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Int. j. econ. manag. soc. sci., Vol(4), No (1), January, 2015. pp.

93-99

TI Journals

International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences


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ISSN:
2306-7276

Copyright 2015. All rights reserved for TI Journals.

Studying Factors Affecting Employee Empowerment in Golestan


Province Department of Roads and Transportation
Sanjar Salajeghe
Assistant Professor Department of management, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran.

Siavash Rezaei*
Department of management, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran.

Mohsen Ahmadi
Department of Management, Payame Noor Uuniversity, I.R. Iran.
*Corresponding author: f_shab2007@yahoo.com

Keywords

Abstract

Employee empowerment
Organizational structure
Organizational culture

The aim of this study was to investigate the factors affecting employee empowerment of Golestan Province
Department of Roads and Transport. This research is functional based on aims and is descriptive survey based on
method of data collection. The statistical population consisted of 421 employees of Golestan Province
Department of Roads and Transportation and statistical sample was 200 using Cochrane sampling method. The
questionnaire used to collect data had reliability coefficient of 0.7776 that is greater than value of 0.7, therefore,
questionnaire was valid. The inferential statistic techniques like Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Spearman
correlation coefficient were used in order to analyze and evaluate data and their normality. Results of hypotheses
showed that organizational structure and organizational culture have significant relationship with employee
empowerment and dimensions of organizational structure such as complexity, recognition and centralization
have significant relationship with employee empowerment and there is direct relationship among dimensions of
organizational culture as well as management support, system of rewards and team formation and empowerment.

1. Introduction
Educated and skilled workforce is the greatest asset of any country. What direct a nation to development are its human resources. Peter Drucker
states that most valuable asset of a state were production tools in past era but now the main capital of an organization is its employees.
There is no doubt when organizations talk of competition, technological advances, growth and evolution, empowerment of human resources are
the most important and the most appropriate strategies for increasing manpower productivity. In the last two decades, due to intensified
competitions in world and creation of global village, organizations focus on employee empowerment in order to maintain themselves in today's
turbulent environment. Empowerment is one of the most promising concepts in world business that has been considered less, despite much
discussion on empowerment, benefit is less, but now it has become a matter of day. Although empowerment can be a competitive advantage for
an organization and despite the fact that many managers agree that empowerment is desirable, most organizations have difficulty implementing
it.
One of the strategies for empowering employees to improve productivity is human resource and its characteristics. Since organizations encounter
with problems such as decreased productivity, dissatisfied customers, doing things slowly, reduced flexibility and motivation of employees,
employee empowerment can be a good strategy. It is a process by which managers allow employees to gain power and influence within
organization. The success of an organization depends on the extent to which all employees can be empowered.
Empowerment is the people's tendency to self-control, self-importance and accepting freedom for themselves. Empowered human resources are
constantly learning and developing new skills and make prepare themselves to meet new demands. The organizations gain benefits from
empowerment process: increased occupational satisfaction of members, improved quality of working life, improved work and service quality,
increased organizational efficiency, organizational members preparation for competence and confidence.
The main aim of this research is to study factors affecting on employee empowerment of Golestan provinces Department of Roads and
Transportation from structural and cultural dimensions.

2. Research Literature
2.1 Definition of empowerment
Multiple definitions of empowerment are provided, some of which include:
Empowerment involves giving power, responsibility to employees and administrators in order to decide for doing some activities and
have more control over jobs [3].
Empowerment means creating necessary capacities for employees to empower themselves with added value to organization and
playing role and responsibility that they are responsible for in organization, in addition to efficiency and effectiveness. This will be
realized by knowledge and experience of employees with work component named incentive in employees [2].
Dimensions of empowerment
Thomas and Velthouse (1990) consider empowerment as an intrinsic motivation that reflects the active role of employees in organization and
distinguish among management strategies, organizational factors and employees' perceptions of empowerment. They emphasize on multifaceted
nature of empowerment and mention four psychological dimensions: Sense of significance, competence, choice and effectiveness.
Sprietzer (1995-96) and Abdullahi (2005) measured and validated in their research studies four dimensions. Whetten and Cameron (1998) added
confidence to above dimensions based on Mishra research (1992).
Thus, psychological empowerment of employees based on previous research can be summarized in five dimensions.

Sanjar Salajeghe, Siavash Rezaei *, Mohsen Ahmadi

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International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(4), No (1), January, 2015.

