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Safety and Thermal Management for

Li-ion Batteries in Transportation


Applications

Said Al-Hallaj

Presented at:
EV Li-ion Battery Forum 2012
AllCell Technologies LLC
2321 W. 41st Street
Chicago, IL 60609
Presentation Outline
• Overview of lithium-ion batteries
• Importance of thermal management
– Safety
– Performance

• Passive thermal management with phase


change material (PCM)
• Concluding remarks

2
Lithium-ion chemistry has large
power/energy range

HEV

PHEV

EV

Cycle life and cost per kWh generally


increase with specific power
3
Automotive applications require full
range of lithium-ion batteries
Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid
0.5-1.5 kWh 4 -16 kWh

Priority Not Priority Not

Power Energy Density Energy Density

Shallow/Cycle life Cost

Full EVs LEV


20-70 kWh 0.5-10 kWh

Priority Not
Priority Not
Energy Density Power
Cost Power
Cost
Deep cycle life
Deep/ cycle life

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Divas of the EV world

• Li-ion batteries have high performance, but very


temperamental
• Key problem: dealing with heat generated by cells
during charge, discharge and ambient conditions
• If cells get too hot, three problems:
– Decreased battery life
– Decreased performance
– Risk of fire or explosion

5
Thermal degradation is a hot button issue
“As a result, the LEAF pack will have
temperatures „all over the place,‟ “Thermal management of the system...all of
causing it to suffer „huge degradation‟ in those little details go into effect to take it to
cold environments and basically „shut the next level” – Jay Iyengar, Global Director & Chief
Engineer for Electrified Powertrains, Chrysler
off‟ in hot environments.” – Elon Musk, CEO
Tesla

“Thermal management of lithium-ion battery


systems is critical to the success of all-electric
vehicles because extreme temperatures can
affect performance, reliability, safety and
durability.” – V. Anand Sankaran, Executive technical leader, Ford Energy Storage
& High Voltage Electrical Systems

“The different chemistries


have different thermal
characteristics and so we‟ve
been able to incorporate how
to make sure from a thermal
perspective that we‟ve got
it...” - Denise Gray, Advanced Battery Director of GM

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Chemical reactions inside cell add
complexity to the heat problem
heat accumulation in
cell creates additional
chemical reactions
heat accumulation in
cell creates burden
on cooling

Heat Net Heat Heat


accumulation in
Cell
= Entering/Leaving
Cell
+ Generation

Insufficient heat
transfer causes heat
accumulation in cell
Heat from Chemical
reaction
accumulates in cell

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AllCell’s PCM Solution
• Phase change material (PCM) and PCM
conductive matrix used to absorb and
conduct heat to and from lithium-ion
batteries
• PCM improves battery cost, efficiency,
and weight when compared to active
systems
Cell
• Phase change materials have a long track
record in other applications:
– Vehicle HVAC – Delphi, Behr
– Building thermal systems Cell
– Spacecraft thermal systems PCM
– Medical supply shipping
– Chemical reaction exotherm smoothing Cell

Why not apply PCM to


batteries?

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Safety issues still exist

Source: A. Pesaran/USDOE-NREL

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Safety reputation bad for industry,
Chevy Volt Fire Prompts
but...
Federal Investigation Into Auto safety chief denies sitting on
Lithium-Ion Batteries – NY Times Chevy Volt warnings in heated
hearing – Fox News

Fisker Recalling 239 Karma Plug-In


Hybrids for Fire Hazard – NY Times

Fisker Karma recall is official, 239 cars will


need their battery packs swapped - engadget

Fire deals new setback to Navy's heralded


mini-sub – navyseals.com

PC Notebook Computer Batteries Recalled


Due to Fire and Burn Hazard -
http://www.cpsc.gov/

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...it’s really about lives
Lithium Ion Batteries Faulted for
Jet Crash - Gigaom

2 Die as Asiana Cargo Plane


Crashes Off South Korea – NY
Times

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Safety improvements are being made on
multiple fronts
Pack Level Cell Level

Active Cooling Passive Cooling


Cell Design Cell Chemistry

Electrolytes Additives
Liquid Cooling Phase Change Anode/
Air Cooling Cathode
(refrigerant) Material

Shutdown Positive Thermal Coefficient


Electrode Coatings Safety Vents Safety Circuits
Separators Devices

Ceramic Conductive
Materials Polymer

12
AllCell PCM prevents thermal
runaway propagation

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Operational performance must evolve to
achieve mass adoption
Gen 1 – Product Gen 2 – Mass market/cost
Introduction sensitive
Safety Must Must
Low Cost Good to have Must
Performance Good to have Must
Gen 1 Chevy Volt uses 16 kWh battery to achieve 25-50 mi AER
11 kWh go to vehicle propulsion
+ 3.5 kWh oversize to limit SOC window and heat generation
+ 1.5 kWh oversize for thermal management power requirements
16 kWh

Gen 2 must meet more difficult technical goals at a lower cost


11 kWh still required for propulsion
+ 2.5 kWh oversize to limit SOC window and heat generation
+ 0.2 kWh thermal management (cabin air/PCM system)
13.7 kWh – (2.3 kWhr or 14% battery size reduction)
battery downsize translates to significant savings in vehicle cost
14
Optimal solution balances multiple
methods
• Oversize battery
• Curtail performance
• Effective thermal management

• Must consider cost, efficiency, life and


customer satisfaction when evaluating options

15
When is liquid cooling used?
High

Air cooling Liquid cooling Air cooling


C-rate

Energy Density

Heat Removal
Without Intensity
PCM With
PCM

Low
HEV PHEV EV
(Prius) (Volt) (Leaf)
Hybrid air/PCM cooling for hybrid and EV
normal operation
PCM eliminates the need for active cooling and heating during the majority
of operating time – combined with cabin air system for remainder of
situations
Ambient EV HEV
Cold Delays cool down. Adds minimal Delays cool down. Heat with engine
heating time/energy. heat.
Moderate No active management required Peak shaving of heat removal
requirement
Hot Keeps battery below ambient Peak shaving of heat removal
during hot days requirement
AllCell system simplifies design

Copper mesh enhances


heat transfer to air

500 Wh LFP battery

Al air channel
PCM-graphite
Copper mesh

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Battery can be used more aggressively
without needing liquid cooling
45

Air only 40

35
30

25

20

10 m/s air flow – 0.4 m3/s

2 m/s air PCM+Air

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Concluding Remarks

• One size does not fit all...variety of cell types


and applications necessitates customized
solutions
• Chemistry advances are only one piece of
solution...thermal management and intelligent
electronics play significant role
• Safety problems still exist...high energy and
toxic chemicals pose real risk
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Company Contacts

Said Al-Hallaj, Chairman & CEO


Tel: (+1) 773-922-1155 x201
salhallaj@allcelltech.com

AllCell Technologies LLC


Corporate Headquarters
2321 West 41st Street
Chicago, IL 60609 USA

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