Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 124

Chemical Process Industry,

Chemical Engineering,

Chemical Engineer
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

A presentation for the 1st year Chemical Engineering UG students


by
Anand Vinayak Patwardhan
Associate Professor
Faculty Advisor (2006entrants UG)
Chemical Engineering Department
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Kharagpur721302
India
Email: avp@che.iitkgp.ernet.in

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

Abbreviations used in this Presentation


A.I.Ch.E.

ChE
ChEngineer
I.I.Ch.E.
MOC
Q and Q
QA

American Institute of Chemical Engineers


Chemical Engineering
Chemical Engineer
Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers
Material of Construction
Quality and Quantity (in the context of a Product)
Quality Assurance

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRY


INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRY ?
ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT OF CHEMICAL PROCESS
INDUSTRY
Prescientific Chemical Industry
Scientific Chemical Industry
INDIAN CHEMICAL INDUSTRY TODAY
Growth with Restraints
Green Challenges to Chemical Industry
SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES
Mass and Energy Balances
Conservation of Mass
Conservation of Energy
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

Thermochemistry
Chemical Reaction Equilibrium
Chemical Kinetics
Ideal Gas Laws
Phase Equilibrium
Unit Operations
Classification of Unit Operations
Plant Equipment
Chemical Reactors
Heat Exchangers
Mass Transfer Equipment
Ancillary Equipment
Transportation Equipment
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

Process Flow Diagrams


Flow Sheets
Instrumentation and Control
Economics
WHAT IS ChE ?
WHAT DOES A ChEngineer DO ?
Research
Fundamental Research
Exploratory Research
Process Research
Process Development
Process Design and Evaluation
Plant Design
Production and Supervision
Plant Technical Service
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

Product Sales
Market Research
Product Development
Technical Sales and Customers Service

ChEngineers IN THE COMING YEARS


GENERAL ASPECTS OF ChE
Communication
Human Relations
Professional Activities
Technical Reading
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

INTRODUCTION
Products all areas of everyday life
Chemical fertilisers
Food supplements
Building materials (metals, concrete, roofing materials, paints,
plastics)
Clothing (synthetic fibres, dyes)
Transportation (gasoline and other fuels)
Written communication (paper, ink)
Electronic communication (insulators, conductors)
Health (drugs, pharmaceuticals, soaps, detergents, insecticides,
disinfectants)
Intermediates (consumed within the Industry)
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY is a sprawling complex of raw material
sources, manufacturing plants, and distribution facilities
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

WHAT IS CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRY ?


Most processes involve a Chemical Change,
chemical reactions
physicochemical change
related mechanical changes
Definition (just satisfactory !): An industry whose
principal products are manufactured by processes based
upon the chemical, physical, mathematical, and
biological principles, which are included in the field of
ChE discipline.
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

Industry: Inorganic Chemicals


Typical Products

End Uses

Sulphuric acid

Fertilisers, chemicals
Petroleum refining
Paints
Pigments
Metal processing
Explosives

Nitric acid

Explosives
Fertilisers

Sodium hydroxide

Chemicals
Rayon and film processing
Petroleum refining
Pulp and paper processing
Lye
Cleansers
Soap
Metal processing

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

10

Industry: Organic Chemicals


Typical Products

Acetic
anhydride
Ethylene
glycol

End Uses

Rayon
Resins
Plastics
Antifreeze
Cellophane
Dynamite
Synthetic fibres

Formaldehyde

Plastics

Ethanol

Formaldehyde
Antifreeze
Solvent

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

11

Industry: Petroleum and Petrochemical


Typical Products

End Uses

Gasoline
Kerosene
Oils
Ammonia
Ethanol

Fuel
Fuel
Lubricating
Heating
Fertilisers
Chemicals
Acetaldehyde
Solvent
Other chemicals

Alkyl aryl sulphonate

Detergents

Styrene

Synthetic rubber
Plastics

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

12

Industry: Pulp and Paper


Typical Products

Paper
Cardboard
Fibreboard, etc.

End Uses
Books
Records
Newspapers, etc.
Boxes
Building materials

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

13

Industry: Pigment and Paint


Typical Products
Zinc oxide (ZnO),
Titanium dioxide (TiO2),
Carbon black (C),
Lead chromate,
Iron oxides (FeO, Fe2O3,
Fe3O4)
Linseed oil
Phenolic resins
Alkyd resins, etc.

End Uses
Pigments for paints, inks
Plastics
Rubbers
Ceramics
Linoleum
Drying oil
Basic lacquer
Varnishes
Enamel constituents

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

14

Industry: Rubber
Typical Products
Natural rubber
(Isoprene),
Synthetic rubbers
(GRS, neoprene,
butyl)

End Uses
Automobile tyres
Mouldings and
sheetings
Footwear
Insulation

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

15

Industry: Plastic
Typical Products
Phenolformaldehyde,
Polystyrene,
Polymethylmethacrylate,
Polyvinyl chloride,
Polyethylene,
Polyesters

End Uses

Various uses in
all areas of
everyday life

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

16

Industry: Synthetic Fibre


Typical Products
Rayon,
Nylon,
Polyesters,
Acrylics

End Uses

Cloth and clothing

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

17

Industry: Mineral
Typical Products
Glass,
Ceramics

End Uses
Windows
Containers
Bricks
Pipe

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

18

Industry: Cleansing Agent


Typical Products
Synthetic detergents
(sodium alkyl aryl sulphonates),
Wetting agents

End Uses
Household cleaning
Industrial cleaning

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

19

Industry: Biochemical
Typical Products
Pharmaceuticals,
Drugs

End Uses
Health applications
Medicinal applications

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

20

Industry: Metal
Typical Products
Steel,
Copper,
Aluminium,
Zirconium
Uranium

End Uses
Building materials
Machinery, etc.
Nuclear fuel

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

21

ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF


CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRY
PreScientific Chemical Industry
Fermentation oldest Chemical Industry ! (folk craft)
Ethanol and Vinegar (dilute CH3COOH)
HNO3 from Salt Petre (KNO3) and FeSO4 (heating the
mixture and condensing the distilled HNO3)
HNO3 used in separation of Au from Ag
H2SO4 later generate Cl2 for bleaching bath
HCl cheapest and most widely used mineral acid
Alkali found in woodashes early cleansing agents
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

