackle basic issues such as interaction, presence, and space and time...on the agenda of any future
communication theory in general" (Durham, 211). Dissemination focuses on the message being
relayed from one main source to one large audience without the exchange of dialogue in
between. There's chance for the message to be tweaked or corrupted once the main source
releases it. There is really no way to predetermine how the larger population or audience will
absorb the message. They can choose to listen, analyze, or simply ignore it. Dissemination in
communication is widely used in the world of broadcasting.
Broadcasting focuses on getting one message out and it is up to the general public to do what
they wish with it. Durham also states that broadcasting is used to address an open ended
destination (Durham, 212). There are many forms of broadcast, but they all aim to distribute a
signal that will reach the target audience. Broadcasting can arrange audiences into entire
assemblies (Durham, 213).
In terms of media broadcasting, a radio show can gather a large number of followers who tune in
every day to specifically listen to that specific disc jockey. The disc jockey follows the script for
his or her radio show and just talks into the microphone.[6] He or she does not expect immediate
feedback from any listeners. The message is broadcast across airwaves throughout the
community, but there the listeners cannot always respond immediately, especially since many
radio shows are recorded prior to the actual air time.

Out-of-home advertising
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[hide]This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these
issues on the talk page.

The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view
of the subject. (May 2011)
This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2009)
This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on
Wikipedia. (October 2009)

Marketing
Key concepts

Product marketing

Pricing

Distribution

Service

Brand management

Retail

Brand licensing

Account-based marketing

Effectiveness

Research
Segmentation

Strategy
Activation

Management

Ethics

Dominance

Marketing operations

Social marketing

Identity

Digital marketing

Promotional contents

Advertising

Branding

Underwriting spot

Direct marketing

Personal sales
Product placement

Propaganda

Publicity

Sales promotion

Sex in advertising

Loyalty marketing

Mobile marketing

Premiums

Prizes

Corporate anniversary

On-hold messaging

Promotional media

Publication

Printing
Broadcasting

Out-of-home advertising

Point of sale

Merchandise

In-game advertising
Product demonstration

Word-of-mouth

Brand ambassador

Internet

Drip marketing

Visual merchandising

v
t
e

Out of home advertising (or OOH advertising) is advertising that reaches the consumer while
they are outside the home.
Out of home advertising is focused on marketing to consumers when they are "on the go" in
public places, in transit, waiting (such as in a medical office), and/or in specific commercial
locations (such as in a retail venue). OOH advertising formats fall into four main categories:
billboards, street furniture, transit, and alternative.[1]

The OOH advertising industry in the USA includes more than 2,100 operators in 50 states
representing the major out of home format categories. These OOH media companies range from
public, multinational media corporations to small, independent, family-owned businesses.

Contents

1 Overview
2 Digital out of home
3 Non-digital out of home
4 Regulations on out of home advertising
5 Emerging technologies
6 See also
7 References
8 External links

Overview
Billboard advertising is a traditional OOH advertising format, but there has been significant
growth in digital OOH (digital billboards and place-based networks) in recent years; for
example, about 4,900 digital billboard displays have been installed in the United States.[2]
Traditional roadside billboards remain the predominant form of OOH advertising in the US with
66 percent of total annual revenue. Today, billboard revenue is 73 percent local ads, 18 percent
national ads, and 9 percent public service ads.[3]
Street furniture is made up of formats such as bus shelters, newsracks, mall kiosks, and telephone
booth advertising. This form of OOH advertising is mainly seen in urban centers. Additionally,
this form of advertising provides benefits to communities, as building and maintaining the
shelters people use while waiting for the bus.
Transit advertising is typically advertising placed on anything which moves, such as buses,
subway advertising, truckside, food trucks,and taxis, but also includes fixed static and electronic
advertising at train and bus stations and platforms. Airport advertising, which helps businesses
address an audience while traveling, is also included in this category. Municipalities often accept
this form of advertising, as it provides revenue to city and port authorities.
Street furniture, transit, and alternative media formats comprise 34 percent of total outdoor
revenue in the US. Some of these formats have a higher percentage of national ads than
traditional billboards.[4]

Digital out of home


Digital out of home (DOOH) refers to dynamic media distributed across placed-based networks
in venues including, but not limited to: cafes, bars, restaurants, health clubs, colleges, arenas, gas
stations, convenience stores, barber shops, and public spaces. DOOH networks typically feature

independently addressable screens, kiosks, jukeboxes and/or jumbotrons. DOOH media benefits
location owners and advertisers alike in being able to engage customers and/or audiences and
extend the reach and effectiveness of marketing messages. It is also referred to as Digital
Signage.
The overall industry grew more than 15 percent last year(2010) to $2.1 billion, according to
Patrick Quinn, CEO and founder of PQ Media, a Connecticut-based research and consulting
firm. Quinn said gas station television is one of the largest and fastest growing segments of that
category, based in part on its verifiable audience. With digital TVs in gas stations, nearly 52
million customers are getting snippets of weather, sports highlights, celebrity gossip and
commercials with their gas each month, according to Nielsen. The weekly reach is actually larger
than most of the prime-time TV shows. The largest company in the space is Gas Station TV with
27.5 million monthly viewers at more than 1,100 stations across the U.S., according to Nielsen.[5]
In addition to the large number of viewers, the audience profile of TVs at gas stations is unique.
100 percent are drivers. 76 percent are adults from age 18-49 with a median age of 40 and
Median HHI $70k+.[6] According to the Nielsen Intercept Studies, 89 percent of the consumers
are engaged and watching TV at the gas station and 88 percent love watching every time they
fuel because they have nothing else to do.
The reason that this category is growing so rapidly is because busy people are typically busy at
home and with the introduction and acceptance of digital video recorders, it has diluted the
frequency with which traditional television commercials are viewed. Every day more TV
viewers are skipping past commercials with their DVRs which in turn has made out-of-home
advertising all the more appealing.[7] A Nielsen media research study in 2009 showed that 91
percent of DVR owners skipped commercials. As a result, traditional TV advertisers are hungry
for an effective substitute, and digital out-of-home ads appear to be one of the solutions.
DOOH also includes stand-alone screens, kiosks, and interactive media found in public places.
The availability of inexpensive LCD screens with built-in media players has opened the door for
companies to add interactive video messages in Point of Purchase (POP) Displays. The displays
allow consumers to get additional information at the moment of decision on a product or service.
Growth in the DOOH industry has been increasing in 2009, with more POP manufacturers,
advertisers, and content developers moving to digital.[8]

Non-digital out of home

Vinyl decals allowing use of windows, on a side and rear advertisement for alcohol on a Berlin
bus
Non-digital out-of-home refers to other types of media distributed across physical spaces.[9]
These are:[citation needed]
Aerial Advertising - Towing banners overhead of beaches, events and gridlock traffic via a
fixed wing aircraft [10]
Airship Advertising - An airship can provide one of the physically largest out-of-home
advertising platforms.
Billboard bicycle - Billboard bicycle is a new type of mobile advertising in which a bike tows a
billboard with an advertising message. This method is a cost efficient, targeted, and
environmentally friendly form of advertising.

Billboard Bicycle in East Coast Park, Singapore


Bulletin - Bulletin billboards are usually located in highly visible, heavy traffic areas such as
expressways, primary arteries, and major intersections. With extended periods of high visibility,
billboard advertisements provide advertisers with significant impact on commuters. This is the
largest standard out of home advertising format, usually measuring at 11x48 in overall size.[11]
Bus advertising - Firmly establish brand awareness and generate quick recall with high profile
exposure near point of purchase locations.
Commuter rail display - Reaches a captive audience of upscale suburban commuters.
Additionally, reaches lunch-time patrons, shoppers and business professionals.
ComPark advertising - ComPark is a device used for car park advertising; which is placed onto
the parallel lines of a bay and is able to gain instant exposure from motorists that have just
parked their vehicle. The ComPark also serves as a guide to assist motorist in adhering to the
parking bay size.
Lamppost banner advertising - Lamp columns are sited everywhere, allowing advertisers and
events to use banners to target precise geographical locations and create massive promotional
awareness.
Mobile billboard - Mobile billboards offer a great degree of flexibility to advertisers. These
advertisements can target specific routes, venue or events, or can be used to achieve market

saturation. A special version is the inflatable billboard which can stand free nearly everywhere.
This product can also be used for outdoor movie nights.

Mobile inflatable billboard


Postcards - Free advertising postcards available in venues such as cafes & bars, arts & cultural
institutions, universities and high schools. Postcards are taken from a specially designed display
unit with signage indicating the postcards are free for the general public to take.
Poster - Target local audiences with these billboards, which are highly visible to vehicular traffic
and are ideal for the introduction of new products/services. Marketers use posters to achieve
advertising objectives and increase brand awareness by placing multiple units in strategic
locations while lowering the cost per thousand impressions. This is a standardized poster format,
typically measuring 12'3" x 24'6"; formally known as a 30-Sheet Poster.[12]
Premier panel - Premiere panels combine the frequency and reach of a poster campaign with the
creative impact of a bulletin.
Premier square - Bright top and bottom illumination on a premiere panel provide extra impact
after dark.
Street advertising - The use of pavements and street furniture to create media space for brands
to get their message onto the street in a cost-effective approach.
Taxi advertising - Taxi advertising allows advertisers to highlight their products, whether brand
awareness, or a targeted message, directly to areas where people work, shop, and play.
Wallscape - Wallscapes are attached to buildings and are able to accommodate a wide variety of
unusual shapes and sizes. These billboard advertisements are visible from a distance and provide
tremendous impact in major metro areas.[13]
Other types of non-digital OOH advertising include airport displays; transit and bus-shelter
displays; headrest displays; double-sided panels; junior posters; and mall displays.

Regulations on out of home advertising


Different jurisdictions regulate outdoor advertising to different degrees.

In the US, the states of Vermont, Hawaii, Maine, and Alaska prohibit all billboards.

The other 46 US states permit multiple forms of OOH advertising.

Billboards are regulated by all levels of government. The regulatory framework, created
by the federal Highway Beautification Act (HBA), calls for billboards to be located in
commercial and industrial areas. Billboard permits are issued by state and local
authorities. Under the Highway Beautification Act, states have strong regulatory powers
including the authority to ban billboards.

Most states have taken steps to regulate digital (electronic) billboards, which feature
static images that change (typically) every six or eight seconds. In 2007, the Federal
Highway Administration (FHWA) issued Guidance to the states regarding regulation of
digital billboards. Scenic America challenged the federal Guidance in federal court on
procedural grounds. On June 20, 2014, US District Court Judge James E. Boasberg
dismissed this case, with prejudice.

Regulations governing digital billboards prohibit animation and scrolling. Digital


billboards are equipped with light sensors to adjust billboard lighting to surrounding light
conditions to avoid glare, per the industry code.

Emerging technologies
Media fragmentation, competition from online media, as well as the need for greater
efficiencies in media buying prompted companies to offer billboard inventory aggregation
services[14] Interactive services are becoming increasingly more common with the move to digital
outdoor advertising, such as allowing the public to connect, share and interact through their
mobile devices in particular through WiFi connections.[15]

Corporate anniversary
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Marketing
Key concepts

Product marketing

Distribution

Pricing
Service
Retail

Brand management

Brand licensing

Account-based marketing

Effectiveness

Research

Segmentation

Strategy

Activation

Management

Ethics

Dominance

Marketing operations

Social marketing

Identity

Digital marketing

Promotional contents

Advertising

Branding

Underwriting spot

Direct marketing

Personal sales

Product placement

Propaganda

Publicity

Sales promotion

Sex in advertising

Loyalty marketing

Mobile marketing

Premiums

Prizes

Corporate anniversary

On-hold messaging

Promotional media

Printing
Publication
Broadcasting

Out-of-home advertising

Point of sale

Merchandise

In-game advertising
Product demonstration

Word-of-mouth

Brand ambassador

Internet

Drip marketing

Visual merchandising

v
t
e

In marketing, a corporate anniversary is a celebration of a firm's continued existence after a


particular number of years. The celebration is a media event which can help a firm achieve
diverse marketing goals, such as promoting its corporate identity, boosting employee morale,
building greater investor confidence, and encouraging sales. As a public relations opportunity,[1]
it is a way for a firm to tout past accomplishments[2] while strengthening relationships with
employees and customers and investors. The duration of the celebration itself can vary
considerably, from an hour or day[3] to activities happening throughout the year.[4] Many
businesses use an anniversary to express gratitude for past success.[5] Generally, larger
corporations have the means to stage more elaborate celebrations.

Contents

1 Characteristics
2 Planning
3 Difficulty in measuring success
4 See also
5 References

Characteristics
An anniversary can advertise a firm's staying power and longevity. A report in the New York
Times explained the marketing logic:
Anniversary campaigns are part of a trend inspired by the economy that could be called comfort
marketing, as advertisers invoke misty, water-colored memories of the past to woo consumers

into buying products in the present. A major aspect of comfort marketing is what brand managers
call authenticity: reminding shoppers who seek value in the provenance of merchandise to
suggest a product is worth buying because its quality has been tested for decades.
Stuart Elliott, 2012[6]

Guinness brewery marked its 250th anniversary in 2009 with its first global advertising
campaign.

Mattel sponsored fashion events to celebrate the 50th anniversary of their Barbie fashion doll.
Shown: American fashion model Sessilee Lopez.
Marketers choose variables relating to anniversaries[7] to meet specific promotional objectives.
While the length of time celebrated by an anniversary is often divisible by five, such as the 10th,
15th, 25th,[8] 50th, or 80th anniversary,[9] there are no hard and fast rules. For example, Google
celebrated its 13th anniversary with a special "doodle" for its main search page which showed a
colorful image of "cake, presents and balloons."[3] Generally, anniversaries are chosen to
coincide with marketing initiatives, such that "any coming of age will do," according to one
view.[10] An anniversary can commemorate not only a firm's founding year but the introduction

of a successful company brand,[10] a merger,[11] a patent,[12] or some other milestone. There are a
wide variety of marketing gimmicks and appeals which can accompany an anniversary
celebration: sweepstakes,[13] contests,[12] thank you letters,[4][5] special product editions,[12]
parties,[13] guest speakers, birthday displays on websites,[10] giveaways,[6] new product
introductions,[8] publicity stunts, sponsorships, fireworks, live musical performances,[13]
commemorative packaging,[6] anniversary rings,[14] promotions,[6] signs in retail stores,[6]
donations,[15] scholarships,[15] temporary price reductions or discounts,[10] reflections on past
accomplishments,[1][16] special ad campaigns,[17] new logos,[17] and so on.

Planning
Planning an anniversary can take years. In some cases, special marketing consultants and event
planners have been hired to coordinate the effort. Large corporations typically work closely with
their corporate advertising agency as well as their marketing and sales departments to plan
sometimes elaborate campaigns, often with a special theme to mark the occasion. For example,
Starbucks marked their 40th anniversary with a redesigned logo and media campaign.[17]
Guinness Brewery celebrated its 250th anniversary with a global advertising effort.[13] In 1972,
Time magazine celebrated its 50th anniversary with events throughout the year:
So we are 50 years old, and we intend to celebrate. We are planning a series of events for the
months aheadsome small and rather personal and sentimentalothers on a bigger scale. In all,
we hope to reach a lot of people to whom we owe thanks: not only our working colleagues
within the company but also the legions of readers and believers who through the years have
helped us grow.
Hedley Donovan, Andrew Heiskell for Time magazine, 1972[4]
Goya Foods, on its 75th anniversary, donated a million pounds of food to help fight hunger and
announced scholarship programs as well as held parties in different locations.[15]
There is flexibility in terms of choosing which dates to use when determining an anniversary.
The start date is often the month or year when a firm was founded, but this can vary
considerably, and exceptions are the rule; for example, Lego toys celebrated its 50th anniversary
in 2008 exactly 50 years after the time when the founder's son, Godtfred Kirk Christiansen,
filed a patent for the iconic plastic bricks in 1958.[12]

Difficulty in measuring success


Measuring the success of any advertising effort, including an anniversary celebration, can be
difficult. Sometimes an anniversary generates negative publicity, such as the tenth anniversary of
the merger between AOL and Time Warner, which was largely seen as a colossal business
blunder.[11] A report in The Guardian suggested that corporate anniversaries do not always lead
to "happy returns":

Sometimes, when a brand pins all its advertising and marketing on an anniversary, it can give the
impression that it doesn't have anything robust to say about its business; that the only way it is
different from its competitors is that it has been going longer. ... The problem is, apart from the
odd column inch in the press giving the company free PR, it is not immediately obvious what is
gained through anniversary celebrations. Telling your customers you are of a certain age creates
nostalgia and makes people think about your brand; on the other hand they would probably
prefer you to spend money giving them a discount.

Prize (marketing)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Prize (disambiguation).