Table1. Psychological dimensions of employee empowerment


Dimensions
Sense of competence
Sense of autonomy
Sense of effectiveness
Sense of significance
Sense of confidence

Explanation
Having confidence in ones ability to perform tasks successfully
Having freedom to choose the method and way of doing works
Belief in personal ability to influence or control the outcome of activities
Valuing career goals based on personal ideals and standards
Feeling security and believe that they will be dealt with

2.2 Benefits of Employee Empowerment


Bowen and Lawler (1992) consider advantages of empowerment in service organizations including.
Empowered employees provide quick and timely responses to customers.
Empowered employees communicate warmly and with open arms with other employees and customers.
Empowered employees are able to feel better about themselves and their jobs.
Empowered employees can be an important source of new ideas.
Empowered employees are more flexible to organizational changes in order to improve efficiency and are more consistent with the
new conditions [3].
2.3 Empowerment approaches
Kevin Sprietzer (1997) has detected two different approaches for empowerment through field study of middle managers in leading companies.
Mechanical and organic approach
2.3.1 Mechanical approach
According to this view, empowerment means delegating authority to lower level employees. Managers share power with subordinates, specify
certain plans and objectives of organization, provides information and resources needed for employees and use procedures such as management
based on aims and quality circles and other participatory methods, considering performance results. Implicit strategies of empowerment from
this perspective include:
A. Work starts from senior management.
B. Vision mission and organizational values are clearly defined.
C. Duties, roles and rewards of employees are clearly legible.
D. Responsibilities are delegated.
E. Employees are accountable for outcomes.
Most actors and writers of management have mechanical view on empowerment. For example Blanhchard et al (1996) have identified three
steps for implementing empowerment.
A. Sharing of information
B. Substituting groups instead of traditional hierarchy
C. Designing an appropriate organizational structure
Bowen and Lawler (1992) emphasize on information sharing of employess, team composition, training and rewards.
These writers call this type of empowerment as "communicative approach" [1].
2.3.2 Organic approach
According to this approach, empowerment means to take risks, grow, change and trust in employees and tolerating their errors.
According to Quinn and Sprietzer (1997) organizational structures obstruct "doing right thing". They assume that empowered employees have
mistakes but must not be punished for these mistakes. Empowered employees must ask for forgiveness and not leniency. They must be
entrepreneur and venture and have a sense of ownership to the organization.
Implied strategies of this approach include:
A. Begin to empowerment from lower levels of organization through understanding their needs
B. Modeling empowerment behavior for employees
C. Team formation in order to encourage cooperative behavior
D. Definition of venture
E. Trust in employees to perform tasks [1].
According to this view, the presence of positive beliefs about themselves, self-esteem and sense of self-efficacy are factors of empowerment. So,
empowerment is not something that managers do for employees but is employee attitude about their role in organization. Employees must feel
themselves that they have freedom and power of decision making. They must have sense of belonging to organization and competence on their
capabilities and be worthy of effecting on system in which they work properly. Organizational characteristics can contribute to the
empowerment of employees [5].
Conger and Kanungo (1988) call this view as motivational approach. In psychological literature, power is used as the state of intrinsic
motivation or expectation. For example, people need to have power. Power of intrinsic motivation refers to influence on others, when people
believe that they have power or accept that they can control situations and other people, the need for power is available.
Power in motivation approach refers to a persons inner need to autonomy or self-belief, self-efficacy. Under these conditions, the base of power
is in motivational orientation of individuals. Any strategy or managerial technique requires strengthening the autonomy or self-efficacy of
employees and will enhance their sense of empowerment and vice versa.
Thomas & Velthouse (1990) defined empowerment based on cognitive variables that determine motivation of employees and believe that
empowerment is a multidimensional issue and consider it as a process of increasing job intrinsic motivation that it includes effectiveness,
competence, and significance and choice right.
Sprietzer (1995-96) defines psychological empowerment as a motivational concept consisting of four domains based on Thomas & Velthouse
pattern and these dimensions totally reflect a personal orientation to role of work in organization
Whetten and Cameron (1998) emphasized on multifaceted nature of empowerment and approved four dimensions and added confidence them.

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Studying Factors Affecting Employee Empowerment in Golestan Province Department of Roads and Transportation
International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(4), No (1), January, 2015.

