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Dips in Large Transmission Systems

G. Olguin, Student Member, IEEE and M.H.J. Bollen, Senior Member, IEEE

voltage dips in a large transmission system. The theoretical

background about symmetrical components and the impedance

matrix is presented. Equations for during fault voltage are

derived. Simulations of balanced and unbalanced dips are

performed in a large transmission system taking into account the

transformer effect. Results are presented in several ways

including graphs and tables.

Index Terms power quality, stochastic methods, voltage dip,

voltage sag.

I. NOMENCLATURE

a

kf

Superscripts b and c identify phase b and c respectively.

Superscripts p, z and n identify positive, negative and zero

sequence components.

matrix, Z. Superscript n and z indicate the negative and zero

sequence entries respectively.

a : Fortescue transformation a-operator, given by

a=e

2

3

II. INTRODUCTION

reductions of rms voltage. Typically two characteristics

describe them as a single event: magnitude and duration. At

the system level an additional characteristic is needed:

frequency of occurrence. In this paper we study magnitude and

frequency of dips in a large transmission system. The main

cause of voltage dips is the occurrence of remote faults in

transmission and distribution systems. For the purpose of this

paper, the remaining voltage during the fault characterizes a

voltage dip.

Dips are the most important voltage disturbance, being

responsible for most of the financial losses in the industry due

The authors acknowledge the financial support of Energimyndigheten,

Elforsk, and ABB Corporate Research under the Elektra program.

The authors are with the Department of Electric Power Engineering,

Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg Sweden. SE-412 96

(fax:+46.31.7721633,

e-mail:gabriel.olguin@elteknik.chalmers.se

mathias.bollen@elteknik.chalmers.se)

describe the performance of the network in terms of dips.

Voltage dips are of stochastic nature because of the presence

of several random factors in the dip generation process. Power

quality monitoring can be used to obtain the average power

quality of the network, but many monitors need to be installed

ideally one at each bus- and for a long period of time. The

alternative is stochastic assessment [1, 5].

Stochastic assessment of dips combines the response of the

network to faults with a known fault frequency. Stochastic data

is combined with deterministic results to obtain the expected

number of dips at load points. The stochastic data is given by

reliability data in terms of fault rate, while the during-fault

voltages are the deterministic results. During-fault voltages are

the result of a short circuit simulation for a given set of

parameters: pre-fault voltage, network configuration, fault

positions, generation scheduling, etc.

Two stochastic methods have been presented as suitable

tools for voltage dip frequency estimation. The method of

critical distance is a simple way to determine the severity and

frequency of dips in radial systems [2]. The second method is

called Fault Positions and it is a straightforward way to deal

with dips [3, 4, 5, 6].

This paper will concentrate on the calculation of duringfault voltages for non-symmetrical faults. The statistical

processing of the results is similar as for symmetrical faults

and described in other papers, e.g. [3] and [4]. The paper will

also discuss ways of presenting the results for unbalanced dips.

III. IMPEDANCE MATRIX AND SHORT CIRCUITS

Matrix calculations are an efficient tool for computer-based

analysis in meshed systems. The calculation of the during-fault

voltages balanced and unbalanced- is based on three

principles: Superposition theorem, the node impedance matrix

and symmetrical components.

A. Symmetrical faults

Consider a network with N+1 nodes and its impedance

matrix, Z. The reference node is named zero and is chosen to

be the common generator node. Among the remaining N nodes

are the created nodes on lines needed to simulate short-circuits

at the chosen fault positions. According to the superposition

theorem, the voltage at node k during the fault at node f is

given by (1), where vpref(k) is the pre-fault voltage at node k and

vkf is the voltage-variation at node k due to the fault. It should

a simplified notation has been adopted.

(1)

+ v

v =v

kf

pref ( k )

kf

the impedance matrix Z. The impedance matrix contains -in its

diagonal- the driving-point impedance zii of every node with

respect to the reference node. The driving point impedance of

a node is the Thevenins equivalent impedance between it and

the reference node. Hence, the driving point impedance allows

finding the short circuit current at each bus. Z also contains the

transfer impedances zij between each bus of the system and

every other bus with respect to the reference bus. They can be

interpreted as the voltages that exist on each of the other buses,

with respect to the reference, when a bus of the system is

driven by a unity injection current. Hence, the transfer

impedance allows finding the voltage-variation at node k due

to a short-circuit current driven at node f.