Marketing
Key concepts

Product marketing

Pricing

Distribution

Service

Brand management

Retail

Brand licensing

Account-based marketing

Effectiveness

Research
Segmentation

Strategy
Activation

Management

Ethics

Dominance

Marketing operations

Social marketing

Identity

Digital marketing

Promotional contents

Advertising

Branding

Underwriting spot

Direct marketing

Personal sales

Product placement

Propaganda

Publicity

Sales promotion

Sex in advertising

Loyalty marketing

Mobile marketing

Premiums

Prizes

Corporate anniversary

On-hold messaging

Promotional media

Publication

Printing
Broadcasting

Out-of-home advertising

Internet

Point of sale

Merchandise

In-game advertising

Product demonstration

Word-of-mouth

Brand ambassador

Drip marketing

Visual merchandising

v
t
e

Collecting

Collectable Antique Antiquities


Terms
Ephemera Premium
Prize Souvenir
Special edition
Topics
List of collectables
List of hobbies
This box:

view
talk
edit

Prizes are promotional itemssmall toys, games, trading cards, collectables, and other small
items of nominal valuefound in packages of brand-name retail products (or available from the
retailer at the time of purchase) that are included in the price of the product (at no extra cost)
with the intent to boost sales. Collectable prizes produced (and sometimes numbered) in series
are used extensivelyas a loyalty marketing programin food, drink, and other retail products
to increase sales through repeat purchases from collectors. Prizes have been distributed through
bread, candy, cereal, chips, crackers, laundry detergent, margarine,[1] popcorn, and soft drinks.
The types of prizes have included comics, fortunes, jokes, key rings, magic tricks, models (made
of paper or plastic), pin-back buttons, plastic mini-spoons, puzzles, riddles, stickers, temporary
tattoos, tazos, trade cards, trading cards, and small toys (made from injection molded plastic,
paper, cardboard, tin litho, ceramics, or pot metal).[2] Prizes are sometimes referred to as "inpack" premiums,[3] although historically the word "premium" has been used to denote (as
opposed to a prize) an item that is not packaged with the product and requires a proof of
purchase and/or a small additional payment to cover shipping and/or handling charges.[2]

Contents

1 History
o 1.1 Smokers become collectors
o 1.2 The home run of prizes
o 1.3 Topps in cards
o 1.4 Prize or premium coupon; or both?
o 1.5 "A Prize in Every Box"
o 1.6 Cereal prizes
o 1.7 Margarine spreads prizes in Europe
o 1.8 Modern prize giant
o 1.9 Usefulness and collectability
2 Technical advances
o 2.1 Sticky business
o 2.2 Plastic injection molding

o
o

2.3 Lenticular technology


2.4 Photographic lenticular printing
3 Prize manufacturers
o 3.1 Cloudcrest
o 3.2 Nosco Plastics
o 3.3 R&L plastics
4 See also
5 References
6 External links

History
Smokers become collectors
Some of the earliest prizes were cigarette cards trade cards advertising the product (not to be
confused with trading cards) that were inserted into paper packs of cigarettes as stiffeners to
protect the contents. Allen and Ginter in the U.S. in 1886, and British company W.D. & H.O.
Wills in 1888, were the first tobacco companies to print advertisements and, a couple of years
later, lithograph pictures on the cards with an encyclopedic variety of topics from nature to war
to sports subjects that appealed to men who smoked.[4] By 1900, there were thousands of
tobacco card sets manufactured by 300 different companies. Children would stand outside of
stores to ask customers who bought cigarettes if they could have their card.[5] Following the
success of cigarette cards, trade cards were produced by manufacturers of other products and
included in the product or handed to the customer by the store clerk at the time of purchase.[4]
Other inserts in tobacco included tin litho prizes, called tobacco tags (in plug tobacco), and
tobacco silks (popular from 1910 to 1916) that could be collected to put in quilts were inserted in
or attached to tobacco tins and sometimes catalogued as cigarette cards.[6] World War II put an
end to cigarette card production due to limited paper resources, and after the war cigarette cards
never really made a comeback. After that collectors of prizes from retail products took to
collecting tea cards in the UK and bubble gum cards in the US.[7]

The home run of prizes


The first baseball cards were trade cards featuring the Brooklyn Atlantics produced in 1868 by
Peck and Snyder, a sporting goods company that manufactured baseball equipment. In 1869,
Peck and Snyder trade cards featured the first professional team, the Red Stockings.[8] Most of
the baseball cards around the beginning of the 20th century came in candy and tobacco products
produced by such companies as Breisch-Williams confectionary company of Oxford,
Pennsylvania,[9] American Caramel Company, the Imperial Tobacco Company of Canada,[10] and
Cabaas, a Cuban cigar manufacturer.[11] In fact it is a baseball set, known as the T206 tobacco
card set, issued from 1909 to 1911 in cigarette and loose tobacco packs through 16 different
brands[12] owned by the American Tobacco Company that is considered by collectors to be the
most popular set of cigarette cards.[13] A T206 Honus Wagner card sold on April 6, 2013 for $2.1
million in an online auction, the highest price paid for a card in a public sale.[14] In 1933, Goudey
Gum Company of Boston issued baseball cards with players biographies on the backs and was

the first to put baseball cards in bubble gum.[15] Bowman Gum of Philadelphia issued its first
baseball cards in 1948 and became the biggest issuer of baseball cards from 1948 to 1952.

Topps in cards
Topps Chewing Gum, Inc., now known as The Topps Company, Inc., started inserting trading
cards into bubble gum packs in 1950 with such topics as TV and film cowboy Hopalong
Cassidy; "Bring 'em Back Alive" cards featuring Frank Buck on big game hunts in Africa; and
All-American football cards. Topps introduced the topic of baseball in trading cards in 1951, and
Sy Berger created the first modern baseball card, complete with playing record and statistics,
produced by Topps in 1952.[16] The 1952 Topps Mickey Mantle card is one of the most desirable
baseball cards for collectors.[17] Topps purchased the Bowman Gum company in 1956. Topps
was the leader in the trading card industry from 1956 to 1980, not only in sports cards. Many of
the top selling non-sports cards were produced by Topps, including Wacky Packages (1967,
19731977), Star Wars (beginning in 1977)[18] and Garbage Pail Kids (beginning in 1985).[19]
Topps inserted baseball cards as prizes into packs of gum through 1981, when the gum became a
thing of the past and the cards were sold without the gum.[20]

Prize or premium coupon; or both?


Bazooka Joe appeared on comics in Topps' Bazooka Bubble Gum beginning in 1953. There have
been numerous kids (and adults) who have collected the Bazooka comics as prizes for over 50
years. Bazooka started issuing premium catalogs in 1956, and the comics prizes doubled as
coupons that, when collected in certain quantities, could be exchanged for premiums, such as
bikes, microphones, or plastic rings. Bazooka Bubble Gum has a successful loyalty marketing
program, through the prizes (comics) and the premiums (mail-order merchandise). Over the
years, Bazooka Bubble Gum has been shipped to over 100 different countries and it has been
translated into over 50 different languages. Topps sells a half a billion pieces of Bazooka Bubble
Gum a year.[21]

"A Prize in Every Box"


The most famous use of prizes in the United States (and the word "prize" in this context) is
Cracker Jack brand popcorn confection. Prizes have been inserted into every package of Cracker
Jack continuously since 1912.[22] A familiar jingle to people who watched television in the
United States in the 1960s and '70s goes "Candy-coated popcorn, peanuts and a prize. That's
what you get with Cracker Jack!" Cracker Jack sales are not what they used to be,[23] with much
more competition in the snack industry and less creative prizes. The most valuable prizes found
in Cracker Jack are the baseball cards distributed in 1914 and 1915.[24][25] Although most of the
prizes recently are just printed paper,[26] in 2004, a complete set of 1914 Cracker Jack baseball
cards including the highly sought after "Shoeless" Joe Jackson and Ty Cobb cards was
sold for a record $800,000.[27]

Cereal prizes

W.K. Kellogg was the first to introduce prizes in boxes of cereal beginning in 1906.[27] The
marketing strategy that he established has produced thousands of different cereal box prizes that
have been distributed by the tens of billions.[27] The first breakfast cereal prize was The Funny
Jungleland Moving Pictures Book given to customers in the stores by merchants at the time of
purchase of two packages of Kellogg's Corn Flakes.[27] In 1909, Kellogg's changed the book
give-away to a premium mail-in offer for the cost of a dime.[27] By 1912, Kellogg's had
distributed 2.5 million Jungleland books. The book underwent various edition changes and was
last offered to consumers in 1937.[27] In 1945, Kellogg inserted a prize in the form of pin-back
buttons into each box of Pep cereal. Pep pins have included U.S. Army squadrons as well as
characters from newspaper comics. There were 5 series of comic characters and 18 different
buttons in each set, with a total of 90 in the collection.[27] Kelloggs 3D Baseball and Football
Cards produced by Optigraphics were a big hit from 1970 to 1983 in packages of Kellogg's
cereals, initially Corn Flakes and later other brands.[28] Other manufacturers of major brands of
cereal (including General Mills, Malt-O-Meal, Nabisco, Nestl, Post Foods, and Quaker Oats)
followed suit and inserted prizes into boxes of cereal to promote sales and brand loyalty.

Margarine spreads prizes in Europe


Oleomargarine was big business in Germany with hundreds of brands. Since 1920 margarine
brands have put prizes in margarine, produced cards similar to tobacco cards of the time, and
promoted albums for consumers to place their collections. Prizes made from metal and paper
were also used from time to time. The Great Depression of 1929 slowed the previously unbridled
development of prizes used in margarine. But after World War II, margarine prizes flourished
with many series of printed cards and albums.[29]
With the advent of injection molding came the plastic prizes. Cracker Jack had introduced plastic
flats in its popcorn confection in the United States in 1948, and beginning in 1950, Fri-Homa,
one of the leading German manufacturers of margarine owned by Fritz Homann, inserted prizes
into its retail packages to promote brand loyalty.[29][30] The first plastic margarine prizes were
made by SIKU toy company owned by Homann's friend Richard Sieper.[31] Many margarine
brands followed suite. Most of the plastic prizes from German margarine were molded in a light
cream color designed to make them look like tiny carved ivory figures though made of
polystyrene. These prizes are generically called "margarinefiguren" (EN: margarine figures),
because they originated in oleomargarine products, but they were also found in tobacco and other
retail food products.[29][1]
The era of margarine prizes ended in 1954 due to an agreement between German margarine
producers to stop using in-pack prizes to promote their products. In the short period between
1950 and 1954, over 258 series (thousands of individual shapes) of plastic prizes were
produced.[1] The retail companies that used margarine figures as in-pack prizes included Ei-Fein
Margarine, Fri-Homa Margarine,[29] Voss Margarine, Wagner Margarine, Kothe Tobacco, and
Mampe Liquor,[32] as well as coffee, tea, oatmeal, and shoe cream. Other businesses and
attractions that distributed these prizes with purchase were Markt-Apotheke Pharmacies,
Siebenhaar and Braunschweig shoe stores, and Berlin and Magdeburg Zoos.[29] For many postwar German children, margarine prizes were the only toys they possessed for years. More than

casual collectibles among nostalgic adults today, these tiny plastic loyalty marketing tools are a
noteworthy element in the cultural history of German-speaking countries.[33]

Modern prize giant


Frito-Lay is a world icon in the field of in-package prizes. Besides being the current owner of
Cracker Jack, the U.S. popcorn confection brand known for the "Prize Inside",[34] Frito-Lay also
regularly includes tazos and tattoos in packages of Lay's chips worldwide. In parts of Latin
America, Frito-Lay has even introduced a brand called Cheetos Sorpresa (English: Surprise),
which includes a licensed prize (from movies, television, and video games) in every 29gram
bag. Cheetos Sorpresa Era de Hielo (available in Mexico) included plastic ice molds with
characters from the film Ice Age 3 in 45gram bags.[35] Game and television series Bakugan
Battle Brawlers were featured on tazos in packages of Cheetos and Cheetos Surpresa from India
to Peru in 2009 and 2010. [36]

Usefulness and collectability


Winter's, a Peruvian brand of chocolates owned by Compaa Nacional de Chocolates de Per
S.A.,[37] has a confectionary product called Chocopunch that is a cream chocolate in small
individual packages. A key promotional aspect of Chocopunch since 1997[37] has been, packaged
with the product, colorful injection molded plastic cucharitas (mini spoons) in the shapes of
different characters from movies, television, and video games that are collected as prizes.
Chocopunch El Chavo came with two flavors (chocolate and vanilla) combined in one 17 gram
container. Packaged with Chocopunch El Chavo were mini spoons in the shape of characters
from the syndicated cartoon television series El Chavo del Ocho. The injection molded plastic
mini spoons came in 12 different shapes and five different colors, with a total of 60 different
items in the collection.

Technical advances
Sticky business
An important development in prizes is credited to American inventor R. Stanton (Stan) Avery. In
1935, Avery invented a machine to create self-adhesive labels. He started a company called Kum
Klean Products to produce them. Self-adhesive labels with pre-printed designs on the front
became commonly known as stickers. Today this company is known as the Avery Dennison
Corporation and is a major supplier of self-adhesive stamps to the U.S. Postal Service.[38]
Stickers had their fads beginning in the late 1950s with bumper stickers through the 1960s and
children's sticker trading albums of the 1980s. Prizes used in retail products, including breakfast
cereal, bubble gum, and Cracker Jack, reflected these trends, and many thousands of examples of
colorfully printed self-adhesive works of art have found their way as prizes into packages of
retail food and household products.

Plastic injection molding

The invention of a screw injection molding machine by American inventor James Watson
Hendry in 1946 changed the world of prizes forever. Thermoplastics could be used to produce
toys and other plastic objects much more rapidly, and much more cheaply, because recycled
plastic could be remolded using this process. In addition, injection molding for plastics required
much less cool-down time for the toys, because the plastic is not completely melted before being
injected into the molds. By 1948 the process was widely available, and injection-molded plastic
prizes began to appear by the millions in boxes of Cracker Jack, breakfast cereal, and German
margarine (1950-1954).[39] Hendry also developed the first gas-assisted injection molding
process in the 1970s, which permitted the production of complex, hollow prizes that cooled
quickly. This greatly improved design flexibility as well as the strength and finish of
manufactured parts while reducing production time, cost, weight and waste.[40]

Lenticular technology
Lenticular lens technology, a major development in printing with significant applications in
consumer marketing, brought numerous prizes sometimes called tilt cards, flickers, or wiggle
pictures including images illustrated to morph from one view to another, show motion, or
show depth (3D). Victor Anderson, a leader in the commercial success of lenticular printing, cofounded the Vari-Vue company in New York, which by the 1950s had produced millions of
lenticular products, and lenticulars had become a pop culture craze.[41] Anderson created the first
animated advertising button with the "I LIKE IKE" slogan for Eisenhower's campaign in
1951.[42] In the 1950s, Vari-Vue produced lenticular prizes under the "Magic-Motion" brand that
were inserted into packages of numerous consumer products, including Cracker Jack popcorn
confection in the US, and Locatellis popular Formaggino Mio cheese in Italy.[43] Anderson
related in a 1996 interview that he had made animated prizes for Cheerios, about 40 million of
them, that were stuck to the side of the box, but so many of the prizes were being stolen before
they even hit the shelves that Cheerios had to start inserting the prizes inside the boxes.[42] Two
Japan companies provided prizes around the world in the 1960s and 70s, Toppan, with their "Top
Stereo" brand, and Dai-Nippon.[43]

Photographic lenticular printing


Lenticulars from the 1940s and 50s had been developed from drawings or cartoon images. In the
1960s, Eastman Kodak Company in Tennessee developed "Xograph" technology for
photographing and printing 3D lenticular images. The first mass-produced ink-printed "parallax
panoramagram" (a black and white 3D photograph of a bust of Thomas Edison) was published in
Look Magazine on February 25, 1964 and sold 8 million copies. Look Magazine followed up
with the first color 3D lenticular photograph on April 7, 1964.[43] Optigraphics Corporation of
Grand Prairie, Texas[44] was formed in 1970 andunder the guidance of Victor Anderson, the
inventor of the modern lenticular production process who worked well into his 80's[45]
produced Kelloggs 3D Baseball Cards from 1970 to 1983.[28] Optigraphics produced the
lenticular prizes for Cracker Jack in the 1980s, 7-Eleven Slurpee lenticular sports coins from
1983 to 1987,[46] and in 1986 it produced the first set of 3D traditional baseball cards marketed as
Sportflics, which ultimately led to the creation of Pinnacle Brands.[47] In 1999 Performance
Companies bought Optigraphics after Pinnacle Trading Card Company went bankrupt in
1998.[44]

Prize manufacturers
Cloudcrest
C. Carey Cloud, sometimes called "year-round Santa Claus", was best known as a designer and
producer of hundreds of different prizes for Cracker Jack from the 1930's through the 1960's
through his company Cloudcrest. It is estimated that he created, produced, and delivered to the
Cracker Jack Company 700 million toys.[48] At the same time he designed hundreds of premiums
for companies such as Brach's Confections, Breck Candy Company, Bunny Bread, Carnival
Candies, CoCo Wheats, Johnston Candies and Chocolates, New Orleans Confections Inc,
Ovaltine, Pillsbury flour, Post Bran Flakes, Shotwell of Chicago, Thinshell Candies, and
more.[49]