22

Scientific Chemical Industry


Progress and growth slow
little understanding of
the scientific principles underlying processes during
the initial periods
Increased understanding of chemical sciences
new developments in chemical processing
Principal chemical industries in the early19th
century: alkalis, acids, metals manufacture

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

23

INDIAN CHEMICAL INDUSTRY TODAY


Phases of trials and turbulence
Mid30s: batch processes for indigenous production of
Inorganic Chemicals
Then, Petroleum Refining, Organic Chemicals, Fertilisers,
Agrochemicals, Drugs and Pharmaceuticals, Paints and
Varnishes, Toiletries and Cosmetics, Coal Chemicals, Rubber
Chemicals, Fine and Specialty Chemicals, Plastics, Synthetic
Fibres, Petrochemicals
Wellplanned network of specialised Institutions of Learning
and Research
need for Technological Transformation of
Industry
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

24

Growth with Restraints


Major restraints:
Matching with the international standards, rapidly changing demand
pattern and customer preferences
Continuous upgradation of process technology
investments

additional

High cost of BORROWING of Capital


Inadequate, inefficient, and yet highly expensive infrastructure and
utilities like power, water, transport, etc.
erosion of Indian
industrys competitiveness vis--vis imported goods.
Make things worse
high levels of Excise duties, local levies
(consumers wallet !) + frequent removal / reduction of Customs tariff
(manufacturers nightmare !)
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

25

Safety, Health, and Environment within the plant and the


surroundings: Central and State Governments Laws
NGOs often oppose and resist the setting up of new projects which
have certain locational advantages (alternative location
extra
capital + extra operating cost)
Low manufacturing capacities
Several Treaties: Chemicals Weapons Convention, Basel Convention,
Montreal Protocol (O3depleting substances), etc.
Several Conventions: Prior Informed Consents (Dual Purpose
Chemicals), Persistent Organic Pollutants, etc.
Provisions of WTO, IPR, and other nontariff barriers
Dumping of goods from other countries !
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

26

Responsible Care and ISO certifications are becoming


preconditions for International markets !
IT (Ecommerce)

bids struck instantly

Customers and consumers becoming ever more demanding


discriminating
safer
products,
cleaner
and
environmentally benign processes
erstwhile QC has
become QA and Total Quality Management
training cost
for the manufacturer
Technologies becoming more complex, equipment more
sophisticated
laxity and lapses at operational level are
illafforded (1984 BHOPAL DISASTER of Union
Carbide, remember ?)
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

27

Green Challenges to Chemical Industry


Threat

Challenge

Opportunity

Two facets:
From the developed world through several International conventions
(existing and proposed)
The way Indian Chemical Process Industry is structured
very large
number of small and medium scale manufacturers, not yet geared to
meet minimum safety standards of environment and health
protection laid down in Indian (Central and State) Laws.
Demand for pollutionfree processes: an overriding factor
Research and Development on Totally Clean Technologies, and
PollutionFree Alternatives WILL HAVE TO BE an integral part of
Industrys business
Opportunity in terms of more profit, in
the long run
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

28

SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL


PROCESSES
Production of large quantities at lowest possible cost, for many NEW
molecules as well
Experiencebased improvements no longer
sufficient
Systematic analysis of chemical processes elucidated many underlying
principles
synthesis of new processes
Mass and energy balances
Thermochemistry
Unit operations
Plant equipment
Ancillary equipment
Process flow diagrams
Instrumentation and control
VitaminM: balances, operations, flow & control (Economics !)
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

29

Mass and Energy Balances


Fundamental principles that Engineers and Scientists employ in
performing design calculations and predicting performance of equipment
Conservation of mass
Mass in out + generated = accumulated
Total mass involved, individual species, individual atoms
Steady state processes, unsteady state processes
Batch processes, continuous processes
One equipment, several equipment, complete process
Calculation of unknown quantity directly
Check the validity of experimental data
Express one or more of the independent relationships among the unknown
quantities in a particular problem (mathematical modeling)
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

30

Conservation of energy
Energy in out + generated = accumulated
First law of thermodynamics
E = Q W for batch processes
Q

H = Q WS for continuous processes


= heat energy transferred across the system boundary

= work energy transferred across the system boundary

WS

= mechanical work energy transferred across the system boundary

= internal energy of the system

= enthalpy of the system

E, H = changes in internal energy and enthalpy during the process

Engineers are concerned with CHANGES in energy,


rather than with ABSOLUTE energy
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

31

Thermochemistry
Concerned with the energy effects associated with chemical reactions
Enthalpy is the most convenient term to work with
Different types of enthalpy effects:
Sensible heat (CP)
Latent heat ()
Heat of reaction (HR): enthalpy change of a system undergoing
chemical reaction. If the reactants and products are at the same
temperature and in their standard states (pure chemical, 1 atm), the
heat of reaction is termed the standard heat of reaction.
Chemical reaction equilibrium
Chemical kinetics
Ideal gas law
Phase equilibrium
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

32

Chemical reaction equilibrium

1. How far the reaction will go ?


2. How fast the reaction will go ?
Chemical Thermodynamics provides the answer to the 1st question
Chemical Kinetics provides the answer to the 2nd question
Both Chemical Thermodynamics and Chemical Kinetics must be
considered in an overall analysis of a chemical reaction
Chemical reaction equilibrium calculations are structured around free
energy CHANGE in a reacting system:
GR = R T ln (KR)
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

33

Chemical kinetics
2. How fast the reaction will go ? (Question 2 of the previous slide)
Study of reaction RATES and variables that affect these rates
RATE: time rate of change in the amount of any of the components
participating in the reaction
Based on arbitrary factor related to the reacting system size, geometry
(volume, interfacial area), mass, etc.
dn
1
A
R =
A V dt
dc
= A ... in case V = constant
dt
R

=R

c , P, T, catalyst variables
A i
R

= k

c
A i

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

34

Ideal gas law

P V = constant = n R
T
Works best at higher temperatures and lower pressures, that is, when

