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Course Objectives, Intended Outcome, Contents, Assessments,
and Preface.
Chapter 1: Introduction to Limit States Design
Chapter 2: Member Design
Chapter 3: Design of Multi-Storey Frames
Chapter 4: Design of Simply Supported Composite Beams
Chapter 5: Continuous Composite Beams
Chapter 6: Composite slab Systems
Chapter 7: Composite Columns
Chapter 8: Steel-Concrete Composite Systems for Multistorey
Building Construction
Homeworks are included at the end of each chapter.

Pdf file: Section Tables and Design Tables

Professor J Y Richard Liew
PhD, P.E, C.Eng, MIStructE
Department of Civil Engineering
National University of Singapore
1 Engineering Drive 2, BLK E1A #07-03
Singapore 117576
Tel: +65-68742154 Fax: +6567791635
August 11, 2009

CE 5509 Advanced Structural Steel Design

The primary objective of this module is to equip civil engineering students with sufficient design
knowledge and skills on steel-concrete composite structures both for their further education and
for their future engineering career. This module provides students with fundamental approaches in
designing structural steel-concrete components and buildings. Students will acquire fundamental
knowledge and skills to perform structural design for composite beams, slabs, columns, joints,
multi-storey buildings. This enables the students to conceive a safe and economical structural
system. The module is targeted at MSC civil engineering students and those with a keen interest
on structural design.

On successful completion of this module, the students will be able to:
1. Understand and apply structural mechanics to the design of steel-concrete composite members,
connections and systems.
2. Relate the mechanical behavior of structural components to the design checks that are
recommended in the design code
3. Design composite beams, columns, slabs, joints, long span floor systems and frames based on
design codes and modern computer tools.
4. Perform limit state design to ensure structural members and frames are adequate and do not fail
or deflect excessively under the design loads and make appropriate
5. Develop a holistic understanding on structural building systems to propose solutions that meet
the needs for architectural and functional requirements as well as for sustainable development
6 Understand the current state of the art in research and innovation and professional practice in
building design and construction

Successful completion of CE3164 Structural steel Design or Equivalent
Key information and knowledge (inclusive of theories and methods) made available through
Assignment of reading & homework.
Project work and discussions
Project based learning include:
discussion of real-life projects and problems
case study and forensic investigation of collapses
design projects

Grade weights: Quizzes and projects 40%; final examination (open book) 60%
Steel frame structures (9 hrs)
Design aids for beams and columns. Structural framing and flooring concepts; frame classification;
design of multi-storey buildings, simple braced frames; unbraced continuous frames: effective length
versus amplified sway methods; semi-rigid frames. Direct second order analysis for frame design
Composite Design, Construction & Technology in Buildings (2 hrs)
Limit state design concepts; aspects of using composite structures: construction methods,
economy, architecture. Functionality, integration of services, building flexibility; Code of practice
and national annex.
Simply supported composite beams I (3 hrs)
Material specification; Simply supported beams; Practical arrangements; Effective widths;
Degrees of shear connection; Sagging moment resistances; Section analysis using stress blocks;
Deflection calculation; Worked examples.
Shear connections (3 hours)
Material specification; Typical usage; Shear resistances; Push-out tests; Effects of steel and
concrete materials; Ductility; Effect of nonlinear load-slippage curves; Simplified design rules in
codes of practice; Practical arrangement; Degrees of shear connection; Sagging and hogging
moment resistances;
Composite continuous beams (3 hours)
Continuous beams; Moment redistribution; Section classification; Analysis methods; Two stage
mechanism; Comparison on percentage of moment redistribution; Worked examples.
Composite slabs (3 hrs)
Material specification; Typical configurations; Construction stage; Composite stage; Typical
modes of failure; Strength and Deflection calculation; Shear bond capacities; m-k methods;
Comparisons among building products; fire resistance requirement; novel metal deck systems.
Composite columns (3 hrs)
Material specification; Practical arrangements; EC4 versus BS5400 methods; Cross section
resistances; Encased and in-filled columns; Confinement effects; Member slenderness; Column
buckling; Imperfections; Second-order effects; Design of axially loaded composite columns;
Worked examples
Composite beam-columns (3 hrs)
Combined compression and bending; Moment-force interaction diagram; Simplified interaction
curves; Slender columns; Combined compression and bi-axial bending; Worked examples.
Composite Joints (3 hrs)
Beam-to-column joints; beam-to-wall connections; column to foundation connection; Slab to wall
connection; partial strength semi-continuous connections.
Advanced composite floor systems (3 hrs)
Composite long span systems: tapered fabricated beam; beam with opening; haunched girders;
stub girders; shallow floor systems; asymmetric beams; sandwich plate system;. novel flat slab
systems; case studies.
Composite Frames and Lateral Load Resistant System (3 hrs)
Modelling of composite frames; Core-brace Systems; Continuous frames; Frame-truss system;