Nosco Plastics
Nosco Plastics, Inc. (commonly called "NOSCO", the mark used on its molded products) was the
plastics molding division of National Organ Supply Company created in 1934 to make plastic
parts for electric organs[50] and was located at 1701 Gaskell Avenue, Erie, Pennsylvania,
16503.[51] Beginning in 1948 with the implementation of the newly developed screw injection
molding process, NOSCO quickly became a major early producer of tiny plastic toys called
"slum" (very cheap prizes that are bought in bulk, sometimes for as little as $1 a gross or less)[52]
sold to wholesalers as carnival merchandise, used by the millions as prizes in packages of
Cracker Jack popcorn confection, and mail-order flats that were heavily advertised in American
comic books as "100 Toy Soldiers for $1" by E. Joseph Cossman & Company.[50] NOSCO also
held a number of patents on plastic molded products including mechanical toys, storage
containers, pallets, and medical syringes.[53] From 1948 through 1960, The Cracker Jack
Company at 4800 West 66th Street, Chicago, Illinois,[54] the largest toy buyer in the world at the
time, used many millions of NOSCO toys as prizes in their caramel coated popcorn confection.
These include the "Animal Stand-ups" (CJ Archive #Z-1111) that were marketed by the Levin
Brothers as well as the "100 Cowboys and Indians" set of 12 different figures (CJ Archive
#Z-1137) and "3 Ring Circus" set of 12 different figures (CJ Archive #Z-1154) marketed as mail
order items by Cossman & Levine. Other sets made by NOSCO for Cracker Jack include
Alphabet Animals set of 26 (Z-1179), People (Occupations) Stand-ups (Z-1124), Spacemen
Stand-ups set of 10 (Z-1227), a set of 16 double-sided Stand-ups (Z-1144), and Zodiac Coins set
of 12 disks (Z-1182).[55]

R&L plastics
Rosenhain and Lipmann (commonly known as "R&L") was a plastics company in Melbourne
Australia between 1959 and 1977. R&L designed and manufactured unique and innovative toys
that became hugely popular both in Australia and in the United States.[56] R&L started out
making snap-together items that worked like tiny plastic model kits that didn't need any glue and
were issued in a clear glassine bag, inside Kellogg's cereal boxes. Space Nits were found in retail
packages of both Kellogg's cereals and Cracker Jack popcorn confection. During the company's
18 year run, over 70 different sets were released and it is estimated that about one billion R&L

toys were delivered around the world.[57] Becoming unprofitable, R&L factory equipment and
contents was sold off to a company in Mexico in 1977.[57] This machinery was used to re-issue
several series under the name "Tinykins". Although structurally the same, many colors varied
and were brighter than the originals. The plastic and texture was also of a lesser quality.[57]
Tinykins flooded the market and are often mistaken for, or sold as, R&L originals.[58]

Loyalty marketing
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Marketing
Key concepts

Product marketing

Distribution

Service

Retail

Brand management

Pricing

Brand licensing

Account-based marketing

Effectiveness

Research
Segmentation

Strategy
Activation

Management

Ethics

Dominance

Marketing operations

Social marketing

Identity

Digital marketing

Promotional contents

Advertising

Branding

Underwriting spot

Direct marketing

Personal sales

Product placement

Propaganda

Publicity

Sales promotion

Sex in advertising

Loyalty marketing

Mobile marketing

Premiums

Prizes

Corporate anniversary

On-hold messaging

Promotional media

Publication

Printing
Broadcasting

Out-of-home advertising

Point of sale

Merchandise

In-game advertising
Product demonstration

Word-of-mouth
Brand ambassador

Internet

Drip marketing
Visual merchandising

Loyalty marketing is an approach to marketing, based on strategic management, in which a


company focuses on growing and retaining existing customers through incentives. Branding,
product marketing and loyalty marketing all form part of the customer proposition the
subjective assessment by the customer of whether to purchase a brand or not based on the
integrated combination of the value they receive from each of these marketing disciplines.[1]
The discipline of customer loyalty marketing has been around for many years, but expansions
from it merely being a model for conducting business to becoming a vehicle for marketing and
advertising have made it omnipresent in consumer marketing organizations since the mid- to
late-1990s. Some of the newer loyalty marketing industry insiders, such as Fred Reichheld, have
claimed a strong link between customer loyalty marketing and customer referral. In recent years,
a new marketing discipline called "customer advocacy marketing" has been combined with or
replaced "customer loyalty marketing." To the general public, many airline miles programs, hotel
frequent guest programs and credit card incentive programs are the most visible customer loyalty
marketing programs.[2]

Contents

1 History
o 1.1 Retail merchandising
1.1.1 Premiums
1.1.1.1 Early premium programs
1.1.1.2 Trading stamps
1.1.1.3 Marketing through children
1.1.1.4 Boxtops
1.1.2 Prizes
1.1.2.1 Tobacco inserts
1.1.2.2 Trade cards to trading cards
1.1.2.3 Modern packaged foods
o 1.2 Direct marketing pioneers
1.2.1 Ward: the father of mail order
1.2.2 Wunderman: direct marketing genius
o 1.3 Modern consumer rewards programs
1.3.1 Frequent flyers
1.3.2 Card linked offers
2 Loyalty marketing impact
3 Loyalty marketing and the loyalty business model
4 See also
5 References

History
Retail merchandising
Premiums

Premiums are items that a retail customer can receive by redeeming proofs of purchase from a
specific product or store. This was one of the first loyalty marketing programs.
Early premium programs

Beginning in 1793, a U.S. merchant started giving out copper tokens which could be collected by
the consumer and exchanged for items in the store. This practice caught on and was used by
many merchants throughout the 19th century. Sweet Home laundry soap, a product of the B. A.
Babbit Company, came with certificates that could be collected and redeemed for color
lithographs. Beginning in 1872, the Grand Union Tea Company gave tickets to customers that
could be exchanged for merchandise in the company catalog of Grand Union stores.
Trading stamps

The first trading stamps were introduced in 1891, the Blue Stamp Trading System, where stamps
affixed to booklets could be redeemed for store products.[3] The Sperry and Hutchinson
Company, started in 1896 in Jackson, Michigan, was the first third-party provider of trading
stamps for various companies, including dry goods dealers, gas stations and later supermarkets.
S&H Green Stamps, as the company was commonly called, opened its first redemption center in
1897. Customers could take their filled booklets of "green stamps" and redeem them for
household products, kitchen items, and personal items. When the G.I.s returned from World War
II the trading stamps business took off when numerous third-party companies created their own
trading stamp programs to offer to supermarkets and other retailers.[4]
Marketing through children

Marketers of retail products used programs targeted at children to sell to their parents through the
use of premiums. Kellogg's Corn Flakes had the first cereal premium with The Funny Jungleland
Moving Pictures Book. The book was originally available as a prize that was given to the
customer in the store with the purchase of two packages of the cereal.[5] But in 1909, Kelloggs
changed the book give-away to a premium mail-in offer for the cost of a dime. Over 2.5 million
copies of the book were distributed in different editions over a period of 23 years.[6]
At the beginning of the Second World War, radio was a big player in the promotion and
distribution of premiums, usually toys that were closely related to the radio program. There were
many radio shows that offered premiums to their listeners, but Captain Midnight was one of the
best known. The early sponsor of Captain Midnight was Skelly Oil, and parents could get forms
to mail-in for radio premiums at the gas stations. Later, Ovaltine became the sponsor of Captain
Midnight, and it continued the premiums through advertising on the labels and foil tops of
Ovaltine that could be collected to exchange for Captain Midnight premiums and offering
membership to the "Secret Squadron".[7]
Boxtops

In 1929, Betty Crocker issued coupons that could be used to redeem for premiums like free
flatware. In 1937 the coupons were printed on the outside of packages, and later the Betty

Crocker points program produced a popular reward catalog from which customers could pick
rewards using their points. In 2006, it was announced that the Betty Crocker Catalog was going
out of business and that all points needed to be redeemed by December 15, 2006. With it, one of
the earliest loyalty programs ended a 77 year tradition.[8]
Prizes
Prizes are promotional itemssmall toys, games, trading cards, collectables, and other small
items of nominal valuefound in packages of brand-name retail products (or available from the
retailer at the time of purchase) that are included in the price of the product (at no extra cost)
with the intent to boost sales.
Tobacco inserts

Some of the earliest prizes were cigarette cards trade cards advertising the product (not to be
confused with trading cards) that were inserted into paper packs of cigarettes as stiffeners to
protect the contents. Allan and Ginter in the U.S. in 1886, and British company W.D. & H.O.
Wills in 1888, were the first tobacco companies to print advertisements and, a couple years later,
lithograph pictures on the cards with an encyclopedic variety of topics from nature to war to
sports subjects that appealed to men who smoked.[9] By 1900, there were thousands of
tobacco card sets manufactured by 300 different companies.[10] Following the success of
cigarette cards, trade cards were produced by manufacturers of other products and included in
the product or handed to the customer by the store clerk at the time of purchase.[9] World War II
put an end to cigarette card production due to limited paper resources, and after the war cigarette
cards never really made a comeback. After that collectors of prizes from retail products took to
collecting tea cards in the UK and bubble gum cards in the US.[11]
Trade cards to trading cards

The first baseball cards were trade cards featuring the Brooklyn Atlantics produced in 1868 by
Peck and Snyder, a sporting goods company that manufactured baseball equipment. In 1869,
Peck and Snyder trade cards featured the first professional team, the Red Stockings.[12] Most of
the baseball cards around the beginning of the 20th century came in candy and tobacco products
produced by such companies as Breisch-Williams confectionery company of Oxford,
Pennsylvania,[13] American Caramel Company, the Imperial Tobacco Company of Canada,[14]
and Cabaas, a Cuban cigar manufacturer.[15] In fact it is a baseball set, known as the T-106
tobacco card set, distributed by the American Tobacco Company in 1909 that is considered by
collectors to be the most popular set of cigarette cards.[16] In 1933, Goudey Gum Company of
Boston issued baseball cards with players biographies on the backs and was the first to put
baseball cards in bubble gum.[17] Bowman Gum of Philadelphia issued its first baseball cards in
1948 and became the biggest issuer of baseball cards from 1948 to 1952.
Modern packaged foods

The most famous use of prizes in the United States (and the word "prize" in this context) is
Cracker Jack brand popcorn confection. Prizes have been inserted into every package of Cracker

Jack continuously since 1912.[18] W.K. Kellogg was the first to introduce prizes in boxes of
cereal. The marketing strategy that he established has produced thousands of different cereal box
prizes that have been distributed by the tens of billions.[19] Frito-Lay is a world icon in the field
of in-package prizes. Besides being the current owner of Cracker Jack, the U.S. popcorn
confection brand known for the "Prize Inside",[20] Frito-Lay also regularly includes tazos and
tattoos in packages of Lay's chips worldwide. In parts of Latin America, Frito-Lay has even
introduced a brand called Cheetos Sorpresa (English: Surprise), which includes a licensed prize
(from movies, television, and video games) in every 29gram bag.[21]

Direct marketing pioneers


Ward: the father of mail order
By creating a direct marketing industry through his mail order catalogue, Aaron Montgomery
Ward would unknowingly enable the creation of a powerful global network that would include
everything from mailing, to mail order, to telemarketing and lastly to social medias.[22] Together
Ward and his [long time] competitor Sears changed the direction of the American marketplace
by introducing the concept of individuality with the term consumption, allowing therefore the
generations of today to take full control of their consumption behaviours and all of this in
complete privacy.[23] Today, the mail order catalogue industry Montgomery funded is worth
approximately 100 billions of dollars,[23] and generates over 2 trillion only in [incremental] sales
and supports till this day an estimated 10.9 million jobs either directly related to marketing
industry or dependent upon it.[22]
Wunderman: direct marketing genius
Mail order pioneer Aaron Montgomery Ward knew that by using the technique of selling product
directly to the consumer at appealing prices could, if executed effectively and efficiently,
revolutionize the market industry and therefore be used as an innovative model for marketing
products and creating customer loyalty.[22] The term "direct marketing" was coined long after
Montgomery Ward's time. In 1967 Lester Wunderman identified, named, and defined "direct
marketing". Wunderman considered to be the father of contemporary direct marketing is
behind the creation of the toll-free 1-800 number[22] and numerous mail order based loyalty
marketing programs including the Columbia Record Club, the magazine subscription card, and
the American Express Customer Rewards program.[24]

Modern consumer rewards programs


Frequent flyers
On May 1, 1981 American Airlines launched the first full-scale loyalty marketing program of the
modern era with the AAdvantage frequent flyer program.[25] This revolutionary program was the
first to reward "frequent fliers" with reward miles that could be accumulated and later redeemed
for free travel. Many airlines and travel providers saw the incredible value in providing
customers with an incentive to use a company exclusively and be rewarded for their loyalty.

Within a few years, dozens of travel industry companies launched similar programs. The
AAdvantage program now boasts over 50 million active members.[26]
Card linked offers
The early part of 2010 saw the rise of Card Linked Offers (CLOs) as a new loyalty marketing
technique for brands, retailers and financial institutions, stemming from a rise in popularity of
both mobile payment and coupons. CLOs connect offers or discounts directly to a consumers
credit card or debit card, which can then be redeemed at the point of sale. CLOs have been
implemented by American Express[27] and Groupon[28] and CLO technology has been developed
by companies such as Cartera Commerce,[29] Womply,[30] Cardlytics, Linkable Networks ,
Birdback, Clovr Media,[31] and Offermatic.[32] In order to receive and use CLOs, consumers must
willingly opt into a CLO program and provide their credit/debit card information.[33] When
consumers see relevant CLO-enabled advertisements and product offers while browsing online,
using a mobile device, watching TV, reading a newspaper or magazine or listening to the radio
they can click, text or scan a QR code to link the CLO-enabled ad directly to their credit/debit
card. After consumers make a purchase at the designated retail location, the savings appeared are
credited directly to their bank, credit card or PayPal account. As such, CLOs eliminate point-ofsale integration, mail-in rebates and paper coupons. Offers are typically based upon consumer
preferences and previous purchase history.[31] Prior to 2010, static CLOs existed for many years
in the form of bank issued loyalty offers, such as points or savings on travel purchases.

Loyalty marketing impact


Many loyalty programs have changed the way consumers interact with the companies from
which they purchase products or services from and how much consumers spend. Many
consumers in the US and Europe have become quite accustomed to the rewards and incentives
they receive by being a "card carrying" member of an airline, hotel or car rental program. In
addition, research from Chris X. Moloney shows that nearly half of all credit card users in the
US utilize a points-based rewards program.[34]
In recent years, the competition for high income customers has led many of these loyalty
marketing program providers to provide significant perks that deliver value well beyond reward
points or miles. Both American's AAdvantage program and Starwood Hotels' Preferred Guest
program have received industry awards, called "Freddie Awards" by Inside Flyer Magazine and
its publisher Randy Petersen for providing perks that customers value highly. These perks have
become as important to many travelers as their reward miles according to research.
In his book, Loyalty Rules!, Fred Reichheld details the value to customer referral on the growth
and financial performance of dozens of leading US firms. Reichheld purports that the
measurement of company advocates, or promoters, is the strongest single measurable correlation
between customers and corporate performance. Similarly, Chris X. Moloney has presented new
findings (Loyalty World London 2006) that showed a magnetic value to a company to promote
and measure customer referrals and advocacy via research and marketing.

Loyalty marketing and the loyalty business model


Main article: Loyalty business model

The loyalty business model relies on training of employees to achieve a specific paradigm:
quality of product or service leads to customer satisfaction, which leads to customer loyalty,
which leads to profitability. Loyalty marketing is an extension of that effort, relying upon wordof-mouth and advertising to draw upon the positive experiences of those exposed to loyalty
business model inspired ventures to attract new customers. Fred Reichheld makes the point in his
books that one can leverage the "power of extension" to draw new customers.[35]
The rapid expansion of frequent-flyer programs is due to the fact that loyalty marketing relies on
the earned loyalty of current customers to attract new loyalty from future customers. Incentive
programs that are exclusive must strike a balance between increasing benefits for new customers
over any existing loyalty plan they are currently in and keeping existing customers from moving
to new plans. Hallmark did this through devising a program that directly rewarded customers not
only for buying merchandise and utilizing Hallmark.com, but gaining additional benefits through
referring their friends.[36]
The most recent loyalty marketing programs rely on viral marketing techniques to spread word
of incentive and inducement programs through word of mouth.

Sex in advertising
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[hide]This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these
issues on the talk page.
This article needs additional citations for verification. (June 2013)
This article possibly contains original research. (April 2014)

Images of pretty women often appear in ads even without connection to the product being sold.
This provocatively clad woman lends "sex appeal" to a 1921 ad for tire valve caps.

Marketing
Key concepts

Product marketing

Pricing

Distribution

Service

Brand management

Retail

Brand licensing

Account-based marketing

Effectiveness

Research
Segmentation

Ethics

Strategy
Activation
Management
Dominance

Marketing operations

Social marketing

Identity

Digital marketing

Promotional contents

Advertising

Branding

Underwriting spot

Direct marketing

Personal sales

Product placement

Propaganda

Publicity

Sales promotion

Sex in advertising

Loyalty marketing

Mobile marketing

Premiums

Prizes

Corporate anniversary

On-hold messaging

Promotional media

Publication

Printing
Broadcasting

Out-of-home advertising

Point of sale

Merchandise

In-game advertising
Product demonstration

Word-of-mouth

Brand ambassador

Internet

Drip marketing

Visual merchandising

v
t
e

Sex in advertising or sex sells is the use of sex appeal in advertising to help sell a particular
product or service. Sexually appealing imagery may or may not pertain to the product or service
in question. Examples of sexually appealing imagery include nudity, pin-up girls, and muscular
men.
The use of sex in advertising can be highly overt or extremely subtle. It ranges from relatively
explicit displays of sexual acts, to the use of basic cosmetics to enhance attractive features.