R T 22.4 m3/kmol or L/mol, the ideal molar volume

At lower temperatures, and higher pressures, for REAL gases

R T < 22.4 m3/kmol or L/mol

For engineering calculations, the IDEAL GAS LAW is almost always


valid

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

35

Phase equilibrium
PURE substances: Phase = state of matter solid, liquid, gas
(vapour)
MIXTURES: a phase is characterised by uniformity or homogeneity
of properties
Most important equilibrium phase relationship: liquid and gas
(vapour)
Roults law:
partial pressure of any component in the vapour = vapour
pressure of the pure component mole fraction of the component
in liquid
Henrys law:
partial pressure of any component in the vapour = Henrys
constant for the given system mole fraction of the component in
liquid
Alternately, phase equilibrium calculations:

Ki = yi/xi

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

36

Unit Operations
The seemingly different chemical, physical, or biological processes can
be broken down into a series of separate and distinct steps called unit
operations
Distillation: purification of ethanol; separation of hydrocarbons
(petroleum industry)
Drying of grain; other foods (food industry); drying of lumber;
filtered precipitates; rayon yarn
Reactive absorption of O2 from air in a fermenter; reactive absorption
of H2 in vegetable oil
Evaporation of salt solutions; evaporation of sugar solutions
Flow of liquid hydrocarbon; flow of milk
Although the number of individual processes is great, each one can be
separated into a series of steps or operations
The individual operations have common techniques and are based on the
same scientific principles
The treatment of all processes is unified and simplified
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

37

Some of the Important Unit Operations


Fluid flow
Heat transfer
Evaporation
Drying
Distillation
Absorption
Adsorption
Liquidliquid extraction
Liquidsolid leaching
Crystallisation
Membrane separation
Mechanicalphysical separations
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

38

Fluid flow
Concerns the principles that determine the flow of transportation of any
fluid one point to another
Heat transfer
A unit operation that deals with the principles that govern accumulation
and transfer of heat and energy from one place to another
Evaporation
A special case of heat transfer, which deals with the evaporation of the
volatile solvent, such as water, from a nonvolatile solute, such as salt or
any other material in solution
Drying
An operation in which volatile liquids (usually water) are removed from
solid materials
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

39

Distillation
An operation whereby components of a liquid mixture are separated by
boiling because of the differences in their vapour pressures
Absorption
A process whereby a component is removed from a gas stream by
treatment with a liquid
Adsorption
A process whereby a component is removed from a gas or a liquid stream
by treatment with a solid (adsorbent) whereby the component is adsorbed
either physically or chemisorbed on the solids surface
Liquidliquid extraction
A process in which a solute in a liquid solution is removed by contact
with another liquid (solvent) that is relatively immiscible with the solution
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

40

Liquidsolid leaching
It involves treating a finely divided solid with a liquid that dissolves out
and removes a solute contained in the solid
Crystallisation
The removal of a solute such as a salt from a solution by precipitating the
solute from the solution
Membrane separation
The removal of a component from a liquid mixture or a gas mixture by
virtue of its molecular size and/or ()affinity with the separating
membrane and/or difference in the osmotic pressure
MechanicalPhysical Separations
Involves separation of solids, liquids, or gases by mechanical means, such
as filtration, settling, and size reduction, which are classified as separate
unit operations
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

41

Unit operations are applicable to processes that are physical and chemical
Most frequently, it is desirable to separate the original substance into its
component parts
Entirely mechanical: separation of solid from liquid during filtration;
classification of granular solid into fractions of different particle size by
screening; etc.
Diffusional or mass transfer operations: involve changes in composition
of solutions. This involves TRANSFER of one substance through
another, on a molecular scale
For example: water evaporation from a pool into an air stream
flowing over the water surface. Water molecules diffuse through
those of gas at the surface into the main portion of the air stream,
from where they are carried away
Sometimes, one molecular species may diffuse through another which
is itself diffusing in the opposite direction
Mass transfer is a result of concentration difference (driving force)
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

42

Classification of DIFFUSIONAL unit operations

1. Contact of two immiscible phases, with mass transfer (or


diffusion) through the surface (interface) between the
phases
2. Contact of two miscible phases separated by a permeable
or semipermeable membrane, with diffusion through
the membrane
3. Direct contact of miscible phases

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

43

CONTACT OF TWO IMMISCIBLE PHASES


The 3 states (S, L, G) permit 6 possibilities:
1) GASGAS: completely soluble in each other, hence infeasible category
2) GASLIQUID:
If all components are present in appreciable amount in both GAS and
LIQUID phases
fractional distillation
All the components of the solutions involved may not be present in
appreciable amounts in both GAS and LIQUID phases. If the LIQUID
phase is a pure liquid containing one component whereas the GAS phase
contains 2 or more
humidification / humidification
Both phases may be solutions, each containing only one common
component that distributes between phases
gas absorption/desorption
(stripping)
Gas phase contains only one component and liquid several
evaporation (but this is NOT a diffusional operation because the rate does
NOT depend on concentration gradient, but on rate of heat transfer
(temperature difference). However, if evaporation is only by diffusion of
solvent
diffusional operation
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

44

CONTACT OF TWO IMMISCIBLE PHASES


3) GASSOLID:
If a solid solution is partially evaporated without the appearance of a
LIQUID phase
fractional sublimation (practically inconvenient)
All components may NOT be present in both the phases
desorption / adsorption

drying /

In case the GAS phase is a pure vapour


sublimation of a pure solid
/ desublimation of a pure vapour
nondiffusional, depends only
the heat transfer rates

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

45

CONTACT OF TWO IMMISCIBLE PHASES

4) LIQUIDLIQUID:

Liquidliquid extraction OR liquid extraction OR solvent extraction


operations

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

46

CONTACT OF TWO IMMISCIBLE PHASES


5) LIQUIDSOLID:
Fractional solidification of a liquid / fractional melting of a solid
Liquidsolid extraction OR leaching
Crystallisation (heat transfer dependent rather than diffusional)
Dissolution
6) SOLIDSOLID:
Because of extraordinary slow rates of diffusion within solid
phases, there is no industrial separation operation in this category
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