During a three phase short circuit at node f, the current

injected to the node f is given by (2), where vpref(f) is the prefault voltage at the faulted node f, zff is the impedance seen

looking into the network at the faulted node f and the minus

sign is due to the direction of the current.

(2)

v

if =

pref ( f )

z ff

voltage at any node k due to this current- can be easily

calculated by using the transfer impedance zkf.

(3)

v

vkf = z kf

pref ( f )

z ff

The during-fault voltages are found applying (1), this is

adding to (3) the pre-fault voltage as shown in (4).

(4)

v pref ( f )

z ff

diagonal dominant full matrix for a connected network. This

means that every bus in the system is subjected to dips due to

faults everywhere in the network, however the voltage drop

depends on the transfer impedance between the load point and

the faulted bus. In general the transfer impedance decreases

with the distance between the faulted point and load bus.

Hence load points will not seriously be affected by faults

located far away in the system. The voltage variation also

depends on the driving impedance at the faulted bus. The

driving impedance determines the weakness of the bus. The

stronger the faulted bus the larger the voltage drop and the

larger the affected area.

B. Nonsymmetrical Faults

When dealing with nonsymmetrical faults, symmetrical

components are used. Impedance matrix of positive Zp,

negative Zn and zero sequence Zz need to be built [7]. In

matrices are usually considered equal. This assumption holds

for any static circuit, such as transmission lines and

transformers. It is not fully valid for rotating machines.

However, since the influence of the rotating machines in the

impedance matrix is small, the positive and negative sequence

matrices are nearly equal. In our simulations we assume these

two matrices to be equal, however the equations for

nonsymmetrical faults have been written for the general case.

The method described in the previous section can again be

used to calculate the during fault voltages. It is advantageous

to determine the sequence voltage variation due to the

corresponding sequence current and transform back these to

phase components.

Single phase fault: Phase a to ground

For a phase to ground fault, the short circuit current is

found by connecting the sequence networks in series. The

current flowing through the three sequence networks is the

same. The injected current in the positive, negative and zero

sequence networks is given by (5). The superscripts p, n and z

over if and zff indicate the positive, negative and zero sequence

components. The superscript a identifies the phase.

(5)

va

i fp =

pref ( f )

z

n

ff

ff

z +z +z

p

ff

; i fp = i nf = i zf

transfer impedance zkf of each sequence network. The positive

sequence-voltage change at node k due to the phase to ground

fault is given by (6). Similar equations can be derived for

voltage changes of negative and zero sequence.

(6)

va

vkfp = zkfp

pref ( f )

z

ff

z + z + z nff

p

ff

only positive sequence component and is equal to the pre-fault

voltage in phase a. The during-fault sequence-voltages at node

k are given by (7), (8) and (9).

(7)

va

v = z

n

kf

n

kf

v = z

z

kf

z

kf

pref ( f )

z + z zff + z nff

p

ff

v apref ( f )

(8)

v apref ( f )

(9)

From (9) it is clear that phase voltages at node k will not

z

contain zero sequence component if the transfer impedance z kf

is equal to zero. This is particularly true when the observation

bus and the fault point are at different sides of a transformer

with delta winding.

To get the phase voltages, we transform back to phase

components. Equations (10), (11) and (12) present the results,

expressions can be simplified assuming positive sequence

impedance equal to the negative one. Also the zero sequence

component can be neglected in some cases.

(10)

( z z + z p + z n ) va

vkfa = v apref ( k )

v =v

b

pref ( k )

v =v

c

pref ( k )

b

kf

c

kf

kf

kf

kf

z +z +z

z

ff

p

ff

pref ( f )

n

ff

(11)

(12)

equipment terminals. Even if it appears at the equipment

terminals, the majority of the equipment is not affected by it

because they are usually connected in delta or ungrounded

star.