Table2. Employee empowerment approaches [1]


Theorist

Strategy

Aims

Approach

Fu (1997), Blanchard et al (1996) Showl (1993)

Delegating authority to subordinates

Empowerment of
employees

Mechanical

Conger and Kananga (1988)

Sense of self efficacy

Thomas and Volthos (1990)


Sprietzer (1995)
Whetten and Cameron (1998)

Sense of competence
Sense of significance
Sense of effectiveness
Sense of autonomy
Sense of confidence

Increase employee
motivation

Motivational
Recognition

Increase the intrinsic


motivation of employees

Organic

2.4 Organizational structure


Structure shows distribution of power in organization and is not merely a coordination mechanism but it effects on organizational processes. The
organizational structure implies the patterns of relationships within organization, authority and communications [11]. Structure clarifies
reporting relationships, formal communication channels, determining responsibility and delegating decision-making power (Hudeg, Anthony,
1991). Organizational structure determines operations and activities within organization and responsibility arrangements [5].
2.4.1 Dimensions of Organizational Structure
Different factors are mentioned in determining structural dimensions and these factors have diversity according to the vision of scientists. If
researchers consider the structural dimension of factors, the number and diversity of dimensions will be reduced. Among these factors are
components of administrative, autonomy, centralization, complexity, delegation of power, segregation, recognition, integration, and professional
tendency, monitoring domains, expertise orientation, standardization and number of vertical hierarchy levels [7] that most organizational
theorists have consensus among them on three dimensions of centralization, recognition and complexity.
2.4.2 Complexity
Complexity is degree of individuals specialization in terms of career professionals within organization and it may be defined and measured
based on number of work places, the number of jobs that are done and number of hierarchies that do different tasks [9].
1. Horizontal separation: it refers to the degree of separation between units based on people, their job and their education and training.
When an organization requires a great deal of specialized knowledge and skills, complexity is increased, communication and
coordination between people becomes difficult. Specialization of jobs exacerbates this problem. Two well-known types of horizontal
separation is specialization and organization division into different sections that increase of them will result in increasing complexity
[7].
2. Vertical separation: it implies the depth of structure and increased separation leads to increased number of hierarchy levels. Horizontal
and vertical separation are interdependent, increasing specialization results in increased coordinated tasks and thereby increases need
for coordination leads to vertical separation [7].
3. Geographical separation: Despite different places in different geographical regions, the complexity is increased. Geographic separation
implies dispersion of offices, factories and organizations in various geographic regions [7].
2.4.3 Recognition
Recognition is measurement of written rules, regulations, procedures, educational recommendations and organizational communications instead
of being verbal [10]. Recognition is one of the important aspects of organizational structures so that some consider organizational structure as
organizational framework, interaction rules, management tools and work procedures. (Willem, 1981)
2.4.4Centralization
It refers to the degree of decisions concentration at one point of organization [7]. Centralization refers to the distribution of power in
organization and determines who has the right of decision making [8]. Centralization is inversely related to delegation of power. If further
delegation of power is implemented the counterpart of centralization occurs, that is decentralization. In this case, decision making occurs in
lower levels of organization.
2.5 Organizational culture
Organizational culture is a set of common beliefs, values and assumptions among members of organization that forms way of thinking, decision
making and actions [10].
Another definition of culture is a combination of company's history, expectations and unwritten rules of social customs that effects on behaviors
and is a set of fundamental beliefs that effects on our understanding of works and communication of all employees [6].
View of Robert Kofi and Card Jones
Kofi and Jones introduce four types of organizational culture based on socialization and integration.
Network Culture: There is a high level of sociability and low level of integration in this culture, people are extraverted in such organizations and
have high social skills and empathy and are sincere and faithful to each other. Organizations with network culture have informal relations are
that facilitates flexible responses to problems and relationships occur between individuals and organization.
Material culture: This culture is known with high levels of integration and low levels of sociability. In organizations with such a culture, there is
a great amount of tendency and desire to succeed at competition among members, but this feature does not preclude cooperation between
members. Company aims are clear and measured. Presence of foreign enemy makes more integration. People are purposeful and obtain
motivation by success and competition and welcome to conflict.
Fractured culture: This culture is shown with lower level of integration and sociability. This culture occurs more in organizations that is based on
outside sources and rely on individual contributions. These organizations rely on individual innovations and there are little opportunities for
learning in these organizations, there is low level of mutual work relations. People are introvert and are motivated by work independency.
Participatory Culture: The Culture is known with high level of sociability and integration [6].