47

CONTACT OF
MEMBRANE

MISCIBLE

PHASES

SEPARATED

BY

1) GASGAS:
Gaseous diffusion OR effusion: if a gas mixture whose components
are of different molecular weight is brought into contact with a
porous diaphragm, the various components of the gas mixture will
diffuse through the pores at different rates. This leads to different
compositions on the opposite sides of the diaphragm and,
consequently, to separation of the gas mixture
2) LIQUIDLIQUID:
Separation of a crystalline substance from a colloid with a membrane
permeable only to the crystalline substance
dialysis
3) SOLIDSOLID:
The operation in the solidsolid category has found little, if any,
practical application in the chemical process industry
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

48

DIRECT CONTACT MISCIBLE PHASES


Very impractical because of the difficulty involved in maintaining c
Formation of a c within a single LIQUID or GAS phase by imposition
of a temperature gradient upon the fluid, thus making possible the
separation of the components of the solution. For example, the separation
Thermal diffusion
of Uranium isotopes in the form of UF6
If a condensable vapour such as steam, is allowed to diffuse through a gas
mixture, it will preferentially carry one of the components along with it,
thus making a separation by an operation called sweep diffusion. If the
two zones within the gas phase where the concentrations are different are
separated by a screen containing large size openings, the operation is
called atmolysis.
If a gas mixture is subjected to a very rapid centrifugation, the compounds
will be separated because of the slightly different forces acting on
different components (MW). The heavier molecules thus tend to
accumulate at the periphery of the centrifuge.
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

49

Plant Equipment
Chemical reactors
Heat exchangers
Mass transfer equipment
Distillation
Absorption
Adsorption
Evaporation
Extraction
Drying
Ancillary equipment
Transportation equipmentc
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

50

Distillation (Laboratory)
1.
2.
3.
4.

Heat source
Still pot
Still head
Thermometer/Boiling point temperature

5.
6.
7.
8.

Condenser
Cooling water in
Cooling water out
Distillate/receiving flask

9. Vacuum/gas inlet
10. Still receiver
11. Heat control
12. Stirrer speed control
13. Stirrer/heat plate
14. Heating (Oil/sand) bath
15. Stirrer bar/anti-bumping granules
16. Cooling bath
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

51

Distillation (Industrial)

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

52

CHEMICAL REACTORS
Often the heart of a chemical process
Where the raw materials are usually converted into products
Reactor design is the vital step in the overall design of the process
Chemical factors: mainly the kinetics. Sufficient residence time for
the desired reaction to get the desired conversion
Mass transfer factors: The rates of heterogeneous reactions may be
controlled by the rates of diffusion of the reacting species, rather than
chemical kinetics
Heat transfer factors: These involve the removal, or addition, of the
heat of reaction
Safety factors: These involve the confinement of any hazardous
reactants and products, as well as the control of the reaction and the
process conditions
The above factors are interrelated, and often contradictory
design is a complex and difficult task
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

reactor
53

Reactors types
The characteristics normally used to classify reactor design are:
1) Mode of operation: batch; continuous
2) Phases present: homogeneous; continuous
3) Reactor geometry: flow pattern and manner of contacting the
phases
5 major classes of reactors are:
1) Batch
2) Stirred Tank
3) Tubular
4) Packed (Fixed) Bed
5) Fluidised Bed
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

54

Batch processes
All the reagents are added at the beginning
Reaction proceeds
Composition changes with time
Reaction is stopped after the desired conversion is reached
Product(s) is(are) withdrawn
Suitable for small scale production, and for processes that
use the same equipment to make a range of different
products or grades
Examples: pigments, dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals, some
polymers
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

55

Continuous processes

Reactants fed continuously and products withdrawn


continuously
Almost always operates under steady state
Usually lower production costs than batch processes
Lacks flexibility of operation

Usually suitable for large scale production

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

56

Semibatch processes

Some of the reactants may be added to the batch as


the reaction proceeds
Some of the products may be withdrawn from the
batch as the reaction proceeds
Semicontinuous processes

Basically a continuous process that is interrupted


periodically, for example, for the regeneration of the
catalyst
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

57

Homogeneous processes

Reactants, products, catalysts (if any) form one


continuous phase, either gaseous or liquid
Homogeneous gas phase reactions are almost always
operated continuously, whereas homogeneous liquid
phase reactions may be batch or continuous
Tubular (pipeline) reactors are normally used for
homogeneous gas phase reactions
Both tubular and stirred tank reactors are used for
homogeneous liquid phase reactions
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

58

Heterogeneous processes
Two or more phases exist
The overriding problem is promotion of mass transfer rate
between different phases
Possible combination of phases are:
Liquidliquid: with immiscible phases
Liquidsolid: with one or more liquid phases in contact
with a solid; the solid may be a reactant or a catalyst
Liquidsolidgas: where the solid is normally a catalyst
Gassolid: where the solid may take part in the reaction
or act as a catalyst
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

59

Heterogeneous processes
Stirred tank reactor:
Basic chemical reactor, modeling on a large scale the conventional
laboratory reaction flask !
A tank fitted with a mechanical agitator and usually a cooling
(heating) jacket or coil. Operated batch or continuous mode
Several tanks in series is a possibility
Tank size: a few litres to several thousand litres
Homogeneous reactions
Heterogeneous LL, GL, GLS reactions
Degree of agitation is under designers control
suitable for
reactions that require good mass transfer and/or heat transfer rates
When operated in a continuous manner, the composition in the
reactor is constant, and is the same as that of the product (except for
very rapid reactions)
limits the conversion that can be obtained in
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur
60
one stage

Heterogeneous processes
Tubular reactor:
Generally used for gaseous reactions, but also suitable for
liquid phase reactions
If high heat transfer is required
smaller diameter tubes to
increase the surfacetovolume ratio
Several tubes may be arranged in parallel
For very high temperature reactions, tubes are arranged in
furnace
Two basic types of tubular reactors:
1) Solid as reactant(s)
2) Solid as catalyst(s)
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

61

Heterogeneous processes
Tubular reactor :
1) Solid as reactant(s): in extractive metallurgical industries
2) Solid as catalyst(s): catalytic reactors. Industrial packed bed
catalytic reactors are used for gas and gasliquid reactions.
If high heat transfer rates are required, fluidised bed reactors
are considered
Fluidised bed reactors: the solids are suspended by the
upward flow of the reacting fluids high heat and mass
transfer rates. The solid may be a catalyst, a reactant, or
an inert powder to promote heat transfer
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