Contents

1 History
2 Consumer culture
3 Consumer identity
4 The concept
5 Effectiveness
6 Prevalence
7 Criticism
8 See also
9 References
10 External links

History
Sex has been utilized in advertising since its beginning. The earliest forms are wood carvings and
illustrations of attractive women (often unclothed from the waist up) adorned posters, signs, and
ads for saloons, tonics, and tobacco. In several notable cases, sex in advertising has been claimed
as the reason for increased consumer interest and sales. The earliest known use of sex in
advertising is by the Pearl Tobacco brand in 1871, which featured a naked maiden on the
package cover. In 1885, W. Duke & Sons inserted trading cards into cigarette packs that featured
sexually provocative starlets. Duke grew to become the leading cigarette brand by 1890 (Porter,
1971).
Woodbury's Facial Soap, a woman's beauty bar, was almost discontinued in 1910. The soap's
sales decline was reversed, however, with ads containing images of romantic couples and
promises of love and intimacy for those using the brand (Account Histories, 1926). Jovan Musk
Oil, introduced in 1971, was promoted with sexual entendre and descriptions of the fragrance's
sexual attraction properties. As a result, Jovane, Inc.'s revenue grew from $1.5 million in 1971 to
$77 million by 1978 (Sloan & Millman, 1979).

The advertisements for Clairol hair dye during the 1970s, which asked the double entendre
question, "Does she... or doesn't she? Only her hairdresser knows for sure", were another famous
use of sex to sell products.[1]
Calvin Klein has been at the forefront of this movement, having said, "Jeans are about sex. The
abundance of bare flesh is the last gasp of advertisers trying to give redundant products a new
identity." Calvin Klein's first controversial jeans advertisement showed a 15-year-old Brooke
Shields, in Calvin Klein jeans, saying, "Want to know what gets between me and my Calvins?
Nothing."[2]

Consumer culture
Near the beginning of the twentieth century, first-world society outside of career exercise
became deeply involved in the consumption of goods as opposed to production, meaning that
people began to pursue material goods with the goal of fulfilling a general desire to own the item
rather than for later use. The sum of this ideal in the population comprise the majority of socalled consumers.[3]
Consumer culture actually impresses on the individual an egotistic drive to consume as a facet of
cultural acceptance and self-actualization, which means people are constantly pursuing several
types of gratification through the acquisition of potentially desirable items rather than more
conventional means. In this way, the consumerism can manifest in individual in such ways as:
impulsive financial expenditure, association of material possessions with social fitness, and
habitual. At the root of this phenomenon, and the advent of habitual consumption in modernistic
society.
Taylorism, which introduced analytical study and controlled adjustment of workflow with the
purpose of fostering economic growth, coupled with the institution of scientific management in
the industrial workforce, engendered a large increase in productivity during the mid-to-late
twentieth century, bringing substantially more goods to market than ever before. Further, as
technology improved, the ease with which a product could be advertised drastically increased,
encouraging businesses to invest in the efficacy of advertisements as a whole. As a result of this
investment, consumers were gradually enticed to lend their eyes and ears to advertisers not
merely in the appropriate time and place, but at all hours of the day, in previously unprecedented
locations.
To compound this increased exposure to advertisement in daily life, advancements in other fields
of technology stood to increase the sum-total leisure time afforded most consumers per week,
shortening the length of commutes and reducing the difficulty and time required to complete
various types of work. This decrease in the time it takes the average worker to complete the same
tasks would often leave workers idle during timeframes previously occupied by work or rest,
inciting a willingness to invest time and money in order to prevent stagnation. The
popularization of increasingly trivial products and activities during this downtime catalyzed the
explosion of consumer culture in modern times. Giddens 1991.[4]

Gradually, the public consensus on the nature of shopping slowly shifted as people no longer
considered shopping a conscious, needs-driven activity, but rather an intrinsic feature of standard
urban living; shopping became a societal ritual available to complete 24 hours per day, the time
between sessions mitigated solely by the fluctuation of an individual's income. To reinforce this
constant and inexorable reality of consumption, the average consumer is in near constant contact
with engaging and provocative advertising through all forms of media that make use of a wide
range of other motivational tools, most of which combine product placement with an appeal to
other facets of human culture that may have little to do with the product at all.
Excluding more complex manipulation of the market through lengthy and subversive processes
like operant conditioning, some of the most popular and/or efficient forms of advertising include
appeals made to morality, contextual humor, and sexual drive, also known as libido.

Consumer identity
Cultural capital the term used by Pierre Bourdieu, indicates the association of non-financial
assets (e.g., material goods) with the power to build and differentiate one's social identity as
relative to others of one's class. Often the type and amount of cultural capital possessed by an
individual is an indication of self-identification as well as social position. When the positivity of
an individual's self-perception is compromised, the consumption of specific goods can serve to
mitigate detrimental effects and help to stabilize identity.[3]
In Aaron T. Becks theory, the significance of social identity or work status are relevant to the
processes of modernization, which is a traditional factor in identity. Perception of others is
defined in relation to oneself, and the modernity of an individual in relation to society as a whole
is a deciding factor in said individual's social identity.
As industry and career placement opportunities shift in time, many people are subjected to
revisions in the standard, losing jobs for which they may have been well-qualified. Such stimuli
can foster doubt and uncertainty in an individual and lower their overall self-esteem. This
disruptive sense of uncertainty gives rise to a need to exert control over one's life, often in the
form of consumption, in order to re-affirm the individuality and identity of the self.
The appearance of consumer-oriented goods more prominently throughout the economy can also
be seen as an embodiment of the change in buyer-preference that has accompanied modernity.
However, this change in consumption is also driven by the increased frequency of selfcomparison and self-evaluation in individuals of recent decades. Lasch[who?] believes that modern
society is too concerned with self-image, both physical and social, arguing that consumer culture
also embodies a specific form of cultural narcissism. A prevailing facet of modern life is the
need to fully and in most cases, and in some cases, instantly impress the nature of one's physical
identity upon one's peers; thus, in modern societies, the expression of self-identity is already
inextricably tied with physical expression.
In the face of such significant value being associated with physical imagery, the importance of
maintaining one's physical appearance in such societies becomes universally recognizable.
Furthermore, the promotion of such ideal images relates to the formation of cosmetic ideology,

modifying societal beauty standards to corroborate popular imagery. The idealization of the body
has altered what people value and with which pursuits the population can identify, glorifying the
utilization of physically (sexually) appealing imagery as effective propaganda in the field of
public marketing.[3]

The concept

A model promotes Jgermeister, 2006


Sex in advertising builds on the premise that people are curious about sexuality and that
experience in marketing has been that sexuality sells products. From a marketing point of view,
sexuality can have biological, emotional/physical or spiritual aspects. The biological aspect of
sexuality refers to the reproductive mechanism as well as the basic biological drive that exists in
all species, which is hormonally controlled. The emotional or physical aspect of sexuality refers
to the bond that exists between individuals, and is expressed through profound feelings or
physical manifestations of emotions of love, trust, and caring. There is also a spiritual aspect of
sexuality of an individual or as a connection with others. Advertisers may and do use the various
aspects of sexuality in advertisements.
When sexuality is used in advertising, certain values and attitudes towards sex are necessarily
'sold' along with a product. In advertising terms, this is called "the concept". The message may
be that "innocence is sexy" (as used by Calvin Klein when it uses young people in provocative
poses), or that link pain and violence with sexiness and glamour (as used by Versace), or that
women enjoy being dominated, or that women come with a product (e.g. in the advertisement for
Budweiser Beer), or that the use of a certain product is naughty but legal, or that use of a certain
product will make the user more attractive to the opposite sex, and many other messages.
When couples are used in an advertisement, the sex-roles played by each also sends out
messages. The interaction of the couple may send out a message of relative dominance and
power, and may stereotype the roles of one or both partners. Usually the message is very subtle,
and sometimes advertisements attract interest by changing stereotypical roles.

Effectiveness
Gallup & Robinson, an advertising and marketing research firm, has reported that in more than
50 years of testing advertising effectiveness, it has found the use of the erotic to be a
significantly above-average technique in communicating with the marketplace, "...although one
of the more dangerous for the advertiser. Weighted down with taboos and volatile attitudes, sex
is a Code Red advertising technique ... handle with care ... seller beware; all of which makes it
even more intriguing." This research has led to the popular idea that "sex sells".[citation needed]
In contemporary mainstream consumer advertising (e.g., magazines, network and cable
television), sex is present in promotional messages for a wide range of branded goods. Ads
feature provocative images of well-defined women (and men) in revealing outfits and postures
selling clothing, alcohol, beauty products, and fragrances. Advertisers such as Calvin Klein,
Victoria's Secret, and Pepsi use these images to cultivate a ubiquitous sex-tinged media presence.
Also, sexual information is used to promote mainstream products not traditionally associated
with sex. For example, the Dallas Opera recent reversal of declining ticket sales has been
attributed to the marketing of the more lascivious parts of its performances (Chism, 1999).[5]
As many consumers and professionals think, sex is used to grab a viewer's attention but this is a
short-term success. Whether using sex in advertising is effective depends on the product.[6]
About three-quarters of advertisements using sex to sell the product are communicating a
product-related benefit, such as the product making its users more sexually attractive.
Nonetheless, there are some studies that contradict the theory that sex is an effective tool for
improving finances and gathering attention. A study from 2009 found that there was no
correlation between nudity and sexuality in movies, and box office performance and critical
acclaim.[7] A 2005 research by MediaAnalyzer has found that less than 10% of men recalled the
brand of sexual ads, compared to more than 19% of non sexual ads; a similar result was found on
women (10.8% vs. 22.3%). It is hypothesized by that survey, that this is a result of a general
numbing caused by sexual stimuli.[8]
In another experimental study conducted on 324 undergraduate college students, Bushman
examined brand recall for neutral, sexual or violent commercials embedded in neutral, sexual or
violent TV programs. He found that found brand recall was higher for participants who saw
neutral TV programs and neutral commercials versus those who saw sexual or violent
commercials embedded in sexual or violent TV programs.[9]
Some sexually oriented advertisements provoke a backlash against the product. In 1995, Calvin
Klein's advertising campaign showed teenage models in provocative poses wearing Calvin Klein
underwear and jeans. The ads were withdrawn when parents and child welfare groups threatened
to protest and Hudson stores did not want their stores associated with the ads. It was reported that
the Justice Department was investigating the ad campaign for possible violations of federal child
pornography and exploitation laws. The Justice Department subsequently decided not to
prosecute Calvin Klein for these proposed violations. [10]

Using sex may attract one market demographic while repelling another. The overt use of
sexuality to promote breast cancer awareness, through fundraising campaigns like "I Love
Boobies" and "Save the Ta-tas", is effective at reaching young women,[citation needed] who are at
low risk of developing breast cancer, but angers and offends some breast cancer survivors and
older women, who are at higher risk of developing breast cancer.[11]
Recent research indicates that the use of sexual images of women in ads negatively affects
women's interest.[12] A study from University of Minnesota in 2013 of how printed ads with
sexual content affects women clearly showed that women are not attracted except in the case of
products being luxurious and expensive.[13] Besides alienating women there is a serious risk that
the audience in general will reduce support to organisations that uses the sexual images of
women without a legitimate reason.[14] Other studies have found that sex in television is
extremely overrated and does not sell products in ads. Unless sex is related to the product (such
as beauty, health or hygiene products) there is not clear effect.[15][16]
Sexuality in advertising is extremely effective at attracting the consumers attention and once it
has their attention, to remember the message. This solves the greatest problem in advertising of
getting the advertisement to be remembered. However the introduction of attraction and
especially sexuality into an ad often distracts from the original message and can cause an adverse
effect of the consumer wanting to take action.[17]

Prevalence
Over the past two decades, the use of increasingly explicit sexual imagery in consumer-oriented
print advertising has become almost commonplace.
In recent years ads for jeans, perfumes and many other products have featured provocative
images that were designed to elicit sexual responses from as large a cross section of the
population as possible, to shock by their ambivalence, or to appeal to repressed sexual desires,
which are thought to carry a stronger emotional load. Increased tolerance, more tempered
censorship, emancipatory developments and increasing buying power of previously neglected
appreciative target groups in rich markets (mainly in the West) have led to a marked increase in
the share of attractive flesh 'on display'.
Ad Age published a list of Top 100 most effective advertising of the century, out of the 100, only
8 involved use of sex.[1]
Unruly Media's viral video tracker lists the Top-20 most viewed car commercial viral videos.
Only 1 uses sex, while the No.1 spot was held by VW's "The Force" ad.[18] The overall top-spot
(across all product segments), was held by VW's "Fun Theory" campaign, the most viewed viral
video as of October 2011.

Criticism

Use of sexual imagery in advertising has been criticized on various grounds. Religious
Conservatives often consider it obscene or immodest. Some feminists and masculists claim it
reinforces sexism by objectifying the individual. Increasingly, this argument has been
complicated by growing use of androgynous and homoerotic themes in marketing.[19]
Advertisers trying to reach low-income and less educated men frequently use hypermasculine
stereotypes, such as depicting men as only being capable of a limited range of behaviors, such as
being physically violent or sexually aggressive.[20]
Since the late 1970s, many researchers have determined that advertisements depict women as
having less social power than men, but the ways in which females are displayed as less powerful
than men have evolved over time. In modern times, advertisements have displayed womens
expanding roles in the professional realm and importance in business backgrounds. However, as
this change occurred there has been a substantial increase in the number of images that showcase
women as less sexually powerful than men and as objects of mens desire.[21]

Sales promotion
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Marketing
Key concepts

Product marketing

Pricing

Distribution

Service

Brand management

Retail

Brand licensing

Account-based marketing

Effectiveness

Research
Segmentation

Ethics

Strategy
Activation
Management
Dominance

Marketing operations

Social marketing

Identity

Digital marketing

Promotional contents

Advertising

Branding

Underwriting spot

Direct marketing

Personal sales

Product placement

Propaganda

Publicity

Sales promotion

Sex in advertising

Loyalty marketing

Mobile marketing

Premiums

Prizes

Corporate anniversary

On-hold messaging

Promotional media

Publication

Printing
Broadcasting

Out-of-home advertising

Point of sale

Merchandise

In-game advertising
Product demonstration

Word-of-mouth

Brand ambassador

Internet

Drip marketing

Visual merchandising

v
t
e

Half Off Discount


Sales promotion is one of the five aspects of the promotional mix. (The other 4 parts of the
promotional mix are advertising, personal selling, direct marketing and publicity/public
relations.) Media and non-media marketing communication are employed for a pre-determined,
limited time to increase consumer demand, stimulate market demand or improve product
availability. Examples include contests, coupons, freebies, loss leaders, point of purchase
displays, premiums, prizes, product samples, and rebates
Sales promotions can be directed at either the customer, sales staff, or distribution channel
members (such as retailers). Sales promotions targeted at the consumer are called consumer
sales promotions. Sales promotions targeted at retailers and wholesale are called trade sales
promotions. Some sale promotions, particularly ones with unusual methods, are considered
gimmicks by many.
Sales promotion includes several communications activities that attempt to provide added value
or incentives to consumers, wholesalers, retailers, or other organizational customers to stimulate
immediate sales. These efforts can attempt to stimulate product interest, trial, or purchase.
Examples of devices used in sales promotion include coupons, samples, premiums, point-ofpurchase (POP) displays, contests, rebates, and sweepstakes.
Sales promotion is needed to attract new customers, to hold present customers, to counteract
competition, and to take advantage of opportunities that are revealed by market research. It is
made up of activities, both outside and inside activities, to enhance company sales. Outside sales
promotion activities include advertising, publicity, public relations activities, and special sales
events. Inside sales promotion activities includes window displays, product and promotional
material display and promotional programs such as premium awards and contests.[1]
Sale promotions often come in the form of discounts. Discounts impact the way consumers think
and behave when shopping. The type of savings and its location can affect the way consumers
view a product and affect their purchase decision.[2] The two most common discounts are price
discounts (on sale items) and bonus packs (bulk items).[2] Price discounts are the reduction
of an original sale by a certain percentage while bonus packs are deals in which the consumer

receives more for the original price.[2] Many companies present different forms of discounts in
advertisements, hoping to convince consumers to buy their products.

Contents

1 Consumer sales promotion types


o 1.1 Online deals vs. In-store deals
2 Trade sales promotion techniques
3 Retail Mechanics
4 Consumer Thought Process
o 4.1 Meaningful Savings: Gain or Loss
o 4.2 Impulse Buying
o 4.3 Comparing Prices
o 4.4 Right Digit Effect
o 4.5 Framing Effect
o 4.6 Outside Forces
5 Political issues
6 See also
7 References
8 External links

Consumer sales promotion types

Price deal: A temporary reduction in the price, such as 50% off.