Sanjar Salajeghe, Siavash Rezaei *, Mohsen Ahmadi

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International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(4), No (1), January, 2015.

Complexity

Recognition

Centralization
Empowerment
Protection

Team composition

Reward System

Figure 1. The general model of study

This research is functional based on aims and is descriptive survey based on method of data collection. The statistical population consisted of
421 employees of Golestan Province Department of Roads and Transportation and statistical sample was 200 using Cochrane sampling method.
The alpha amount was 0.7776 in questionnaire that is greater than value of 0.7, therefore, questionnaire is valid. The inferential statistic
techniques like Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Spearman correlation coefficient were used in order to analyze hypotheses.

3. Research hypotheses
The main hypothesis
1. There is significant relationship between organizational structure and employee empowerment of Golestan provinces Department of
Roads and Transportation.
2. There is significant relationship between organizational culture and employee empowerment of Golestan provinces Department of
Roads and Transportation.
Sub- hypotheses
1. There is significant relationship between organizational complexity and employee empowerment of Golestan provinces Department
of Roads and Transportation.
2. There is significant relationship between organizational recognition and employee empowerment of Golestan provinces Department
of Roads and Transportation.
3. There is significant relationship between organizational centralization and employee empowerment of Golestan provinces Department
of Roads and Transportation.
4. There is significant relationship between organizational management support and employee empowerment of Golestan provinces
Department of Roads and Transportation.
5. There is significant relationship between organizational system of rewards and employee empowerment of Golestan provinces
Department of Roads and Transportation.
6. There is significant relationship between organizational team formation and employee empowerment of Golestan provinces
Department of Roads and Transportation.

4. Data analysis
Using Kolmogorov - Smirnov we concluded that eight variables of complexity, recognition, centralization, management support, reward
systems, team composition, organizational structure and organizational culture are not normal and only empowerment variable is normal. Nonparametric Spearman correlation is used to test the hypotheses (correlation).
4.1The main hypotheses
1. There is significant relationship between organizational structure and employee empowerment of Golestan provinces Department of Roads
and Transportation.
H0: There is no significant relationship between organizational structure and employee empowerment.
H1: There is significant relationship between organizational structure and employee empowerment.

Table 3. The correlation test between structure and empowerment


Correlation coefficient
-0.303

Conclusion
Relationship

Error rate
0.05

Significance level
0.000

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Studying Factors Affecting Employee Empowerment in Golestan Province Department of Roads and Transportation
International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(4), No (1), January, 2015.

Since the significance level is 0.000, and is smaller than error rate, then we conclude first hypothesis, this means that there is a significant
relationship between these two variables. Namely, there is a significant relationship between organizational structure and employee
empowerment of Golestan provinces Department of Roads and Transportation. The value of correlation coefficient is equal to -0.303 that
indicates a negative relationship between organizational structure and empowerment.
2. There is significant relationship between organizational culture and employee empowerment of Golestan provinces Department of Roads and
Transportation.
H0: There is no significant relationship between organizational culture and employee empowerment.
H1: There is significant relationship between organizational culture and employee empowerment.
Table 4. The correlation test between organizational culture and empowerment
Correlation coefficient
0.560

Conclusion
Relationship

Error rate
0.05

Significance level
0.000

Since the significance level is 0.000, and is smaller than error rate, then we conclude first hypothesis, this means that there is a significant
relationship between these two variables. Namely, there is a significant relationship between organizational culture and employee empowerment
of Golestan provinces Department of Roads and Transportation. The value of correlation coefficient is equal to 0.560 that indicates a direct
relationship between organizational culture and empowerment.
4.2 Sub- hypothese
1. There is significant relationship between organizational culture and employee empowerment of Golestan provinces Department of Roads and
Transportation.
H0: There is no significant relationship between organizational complexity and employee empowerment.
H1: There is significant relationship between organizational complexity and employee empowerment.
Table 5. The correlation test between complexity and empowerment
Correlation coefficient
0.286