62

Operational factors that contribute to WASTE and


EMMISSIONS in chemical reactors are:

Incomplete conversion resulting from inadequate


temperature control
Byproduct formation resulting from inadequate
mixing
Catalyst deactivation resulting from poor feed control
or purity control
Improper design of the reactor itself
Improper catalyst selection
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

63

HEAT EXCHANGERS
Transfer of heat to and from process fluids
The chemical process industry uses 4 principal types of heat exchangers:
1) Doublepipe heat exchanger: concentric pipe arrangement. Made from
standard fittings. Useful only for a small heat transfer area is required
2) Shell and tube heat exchanger: bundle of tubes enclosed in a cylindrical
shell. The tube ends are fitted into tubesheets, which separate the
shellside and tubeside. Baffles are provided to direct the fluid flow
and to increase heat transfer. most commonly used, because of the
following advantages:
Large surfacetovolume ratio (compact)
Good mechanical layout (good shape for pressure operations)
Reliance on well established fabrication techniques
Wide range of construction materials available
Easily cleaned equipment
Well established design procedures
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

64

HEAT EXCHANGERS
3) Plate and frame heat exchangers: very compact, high heat transfer
rates
4) Direct contact heat exchanger: no wall to separate hot and cold
streams, very high heat transfer rates are achieved. For example,
reactor offgas quenching, vacuum condensers, desuperheating, and
humidification. Water cooling tower is an example of direct contact
cooling. Considered whenever the process stream and coolant are
compatible. The equipment is simple, for example, spray chamber,
spray column, plate column, packed column
Heat exchangers contribute to WASTE generation by the
presence of CLING formation (process side), and SCALE
formation (service side). This can be corrected by designing for
lower film temperature and high turbulence.
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

65

MASS TRANSFER EQUIPMENT


1) DISTILLATION
Most widely used separation process
Rectification of alcohol (practised since antiquity)
crude oil

fractionation of

Based on differences in volatility between the mixture components


The greater the relative volatility, the easier the separation
Vapour flows up the column, liquid flows down the column
Vapour and liquid are brought into contact on plates, or packings
Part of the condensate (reflux) from the condenser is returned to the
top of the column to provide the liquid flow above the feed point
Part of the liquid from the base of the column is vaporised in the
reboiler and returned to the column to provide the vapour flow
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

66

1) DISTILLATION
In stripping section (below the feed), the more volatile components
are stripped from the liquid.
In enrichment (rectification) section (above the feed), the
concentration of more volatile components increases
In the case of multiple feed and/or multiple products, the basic
operation remains the same; complicates the analysis
Rectification section may be omitted, if the requirement is to strip the
MVC from a relatively nonvolatile solvent stripping column
If the top product is required a vapour, the liquid condensed is
sufficient only to provide the reflux to the column
partial
condenser
In a partial condenser, the vapour leaving is in equilibrium with the
reflux
When the vapour is totally condensed, the reflux will have the same
composition as the top product
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

67

2) ADSORPTION
Operation can be applied to either gas or liquid mixtures
One or more components from a mixture are preferentially removed
by a solid (called adsorbent)
Influenced by the surface area of the adsorbent, nature of the
substance to be adsorbed (adsorbate), pH of system (in case of
liquids), and temperature of operation
Normally performed in a column
Either a packed bed or a fluidised bed
The adsorbent, after its useful life, can either be discarded or
regenerated
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

68

3) ABSORPTION
Intimate contacting of a mixture of gases with a liquid so that part of
one or more constituents of the gas dissolves in the liquid.
Usually packed column
Also, plate column, bubble column, venturi scrubbers, mechanically
agitated contactors, etc.
Countercurrent packed column is the most common equipment:
The gas stream moves upward through the packed bed against a
physically absorbing and reacting liquid that is injected at the
top of the column
This results in the highest possible contacting efficiency
Since the concentration of the gas stream decreases as it rises, it
comes into contact with fresher liquid coming from the top
This provides the maximum average driving force for the
diffusion process
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

69

4) EVAPORATION
Operation involves heat transfer to a boiling liquid
Results in an increase in the concentration of certain species in the
feed stream
Most common application: removal of water from a process stream
Food, chemical, petrochemical industries
Factors affecting: concentration of the liquid, solubility, pressure,
temperature, scaling, materials of construction
Major types of evaporators:
Open kettle or pan evaporator
Horizontal tube natural convection evaporator
Vertical tube natural convection evaporator
Forced convection evaporator
Efficiency can be increased by operating the equipment in multiple
effect mode
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

70

4) EXTRACTION (LL and SL)


Liquidliquid extraction involves transfer of solutes from
one liquid phase into another solvent
Conducted in a mixersettler, plate column, agitated
column, packed column, etc.
SL extraction (Leaching) involves passing of a solvent over
a solid phase to remove solute
Conducted in a fixedbed, moving bed, or agitated
columns

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

71

5) DRYING
Involves removal of small amounts of water or other volatile liquids
Drying removes the liquid as a vapour by warm gas (usually air)
currents
Batch or continuous processes
4 basic dryer types:
Continuous tunnel dryer: warm air is blown over the trays
Rotary dryer: inclined hollow cylinder that rotates. The wet
solids are fed from one side, hot air is passed countercurrently
over the wet solids
Drum dryer: a heat cylinder in which the wet solids spread
across the outside of the hot, rotating drum, are dried on this
surface, and are then scraped off
Spray dryer: a liquid or slurry is sprayed through a nozzle, and
the fine droplets are dried by a hot gas. This may be operated
cocurrently, countercurrently, or in some combination of the
two modes
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

72

ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT
These are devices for transporting gases and liquid to, from, or
between various units of process equipment
Some are simply conduits (pipes, ducts, fittings, stacks)
Some control the flow of material (valves)
Some provide mechanical driving force for the flow (fans,
pumps, compressors)
Storage facilities
Holding tanks
Materialshandling devices and techniques
Utilities (gas, steam, water)
Air, water, and solid waste control equipment
Pollution prevention and loss prevention can be implemented by the use
of sealless pumps, bellowsealed valves, and other specified equipment.
Selection of proper equipment in the Design and Construction phase of
a transport system is very important
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