Loyal Reward Program: Consumers collect points, miles, or credits for purchases and
redeem them for rewards.
Cents-off deal: Offers a brand at a lower price. Price reduction may be a percentage
marked on the package.
Price-pack/Bonus packs deal: The packaging offers a consumer a certain percentage more
of the product for the same price (for example, 25 percent extra). This is another type of
deal in which customers are offered more of the product for the same price.[2] For
example, a sales company may offer their consumers a bonus pack in which they can
receive two products for the price of one. In these scenarios, this bonus pack is framed as
a gain because buyers believe that they are obtaining a free product.[2] The purchase of a
bonus pack, however, is not always beneficial for the consumer. Sometimes consumers
will end up spending money on an item they would not normally buy had it not been in a
bonus pack. As a result, items bought in a bonus pack are often wasted and is viewed as a
loss for the consumer.
Coupons: coupons have become a standard mechanism for sales promotions.
Loss leader: the price of a popular product is temporarily reduced below cost in order to
stimulate other profitable sales
Free-standing insert (FSI): A coupon booklet is inserted into the local newspaper for
delivery.
Checkout dispensers: On checkout the customer is given a coupon based on products
purchased.

Mobile couponing: Coupons are available on a mobile phone. Consumers show the offer
on a mobile phone to a salesperson for redemption.
Online interactive promotion game: Consumers play an interactive game associated with
the promoted product.
Rebates: Consumers are offered money back if the receipt and barcode are mailed to the
producer.
Contests/sweepstakes/games: The consumer is automatically entered into the event by
purchasing the product.
Point-of-sale displays:o Aisle interrupter: A sign that juts into the aisle from the shelf.
o Dangler: A sign that sways when a consumer walks by it.
o Dump bin: A bin full of products dumped inside.
o Bidding portals: Getting prospects
o Glorifier: A small stage that elevates a product above other products.
o Wobbler: A sign that jiggles.
o Lipstick Board: A board on which messages are written in crayon.
o Necker: A coupon placed on the 'neck' of a bottle.
o YES unit: "your extra salesperson" is a pull-out fact sheet.
[3]
o Electroluminescent: Solar-powered, animated light in motion.
Kids eat free specials: Offers a discount on the total dining bill by offering 1 free kids
meal with each regular meal purchased.
Sampling: Consumers get one sample for free, after their trial and then could decide
whether to buy or not.

Online deals vs. In-store deals


There are different types of discounts available online versus in the stores. On-shelf couponing:
Coupons are present at the shelf where the product is available. * On-line couponing: Coupons
are available online. Consumers print them out and take them to the store.Although discounts can
be found online and in stores, there is a different thought process when shopping in each
location. For example, online shoppers are more price-sensitive because of the readily available
low search cost and direct price comparisons.[2] Consumers can easily go to other websites and
find better deals as opposed to physically going to various stores.[2] In addition, buyers tend to
refrain from purchasing bonus packs online because of the skepticism (of fraud and scams) that
may come with the deal.[2] Since bonus packs are more difficult than price discounts to
process online, they are more difficult and effortful for the consumer to understand.[2] For
example, a buy-one-get-one-free deal on a website requires more work than the same bonus pack
offered in a store. Online, consumers have to deal with payment processing, shipping and
handling fees, and days waiting for the products arrival, while in a store, the products are
available without those additional steps and delays.

Trade sales promotion techniques

Trade allowances: short term incentive offered to induce a retailer to stock up on a


product.
Dealer loader: An incentive given to induce a retailer to purchase and display a product.

Trade contest: A contest to reward retailers that sell the most product.
Point-of-purchase displays: Used to create the urge of "impulse" buying and selling your
product on the spot.
Training programs: dealer employees are trained in selling the product.
Push money: also known as "spiffs". An extra commission paid to retail employees to
push products.

Trade discounts (also called functional discounts): These are payments to distribution channel
members for performing some function .

Retail Mechanics
Retailers have a stock number of retail 'mechanics' that they regularly roll out or rotate for new
marketing initiatives.

Buy x get y free a.k.a. BOGOF for Buy One Get One Free
Three for two
Buy a quantity for a lower price
Get x% of discount on weekdays.
Free gift with purchase

Consumer Thought Process


Meaningful Savings: Gain or Loss
Many discounts are designed to give consumers the perception of saving money when buying
products, but not all discounted prices are viewed as favorable to buyers. Therefore, before
making a purchase, consumers may weigh their options as either a gain or a loss to avoid the risk
of losing money on a purchase.[4] A gain view on a purchase results in chance taking.[4] For
example, if there is a buy-one-get-one-half-off discount that seems profitable, a shopper will buy
the product. On the other hand, a loss viewpoint results in consumer aversion to taking any
chances.[4] For instance, consumers will pass on a buy-three-get-one-half-off discount if they
believe they are not benefitting from the deal. Specifically, consumers will consider their options
because the sensation of loss is 2.5 times greater than the sensation of gain for the same
value.[4]

Impulse Buying
Impulse buying results from consumers failure to weigh their options before buying a product.
Impulse buying is any purchase that a shopper makes that has not been planned [and is]
sudden and immediate.[2] For example, if a consumer has no intention of buying a product
before entering a store, but purchases an item without any forethought, that is impulse buying.
Product manufactures want to promote and encourage this instant purchase impulse in
consumers. Buyers can be very quick to make purchases without thinking about the
consequences when a product is perceived to be a good deal.[2] Therefore, sales companies

increasingly implement promotional campaigns that will be effective in triggering consumer


impulse buying behavior to increase sales and profit.[2]

Comparing Prices
Many consumers read left-to-right, and therefore, compare prices in the same manner.[5] For
example, if the price of a product is $93 and the sales price is $79, people will initially compare
the left digits first (9 and 7) and notice the two digit difference.[5] However, because of this
habitual behavior, consumers may perceive the ($14) difference between $93 and $79 as greater
than the ($14) difference between $89 and $75.[5] As a result, many times consumers mistakenly
believe they are receiving a better deal with the first set of prices based on the left digit solely.[5]
And because of that common misconception, companies will use that method more often than
not to make a profit.

Right Digit Effect


The right digit effect focuses on the right digits of prices when the left digits are the same.[5] In
other words, prices like $45 and $42 force consumers to pay more attention to the right digits
(the 2 and 5) to determine the discount received. This effect also implies that consumers will
perceive larger discounts for prices with small right digit endings, than for large right digit
endings.[5] For example, in a $32-to-$31 price reduction, consumers will believe to have received
a greater deal than a $39-to-$38 price reduction. As a result, companies may use discounts with
smaller right digits to mislead consumers into thinking they are receiving a better deal and
increasing profit. However, consumers also are deceived by the infamous 9-ending prices.[5]
The right digit effect [also] relates to consumers tendency to identify 9-ending prices as sale
(rather than regular) prices or to associate them with a discount.[5] For example, a regular price of
$199 is mistakenly viewed as a sale or discount by consumers. Sales companies most commonly
use this approach because the misinterpretation of consumers usually results in an increase of
sales and profit.

Framing Effect
The Framing Effect is the phenomenon that occurs when there is a change in an individuals
preference between two or more alternatives caused by the way the problem is presented.[4] In
other words, the format in which something is presented will affect a persons viewpoint. This
theory consists of three subcategories: risky choice framing, attribute framing and goal
framing.[6] Risky choice framing references back to the gain-or-loss thought processes of
consumers.[4][6] Consumers will take chances if the circumstance is profitable for them and avoid
chance-taking if it is not. Attribute framing deals with one key phrase or feature of a price
discount that is emphasized to inspire consumer shopping.[6] For example, the terms free and
better are used commonly to lure in shoppers to buy a product. Goal framing places pressure
on buyers to act hastily or face the consequences of missing out on a definite price reduction.[6] A
limited time only deal, for example, attempts to motivate buyers to make a purchase quickly,
or buy on impulse, before the time runs out.[6]

Outside Forces

Although there are aspects that can determine a consumers shopping behavior, there are many
outside factors that can influence the shoppers decision in making a purchase. For example,
even though a products price is discounted, the quality of that product may dissuade the
consumer from buying the item.[4] If the product has poor customer reviews or has a short life
span, shoppers will view that purchase as a loss and avoid taking a chance on it. A product can
also be viewed negatively because of consumers past experiences and expectations.[4] For
example, if the size of a product is misleading, buyers will not want to buy it. An item advertised
as huge, but is only one inch tall, will ward off consumers. Also, the effects of personal
characteristics, such as consumers gender, subjective norms, and impulsivity can also affect a
consumers purchase intentions.[2] For example, a female will, generally, purchase a cosmetic
product more often than a male. In addition, someshoppers may be unable to buy [a
product]because of financial constraints.[2] Neither a discounted price nor a bonus pack has
the ability to entice consumers if they cannot afford the product.

Political issues
Sales promotions have traditionally been heavily regulated in many advanced industrial nations,
with the notable exception of the United States. For example, the United Kingdom formerly
operated under a resale price maintenance regime in which manufacturers could legally dictate
the minimum resale price for virtually all goods; this practice was abolished in 1964.[7]
Most European countries also have controls on the scheduling and permissible types of sales
promotions, as they are regarded in those countries as bordering upon unfair business practices.
Germany is notorious for having the most strict regulations. Famous examples include the car
wash that was barred from giving free car washes to regular customers and a baker who could
not give a free cloth bag to customers who bought more than 10 rolls.[8]

Comparison shopping website


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A comparison shopping website, sometimes called a price comparison website, comparison
shopping agent, shopbot or comparison shopping engine, is a vertical search engine that
shoppers use to filter and compare products based on price, features, and other criteria. Most
comparison shopping sites aggregate product listings from many different retailers but do not
directly sell products themselves. In the United Kingdom, these services made between 780m
and 950m in revenue in 2005[1][dated info].

Contents

1 History
2 Comparison shopping agent
o 2.1 Shopping
o 2.2 Services

3 Technology
o 3.1 Functionality and performance
4 Price data collection
o 4.1 Mobile
5 Pricing History
6 Business models
7 Google Panda and price comparison
8 Niche players
9 See also
10 References

History
The first widely recognized comparison-shopping agent was BargainFinder developed by then
Andersen Consulting (now Accenture) and its SmartStore center in 1995 for an experiment. The
first commercial shopping agent, called Jango, was produced by Netbot, a Seattle startup
company founded by University of Washington professors Oren Etzioni and Daniel S. Weld;
Netbot was acquired by the Excite portal in late 1997. Junglee, a Bay-area startup, also pioneered
comparison shopping technology and was soon acquired by Amazon.com. Other early
comparison shopping agents included pricewatch.com and killerapp.com. Most of them were
price comparison for computer related products and hence did not attract much public attention.
The dot-com bubble of the late 1990s made price comparison profitable. Price comparison
services were initially implemented as client-side add-ins to the Netscape and Internet explorer
browsers, and required that users download and install additional software. After these initial
efforts, comparison shopping migrated to the server, making the service accessible to anyone
with a browser. Such services are now offered by websites dedicated to price comparison, and by
major portals. Since shopping on e-commerce sites is still new in many countries, there aren't
many global sites in this category.
Around 2010, the price comparison websites found their way to emerging markets. Especially
South-East Asia has been a place for many new comparison websites. It started in 2010 with
CompareXpress in Singapore, and in the following years companies like Baoxian (China) and
AskHanuman (Thailand) followed.[2] The market is expected to grow a lot in the upcoming years
as ecommerce is becoming more familiar in this region.
As of 2013, the market for more data-driven price comparison sites was growing, as several
venture capital firms made large investments in price comparison sites with big-data oriented
platforms, including FindTheBest, Askhanuman and the Singaporean price comparison startup
Save 22.[3][4][5]

Comparison shopping agent


In the early development stage from 1995 to 2000, comparison shopping agents included not
only price comparison but also rating and review services for online vendors and products. For

example, services like Bizrate.com provided ratings for online vendors. Today, websites like
Epinion.com provide review and rating services for products. Altogether, there were three broad
categories of comparison shopping services.[6]
Later, through mergers and acquisitions, many services were consolidated. As a result,
shopping.com, PriceGrabber and shopzilla have become the top three comparison shopping
agents since 2000.
Comparison shopping agents may be considered early examples of the Semantic Web, but early
systems used wrappers to extract structured information about products from Web pages.
Wrapper construction requires extensive programming and results in a fragile system, since they
must be reprogrammed when an online store changes its layout. Modern comparison shopping
systems get most of their data from relational data feeds generated by retailers. While this
typically yields more robust results, it requires retailer cooperation and may produce less
comprehensive listings.

Shopping
In the late 1990s, as more people gained access to the internet, a range of shopping portals were
built that listed retailers for specific product genres. Retailers listed paid the website a fixed fee
for appearing. These were little more than an online version of the Yellow Pages. As technology
has improved, a newer "breed" of shopping Web portals is being created that are changing both
the business model and the features and functionality offered. These sites do not "aggregate"
data-feeds provided from the retailers, they search and retrieve the data directly from each
retailer site. That allows for a much more comprehensive list of retailers and the ability to update
the data in real time.
Generic portals and search engines launched similar services and companies that stood to benefit
from increased internet shopping (especially credit card and delivery firms) launched similar
sites.

Services
Through 1998 and 1999, various firms developed technology that searched retailers websites for
prices and stored them in a central database. Users could then search for a product, and see a list
of retailers and prices for that product. Advertisers did not pay to be listed, but paid for every
click on a price. Streetprices, founded in 1997, has been a very early company in this space; it
invented price graphs and email alerts in 1998.[7] These useful services let users see the high and
low price of any product graphed over time, and request email alerts when a product's price
drops to the price the user wants. O Cbuystore.com its largest online shopping compare website.
cbuystore are available in eight countries to help finding and compare prices of any product that
you want to purchase or buy.

Technology

Price comparison sites can collect data directly from merchants. Retailers who want to list their
products on the website then supply their own lists of products and prices, and these are matched
against the original database. This is done by a mixture of information extraction, fuzzy logic
and human labour.
Comparison sites can also collect data through a data feed file. Merchants provide information
electronically in a set format. This data is then imported by the comparison website. Some third
party businesses are providing consolidation of data feeds so that comparison sites do not have to
import from many different merchants. Affiliate networks such as LinkShare, Commission
Junction or TradeDoubler aggregate data feeds from many merchants and provide them to the
price comparison sites. This enables price comparison sites to monetize the products contained in
the feeds by earning commissions on click through traffic. Other price comparison sites like
PriceGrabber have deals with merchants and aggregate feeds using their own technology.
In recent years, many off the shelf software solutions[8] have been developed that allow website
owners to take price comparison websites' inventory data to place retailer prices (context adverts)
on their blog or content only website. In return the content website owners receive a small share
of the revenue earned by the price comparison website. This is often referred to as the revenue
share[9] business model.
Another approach is to crawl the web for prices. This means the comparison service scans retail
web pages to retrieve the prices, instead of relying on the retailers to supply them. This method is
also sometimes called 'scraping' information. Some, mostly smaller, independent sites solely use
this method, to get prices directly from the websites that it is using for the comparison.
Yet another approach is to collect data is through crowdsourcing. This lets the price comparison
engine collect data from almost any source without the complexities of building a crawler or the
logistics of setting up data feeds at the expense of lower coverage comprehensiveness. Sites that
use this method rely on visitors contributing pricing data. Unlike discussion forums, which also
collect visitor input, price comparison sites that use this method combine data with related inputs
and add it to the main database though collaborative filtering, artificial intelligence, or human
labor. Data contributors may be rewarded for the effort through prizes, cash, or other social
incentives. Wishabi, a Canadian based price comparison site, is one example that employs this
technique in addition to the others mentioned.
However, some combination of these two approaches is most frequently used. Some search
engines are starting to blend information from standard feeds with information from sites where
product stock-keeping units (SKUs) are unavailable.
Similar to search engine technology, price comparison sites are now spawning "comparison site
optimisation" specialists, who attempt to increase prominence on the comparison sites by
optimising titles, prices and content.[citation needed] However, this does not always have the same
effect, due to the differing business models in price comparison.[citation needed]

Functionality and performance

Comparison shopping websites implement algorithms for shopping search comparison. Shopping
search comparison (SSC) is composed of two different technologies: page-wise search and sitewise search.
In page-wise search a phrase, such as a product name, is searched over an index of pages. When
the phrase is found, the URLs of the pages in which the phrase was found are returned to the user
in the users browser along with pictures of the products found.
In site-wise search, several product names are searched not over an index of pages, but over an
index of sites. To perform a site-wise search the SSC engine must search all pages in every site
in its index and return the sites that have pages where one of the several product names occur.
Site-wise search is more computer-intensive because multiple products are searched over
multiple pages on multiple sites. The result, although costly in terms of computing power, is that
a list of products may be searched and found at a single website for example at an online
merchant.
Empirical projects that assessed the functionality and performance of page-wise SSC engines
(AKA bots) exist. These studies demonstrate that no best or parsimonious shopping bot exists
with respect to price advantage.[10][11]

Price data collection


Some price comparisons sites use web scraping technology or robots to extract price from the
online stores to display in price comparison table, while others use an affiliation API call to
display price comparison of products.[citation needed]
Common comparison features
Browse
Comparis
Specificat
Offli
Mobi Multi
WebSi
r
on
Watchl Foru Blo
ion
AP ne
Site
le
ple
te Extensi
Between
ist
ms
g Comparis I Store
App Stores
on
Stores
on
s
PriceGrabb
Ye
Yes
No
Yes Yes
Yes
No
No
No No
No
er
s
Shopping.c
Yes
No
No Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No No
No No
om