In absence of zero sequence voltage and assuming Zp = Zn,

(13), (14) and (15) give the phase voltages at the load point

during the fault.

(13)

va

pref ( f )

z

ff

p

ff

z +

z

2

A similar approach can be used to derive equations for

unbalanced dips due to phase-to-phase faults. For a phase-tophase fault only the positive and negative sequence networks

take part in the analysis. The zero sequence current is null and

so is the zero sequence voltage. The positive sequence current

is equal in magnitude to the negative sequence current, but in

opposite direction. The positive sequence voltage-change is

given by (16) and is equal to the negative sequence, but of

contrary sign. The zero sequence voltage-change is null.

a

(16)

p

p v pref ( f )

p

n

vkf = zkf p

;

v

=

v

kf

kf

n

z ff + z ff

pre-fault voltages contain only positive sequence voltage. The

phase voltages during the fault are obtained by transforming

back to phase components.

(17)

(z n z p ) va

vkfa = v apref ( k ) +

(14)

a

1 p v pref ( f )

b

b

vkf = v pref ( k ) + zkf

zz

2

z ffp + ff

2

a

V

1

vkfc = v cpref ( k ) + zkfp pref ( f z)

z

2

z ffp + ff

2

v c pref

drop. These dips are known as dips type Da meaning that the

main drop is in phase a [8]. In Section IV we will see that the

same single-phase fault is seen differently when a delta-wye

transformer is in between the observation point and the faulted

node.

vkfb = v bpref ( k ) +

(15)

vkfc = v cpref ( k ) +

kf

kf

pref ( f )

z +z

p

ff

n

ff

(18)

z ffp + z nff

(19)

z ffp + z nff

Figure 2 presents the phasor diagram for this kind of dips.

They are known as dips type Ca meaning that the main drop is

in phases b and c [8].

v c kf

v c pref

v a kf

v b pref

v a pref

v b kf

Fig. 1. Dip type D for Zp=Zn and zero-sequence transfer impedance null

Note that (13), (14) and (15) show that phase voltage at the

observation bus can be calculated using a balanced short

circuit algorithm by adding a fault impedance equal to half of

the value of the zero sequence driving point impedance at the

fault point. These expressions only hold when the zero

sequence voltage is not relevant. Figure 1 shows a phasor

diagram for this dip. The faulted phase shows the main voltage

v c kf

v

kf

v a kf

v a pref

v b pref

Fig. 1. Dips type C for Zp=Zn

In a two phases to ground fault sequence networks are

connected in parallel. The sequence currents are all of different

values. At the load point will always exist voltage of positive

present if there is a path for the zero sequence current to flow

between f and k. Equations for this kind of unbalanced dip can

be derived in the same way already described.

IV. EFFECTS OF POWER TRANSFORMERS

In the previous sections equations for balanced and

unbalanced dips have been derived. However the effect of

power transformers on the resulting dip has not been taken into

account. Power systems contain power transformers with many

different winding connections. As a voltage dip passes through

a transformer, the relations between the voltage phasors will

change compared with the primary side. Two effects can be

identified [8]:

Change of the symmetrical phase. A dip can change its

symmetrical phase because of the labeling of the phases at

the secondary side of the transformer. This change is not

considered in this paper because our interest is in the

expected number of dips without discrimination of phases.

Change of the magnitude and/or phase because of the

winding connections. Only delta-wye is considered in this

paper. Two effects are considered: zero sequence blocking

and phase rotation. Zero sequence blocking is already

taken into account by modeling the zero sequence

transfer-impendence.

To model the phase rotation and its effect on magnitude we

consider ANSI/IEEE Standard [9]. According to this standard,

the low voltage side, whether in wye or delta, has a phase shift

of 30o lagging with respect to the high voltage side phase-toneutral voltage vector. Hence in passing through the

transformer from the fault side to the observation side, the

positive-sequence-phase voltage is shifted 30o in one direction,

and the negative-sequence voltage is shifted in the other

direction. These phase shifts can be incorporated into the dip

equations to consider the effect of transformers. However,

from the point of view of dip characterization what it is

important is the complex during-fault voltage with respect to

the pre-event voltage at the same bus, see (1). At the

observation point the pre-fault phase voltage is of positive

sequence and is the reference for the dip at that point. Hence

the positive-sequence voltage does not need to be shifted, but

the negative one needs to be shifted 60o to take into account

the effect of the transformer.