73

ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT
PIPES
Pipes and tubings
Pipes: larger diameter, thicker walls, hence can be threaded
Tubings: smaller diameter, thinner walls, hence can NOT be threaded
Many materials of construction = f (corrosivity of fluids, system pressure)
Steel pipes can be LINED with Sn, plastic, rubber, lead, or other
corrosionresistant coating
Special MOCs such as glass, porcelain, thermosetting plastic, or hard
rubber are available
Several techniques to join pipe sections
For small pipes, threaded connections are most common
For larger pipes, FLANGED fittings, WELDED connections
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

74

ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT
DUCTS
Only for gases
Always thinwalled, generally used for flows at ambient pressure
0, , , etc. shapes are available
Larger cross sections gases are often transported with low density and
high flow rates
Fieldfabricated galvanised sheet steel, fibrous glass board,
factoryfabricated round fibrous glass, spiral sheet metal, flexible duct
materials, black steel, plastic and plasticcoated steel, cement, asbestos,
copper
For maximum resistance to corrosion, stainless steel and copper are used
where their cost can be justified
Aluminum sheet is used where lighter weight and superior resistance to
moisture are needed
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

75

FITTINGS
A piece of equipment that has one or more of the following functions:
1. Joining of 2 pieces of straight pipes (coupling, union, etc.)
2. Changing the direction of pipeline (elbow, T, etc.)
3. Changing of pipeline diameter (reducer, bushing, etc.)
4. Joining of 2 streams (T , Y)
Coupling: short piece of pipe threaded on the inside (some plastics are not
threaded). Used to connect straight sections of pipe
Union: Used to connect straight sections of pipe, but differs from the coupling
in that it can be opened conveniently without disturbing the rest of the
pipeline
Elbow : an angle fitting for changing flow direction usually by 900
T joint : change of direction or mixing of 2 streams
Y joint : similar to T joint
Reducer: a coupling for 2 pipe sections of different diameter
Bushing: a connector for 2 pipe sections of different diameter, but is threaded
from both inside and outside
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

76

VALVES
Control the amount of flow, redirect the flow
GATE valve and GLOBE valve are most commonly used
GATE valve
Contains a disk that slides perpendicular to the flow direction
Primarily used for onoff control of a liquid flow
Not suitable for adjusting the flow rates because small lateral
adjustments of the disk cause extreme changes in the flow
crosssectional area.
GLOBE valve
Designed for flow control
Liquid route is circuitous
The seal is a horizontal ring in which a plug with a slightly beveled
edge is inserted when the stem is closed
Good flow control, but pressure losses are more than those in gate
valve
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

77

VALVES
Some other types of valves are:
Check valve: permits the flow in one direction only
Butterfly valve: operates in a damperlike fashion by rotating a flat
plate to either || or position relative to the flow
Plug valve: a rotating tapered plug provides onoff service
Needle valve: a variation of the globe valve, which gives improved
flow control
Diaphragm valve: specially designed to handle fluids such as very
viscous liquids, slurries, or corrosive liquids that might clog the
moving parts of the other valves
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

78

FANS / BLOWERS
For low pressure drop operation, generally < 2 lbf/in2
For generating pressure heads in the range of 2 14.7 lbf/in2
Operations at higher pressures require COMPERSSORS
Centrifugal and axial flow type
Centrifugal fans: the gas is introduced at the centre of the revolving wheel
(eye), and is discharged at angles to the rotating blades
Axial flow fans: the gas moves directly (forward) through the axis of
rotation of the fan blades.
Both types are used in industry
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

79

PUMPS
1) RECIPROCATING PUMP (positive displacement type)
Direct action of piston on the liquid in the cylinder
During the piston compression, higher pressure forces the liquid
through the discharge valve of the pump outlet
During the piston retraction, the next batch of lowpressure
liquid is drawn into the cylinder
This cycle is repeated

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

80

PUMPS
ROTARY PUMP (positive displacement type)
Combination of liquid rotation and positive displacement
the rotating elements MESH with the elements of stationary
casing
As the rotating elements come together, a pocket is created that
first enlarges, drawing in liquid from the suction line
As the rotation continues, the pocket of liquid is trapped, reduced
in volume, and then forced into the discharge line at a higher
pressure
Flow rate = f (size and speed of rotation)
Liquid of any viscosity without abrasive solids, can be handled
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

81

PUMPS
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS:
Consists of an impeller rotating within a casing
Fluid enters near the centre of the impeller, and thrown
outward by the centrifugal force
The kinetic energy of fluid increases from the centre to the
tip of the impeller
The kinetic energy is converted to higher pressure in the
discharge line

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

82

COMPRESSORS
Same working principles
Same classification as that of pumps
Obvious difference: large decrease in GAS volume, but negligible change
in LIQUID volume
CENRIFUGAL: large volumes of GASES, at lowtomoderate pressure
enhancements (P = 0.550 lbf/in2)
ROTARY: small capacities, at discharge pressures up to 100 lbf/in2
RECIPROCATING: most common type. Capable of compressing small
gas flows to as much as 3,500 lbf/in2.
With specially designed compressors, discharge pressures as high as
25,000 lbf/in2 can be reached, but these devices are capable of handling
very small capacities, and do not work well for all gases
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

83

STACKS (chimneys)
Discharge of flue gases into atmosphere
STUB (short stacks)
fabricated of steel (unlined or refractorylined) or refractory brick
Extend a minimum distance up from the discharge of an induced
draft fan
Tall stacks
Constructed of the same material as short stacks
Provide a greater driving force (draft)
Ensure more effective dispersion of flue gases into atmosphere
Some chemical and utility applications use metal stacks made of
doublewall with an air space
The insulating air packet prevents condensation on the inside of the
stack, thus avoiding corrosion of the metal sheets.
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

84

Process Diagrams
Key in defining, refining, and documenting a chemical
process

Authorised process blueprint


Framework for SPECIFICATIONS used in equipment
designation and design
Single, authoritative document to define, construct, and
operate the chemical process
Also used in other processes and Industries
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