Conclusion
Relationship

Error rate
0.05

Significance level
0.000

Since the significance level is 0.000, and is smaller than error rate, then we conclude first hypothesis, this means that there is a significant
relationship between these two variables. Namely, there is a significant relationship between organizational complexity and employee
empowerment of Golestan provinces Department of Roads and Transportation. The value of correlation coefficient is equal to 0.286 that
indicates a direct relationship between organizational complexity and empowerment.
2. There is significant relationship between organizational recognition and employee empowerment of Golestan provinces Department of Roads
and Transportation.
H0: There is no significant relationship between organizational recognition and employee empowerment.
H1: There is significant relationship between organizational recognition and employee empowerment.
Table 6. The correlation test between recognition and empowerment
Correlation coefficient
-0.448

Conclusion
Relationship

Error rate
0.05

Significance level
0.000

Since the significance level is 0.000, and is smaller than error rate, then we conclude first hypothesis, this means that there is a significant
relationship between these two variables. Namely, there is a significant relationship between organizational recognition and employee
empowerment of Golestan provinces Department of Roads and Transportation. The value of correlation coefficient is equal to -0.448 that
indicates a negative relationship between organizational recognition and empowerment.
3. There is significant relationship between organizational centralization and employee empowerment of Golestan provinces Department of
Roads and Transportation.
H0: There is no significant relationship between organizational centralization and employee empowerment.
H1: There is significant relationship between organizational centralization and employee empowerment.
Table 7. The correlation test between centralization and empowerment
Correlation coefficient
-0.417

Conclusion
Relationship

Error rate
0.05

Significance level
0.000

Since the significance level is 0.000, and is smaller than error rate, then we conclude first hypothesis, this means that there is a significant
relationship between these two variables. Namely, there is a significant relationship between organizational centralization and employee
empowerment of Golestan provinces Department of Roads and Transportation. The value of correlation coefficient is equal to -0.417 that
indicates a negative relationship between organizational centralization and empowerment.
4. There is significant relationship between organizational management support and employee empowerment of Golestan provinces Department
of Roads and Transportation.
H0: There is no significant relationship between organizational management support and employee empowerment.
H1: There is significant relationship between organizational management support and employee empowerment.

Sanjar Salajeghe, Siavash Rezaei *, Mohsen Ahmadi

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International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(4), No (1), January, 2015.

Table 8. The correlation test between management support and empowerment


Correlation coefficient
0.508

Conclusion
Relationship

Error rate
0.05

Significance level
0.000

Since the significance level is 0.000, and is smaller than error rate, then we conclude first hypothesis, this means that there is a significant
relationship between these two variables. Namely, there is a significant relationship between organizational management support and employee
empowerment of Golestan provinces Department of Roads and Transportation. The value of correlation coefficient is equal to 0.508 that
indicates a direct relationship between organizational management support and empowerment.
5. There is significant relationship between organizational system of rewards and employee empowerment of Golestan provinces Department of
Roads and Transportation.
H0: There is no significant relationship between organizational system of rewards and employee empowerment.
H1: There is significant relationship between organizational system of rewards and employee empowerment.
Table 9. The correlation test between system of rewards and empowerment
Correlation coefficient
0.592

Conclusion
Relationship

Error rate
0.05

Significance level
0.000

Since the significance level is 0.000, and is smaller than error rate, then we conclude first hypothesis, this means that there is a significant
relationship between these two variables. Namely, there is a significant relationship between organizational system of rewards and employee
empowerment of Golestan provinces Department of Roads and Transportation. The value of correlation coefficient is equal to 0.592 that
indicates a direct relationship between organizational system of rewards and empowerment.
6. There is significant relationship between organizational team formation and employee empowerment of Golestan provinces Department of
Roads and Transportation.
H0: There is no significant relationship between organizational team formation and employee empowerment.
H1: There is significant relationship between organizational team formation and employee empowerment.
Table 10. The correlation test between team formation and empowerment
Correlation coefficient
0.412

Conclusion
Relationship

Error rate
0.05

Significance level
0.000

Since the significance level is 0.000, and is smaller than error rate, then we conclude first hypothesis, this means that there is a significant
relationship between these two variables. Namely, there is a significant relationship between organizational team formation and employee
empowerment of Golestan provinces Department of Roads and Transportation. The value of correlation coefficient is equal to 0.412 that
indicates a direct relationship between organizational team formation and empowerment.