The phase angle shift introduced by the transformer in the

negative sequence can be written in terms of the Fortescue atransformer operator.

(20)

+ 60 o = a 2

o

(21)

60 = a

Consider for instance a phase-to-phase fault involving phase b

and c in the high voltage (HV) side of a transmission system.

The dip caused by this fault is seen at the HV sector as a Ca

dip and it was described in (17), (18) and (19). In the HV

sector, there is no need to shift the negative sequence because

the fault point and the observation bus are located at the same

sector. The same fault causes a dip at low voltage (LV), but in

this case a phase shift of +60o needs to be introduced into the

negative sequence. Using basic properties of the Fortescue atransformer operator and expressing the pre-fault voltage of

phase a in terms of phase c we get (22), (23) and (24).

Comparing these equations with (10), (11) and (12) we

conclude that the dip Ca is seen at the other side of the

transformer as a Dc dip. The similarity can be made clearer

taking the positive and negative sequence impedances equal

and neglecting the zero sequence component. In this case, the

phasors diagram of figure 1 is applicable with phase c as the

symmetrical phase.

(22)

(a z kfn + a 2 z kfp ) v cpref ( f )

a

a

vkf ( LV HV ) = v pref ( k )

p

n

z ff + z ff

vkfb ( LV HV ) = v bpref ( k )

vkfc ( LV HV ) = v cpref ( k )

z +z

p

ff

( z + z ) v cpref ( f )

p

kf

(23)

n

ff

n

kf

(24)

z ffp + z nff

HV sector is seen as a Dc dip at the LV, but also that a Dc dip

at the LV sector is seen as a Ca dip at the HV sector. A similar

analysis shows that a Da dip at the LV sector is seen as a dip

Cb at the HV sector. Although the previous analysis allows

identifying the phases involved in the dip type, in practice the

phases involved depends on the re-labeling of phases. Hence

what can be concluded is that delta-wye transformers change

the dip type from D to C and vise versa.

These equations have been implemented in a simulation

tool in order to perform a stochastic assessment of balanced

and unbalanced voltage dips.

V. STOCHASTIC ASSESSMENT OF VOLTAGE DIPS

The main purpose of the stochastic assessment of voltage

dips is to get a clear picture of the expected number of dips

and their characteristics as duration, magnitude, phases

involved, etc. In this work we are mainly interested in

magnitude. The magnitude of a dip is given by the remaining

voltage during the fault and has already been presented for

balanced and unbalanced faults. Once the magnitude of the

potential voltage dips has been calculated the stochastic

assessment can be performed combining the deterministic

results of the short-circuits simulations with the stochastic data

regarding faults.

How often a particular voltage dip occurs at a given

location depends on several factors, the number of faults

occurring in the electrical neighbourhood being the most

important one. This electrical neighbourhood has been

already identified as the exposed area [3,4]. How often a dip

occurs at bus k due to faults at a given bus f depends on the

reliability of the bus f. If the fault rate of bus f is , then the dip

caused by this fault will be seen times per year. Lines present

a special problem because the during-fault-voltage depends

upon the fault location. Some fault positions are needed along

the lines in order to get an accurate evaluation of the

magnitude of the dip caused by faults on lines.

12

73

76

79

30

23

51

21

28

77

80

86

24

62

63

52

16

85

84

14

22

19

29

47

11

35

78

26

65

10

43

54

2

81

32

59

49

53

20

46

60

25

8

44

71

75

48

15

68

31

56

74

67

61

27

38

40

50

69

45

17

41

13

82

70

33

87

34

39

18

58

37

72

55

57

83

42

9

64

66

36

Fig. 1.Simplified Model of the National Interconnected Systems of Colombia, buses 15, 16, 63 and 68 are 500 kV buses.

along lines the resulting dip magnitudes at load points are

stored in a during-fault voltage matrix Vdfv. A particular entry

of this matrix would be an element vkf indicating the remaining

phase voltage at bus k during a fault at node f. Combining this

matrix with the fault rate of fault positions, the stochastic

assessment of voltage dips can be performed.