85

Flow sheets
Equipment symbols, process stream flow lines, equipment
identification numbers and names, temperature and pressure
designations, utility designations, mass / volumetric / molar flow rates
of each process stream, material and energy balance tables pertaining
to all process flow lines, physical properties of process streams
Instrumentation
Provides coherent picture of the overall process, point up some
deficiencies in the process that may have been overlooked, for
example, byproducts and recycle requirements
Basically, FLOW SHEET symbolically and pictorially represents the
interrelations among the various flow streams and equipment, and
permits easy calculations of M & E B.
Universal symbols to represent equipment, equipment parts, valves,
piping, etc.
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

86

Flow sheets (stages in its development)


Crude flow sheet: simple, freehand block diagram (equipment only)
Line drawing with process data (overall and component flow rates,
utility and energy requirements, instrumentation)
Highly detailed piping and instrumentation diagram (P & I D)

OR
1. Block diagram
2. Graphic flow diagram
3. Process flow diagram
4. Process piping and instrumentation flow diagram
5. Utility piping and instrumentation flow diagram
6. The combination of (4) and (5) above
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

87

Instrumentation and Process Control


Measurement, Indication, Recording of necessary process data
Necessity for knowing process data: so that the Operator and Production
Engineer can know that the process is functioning properly or not.
Automatic control: often desirable, because it reduces human
intervention and human errors, and also gives faster and more accurate
control
Coupling of automatic controllers to electronic computers
Necessary to have highly skilled and trained maintenance staff
The more complex the system, the greater the chance for breakdown
For designing an automatic process control system, it is absolutely
essential to consider the INTERACTION of all components of a process
to determine the overall behaviour (dynamics) of the process
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

88

Economics
The process is a failure if the product can not be sold at a profit
Thorough market analysis (how much, what price) before the
construction of a chemical process plant
Often MORE SALE with LOWER PRICE !
PRESENT AND FUTURE COMPETITION
During plant design: determine the least expensive (least fixed capital
investment) design, with least expensive PRODUCT COST
If the product is successful and profitable, a competitor may find the
market attractive and enter it with (definitely) a somewhat better product
produced at a lower price, and moreover, sold at a lower price, by an
improved or the same process !
It is necessary for the older producer to improve her/his PROCESS and
PRODUCT, or she/he will be FORCED OUT of the market.
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

89

WHAT IS ChE ?
Synthesis of Chemistry and Engineering
Grew out of Industrial Chemistry
fundamentals

physical principles + chemistry

A ChEngineer carries out reactions on a large scale, developed by the


chemist in the laboratory narrow, UNIT OPERATIONS are NOT
included in this definition
Unique characteristic of a ChEngineer: can talk to, and understands,
both chemists and engineers
A.I.Ch.Es definition: the application of principles of the chemical and
physical sciences, together with the principles of economics and human
relations, to fields that pertain directly to processes and process
equipment, in which matter is treated to effect a change in state, energy
content, or composition
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

90

WHAT DOES A ChEngineer DO ?


Some major areas of work within ChE
Research
Process development
Process design and evaluation
Plant design
Construction
Production supervision
Plant technical service
Product sales
o

Market research

Product development

Technical sales and customer technical service

The ChEngineer works closely with specialists in chemistry and other


fields of engineering and pure science.
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

91

RESEARCH
Fundamental research
Exploratory research
Process research

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

92

Fundamental research
New knowledge of the principles of unit operations, industrial
reaction kinetics, chemical process control, etc.
Development of new theories, and their experimental testing.
For example, turbulent fluid flow
To increase the general knowledge rather than for specific
application
Requires excellent background in
mathematics AND principles of ChE

physics,

chemistry,

Specialises and becomes expert in one area, for example, mass


transfer
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

93

Exploratory research
To find a particular reaction with commercial possibilities
Less frequently the responsibility of a ChEngineer. Typically, it is the
task of a Chemist
To find a particular catalyst, reaction temperature, pressure product
having higher Octane Number
A Chemist investigates several PURE compounds for the reaction in
question. For example, CYCLOHEXANE is a common constituent of
NAPHTHA (octane number = 78.6, too low for modern petrol)
H2
C

H2C

CH2

catalyst, 500 F

H2C

CH2

500 lb/in

C
H2

H
C

HC

CH

HC

CH
octane number = 113.6

C
H

+ 3H2 ; conversion = 90%

Other catalysts and conditions give different conversions


Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

94

Another reforming reaction is isomerisation


For example, nheptane may be converted to an isomeric heptane with a
higher octane number
0

catalyst, 900 F
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
octane number = 0

500 lb/in2

CH3

CH3CCH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
CH3 octane number = 93

The exploratory research group would try many catalysts and various
operating conditions on a small laboratory scale to explore a wide range
of possibilities.
The research programme would extend over several months or even years
Many attempts would prove infeasible
A few results may be commercially promising, and will be passed on to
the process research group
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

95

Process research
Takes promising results from exploratory research, and intensively
studies them on a bench scale to determine their commercial feasibility
Determines operating conditions for a commercial process
Yields data for a preliminary economic evaluation
Provides information for the design of a pilot plant
Studies not only pure starting materials, but also the real feed
Relatively more expensive because of more complex equipment
requirement and greater operating costs.
Demonstrates chemical feasibility of the new process, preliminary
economic feasibility, market evaluation (satisfactory profit level)
PROCESS DEVELOPMENT
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

96

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT
Admission of ignorance !
If all the fundamentals of ChE were well understood, it would be possible
to build a full size plant based on the results of the extensive process
research !!
Large uncertainties regarding process operating conditions and product
yield semiworks or pilot plant
Expensive to build and operate, but saves much more money by
eliminating uncertainties in the construction, startup, and operation of
the commercial plant
Also required to produce new product for market research
Pilot plant must duplicate the proposed plant the proposed fullsize plant
Planning the development programme
Designing and building the pilot plant
Operation of the pilot plant
Correlation, presentation and evaluation of the data obtained
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

97

PROCESS DESIGN AND EVALUATION

Process Design Engineer is responsible for design of


overall process
Project Engineer is responsible for detailed design of
equipment
Process Design Engineer must look at many alternative
process steps to determine an economic optimum
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