Mobile
Mobile comparison shopping is a growing subset of comparison sites/applications. Due to the
nuances of mobile application development, different product strategies have been pursued.
SMS-based products allow users to find product prices using SMS-based interaction (example:
TextBuyIt by Amazon), mobile web applications let users browse mobile optimized websites
(Example: Google Product Search Mobile). At the heavier end, native client applications
installed on the device offer features such as bar code scanning (Example: Barnes & Noble
iPhone app).[12]

Pricing History
In addition to comparison between stores, some sites also provide price history information. This
information can be used to determine, e.g., that certain products go on sale regularly, or that
certain stores never discount specific product categories. Seeing this information across multiple
stores can facilitate price matching or price protection.[citation needed]

Business models
Price comparison sites typically do not charge users anything to use the site. Instead, they are
monetized through payments from retailers who are listed on the site. Depending on the
particular business model of the comparison shopping site, retailers either pay a flat fee to be
included on the site, pay a fee each time a user clicks through to the retailer web site, or pay
every time a user completes a specified actionfor example, when they buy something or
register with their e-mail address. Comparison shopping sites obtain large product data feeds
covering many different retailers from affiliate networks such as LinkShare and Commission
Junction. There are also companies that specialize in data feed consolidation for the purpose of
price comparison and that charge users for accessing this data. When products from these feeds
are displayed on their sites they earn money each time a visitor clicks through to the merchant's
site and buys something. Search results may be sorted by the amount of payment received from
the merchants listed on the website.[13] large price comparison sites.[14]

Google Panda and price comparison


Like most websites, price comparison websites partly rely on search engines for visitors. The
general nature of Shopping focused price comparison websites is that, since their content is
provided by retail stores, content on price comparison websites is unlikely to be absolutely
unique. The table style layout of a comparison website could be considered by Google as
"Autogenerated Content and Roundup/Comparison Type of Pages".[15] As of the Google Panda,
Google seems to have started considering these Roundup/Comparison type of pages low
quality.[16]

Niche players
Due to large affiliate network providers providing easily accessible information on large amounts
of similar products from multiple vendors, in recent years small price comparison sites have been
able to use technology that was previously only available to large price comparison sites.[14]
The rise in popularity of video games expanded the price comparison market beyond physical
goods. Niche websites for comparing the prices of virtual goods in video games and digital
downloads have emerged in recent years.[17]

Social commerce

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Part of a series on

E-commerce
Online goods and services

E-books

Software

Streaming media

Retail services

Banking
DVD-by-mail

Flower delivery

Food ordering

Pharmacy

Travel

Marketplace services

Advertising

Comparison shopping

Auctions

Social commerce
Trading communities

Wallet

Mobile commerce

Payment

Ticketing

Customer service

Call centre

Help desk

Live support software

E-procurement
Purchase-to-pay

v
t
e

Social commerce[1] is a subset of electronic commerce that involves social media, online media
that supports social interaction, and user contributions to assist online buying and selling of
products and services.
More succinctly, social commerce is the use of social network(s) in the context of e-commerce
transactions.
The term social commerce was introduced by Yahoo! in November 2005[2] which describes a set
of online collaborative shopping tools such as shared pick lists, user ratings and other usergenerated content-sharing of online product information and advice.
The concept of social commerce was developed by David Beisel to denote user-generated
advertorial content on e-commerce sites,[3] and by Steve Rubel[4] to to include collaborative ecommerce tools that enable shoppers "to get advice from trusted individuals, find goods and
services and then purchase them". The social networks that spread this advice have been found[5]
to increase the customer's trust in one retailer over another.
Social commerce aims to assist companies in achieving the following purposes. Firstly, social
commerce helps companies engage customers with their brands according to the customers
social behaviors. Secondly, it provides an incentive for customers to return to their website.
Thirdly, it provides customers with a platform to talk about their brand on their website.
Fourthly, it provides all the information customers need to research, compare, and ultimately
choose you over your competitor, thus purchasing from you and not others.[6]
Today, the range of social commerce has been expanded to include social media tools and
content used in the context of e-commerce, especially in the fashion industry. Examples of social
commerce include customer ratings and reviews, user recommendations and referrals, social
shopping tools (sharing the act of shopping online), forums and communities, social media
optimization, social applications and social advertising.[7] Technologies such as Augmented
Reality have also been integrated with social commerce, allowing shoppers to visualize apparel
items on themselves and solicit feedback through social media tools.[8]

Some academics[9] have sought to distinguish "social commerce" from "social shopping", with
the former being referred to as collaborative networks of online vendors; the latter, the
collaborative activity of online shoppers.

Contents

1 Timeline
2 Elements of Social Commerce
3 Features
4 Types
o 4.1 Onsite Social Commerce
o 4.2 Offsite Social Commerce
o 4.3 Onsite vs. Offsite Social Commerce
5 Measurements
6 Business Applications
7 Business Examples
o 7.1 Facebook Commerce (F-Commerce)
8 Trend: Past Improvement & Prospective View
o 8.1 Social Commerce Trends in 2011
o 8.2 Social Commerce Trends in 2012
o 8.3 Social Commerce Trends in 2013
o 8.4 Social Commerce Trends in 2014
o 8.5 Social Commerce Trends in 2015
9 See also
10 References
11 External links

Timeline

2005: The term social commerce was first introduced on Yahoo! in 2005.[10]

Elements of Social Commerce


1. Reciprocity - When a company gives a person something for free, that person will feel
the need to return the favor, whether by buying again or giving good recommendations
for the company.
2. Community - When people find an individual or a group that shares the same values,
likes, beliefs, etc., they find community. People are more committed to a community that
they feel accepted within. When this commitment happens, they tend to follow the same
trends as a group and when one member introduces a new idea or product, it is accepted
more readily based on the previous trust that has been established.[11] It would be
beneficial for companies to develop partnerships with social media sites to engage social
communities with their products.
3. Social proof - To receive positive feedback, a company needs to be willing to accept
social feedback and to show proof that other people are buying, and like, the same things

that I like. This can be seen in a lot of online companies such as eBay and Amazon, that
allow public feedback of products and when a purchase is made, they immediately
generate a list showing purchases that other people have made in relation to my recent
purchase. It is beneficial to encourage open recommendation and feedback.[12] This
creates trust for you as a seller. 55% of buyers turn to social media when theyre looking
for information.[13]
4. Authority - Many people need proof that a product is of good quality. This proof can be
based on the recommendations of others who have bought the same product. If there are
many user reviews about a product, then a consumer will be more willing to trust their
own decision to buy this item.
5. Liking - People trust based on the recommendations of others. If there are a lot of likes
of a particular product, then the consumer will feel more confident and justified in
making this purchase.
6. Scarcity - As part of supply and demand, a greater value is assigned to products that are
regarded as either being in high demand or are seen as being in a shortage. Therefore, if a
person is convinced that they are purchasing something that is unique, special, or not easy
to acquire, they will have more of a willingness to make a purchase. If there is trust
established from the seller, they will want to buy these items immediately. This can be
seen in the cases of Zara (retailer) and Apple Inc. who create demand for their products
by convincing the public that there is a possibility of missing out on being able to
purchase them.

Features
The main features of social commerce were discussed at the 2011 BankInter Foundation for
Innovation conference on Social Technologies, and were concluded as 'the 6 C's of Social
Technologies'.[14] This references the original 3 C's of E-Commerce and adds 3 new C's to update
for an era of Social sharing.
1. Content The basic need to engage with customers, prospects and stakeholders through
valuable published content on the web. Early examples of this were the brochure sites for
organizations and this has matured into a vast and growing body of material being
published in real time onto the web. Google is the organization that has been at the
forefront of indexing and making findable content on the web.
2. Community Treating the audience as a community with the objective of building
sustainable relationships by providing tangible value. Early incarnations of Community
were mobilized through registration and engaged via email programs, this evolved into
online forums, chat-rooms and membership groups where users were able to interact with
each other, an early example being Yahoo! Groups. Social Networks are the latest
incarnation of community and of the many networks Facebook is the leading organization
providing the platform for interpersonal interactions.
3. Commerce Being able to fulfill customers' needs via a transactional web presence,
typically online retailers, banks, insurance companies, travel sales sites provide the most
useful business-to-consumer services. Business-to-business sites range from online
storage and hosting to product sourcing and fulfillment services. Amazon emerged in the

90's and has gone on to dominate the B2C commerce space extending its services beyond
traditional retail commerce.
4. Context The online world is able to track real-world events and this is primarily being
enabled by mobile devices. An online bill payment via Google Checkout or a checkin at a
physical location via Facebook or Foursquare links a real world event to an online data
entity such as a business or a place. This is a vital element to Social Commerce where the
data is now available to organizations wishing to provide products and services to
consumers.
5. Connection The new online networks are defining and documenting the relationships
between people these relationships may originate in the physical world or online and
may manifest in the other as a result of a connection in the first. LinkedIn, Facebook,
Twitter are prime examples of online networks Professional, Social and Casual. The
relationships, the scope of those relationships and the interactions between individuals are
a basis for the actions of Social Commerce.
6. Conversation The Cluetrain Manifesto noted that all markets are conversations this
may now be reversed for Social Commerce to say that all conversations are markets. A
conversation between two parties will likely surface a need that could be fulfilled, thus
providing a potential market for supplier organizations. The challenge is for suppliers to
be able to tap into those conversations and map those into the range of products and
services that they supply. Simple examples of such 'conversations that indicate demand'
are where people place objects of desire on their Pinterest board or a 'Like' of an item
inside Facebook.
Using this structure, organizations wishing to transcend the notions of 'Social Media' (defined as
the interaction pathways) and move to true 'Social Commerce' must aim to leverage 'Context,
Connection and Conversation'

Types
Social Commerce has become a really broad term encapsulating a lot of different technologies. It
can be categorized as Offsite and Onsite social commerce.

Onsite Social Commerce


Onsite social commerce refers to retailers including social sharing and other social functionality
on their website. Some notable examples include Zazzle which enables users to share their
purchases, Macy's which allows users to create a poll to find the right product, and Fab.com
which shows a live feed of what other shoppers are buying. Onsite user reviews are also
considered a part of social commerce. This approach has been successful in improving customer
engagement, conversion and word-of-mouth branding according to several industry sources.[15]

Offsite Social Commerce


Offsite social commerce includes activities that happen outside of the retailers' website. These
may include Facebook storefronts, posting products on Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest and other
social networks, advertisement etc. However, many large brands seem to be abandoning that

approach.[16] A recent study by W3B suggests that just two percent of Facebooks 1.5 billion
users have ever made a purchase through the social network.[17] The poor performance has been
attributed to the lack of purchase intent when users are engaged on social media sites.

Onsite vs. Offsite Social Commerce


Social Commerce is still a newer concept that most retailers may not have employed. In creating
a social commerce strategy, there is an important distinction that should be made between Onsite
social and Offsite Social. Offsite social is made up of social media brand pages or plug ins that
live on social platforms and not on your actual website. Onsite social consists of adding a social
layer to your actual website. The main benefit of Onsite social is that you are keeping the user on
your site where they can actually convert and you can improve your site experience through this
social layer. Although social commerce will continue to grow and evolve, it is clear that that
onsite social commerce is extremely valuable for both retailers and consumers alike.[18]

Measurements
Social commerce can be measured by any of the principle ways to measure social media.[19]
1. Return on Investment: measures the effect or action of social media on sales.
2. Reputation: indices measure the influence of social media investment in terms of
changes to online reputation - made up of the volume and valence of social media
mentions.
3. Reach: metrics use traditional media advertising metrics to measure the exposure rates
and levels of an audience with social media.

Business Applications
This category is based on individuals' shopping, selling, recommending behaviors.[20]
1. Social network-driven sales(Soldsie) - Facebook commerce and Twitter commerce
belong to this part. Sales take place on established social network sites.
2. Peer-to-peer sales platforms(EBay, Etsy, Amazon) - In these websites, users can
directly communicate and sell products to other users.
3. Group buying(Groupon, LivingSocial) - Users can buy products or services at a lower
price when enough users agree to make this purchase.
4. Peer recommendations(Amazon, Yelp) - Users can see recommendations from other
users.
5. User-curated shopping(The Fancy, Lyst) - Users create and share lists of products and
services for others to shop from.
6. Participatory commerce(Threadless, Kickstarter) - Users can get involved in the
production process.
7. Social shopping(Fashism) - Sites provide chat sessions for users so they can
communicate with their friends or other users for some advice.

Business Examples
Here are some notable business examples of Social Commerce:

Cafepress: an online retailer of stock and user-customized on demand products.


Etsy: an e-commerce website focused on handmade or vintage items and supplies, as well
as unique factory-manufactured items under Etsy's new guidelines.
Eventbrite: an online ticketing service that allows event organizers to plan, set up ticket
sales and promote events (event management) and publish them across Facebook, Twitter
and other social-networking tools directly from the site's interface.
Groupon: a deal-of-the-day website that features discounted gift certificates usable at
local or national companies.
Houzz: a web site and online community about architecture, interior design and
decorating, landscape design and home improvement.
LivingSocial: an online marketplace that allows clients to buy and share things to do in
their city.
Lockerz: an international social commerce website based in Seattle, Washington.
OpenSky: is a registered trademark of Harris Corporation and is the trade name for a
wireless communication system, invented by M/A-COM Inc., that is now a division of
Harris RF Communications.
Pikaba: a US consumer-oriented social shopping community that harnesses the power of
social networking to bring sellers and buyers together.
Pinterest: a web and mobile application company that offers a visual discovery,
collection, sharing, and storage tool.
Polyvore: a community powered social commerce website. Members curate products into
a shared product index and use them to create image collages called "Sets".
Solavei: a social commerce network offering contract-free mobile service in the United
States.
Soldsie: an eCommerce startup based in San Francisco. It is able to show that Facebook
commerce is a viable form of social commerce when it wasnt just another tab on a
retailer's Facebook page for users to click onto.
ShopSocially: a social commerce platform for online retailers. It provides a suite of onsite social applications for retailers aimed at generating social interactions.
Tabjuice: a Facebook commerce application developed for small businesses.
TheFind: a discovery shopping search engine targeting lifestyle products such as apparel,
accessories, home and garden, fitness, kids and family, and health and beauty.
Wanelo: a digital mall where people can discover and buy products on the internet.

Facebook Commerce (F-Commerce)


Facebook commerce, f-commerce, and f-comm refer to the buying and selling of goods or
services through Facebook, either through Facebook directly or through the Facebook Open
Graph.[21] Until March 2010, 1.5 million businesses had pages on Facebook[22] which were built
by Facebook Markup Language (FBML). A year later, in March 2011, Facebook deprecated
FBML and adopted iframes.[23] This allowed developers to gather more information about their
Facebook visitors.[24]

Trend: Past Improvement & Prospective View


The online population is increasing by leaps and bounds and more and more people are
influenced by opinions shared on social media. Social media celebrities such as vloggers and
serial product reviewers tend to have a huge impact on peoples perception of product quality.
Businesses are noting an increased level of impact that positive and negative reviews have on
purchase behavior. This part will be focusing specifically on the period 2012 to 2015, within
which social media is experiencing massive surge in public influence during this period.

Social Commerce Trends in 2011


The 2011 Social Commerce Study estimates that 42% of online consumers have followed a
retailer proactively through Facebook, Twitter or the retailers blog, and that a full one-third of
shoppers say they would be likely to make a purchase directly from Facebook (35%) or Twitter
(32%).[25]

Social Commerce Trends in 2012


These following four trends represent the trend in 2012.
Social is a paradigm shift.
The focus has been moved from channeled experiences and brand-controlled messages to
empowered consumers in a channel-agnostic marketplace. Companies should identify and admit
the enormity of this change.
Social data reveals the why behind the buy.
Customer conversations bring great opportunities for businesses. The awesome power of
conversation will be felt in the insights gained and the actions inspired.
Becoming customer-centric demands organizational transformation.
Capturing the full value of social data takes place across the entire organization, often requiring
cultural changes. Social data can drive change beyond marketing, impacting sales, customer
service, and product development.
Context is king in social data.
Both internal and external social efforts should be designed and evaluated in relation to the larger
context of business goals and historical shifts. In this way, success can be made.[26]

Social Commerce Trends in 2013

A new focus on social media marketing may come to fruition in 2013. With Americans using
sites like Facebook and Twitter more often than ever before, businesses should find new methods
to make those social users online shoppers. While social media grew significantly in 2012, its
still a bit unclear as to how professionals can use these networks to drive revenue streams and
show noticeable ROI. Of course, brands have different experiences with social media, and what
works for one company may not be as successful for another. Therefore, it may be more accurate
to say that 2012 will become the year of social media maturation its time to figure out how to
use the channel to increase sales.
StrongMail reported that financial investments in social media marketing will increase next year.
However, eMarketer recently published its US Digital Media Usage: A Snapshot of 2013
report, which points out some potential areas where growth could occur online.
The eMarketer study also noted that online shoppers in 2012 increased by 2.9 percent to total
189.6 million consumers. More online buyers, people who actually converted, also increased, but
by 4.2 percent, reaching 156.1 million. Americans feel more confident in online shopping, and
with Facebook becoming an increasingly trusted resource for news, entertainment and product
discovery, Facebook commerce may be the big trend in 2013. [27]

Social Commerce Trends in 2014


Social media continue to integrate with and augment peoples daily lives. As these platforms
have matured over the past decade, it only follows that their impact on e-commerce has
correspondingly grown, given how much Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and Pinterest influence
how we interact, discover, and consume content. Here are four trends brands should watch and
prepare for in the 2014.
Rise of Mobile
In December, New York City announced plans to cover 95 blocks of Harlem with free municipal
Wi-Fi , slated to be the nations largest network yet. This is in keeping with dozens of other cities
that have made connectivity a public servicea testament to how widespread smartphone and
tablet use have become.
Data from Morgan Stanley predicts that 2014 is the year that the number of mobile users will
finally surpass that of desktop users worldwide. It is proved that mobile app use grew 115% last
year according to Flurry Analytics, and market research firm Gartner reported that global PC
shipments suffered the worst decline in PC Market history in 2013.
With more consumers connecting to the web on mobile devices, brands have increased
opportunity to market to users who are on-the-go. This doesnt just foretell a spike in mobile ads.
A form of brand journalism, mobile storytelling involves the ability to chronicle our lives and
use our location to help unearth a story. Geolocation allows brands to deliver content thats
relevant to the physical world of the user, and to strengthen products based on user-generated
content.