The matrix Vdvf contains relevant information. The exposed

area can be derived from the Vdfv matrix. This information is

contained in rows of Vdfv. The exposed area encloses the

observation bus and the network area in which the occurrence

of faults would cause a during fault voltage lower than a given

value at the observation bus.

VI. DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM AND SIMULATIONS

A. System

The studied system is a simplified model of the National

Interconnected system of Colombia and has been described in

[3]. It contains 87 buses and 164 lines with a total length of

11651 km. A double-circuit 500kV line connects two 230kV

grids. See Figure 1.

The objective of this study is to show the possibilities of the

stochastic assessment. However the results cannot be directly

necessary to complete the simulations.

B. Modeling and Simulations

The system was modeled by means of the positive and zero

sequence impedance matrices. Negative sequence impedance

matrix was taken equal to the positive one. Lines were

modeled as medium-length lines perfectly transposed. Lines

shunt parameters are considered. Independence of sequence

components is assumed, meaning that the different sequences

do not react upon each other.

The simulations consider 781 fault positions with 87 faults

at buses and 694 faults at lines. Lines were divided so that

each line segment was no longer than 15 km. Fault rates were

assigned to fault positions corresponding to the type of fault.

The fault rate for fault positions on lines was determined from

the quotient between the expected annual number of faults on

lines and the number of fault positions on lines.

In order to count the number of dips occurring at the load

positions, the following criterion was adopted: each faultoriginated event, balanced or unbalanced, was counted as one

single dip. The minimum phase-to-neutral voltage was used to

characterize the resulting dip. During fault voltages were

registered for all buses and for each simulated fault. Three

simulation cases were developed as explained.

The fault rate for lines is 0.0134 faults per year-km and is

the same for the 164 lines. The fault rate for buses is 0.08

faults per bus-year and is the same for the 87 buses.

Case B. Only single phase to ground faults were

simulated. Fault rates as in case A.

Case C. Four kinds of shunt faults were simulated: singlephase to ground, phase to phase, two phases to ground and

three-phase fault. The probabilities of these faults were

assumed to be 80% single phase, 5% two phases, 10% two

phases ground and 5% three phases. Fault rates as in Case

A.

and 87. The lowest of the phase to ground voltages is used to

characterize the event. Faults on buses or lines inside the areas

would cause a remaining voltage in the worst phase lower than

85% at the indicated buses. It should be noted that part of the

lines connecting buses inside the exposed areas might be

actually outside the exposed areas. Also note that the system

has been modeled as solidly grounded. Dashed line is used for

the single-phase fault exposed area, while solid line is used for

the three-phase exposed area. The single-phase fault exposed

areas for buses 5 and 87 are almost coincident with the threephase fault exposed area, however a bit smaller. The threephase fault exposed area is bigger than the single-phase fault

exposed area but they do not differ too much when there is no

power transformer inside the area. When the exposed area

contains power transformers its shape changes drastically. This

can be explained by the blocking of the zero sequence

component and the changing in the dip type due to the winding

connection of the transformers.

From Figure 2 we can see that equipments will be less

exposed to spurious trip due to unbalanced dips. For an

impedance-grounded system the single-phase fault exposed

area would be significantly smaller.

The simulations give the during fault voltages for all buses.

However, only part of the results is presented in this paper due

to space limitations. A useful way to present the effect of faults

around the system on a given bus is by using the exposed area.

To derive conclusions about the exposed area for symmetrical

and nonsymmetrical faults; we present these areas for both

cases A and B.

