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An Introduction to Domain Names

Overview:

Domain names were invented to fill a similar need on the Internet. Most computers
connected to the Internet are identified by a unique number called an IP address (for
instance, 213.197.65.82). IP addresses are neither intuitive (they don't correspond to a
geographical location) nor easy to remember. If you type the IP address into the URL bar
of your browser you will be taken to the web site it relates to. As well as being hard to
remember, however, IP addresses are also FIXED (if you change web hosting companies
you'll need to get a new IP address for your site). Domain names offer a more intuitive
way to name and find a website. Each domain name replaces IP address with a simple
word or expression.

Definitions of Domain Name on the Web:

• The unique name that identifies an Internet site. Domain Names always have 2 or
more parts, separated by dots. The part on the left is the most specific, and the
part on the right is the most general. A given machine may have more than one
Domain Name but a given Domain Name points to only one machine. For
example, the domain names: helpline4it.net mail.helpline4it.net
workshop.helpline4it.net can all refer to the same machine, but each domain name
can refer to no more than one machine. Usually, all of the machines on a given
Network will have the same thing as the right-hand portion of their Domain
Names (helpline4it.net in the examples above). It is also possible for a Domain
Name to exist but not be connected to an actual machine. This is often done so
that a group or business can have an Internet e-mail address without having to
establish a real Internet site. In these cases, some real Internet machine must
handle the mail on behalf of the listed Domain Name.
• The unique name that identifies an Internet site. On the Web, the domain name is
the part of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) that tells a domain name server
where to forward a request for a Web page. For example, the domain name of this
web site is helpline4it.com.
• Strings of letters used to name organizations and computers and addresses on the
internet; "domain names are organized hierarchically with the more generic parts
to the right."

Types of Domain Names:

We categorized domain names in to two types.

1. Top Level Domain (TLD)


2. Country Code Top Level Domain (ccTLD)
1. Top Level Domain (TLD):

The last (right-hand) part of a complete Domain Name. For example in the domain name
www.helpline4it.com ".com" is the Top Level Domain. There are a large number of
TLD's, for example .net, .biz, .com, .edu, .gov, .info, .int, .mil, .org, .tv, .pro etc.

 .com stands for commercial  .pro stands for professional


 .edu stands for education  .museum stands for museums
 .gov stands for government  .name stands for individuals
 .biz stands for business  .net stands for networks
 .info stands for information  .coop stands for cooperative
 .tv stands for television associations
 .org stands for non-profit  .aero stands for air-transport
organizations industry
 .mil stands for military

2. Country Code Top Level Domain (ccTLD):

ccTLD is typically a two-letter domain name extension, such as .uk or .de, that
corresponds to a country, territory or geographic location. A country code Top Level
Domain also referred to as non-US ISO country codes. Below is the complete detail
about ccTLD's.