In-stream Purchases
One of the major challenges of social commerce has been linking social media marketing to
actual sales. There are some extremely encouraging statistics about brand engagement and instore purchases, but marketers seeking to shorten the sales cycle have preferred customers click
on a product link.
In 2014, however, in-stream purchases will make social ROI even more immediate. Companies
like Starbucks have enabled users to buy items without ever leaving the platformin this case,
customers can tweet-a-coffee with a tweet that sends a friend a $5 Starbucks gift card.
Recently, Twitter and Stripe have finalized a deal that would allow widespread purchases made
directly on the social network.
Facebook, however, is still the heavyweight of social commerce. The variety of posts allowed
text status, photo, video, offer, eventallows big brands and small businesses alike to connect
meaningfully with their fans. In fact, an emergent trend finds mompreneurs running milliondollar businesses out of their homes by selling on Facebook. These Facebook auctions ask
customers to comment on photos to buy; apps like Soldsie simplify the process of selling on
Facebook by automating invoices and tracking inventory.
Storytelling and Native Advertising
With companies growing into their roster of social media accounts, the flood of branded content
has intensified the contest for viewership at the same time that attention spans have diminished.
The challenge for brands in 2014 is to relate authentically to consumers, which means a heavier
reliance on eye-catching visuals, content that informs and entertains the viewer, and behind-thescenes accounts that humanize the brand.
Thankfully, most social media platforms already lend themselves to storytelling. Some brilliant
brands apply Vine to post how-to videos, announce new products, or make a video punchline
that its possible to be a friend first, and brand second.
Creating engaging and shareable content is just an extension of native advertising, which is
rapidly becoming the least intrusive, most effective way to market to consumers. A study from
Sharethrough and IPG Media Lab reveals that users look at native ads 53% more frequently than
display ads, and are 18% more likely to purchase in comparison. From promoted posts on
Tumblr to exploding coupons on Snapchat, brands are finding innovative ways to wed their
messages with the consumers natural experience online.
Big Data
The texture of each social media network morphs along with its demographics. Facebook skews
young but is quickly accruing older users ages 45 to 54; over 90% of Instagram users are under
35; and Tumblr is a hotbed for teenagers, 61% of whom are online for several hours a week.
Brands should manage content and advertising across channels to address the users unique to

each one, taking into account factors like age and gender, online behavior, and lifestyle
preferences.[28]

Social Commerce Trends in 2015


5 general trends should be paid attention to in 2015.
The world will be a Mobile-First World
In the big smartphone times, more and more people are put more time on mobile. In the U.S.,
carriers' shelf-space for devices with 4.7-inch or larger screen displays increased from 4 percent
to about a third in 2014 alone, matching a sales growth - larger-screen phones now account for
more than one-quarter of all sales, according to NPD Group. Facebook's recent earnings report
showed that while overall daily active users grew 8 percent in 2014, mobile daily active users
grew 15 percent and mobile-only daily active users grew 34 percent.
A Pay-to-Play Social World is coming
Forrester recently reported that brand interaction on organic Facebook posts is now squeezed to
0.073 percent. Social advertising spend continues to rise, though as a whole it still doesn't match
time spent overall on social. Only on Facebook has spending outstripped time spent - 6 percent
of U.S. adults' digital media time is spent on Facebook, but 10 percent of U.S. digital ad
spending is now assigned to Facebook. But that's because for most brands, Facebook means
social. And Facebook's ad products continue to improve in sophistication. As other platforms get
their ad products launched, spending there will increase, too. Again, where Facebook leads,
others will follow.
Social Content Continues is still rapidly developing
It's not like using content to market came out of nowhere. It's always been there. But the topic of
content marketing seemed to attract an inordinate amount of attention in 2014, not only with
regard to efficacy, but also about how hard it is to produce quality content in quantity. Marketers
have been challenged to produce content for more channels, and have been challenged to make
that content meaningful and informative. Content will continue to be a central directive for brand
marketers on social.
The Development Multi Video Platform Interacting is boosted
Posting advertisements on YouTube is not sufficient to make a success now. There is increasing
interaction with video in places outside YouTube, particularly with short form video on Twitter's
Vine channel, as well as even shorter form GIFs on Tumblr. Surprisingly, Facebook announced
that they had more video views than YouTube of this year, with many people scoffing that it was
because of auto-play, not because of a video watching revolution.
The Social Diversity Will Continue

Facebook is still the biggest, most dominant social network and the "lowest common
denominator" of social marketing. However, social audiences will continue splintering. This
social diversity represents a serious challenge for brand marketers - particularly for brands
seeking the youth market - who are looking to find the right voice for their audiences in the right
location. In 2015 the social imperative will remain to hit the right voice on the right social
platform, which may not be Facebook at all.[29]

See also

Electronic commerce
Social shopping
Referral marketing
Social networks
Web 2.0
The Cluetrain Manifesto

References
1. Social Commerce Defined. Socialcommercetoday.com. Retrieved on 2013-01-10.
2. Social Commerce via the Shoposphere & Pick Lists. Ysearchblog.com (2005-11-14).
Retrieved on 2013-01-10.
3. (The Beginnings of) Social Commerce. ). Retrieved on 2013-01-10.
4. 2006 Trends to Watch Part II: Social Commerce. Micro Persuasion (2012-08-30).
Retrieved on 2013-01-10.
5. The Role of Social Networks in Online Shopping. arxiv.org. Retrieved on 2013-01-10.
6. Social commerce. www-01.ibm.com. Retrieved on 2014-11-30.
7. The 6 Dimensions of Social Commerce: Rated and Reviewed. Socialcommercetoday.com
(2012-09-24). Retrieved on 2013-01-10.
8. FMM. Fashionablymarketing.me. Retrieved on 2013-01-10.
9. Andrew T. Stephen & Olivier Toubia, Columbia University (2010). "Deriving Value
from Social Commerce Networks". Journal of Marketing Research. XLVII: 215228.
doi:10.1509/jmkr.47.2.215.
10. Social Commerce via the Shoposphere & Pick Lists. Ysearchblog.com (2005-11-14).
Retrieved on 2013-01-10.
11. Anderson; Matt; Sims, Joe; Price, Jerell; Brusa, Jennifer (2011). "Turning "Like" to
"Buy" social media emerges as a commerce channel.". Booz & Company Inc. Retrieved
2014-12-04.
12. Amblee; Naveen; Bui, Tung (2011). "Harnessing the influence of social proof in online
shopping: The effect of electronic word of mouth on sales of digital microproducts.".
International Journal of Electronic Commerce 16 (2): 91114. Retrieved 2014-12-04.
13. Giamanco; Barbara; Gregoire, Kent (2012). "Tweet me, friend me, make me buy.".
Harvard Business Review 90 (7): 8993. Retrieved 2014-12-04.
14. Social Technologies | Fundacin Bankinter Innovacin. Fundacionbankinter.org (201211-13). Retrieved on 2013-01-10.

15. Want to make your e-commerce site more social? Here's one way. ZDNet.com (2013-0731). Retrieved on 2013-07-31.
16. Gamestop to J.C. Penney Shut Facebook Stores; Feb 22 2012. Bloomberg.com (2012-0222). Retrieved on 2013-04-08.
17. Why is Facebooks e-commerce offering so disappointing? .Philip Rooke(2013-02-17)
18. Offsite vs Onsite Social Campaign. business2community.com (2012-11-27). Retrieved
on 2014-12-03.
19. Marsden, Paul. "Social commerce: monetizing social media". Retrieved 18 July 2013.
20. 7 Species of Social Commerce.Mashable.com (2013-05-10). Retrieved on 2013-12-01.
21. F-commerce FAQ. Socialcommercetoday.com. Retrieved on 2013-01-10.
22. Facebook Facts and Figures History Statistics. Website-monitoring.com (2010-03-17).
Retrieved on 2013-01-10.
23. Facebook Deprecates FBML ''Wall Street Journal All Things D'' March 9 2011.
Allthingsd.com (2011-03-09). Retrieved on 2013-01-10.
24. Facebook's switch to frames. Mashable.com (2011-02-24). Retrieved on 2013-01-10.
25. Social Commerce to be a $30 Billion Business by 2015. claritics.com . Retrieved on
2014-12-03.
26. Bazaar Voice. "Social commerce trends report 2012". Retrieved 2014-12-04.
27. 2013: The year of social media marketing. brafton.com (December 17, 2012). Retrieved
on 2014-12-04.
28. 4 Core Social Commerce Trends In 2014. socialmediatoday.com (2014-04-27). Retrieved
on 2014-12-04.
Top 5 Social Marketing Trends for Brands to Watch in 2015. clickz.com (2014-10-31).

Online trading community

Retrieved on 2014-1

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by
adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (December 2006)

Part of a series on

E-commerce
Online goods and services

E-books

Software

Streaming media

Retail services

Banking
DVD-by-mail

Flower delivery

Food ordering

Pharmacy

Travel

Marketplace services

Advertising

Comparison shopping

Auctions

Social commerce
Trading communities

Wallet

Mobile commerce

Payment

Ticketing

Customer service

Call centre

Help desk

Live support software

E-procurement
Purchase-to-pay

v
t
e

An online trading community provides participants with a structured method for trading,
bartering, or selling goods and services. These communities often have forums and chatrooms

designed to facilitate communication between the members. An online trading community can be
likened electronic equivalent of a bazaar, flea market, or garage sale.

Contents

1 History
2 Formal trading communities
3 Trading communities
o 3.1 General rules of conduct
4 Trading circle
5 Trading Portal
6 References
7 Examples
8 External links

History
One of the earliest trading sites on the internet (with exception to eBay which accepts cash
transactions for all goods) was Game Trading Zone. The domain name ugtz.com was
implemented in an independent database in the spring 1999. This was a departure from simply
listing items on a forum or text document. The database helped traders by showing them a list of
potential trading matches, and showed historical transactions as well.

Formal trading communities


A formal trading community consists of a website or network of websites that facilitate and track
trade transactions. Some websites, such as the video game trading site Goozex, charge
transactional fees per trade, while other similar sites such as GameTZ do not.
Key elements of formal trading communities

Transactional tracking
Ratings and feedback system
Content listing, referencing, and matching

Trading communities
There are several community based websites that have a broader scope and lend themselves to a
trading environment.

1UP is a website dedicated to the publishing of news, videos, and other related media
dealing with video games. There is a growing section of the site though dedicated the
trading of games and DVDs on their message boards.

Craigslist is a site for posting personal advertisements but many users have found this a
less than conventional means of trading goods online with local residents.
Mydvdtrader.com is regarded as being the oldest remaining website dedicated to buying,
selling and trading of selected media
IGN is another website dedicated to videogame news and media that also has message
boards dedicated to online trading. The distinguishing factors being that IGN has a much
larger integrated database of games and DVDs in existence that users can add to their
collection lists for trade purposes as well as mark the ones they are playing to lock from
trade.

General rules of conduct


Some online trading communities have specific rules adopted by the users of that community,
and though they can differ most have settled upon a few standard practices:

The less experienced trader (usually indicated by their feedback or trade history) sends
their half first.
It is generally frowned upon by most communities to "thread crap" (A term referring to a
user not involved in the pending trade undercutting a trade in progress with either a better
deal or reasons for the trade not to take place).
While trading any used items online, be sure to include the condition and quality of the
product so as the receiver can determine its overall value.

Trading circle
A trading circle is a form of online trading designed to facilitate viewing of television series and
episodic media. Physical media such as videocassettes, DVDs and CDs are exchanged via mail.
Each member agrees to pass an episode on to the next member in a timely fashion, thereby
allowing all members of the group to view the series. This communal trading method is also used
by special interest clubs. Some of these groups (among many) include anime clubs.

Trading Portal
Within global financial markets, an online trading portal[1] is a portal that aggregates a significant
number of online trading platforms to give investors, who are part the online trading community,
a greater choice of trading platforms and thereby a greater choice of stock exchanges throughout
the world, in keeping with their specific trading skills.

Mobile payment
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Part of a series on

E-commerce
Online goods and services

E-books

Software

Streaming media

Retail services

Banking
DVD-by-mail

Flower delivery

Food ordering

Pharmacy

Travel

Marketplace services

Advertising

Comparison shopping

Auctions

Social commerce
Trading communities

Wallet

Mobile commerce

Payment

Ticketing

Customer service

Call centre

Help desk

Live support software

E-procurement

Purchase-to-pay

v
t
e

Mobile payment, also referred to as mobile money, mobile money transfer, and mobile wallet
generally refer to payment services operated under financial regulation and performed from or
via a mobile device. Instead of paying with cash, cheque, or credit cards, a consumer can use a
mobile phone to pay for a wide range of services and digital or hard goods. Although the concept
of using non-coin-based currency systems has a long history,[1] it is only recently that the
technology to support such systems has become widely available.
Mobile payment is being adopted all over the world in different ways.[2][3] In 2008, the combined
market for all types of mobile payments was projected to reach more than $600B globally by
2013,[4] which would be double the figure as of February, 2011.[5] The mobile payment market
for goods and services, excluding contactless Near Field Communication or NFC transactions
and money transfers, is expected to exceed $300B globally by 2013.[6]
In developing countries mobile payment solutions have been deployed as a means of extending
financial services to the community known as the "unbanked" or "underbanked," which is
estimated to be as much as 50% of the world's adult population, according to Financial Access'
2009 Report "Half the World is Unbanked".[7] These payment networks are often used for
micropayments.[8] The use of mobile payments in developing countries has attracted public and
private funding by organizations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, USAID and
MercyCorps.

Contents

1 Models
2 SMS/USSD-based transactional payments
3 Direct mobile billing
4 Mobile web payments (WAP)
o 4.1 Direct operator billing
o 4.2 Credit card
o 4.3 Online wallets
5 QR Code Payments
6 Contactless Near Field Communication
7 Cloud-based mobile payments
8 Audio signal-based payments
9 Direct carrier/bank co-operation
10 Mobile payment service provider model
11 See also
12 Notes

Models
There are four primary models for mobile payments:[citation needed]

Premium SMS based transactional payments


Direct Mobile Billing
Mobile web payments (WAP)
Contactless NFC (Near Field Communication)

Additionally there is a new emerging model from Haiti: direct carrier/bank co-operation.[citation
needed]

Financial institutions and credit card companies[9] as well as Internet companies such as
Google[10] and a number of mobile communication companies, such as mobile network operators
and major telecommunications infrastructure such as w-HA from Orange and handset
multinationals such as Ericsson[11][12] and BlackBerry have implemented mobile payment
solutions.

SMS/USSD-based transactional payments


This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section
by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (December 2012)
Premium SMS / Premium MMS
In the predominant model for SMS payments, the consumer sends a payment request via an SMS
text message or an USSD to a short code and a premium charge is applied to their phone bill or
their online wallet. The merchant involved is informed of the payment success and can then
release the paid for goods.
Since a trusted physical delivery address has typically not been given, these goods are most
frequently digital with the merchant replying using a Multimedia Messaging Service to deliver
the purchased music, ringtones, wallpapers etc.
A Multimedia Messaging Service can also deliver barcodes which can then be scanned for
confirmation of payment by a merchant. This is used as an electronic ticket for access to cinemas
and events or to collect hard goods.
Transactional payments by SMS have been popular in Asia and Europe and are now
accompanied by other mobile payment methods,[citation needed] such as mobile web payments
(WAP), mobile payment client (Java ME, Android...) and Direct Mobile Billing.
Inhibiting factors of Premium SMS include:[citation needed]

1. Poor reliability - transactional premium SMS payments can easily fail as messages get
lost.
2. Slow speed - sending messages can be slow and it can take hours for a merchant to get
receipt of payment. Consumers do not want to be kept waiting more than a few seconds.
3. Security - The SMS/USSD encryption ends in the radio interface, then the message is a
plaintext.
4. High cost - There are many high costs associated with this method of payment. The cost
of setting up short codes and paying for the delivery of media via a Multimedia
Messaging Service and the resulting customer support costs to account for the number of
messages that get lost or are delayed.
5. Low payout rates - operators also see high costs in running and supporting transactional
payments which results in payout rates to the merchant being as low as 30%. Usually
around 50%
6. Low follow-on sales - once the payment message has been sent and the goods received
there is little else the consumer can do. It is difficult for them to remember where
something was purchased or how to buy it again. This also makes it difficult to tell a
friend.
Some mobile payment services accept "premium SMS payments." Here is the typical end user
payment process:[citation needed]
1. User sends SMS with keyword and unique number to a premium short code.
2. User receives a PIN (User billed via the short code on receipt of the PIN)
3. User uses PIN to access content or services.
Remote Payment by SMS and Credit Card Tokenization
Even as the volume of Premium SMS transactions have flattened, many cloud-based payment
systems continue to use SMS for presentment, authorization, and authentication,[13] while the
payment itself is processed through existing payment networks such as credit and debit card
networks. These solutions combine the ubiquity of the SMS channel,[14] with the security and
reliability of existing payment infrastructure. Since SMS lacks end-to-end encryption, such
solutions employ a higher-level security strategies known as 'tokenization' and 'target removal'
[15]
whereby payment occurs without transmitting any sensitive account details, username,
password, or PIN.
To date, point-of-sales mobile payment solutions have not relied on SMS-based authentication as
a payment mechanism, but remote payments such as bill payments,[16] seat upgrades on
flights,[17] and membership or subscription renewals are commonplace.
In comparison to premium short code programs which often exist in isolation, relationship
marketing and payment systems are often integrated with CRM, ERP, marketing-automation
platforms, and reservation systems. Many of the problems inherent with premium SMS have
been addressed by solution providers. Remembering keywords is not required since sessions are
initiated by the enterprise to establish a transaction specific context. Reply messages are linked
to the proper session and authenticated either synchronously through a very short expiry period

(every reply is assumed to be to the last message sent) or by tracking session according to
varying reply addresses and/or reply options (Dynamic Dialogue Matrix).