12

73

76

79

30

23

51

21

28

77

80

86

24

62

63

52

16

85

84

14

20

46

47

11

35

78

68

31

56

74

67

61

27

38

40

65

10

43

54

26

81

32

59

49

71

75

60

25

8

44

53

48

29

22

19

15

15

50

69

45

17

41

13

82

70

87

87

1

33

34

39

18

58

37

72

55

57

83

42

9

64

66

36

Fig. 2. Exposed areas (85%) for buses 5, 15 and 87. Dashed line indicates exposed area for single-phase fault

55

as closed sets to simplify the drawing, however they might be

isolated sets enclosing the parts of the system in which a fault

would cause a dip more severe than a given value. To illustrate

this, consider the lines connecting bus 87 and 27. Figure 3

shows the during fault voltage at bus 87 when a moving fault is

applied on the line connecting these buses. Single-phase fault

and three-phase faults are shown. It can be seen that for both

fault types part of the line does not pertain to the 85% exposed

area of bus 87. The term critical distance is used to describe

the length line exposed to faults that might lead to critical dips

[1,2]. For this line and three-phase faults, the critical 85%distance would be approximately the first 40% of line plus the

ending 10% of it.

Dip at bus 87 due to faults on line 87-27

1phase fault

3 phase fault

1.0

0.9

Magnitude pu

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

0

20

40

60

80

100

D. Dips Frequencies

Voltage dips are power quality events that might stop an

entire industrial process. Duration and retained voltage are

used to characterize dips. In this paper only magnitude of the

dip is studied, however as dips have been simulated for 230kV

and 500kV we would expect durations of less than 500 ms. In

order to characterize an individual bus of the system the

frequency of the event is what matters because the main

objective is to evaluate the risk associated to spurious trips of

sensitive processes connected at that bus. We now present the

expected number of dips for some selected buses.

TABLE I

CUMULATIVE DIP FREQUENCY AT BUS 87

Remaining

voltage vkf pu

0.55

0.60

0.65

0.70

0.75

0.80

0.85

0.90

% line lenght

TABLE II

CUMULATIVE DIP FREQUENCY AT BUS 5

data contained in the Vdfv matrix also allows the description of

the during fault voltage due to faults on lines not connecting

the load bus.

Consider the line connecting nodes 62 and 76. According to

the exposed areas shown in Figure 2, only part of this line is

inside the 85% exposed area for single-phase fault. This is

confirmed by Figure 4, which shows the resulting remaining

voltage for faults along line 76-62. Figure 4 also shows the

effect of the zero sequence blocking by the transformers.

Dip at bus 15 due to faults on line 76-62

1 phase fault

Magnitude pu

3 phase fault

1.00

0.90

0.80

0.70

0.60

0.50

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.00

0

20

40

60

80

3 ph

1 ph

2 ph

2 ph-g

Total

0.04

0.13

0.00

0.04

0.21

0.13

0.01

0.11

0.34

0.10

0.12

0.67

0.02

0.21

1.02

0.16

1.70

0.10

0.26

2.22

0.28

2.06

0.12

0.39

2.85

0.45

3.20

0.23

0.62

4.50

0.82

5.55

0.46

1.44

8.26

1.28

14.02

0.99

2.33

18.62

100

% line lenght

are less severe than three-phases faults, in the sense that the

worst phase shows a higher remaining voltage than the dip due

Remaining

voltage vkf pu

0.55

0.60

0.65

0.70

0.75

0.80

0.85

0.90

3 ph

1 ph

2 ph

2 ph-g

Total

0.39

6.03

0.25

0.78

7.4

0.45

6.99

0.29

0.90

8.6

0.54

8.02

0.33

1.07

10.0

0.60

9.16

0.41

1.19

11.4

0.68

10.79

0.54

1.36

13.4

0.83

13.08

0.64

1.64

16.2

0.98

14.16

0.82

1.91

17.9

1.07

15.60

1.00

2.09

19.8

87, 15 and 5 due to balanced and unbalanced faults. As it

would be expected the contribution of single-phase faults is

dominant. However the contribution of the different type of

faults does not exactly follow the distribution probability of

faults. The exposed area again can explain this. As the exposed

area for three phase faults is larger than for any other fault the

resulting contribution of this faults to the total frequency is

more than the 5% that could be expected. Table I shows that,

for instance for bus 87, the three-phase faults contribute with

more than 29% of the total dips more severe than 0.6 pu. It

should be noted that bus 87 has several lines converging to that

bus. For buses at the end of a line (radial source) the

distribution probability of the faults is a reasonable indicator

of the contribution of unbalanced dips to the total number of

dips. Table II shows the contribution of the different faults to

the total number of dips at bus 5. Bus 5 is fed from the system

distribution probability of faults.