• .ac – Ascension Island • .bm – Bermuda


• .ad – Andorra • .bn – Brunei Darussalam
• .ae – United Arab Emirates • .bo – Bolivia
• .af – Afghanistan • .br – Brazil
• .ag – Antigua and Barbuda • .bs – Bahamas
• .ai – Anguilla • .bt – Bhutan
• .al – Albania • .bv – Bouvet Island
• .am – Armenia • .bw – Botswana
• .an – Netherlands Antilles • .by – Belarus
• .ao – Angola • .bz – Belize
• .aq – Antarctica • .ca – Canada
• .ar – Argentina • .cc – Cocos (Keeling) Islands
• .as – American Samoa • .cd – Congo, The Democratic
• .at – Austria Republic of the
• .au – Australia • .cf – Central African Republic
• .aw – Aruba • .cg – Congo, Republic of
• .ax – Aland Islands • .ch – Switzerland
• .az – Azerbaijan • .ci – Cote d'Ivoire
• .ba – Bosnia and Herzegovina • .ck – Cook Islands
• .bb – Barbados • .cl – Chile
• .bd – Bangladesh • .cm – Cameroon
• .be – Belgium • .cn – China
• .bf – Burkina Faso • .co – Colombia
• .bg – Bulgaria • .cr – Costa Rica
• .bh – Bahrain • .cs – Serbia and Montenegro
• .bi – Burundi • .cu – Cuba
• .bj – Benin • .cv – Cape Verde
• .cx – Christmas Island • .il – Israel
• .cy – Cyprus • .im – Isle of Man
• .cz – Czech Republic • .in – India
• .de – Germany • .io – British Indian Ocean
• .dj – Djibouti Territory
• .dk – Denmark • .iq – Iraq
• .dm – Dominica • .ir – Iran, Islamic Republic of
• .do – Dominican Republic • .is – Iceland
• .dz – Algeria • .it – Italy
• .ec – Ecuador • .je – Jersey
• .ee – Estonia • .jm – Jamaica
• .eg – Egypt • .jo – Jordan
• .eh – Western Sahara • .jp – Japan
• .er – Eritrea • .ke – Kenya
• .es – Spain • .kg – Kyrgyzstan
• .et – Ethiopia • .kh – Cambodia
• .fi – Finland • .ki – Kiribati
• .fj – Fiji • .km – Comoros
• .fk – Falkland Islands (Malvinas) • .kn – Saint Kitts and Nevis
• .fm – Micronesia, Federal State • .kp – Korea, Democratic People's
of Republic
• .fo – Faroe Islands • .kr – Korea, Republic of
• .fr – France • .kw – Kuwait
• .ga – Gabon • .ky – Cayman Islands
• .gb – United Kingdom • .kz – Kazakhstan
• .gd – Grenada • .la – Lao People's Democratic
• .ge – Georgia Republic
• .gf – French Guiana • .lb – Lebanon
• .gg – Guernsey • .lc – Saint Lucia
• .gh – Ghana • .li – Liechtenstein
• .gi – Gibraltar • .lk – Sri Lanka
• .gl – Greenland • .lr – Liberia
• .gm – Gambia • .ls – Lesotho
• .gn – Guinea • .lt – Lithuania
• .gp – Guadeloupe • .lu – Luxembourg
• .gq – Equatorial Guinea • .lv – Latvia
• .gr – Greece • .ly – Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
• .gs – South Georgia and the • .ma – Morocco
South Sandwich Islands • .mc – Monaco
• .gt – Guatemala • .md – Moldova, Republic of
• .gu – Guam • .mg – Madagascar
• .gw – Guinea-Bissau • .mh – Marshall Islands
• .gy – Guyana • .mk – Macedonia, The Former
• .hk – Hong Kong Yugoslav Republic of
• .hm – Heard and McDonald • .ml – Mali
Islands • .mm – Myanmar
• .hn – Honduras • .mn – Mongolia
• .hr – Croatia/Hrvatska • .mo – Macau
• .ht – Haiti • .mp – Northern Mariana Islands
• .hu – Hungary • .mq – Martinique
• .id – Indonesia • .mr – Mauritania
• .ie – Ireland • .ms – Montserrat
• .mt – Malta • .sl – Sierra Leone
• .mu – Mauritius • .sm – San Marino
• .mv – Maldives • .sn – Senegal
• .mw – Malawi • .so – Somalia
• .mx – Mexico • .sr – Suriname
• .my – Malaysia • .st – Sao Tome and Principe
• .mz – Mozambique • .sv – El Salvador
• .na – Namibia • .sy – Syrian Arab Republic
• .nc – New Caledonia • .sz – Swaziland
• .ne – Niger • .tc – Turks and Caicos Islands
• .nf – Norfolk Island • .td – Chad
• .ng – Nigeria • .tf – French Southern Territories
• .ni – Nicaragua • .tg – Togo
• .nl – Netherlands • .th – Thailand
• .no – Norway • .tj – Tajikistan
• .np – Nepal • .tk – Tokelau
• .nr – Nauru • .tl – Timor-Leste
• .nu – Niue • .tm – Turkmenistan
• .nz – New Zealand • .tn – Tunisia
• .om – Oman • .to – Tonga
• .pa – Panama • .tp – East Timor
• .pe – Peru • .tr – Turkey
• .pf – French Polynesia • .tt – Trinidad and Tobago
• .pg – Papua New Guinea • .tv – Tuvalu
• .ph – Philippines • .tw – Taiwan
• .pk – Pakistan • .tz – Tanzania
• .pl – Poland • .ua – Ukraine
• .pm – Saint Pierre and Miquelon • .ug – Uganda
• .pn – Pitcairn Island • .uk – United Kingdom
• .pr – Puerto Rico • .um – United States Minor
• .ps – Palestinian Territory, Outlying Islands
Occupied • .us – United States
• .pt – Portugal • .uy – Uruguay
• .pw – Palau • .uz – Uzbekistan
• .py – Paraguay • .va – Holy See (Vatican City
• .qa – Qatar State)
• .re – Reunion Island • .vc – Saint Vincent and the
• .ro – Romania Grenadines
• .ru – Russian Federation • .ve – Venezuela
• .rw – Rwanda • .vg – Virgin Islands, British
• .sa – Saudi Arabia • .vi – Virgin Islands, U.S.
• .sb – Solomon Islands • .vn – Vietnam
• .sc – Seychelles • .vu – Vanuatu
• .sd – Sudan • .wf – Wallis and Futuna Islands
• .se – Sweden • .ws – Western Samoa
• .sg – Singapore • .ye – Yemen
• .sh – Saint Helena • .yt – Mayotte
• .si – Slovenia • .yu – Yugoslavia
• .sj – Svalbard and Jan Mayen • .za – South Africa
Islands • .zm – Zambia
• .sk – Slovak Republic • .zw – Zimbabw