Direct mobile billing


The consumer uses the mobile billing option during checkout at an e-commerce sitesuch as an
online gaming siteto make a payment. After two-factor authentication involving a PIN and
One-Time-Password (often abbreviated as OTP), the consumer's mobile account is charged for
the purchase. It is a true alternative payment method that does not require the use of credit/debit
cards or pre-registration at an online payment solution such as PayPal, thus bypassing banks and
credit card companies altogether. This type of mobile payment method, which is extremely
prevalent and popular in Asia, provides the following benefits:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Security - Two-factor authentication and a risk management engine prevents fraud.


Convenience - No pre-registration and no new mobile software is required.
Easy - It's just another option during the checkout process.
Fast - Most transactions are completed in less than 10 seconds.
Proven - 70% of all digital content purchased online in some parts of Asia uses the Direct
Mobile Billing method[18]

Mobile web payments (WAP)


This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section
by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (December 2012)

Mobile payment system in Norway.


The consumer uses web pages displayed or additional applications downloaded and installed on
the mobile phone to make a payment. It uses WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) as
underlying technology and thus inherits all the advantages and disadvantages of WAP. Benefits
include:[citation needed]
1. Follow-on sales where the mobile web payment can lead back to a store or to other goods
the consumer may like. These pages have a URL and can be bookmarked making it easy
to re-visit or share.
2. High customer satisfaction from quick and predictable payments
3. Ease of use from a familiar set of online payment pages

However, unless the mobile account is directly charged through a mobile network operator, the
use of a credit/debit card or pre-registration at online payment solution such as PayPal is still
required just as in a desktop environment.
Mobile web payment methods are now being mandated by a number of mobile network
operators.

Direct operator billing


Direct operator billing, also known as mobile content billing, WAP billing, and carrier billing,
requires integration with the operator. It provides certain benefits:
1. the operators already have a billing relationship with the consumers, the payment will be
added to their bill.
2. Provides instantaneous payment
3. Protect payment details and consumer identity
4. Better conversion rates
5. Reduced customer support costs for merchants
One drawback: the payout rate will be much lower than with other payment providers. Examples
from a popular provider:

92% with Paypal


85 to 86% with Credit Card
45 to 91.7% with operator billing in the US, UK and some smaller European countries,
but usually around 60%[19]

More recently, Direct operator billing is being deployed in an in-app environment, where mobile
application developers are taking advantage of the one-click payment option that Direct operator
billing provides for monetising mobile applications. This is a logical alternative to credit card
and Premium SMS billing.
In 2012, Ericsson and Western Union partnered to expand the direct operator billing market,
making it possible for mobile operators to include Western Union Mobile Money Transfers as
part of their mobile financial service offerings.[20] Given the international reach of both
companies, the partnership is meant to accelerate the interconnection between the m-commerce
market and the existing financial world.[21]

Credit card
A simple mobile web payment system can also include a credit card payment flow allowing a
consumer to enter their card details to make purchases. This process is familiar but any entry of
details on a mobile phone is known to reduce the success rate (conversion) of payments.

In addition, if the payment vendor can automatically and securely identify customers then card
details can be recalled for future purchases turning credit card payments into simple single clickto-buy giving higher conversion rates for additional purchases.

Online wallets
Main article: Online wallet
Online companies like PayPal, Amazon Payments, and Google Wallet also have mobile
options.[22]
Generally, this is the process:[citation needed]
First payment:

User registers, inputs their phone number, and the provider sends them an SMS with a
PIN
User enters the received PIN, authenticating the number
User inputs their credit card info or another payment method if necessary (not necessary
if the account has already been added) and validates payment

Subsequent payments:

The user re enters their PIN to authenticate and validates payment

Requesting a PIN is known to lower the success rate (conversion) for payments. These systems
can be integrated with directly or can be combined with operator and credit card payments
through a unified mobile web payment platform.

QR Code Payments
QR Codes 2D barcode are square bar codes. QR codes are an easy way to inject info into a
mobile phone. This makes it easy to create communication such as visit a website or copy useful
text. QR codes have been around since they were invented in 1994. Originally used to track
products in warehouses, QR codes were designed to replace traditional (1D bar codes).
Traditional bar codes just represent numbers, which can be looked up in a database and
translated into something meaningful. QR, or Quick Response bar codes were designed to
contain the meaningful info right in the bar code. Theyve been a successful marketing tool in
Asia and Europe. In Germany a startup called GO4Q introduced mobile shopping / window
shopping based on QR codes in October 2012. The system evolved and mobile payment was
added by december 2012. GO4Q is using standard card payment procedures and thus not
regionally limited. It requires a single registration. On business and consumer side, usage is
possible with any smart device (IOS / Android). Mastercard, in 2012, also rolled another mobile
payment app, QkR, which is being deployed in Australia and for a test run at Yankee Stadium.
Users can scan a QR code through the app and buy food or other items through the app and have
it delivered to them. Since November 2012, QR code payments were deployed on a larger scale

in the Czech Republic as an open format for a payment information exchange - a Short Payment
Descriptor - was introduced and blessed by the Czech Banking Association as the official local
solution for the QR payments.[23] Due to technical limitations, the format is applicable only
within the European Union.

Contactless Near Field Communication


Near Field Communication (NFC) is used mostly in paying for purchases made in physical stores
or transportation services. A consumer using a special mobile phone equipped with a smartcard
waves his/her phone near a reader module. Most transactions do not require authentication, but
some require authentication using PIN, before transaction is completed. The payment could be
deducted from a pre-paid account or charged to a mobile or bank account directly.
Mobile payment method via NFC faces significant challenges for wide and fast adoption, due to
lack of supporting infrastructure, complex ecosystem of stakeholders, and standards.[24] Some
phone manufacturers and banks, however, are enthusiastic. Ericsson and Aconite are examples of
businesses that make it possible for banks to create consumer mobile payment applications that
take advantage of NFC technology.[25]
NFC vendors in Japan are closely related to mass-transit networks, like the Mobile Suica used on
the JR East rail network. Osaifu-Keitai system, used for Mobile Suica and many others including
Edy and nanaco, has become the de facto standard method for mobile payments in Japan. Its core
technology, Mobile FeliCa IC, is partially owned by Sony, NTT DoCoMo and JR East. Mobile
FeliCa utilize Sony's FeliCa technology, which itself is the de facto standard for contactless
smart cards in the country.
Other NFC vendors mostly in Europe use contactless payment over mobile phones to pay for onand off-street parking in specially demarcated areas. Parking wardens may enforce the parkings
by license plate, transponder tags or barcode stickers. First conceptualized in the 1990s,[citation
needed]
the technology has seen commercial use in this century in both Scandinavia and Estonia.
End users benefit from the convenience of being able to pay for parking from the comfort of
their car with their mobile phone, and parking operators are not obliged to invest in either
existing or new street-based parking infrastructures. Parking wardens maintain order in these
systems by license plate, transponder tags or barcode stickers or they read a digital display in the
same way as they read a pay and display receipt.
Other vendors use a combination of both NFC and a barcode on the mobile device for mobile
payment, for example, Cimbal or DigiMo,[26] making this technique attractive at the point of sale
because many mobile devices in the market do not yet support NFC.

Cloud-based mobile payments


Google, PayPal, GlobalPay and GoPago use a cloud-based approach to in-store mobile payment.
The cloud based approach places the mobile payment provider in the middle of the transaction,
which involves two separate steps. First, a cloud-linked payment method is selected and payment

is authorized via NFC or an alternative method. During this step, the payment provider
automatically covers the cost of the purchase with issuer linked funds. Second, in a separate
transaction, the payment provider charges the purchaser's selected, cloud-linked account in a
card-not-present environment to recoup its losses on the first transaction.[27][28][29]

Audio signal-based payments


The audio channel of the mobile phone is another wireless interface that is used to make
payments. Several companies have created technology to use the acoustic features of cell phones
to support mobile payments and other applications that are not chip-based. The technologies
Near sound data transfer (NSDT), Data Over Voice and NFC 2.0 produce audio signatures that
the microphone of the cell phone can pick up to enable electronic transactions.[30]

Direct carrier/bank co-operation


In the T-Cash[31] model, the mobile phone and the phone carrier is the front-end interface to the
consumers. The consumer can purchase goods, transfer money to a peer, cash out, and cash in.[32]
A 'mini wallet' account can be opened as simply as entering *700# on the mobile phone,[33]
presumably by depositing money at a participating local merchant and the mobile phone number.
Presumably, other transactions are similarly accomplished by entering special codes and the
phone number of the other party on the consumer's mobile phone.

Mobile payment service provider model


This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section
by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (December 2012)
There are four potential mobile payment models: [34]
1. Operator-Centric Model: The mobile operator acts independently to deploy mobile
payment service. The operator could provide an independent mobile wallet from the user
mobile account(airtime). A large deployment of the Operator-Centric Model is severely
challenged by the lack of connection to existing payment networks. Mobile network
operator should handle the interfacing with the banking network to provide advanced
mobile payment service in banked and under banked environment. Pilots using this
model have been launched in emerging countries but they did not cover most of the
mobile payment service use cases. Payments were limited to remittance and airtime top
up.
2. Bank-Centric Model: A bank deploys mobile payment applications or devices to
customers and ensures merchants have the required point-of-sale (POS) acceptance
capability. Mobile network operator are used as a simple carrier, they bring their
experience to provide Quality of service (QOS) assurance.
3. Collaboration Model: This model involves collaboration among banks, mobile operators
and a trusted third party.

4. Peer-to-Peer Model: The mobile payment service provider acts independently from
financial institutions and mobile network operators to provide mobile payment. For
example the MHITS SMS payment service uses a peer-to-peer model.

See also

Electronic money
Financial cryptography
Mobile Payment Using USSD
Mobile ticketing
SEMOPS
SMS banking
PayMate Wallet

Universal card

Purchase-to-pay

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article
by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (June 2009)
Purchase-to-pay, often abbreviated to P2P and also called req to cheque, refers to the business
processes that cover activities of requesting (requisitioning), purchasing, receiving, paying for
and accounting for goods and services. Also commonly referred to as procure-to-pay.

Contents

1 Automation
2 History
3 A discipline in its own right
4 References

Automation
Purchase-to-pay systems automate the full purchase-to-payment process, connecting
procurement and invoicing operations through an intertwined business flow that automates the
process from identification of a need, planning and budgeting, through to procurement and
payment.
Key benefits are increased financial and procurement visibility, efficiency, cost savings and
control. Automation allows for reduced processing times and straight-through processing where
the incoming invoices are handled without any manual intervention.

Purchase-to-pay systems are designed to provide organizations with control and visibility over
the entire lifecycle of a transaction from the way an item is ordered to the way that the final
invoice is processed providing full insight into cashflow and financial commitments and is now
deemed an important tool for proper implementation of Resource Accounting and Budgeting, not
least by UK Government Departments such as HM Treasury. Financial commitments are
understood at the point they are committed to rather than when invoiced.
Organizations automate invoice processing and purchasing policies and procedures to bring
financial rigor and process efficiency to the business of buying.
Both purchase order (PO) and non-PO spending, capital, credit card and reimbursable spending
can be captured and controlled through automated P2P systems. Finance departments can also
enforce internal spending controls and have instant access to data that tells them who is
spending, what they are buying and paying for, and with which vendors.
As a result, efficiency and cost saving benefits can be substantial.

History
The term emerged in the 1990s and is one of a number of buzz phrases (like B2B, B2C, G2C
etc.) that emerged as Internet applications became used more widely in business. Although it
does not necessarily refer directly to the application of technology to the purchasing process, it is
most often used in relation to applications like e-procurement and ERP purchasing and payment
modules.

A discipline in its own right


Following the maturation of Internet-supported supply chain processes, the case emerged for
identifying opportunities to further streamline business processes across the whole of the
procure-to-pay value chain. This was driven primarily by the supply chain software vendors and
consultants as well as by governments who had recognised and enthusiastically embraced
concepts like e-procurement. The publication of the Gershon Review in the UK in 2004 for
example, gave the British public sector the mandate to direct significant resource and effort
toward creating efficiency and in particular in all aspects purchasing.
As a consequence, once disparate business functions, such as accounts payable and purchasing,
have in some organisations been brought together, and the concept of purchase-to-pay has
evolved from a buzz phrase to a recognised discipline.[citation needed] (Some organisations have
changed the reporting line of the payables function from finance to purchasing.)
A 2009 Basware research report The Cost of Control: The Real Price of Cost Cutting[1]
identified this growing trend of increased levels of finance and procurement collaboration to
overcome finance and purchasing challenges and highlighted that there is a clear emerging
trend toward using technology as a way of overcoming operational challenges and harmonising

buyers and payers within the business. Mark Frohlich, associate professor of operations
management at the Kelley School of Business commented at the time on the findings:
"A resounding majority of those interviewed have woken up to the negative realities of supply
chain risk and the crucial positive role supply chains will have in transforming their businesses
for years to come. Clearly such changes to the business landscape will require a coordinated and
collaborative response between functional departments, in particular finance and procurement, as
well as the intelligent implementation of appropriate integrative knowledge sharing tools and
systems. This is something we must all prepare for."
Procure-to-pay is the start of the procurement process from the point where the purchasing
department starts working until the moment the invoices are paid.
Product marketing deals with the "7 P's" of marketing, which are product, pricing, place,
promotion, physical environment, process and people.
Product marketing, as opposed to product management, deals with more outbound marketing or
customer-facing tasks (in the older sense of the phrase). For example, product management deals
with the basics of product development within a firm, whereas product marketing deals with
marketing the product to prospects, customers, and others. Product marketing, as a job function
within a firm, also differs from other marketing jobs such as marketing communications
("marcom"), online marketing, advertising, marketing strategy, and public relations, although
product marketers may use channels such as online for outbound marketing for their product.
A product market is something that is referred to when pitching a new product to the general
public. Product market definition focuses on a narrow statement: the product type, customer
needs (functional needs), customer type, and geographic area.

Contents

1 Role
2 Comparison with product management
3 Qualifications
4 Types
5 References

Role
Product marketing in a business addresses four important strategic questions:[1]

What products will be offered (i.e., the breadth and depth of the product line)?
Who will be the target customers (i.e., the boundaries of the market segments to be
served)?
How will the products reach those (i.e., the distribution channel and are there viable
possibilities that create a solid business model)?

At what price should the products be offered?

To inform these decisions, Product Marketing Managers (PMMs) act as the Voice of the
Customer to the rest of the product team and company. This includes gaining a deep
understanding ofand drivingcustomer engagement with the product, throughout their
lifecycle (pre-adoption, post adoption/purchase, and after churning). PMMs collect this customer
information through customer surveys and interviews, and when available, product usage data.
This frequently informs the future product roadmap, as well as driving customer product
education to ensure improved engagement.
PMMs answer these questions and execute on the strategy using the following tools and
methods:

Customer insights: interviews, surveys, focus groups, customer observation


Data analysis: product marketing managers are highly quantitative, particularly in
internet companies where results of marketing attribution to revenue is easily measured
Product validation: particularly for internet companies, teams often use marketing as a
channel to test and validate product ideas (the minimum viable product or rapid
prototyping), before engineering resources are committed to develop the product
Testing: optimal prices and marketing touch points are developed through exhaustive
A/B testing of language (copy), prices, product line-ups, visuals, and more

Comparison with product management


Product marketing frequently differs from product management in high-tech companies.
Whereas the product manager is required to take a product's requirements from the sales and
marketing personnel and create a product requirements document (PRD),[2] which will be used
by the engineering team to build the product, the product marketing manager can be engaged in
the task of creating a market requirements document (MRD), which is used as source for the
product management to develop the PRD.
In other companies the product manager creates both the MRDs and t