Dips at bus 87

Events/year

3 ph

VIII. REFERENCES

2 ph-g

2 ph

1 ph

unbalanced faults to the dip frequency was also studied.

[1]

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

[2]

[3]

[4]

0.55

0.6

0.65

0.7

0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

0.95

V pu

[5]

[6]

Dips at bus 15

Events/year

3 ph

1 ph

2 ph-g

2 ph

[7]

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

[8]

[9]

0.55

0.6

0.65

0.7

0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

0.95

and interruptions , IEEE Press Series on Power Engineering, New York

2000.

Olguin, G. and Bollen, M. H. J., Stochastic Prediction of Voltage Sags:

an Overview , Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems

Conference 2002, September 22-26, Naples Italy.

Olguin, G. and Bollen, M. H. J. The Method of Fault Position for

Stochastic Prediction of Voltage Sags: A Case Study , Probabilistic

Methods Applied to Power Systems Conference 2002, September 22-26,

Naples Italy.

Qader, M. R.; Bollen, M. H. J.; Allan, R. N. Stochastic prediction of

voltage sags in a large transmission system , Industrial and Commercial

Power Systems Technical Conference, IEEE , 1998 Page(s): 8 18

Conrad, L. Grigg, C. and Little, K., Predicting and Preventing

Problems Associated with Remote Fault Clearing Voltage Dips, IEEE

Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 167-172,

Jan/Feb 1991.

Heine, P. and Lehtonen, M., Influence of Subtransmission System

Characteristics on Voltage Sags , 10th International Conference on

Harmonics and Quality of Power, 6-9 October 2002, Rio de Janeiro,

Brazil.

Anderson, P. M., Analysis of Faulted Power Systems , The IOWA

State University Press 1973. First edition, 1973.

Zhang, Lidong Three-phase Unbalanced of Voltage Dips , Licentiate

Dissertation, Department of Electric Power Engineering, Chalmers

University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden, 1999.

ANSI C57.21.10.1988 American National Standard For Transformers

230kV and Below 833/958 through 8333/10417 kVA, Single-Phase,

and 750/862 through 60000/80000/100000 kVA, Three-Phase without

Load Tap changing; and 3750/4687 through 60000/80000/100000 kVA

with Load Tap Changing Safety Requirements .

V pu

IX. BIOGRAPHIES

Dips at bus 5

Events/year

3 ph

2 ph

1 ph

of Santiago, Chile in 1994, MBA from University of La Serena, Chile and

MSc in Power Engineering from Federal University of Santa Catarina in

Florianpolis, Brazil in 1999. He was a planning engineer at EMEC Co. in

Coquimbo, Chile, where he leaded several studies in the planning and

distribution tariff setting areas of distribution systems. He is currently a

research assistant in the Department of Electric Power Engineering at

Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden, working towards

his Ph.D. degree. His research interests are stochastic and statistics methods

applied to voltage sags studies.

2 ph-g

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

0.55

0.6

0.65

0.7

0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

0.95

V pu

Fig. 7. Cumulative Dip Frequency at bus 15

VII. CONCLUSIONS

Simulations of balanced and unbalanced dips have been

performed in a big transmission system. The effect of power

transformers on the voltages has been modeled. It was found

that for a solidly grounded system and in absent of power

transformers the exposed areas of dips originated by singlephase faults is similar but slightly smaller than the exposed

of Electric Power Engineering at Chalmers University of Technology,

Gothenburg, Sweden. He received the MSc and Ph.D. degrees from

Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, in 1985

and 1989, respectively. Before joining Chalmers in 1996 he was a research

associate at Eindhoven University of Technology from 1989 to 1993, and

lecturer at University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology

between 1993 and 1996. His research interests covers various aspects of

power quality and reliability. He has published a number of fundamental

papers on voltage dip analysis and a textbook on power quality. Math Bollen

is active in several IEEE working groups on power quality.

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