Outrigger and Belt Truss Systems; Building Framing Systems; Steel-Concrete Composite
Systems; Residential steel buildings Case Studies


British Standard Institute, BS 5950-1:2000: Structural Use of Steelwork in Building Part 1

Code of Practice for Design Rolled and Welded Sections, British Standard Institute, 2000.
British Standard Institute, BS 5950:1989: Structural Use of Steelwork in Building Part 3.1
Composite Beams, 1989.
BCS and SCI, Handbook of structural steelwork, 3rd Edition, jointly published by The British
Constructional Steelwork Association and The Steel Construction Institute, UK, 2002.
Johnson, R.P., "Composite Structures of Steel and Concrete", Vol 1, Beams, Slabs, Column
and Frames for Buildings, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 2nd ed., 1994.
Steelwork Design Guide to BS5950 Part 1: 2000. Vol. 1. Section Properties, The Steel
Construction Institute, 2001.
Johnson R P and Anderson D, Designers guide to EN 1994-1-1 Eurocode 4: Design of
composite steel and concrete structures, Part1.1: General rules and rules for buildings,
Thomas Telford, 2004.
Mullett, D. L., Composite floor systems, The steel Construction Institute, Blackwell Science,
Nethercot, D A (Editor), Composite Construction, Spon Press, 2003.
Steel Construction Institute, Commentary on BS5950:Part 3: Section 3,1, Composite
Structures, The Steel Construction Institute, UK, 1990

2 quizzes at 30%, Project & Homework Assignments 10% and final assessment 60%

Prof. Richard Liew
August 11, 2009


The most important and most frequently used construction materials are that of concrete and steel
with applications in multistorey and industrial buildings, as well as bridges. These materials are
compatible and complementary to each other; they have almost the same thermal expansion; they
are ideal combination of strength, with concrete efficient in compression and steel in tension.
Concrete also gives corrosion and thermal protection to steel at elevated temperature and
additionally can restrain slender steel sections from local and lateral-torsional buckling.
In multi-storey buildings, structural steel is often used together with concrete. The combination
of concrete cores, steel frame and composite floor construction has become the standard
construction method for multi-storey commercial buildings in Singapore. Composite beams
consist of a reinforced concrete slab, which is mechanically connected to the top flange of a rolled
or fabricated girder, to form a composite member that is considerably stronger and stiffer than the
steel beam acting on its own. The increasing demands for open plan offices and business centres
has encouraged the development of long-span structures, employing profiled steel decking
supported on steel girders. Composite infilled columns have been used widely for high-rise
building construction because of their superior characteristic of strength and stiffness and fire
Projects that utilise composite design, to name a few, are the One Raffles Quay, Springleave
Tower, the Capital Tower. the Republic Plaza, the UE Square office block, the Cuppage Centre,
the OUB Centre, the UOB Plaza, the Treasury Building, the Ocean Tower, the Concourse
building, and the Savu Building. The world's tallest building Taipei 101 and the 88-storey KLCC
twin-tower, which is located at the Kuala Lumpur, has also utilised composite design for the
flooring system. Composite construction has emerged into a well-established system that can be
used for high-rise buildings, leisure parks and high-tech industrial buildings.
Our skyline has changed very visibly in the past 20 years. The constraints of limited land have
forced us to build upwards. Our planners and architects have faced the problem of continuing this
type of development without creating a concrete jungle. As a result of this, there has been a
dramatic resurgence in the use of steel as the structural frame material in multistorey construction
in Singapore. In the United Kingdom steel has always been associated with speed, especially so in
the multistorey building construction. The local industry has now adopted the new approach of
buildability, and has accepted the use of prefabricated and precast structural components for better
quality control. New construction technologies are also emerging together with new products,
which are locally produced for used in the tropical urban environment.
The lecture notes look at the fundamental concept of steelwork design and construction, and
consider its effects on the building costs. The move to larger spans to accommodate column free
space and the intensive service requirements of the building tenant has brought in new design
challenges. Several prestigious steel projects have been selected to provide a source of
information, which is particularly valuable to engineers who are less familiar with the practice of
modern steel technology. I hope that these projects will provide the inspirations for architects and
engineers to expand their artistic expression and design spectacular with the use of steel

Professor J Y Richard Liew