6. Discussion and conclusions


The first sub-hypothesis
The significance level (0.000) is smaller than error rate (0.05) after hypothesis test using data obtained from questionnaire, therefore, the first
hypothesis is confirmed, and this means that there is significant relationship between complexity and employee empowerment of Golestan
provinces Department of Roads and Transportation.
The second sub-hypothesis
The significance level (0.000) is smaller than error rate (0.05) after hypothesis test using data obtained from questionnaire, therefore, the second
hypothesis is confirmed, and this means that there is significant relationship between recognition and employee empowerment of Golestan
provinces Department of Roads and Transportation. According to the results of hypotheses test there is negative relationship between
recognition and employee empowerment. This means that more rigid and inflexible rules and regulations govern on organization, independence
and freedom of mobility and freedom of employees will be limited and it is natural that this process leads to decreased motivation, creativity and
innovation of employees and effects negatively on enhancing abilities and capabilities of employees.
The third sub- hypothesis
The significance level (0.000) is smaller than error rate (0.05) after hypothesis test using data obtained from questionnaire, therefore, the third
hypothesis is confirmed, and this means that there is significant relationship between centralization and employee empowerment of Golestan
provinces Department of Roads and Transportation. According to the results of data analysis, there is negative relationship between
centralization like recognition and employee empowerment. Too much centralization and maintaining power at high levels and absence of
employee participation in organization decision- making cause that employees feel less responsibility to respond problems facing organization
and feel that their managers do not respect them. In contract, delegating power to employees cause that they feel competence and character and
consider themselves responsible that in turn effects significantly on employee empowerment.
The fourth sub- hypothesis
The significance level (0.000) is smaller than error rate (0.05) after hypothesis test using data obtained from questionnaire, therefore, the fourth
hypothesis is confirmed, and this means that there is significant relationship between management support and employee empowerment of
Golestan provinces Department of Roads and Transportation.
According to the results of hypotheses test, there is significant relationship between management support and employee empowerment. This
problem is easily analyzed. When an organization's employees feel that management do not consider himself apart from employees and supports

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Studying Factors Affecting Employee Empowerment in Golestan Province Department of Roads and Transportation
International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(4), No (1), January, 2015.

employees and their ideas and creativity, they will feel usefulness and trust their managers even if they have deficiencies because managers trust
them. These two components, namely trust and perceived usefulness are important components of employee empowerment.
The fifth sub- hypothesis
The significance level (0.000) is smaller than error rate (0.05) after hypothesis test using data obtained from questionnaire, therefore, the fifth
hypothesis is confirmed, and this means that there is significant relationship between system of rewards and employee empowerment of
Golestan provinces Department of Roads and Transportation.
The sixth sub- hypothesis
The significance level (0.000) is smaller than error rate (0.05) after hypothesis test using data obtained from questionnaire, therefore, the sixth
hypothesis is confirmed, and this means that there is significant relationship between team formation and employee empowerment of Golestan
provinces Department of Roads and Transportation. According to the results of hypotheses test, there is significant relationship between team
formation and employee empowerment. Implementing tasks in team and groups lead to organization employee empowerment for two reasons.
A. Knowledge, skills and experiences will be exchanged with each other in teamwork and enhances knowledge and awareness among people in
general, and knowledge will help individuals to perform their duties effectively. B) People feel effectiveness and their motivation to perform the
task is risen exponentially in group work. As noted, the feeling of effectiveness is one of the most important components of employee
empowerment.

7. Suggestions
1)

2)

3)

4)

Due to the fact that system of rewards variable is the most determinant factor in employee empowerment of Golestan provinces
Department of Roads and Transportation, managers are recommended to choose a good and regular system of rewards to their
employees in order to show that they will appreciate employee efforts and hard work and management respects employees and
evaluates their performance and yields better rewards.
Another important factor that plays a significant role in employee empowerment is management support. It is suggested that managers
support employees and not be apart from employees and value organization personnel ideas and opinions and to ensure them that
management will always support them and even if employees have shortcomings and mistakes, will help them in solving the work
problems.
Other factor that has significant relationship with employee empowerment is recognition that is negatively related to empowerment of
individuals. It is recommended to organization managers avoid from legislating dry, lifeless and dull laws that are sharply against
employee empowerment, and allow employees to perform their work with little autonomy and freedom of action and determine better
ways of doing works and use their ingenuity and creativity to solve problems.
Another important factor that has significant relationship with employee empowerment is centralization. If managers want to empower
employees and make decisions with high efficiency, they must delegate their powers to employees and allow each employee to sees
himself as a manager and provide effective decisions and solutions in order to increase the organizational efficiency and performance.

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