98

Process Design includes the following major items:


Process flow sheet showing all pieces of equipment, instrumentation
and control, operating pressures, temperatures, flow rates
Overall mass balances, equipmentwise mass balances, yields of
products, composition of all streams
Energy balances for all units, including heat exchangers requirements
Specification of pump capacities, flow, and pressure requirements
Specification of size and configuration of chemical reactors and
storage tanks
Determination of optimum operating conditions for the mass transfer
operations required for the separation and purification of raw
materials and products
Estimation of utility requirements, such as steam, water, electricity
and fuel
Economic evaluation with an estimate of capital investment and
operating cost
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

99

The Process Design Engineer:


Utilises all the data of process research and development
Works closely with development engineer to determine most economical
processing units and optimum operating conditions
Must use her/his judgement in filling the gaps in the data
Must estimate many quantities, using previous experience as well
Must be wellgrounded in the fundamentals of chemical kinetics and unit
operations
Must exercise her/his imagination and judgement to design a process
with often incomplete data
Must be to able use analytical as well as numerical methods of
calculations, AND computers for the routine long calculations
Must be fully familiar with the latest process design and simulation
software
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

100

PLANT DESIGN
Translation of results of Process Design Engineer
specifications construction of the plant

complete plans and

Complete plant design


firm estimate of plant cost AND basis for
contract between chemical company and construction firm
Plant Design group: chemical, mechanical, electrical, civil engineers,
supervised by Project Engineer who is frequently a ChEngineer having
overall process knowledge
Project Engineer: coordination of various specialists activities; analysis
of data supplied by process design engineer; makes suggestions for
modifying the fundamental process which result in substantial savings.
MUST CONCERN with peripheral problems (water supply, other
utilities, waste disposal, safety)
Process Design Engineer and Project Engineer work closely in analysing
the suggestions of Project Engineer
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

101

Designer and Draftsman: work closely with Project Engineer


Designer: a specialist of a particular phase of the plant. For example:
after a ChEngineer has determined the number, size, and spacing of
plates in a distillation column, a Mechanical Designer may specify the
physical details of the column, Electrical Designer may specify the
location and type of instrumentation and control, Structural Designer
considers the support framework and foundations for the column and
auxiliary equipment
The Designers make suggestions to the project Engineer on specific points
where money might be saved
Designer: supervises the Draftsman who make the detailed drawings of
each unit of the process
Project Engineer: works closely with contractor; materials unavailability,
change in a unit (based on further pilot plant data), changes in foundation
(unexpected soil change)
Project Engineer: present during startup
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

102

The Young Engineer:


May start as an Assistant in Plant Design Group
Becomes a Designer
Project Engineer

Many equipment (pump, heat exchanger, instrumentation, etc.): supplied


by vendors.
Vendor: a company specialising in the design and construction of a
particular type of equipment
Vendor may build a unit to the Plant Design groups specifications (tailormade) OR may suggest a standard unit
Vendor employs many engineers in the development, design, and sale of
her/his equipment
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

103

CONSTRUCTION
Role of ChE is limited
Construction Supervisor:
Responsible for completing the plant in shortest time within the allotted
budget
Must establish a construction schedule, and must expedite it
Must set up equipment delivery schedules
Must carefully schedule manpower requirements, keeping in mind the
craft union regulations
Must maintain good labour relations to avoid poor workmanship,
slowdowns, or complete work stoppages
Must test the equipment after construction
Must be available for startup of the plant
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

104

PRODUCTION SUPERVISION
Production Supervisor:
Gets the new plant running to give Q and Q of the product
Checks the daily record
Improves the plant operation (element of unknown in Design)
Improves product Quality by removing contamination and reducing
deterioration
Reduces steam, water, power, materials requirement
Reduces labour costs by maintaining good labour relations, efficient
methods, and workable safety practices
Develops efficient maintenance procedures to ensure minimum shutdown
for routine repairs
Sets up a procurement schedule to maintain adequate inventories of raw
materials
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

105

Production Supervisor (continued):


Finds and eliminates bottlenecks when an attempt is made to increase
production (exploiting the overdesign)
Sees her/his profits directly in terms of more efficient operation and
additional production
Works closely with Process Development and Design Group in modifying
the plant
Should be ready to abandon the old plant and move on to a new one
Need a broad background in Engineering
The Graduating ChEngineer:
May start as Assistant Production Engineer in a small area of process
With experience she/he becomes Production Engineer, Assistant
Supervisor, Supervisor Plant Manager
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

106

PLANT TECHNICAL SERVICE


Assists the Operating Engineer in startup and operation problems
More technical and less routine duties
Some companies consider Technical Services as a part of Production
Department
Extremely important in the startup of the new process: Technical
Service Engineer works closely with Process Development and Process
Design groups during startup, where minor design and construction
errors are corrected
The Engineers involved in startup need a wealth of theoretical and
practical knowledge to overcome the difficulties involved during the
startup and during operation
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

107

PRODUCT SALES

The ultimate economic justification of a chemical process


4 closely related areas of interest to ChEngineers:
1. Market research
2. Product development
3. Technical sales
4. Customer technical service
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

108

MARKET RESEARCH
Begins long before the new process is launched
Fundamental question: Will It Sell ?
Starts as soon as promising results are reported by the
Exploratory Research Group
For new product: contact potential users to determine their
needs and establish whether a market exists. Pilot Plant
produces sufficient samples for potential users
For existing product: how much more could be sold ?; New uses
Continual surveys of the chemical market to find out facts on
general trends in New Products
May suggest areas of possible economic return to the
Exploratory Research Group
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

109

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
Uses of new products and new uses of existing product
Applied research:
problems

solution of complex chemical and engineering

Assists Market Research by suggesting and developing new uses


Assists Technical Salesperson by developing a modified product for the
use of a particular customer
Assists Customer Service Group by suggesting processing methods which
the customer might use with the product
Some long term and exploratory; some immediate answers
For example: Customer requires very high purity product. Usual product
may not be sufficiently pure. The Product Development Engineer will
work out means of purifying it (either before or after Sales) OR she/he
might suggest a change in the customers process to eliminate the need
for high purity saving customers money and selling less pure product
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

110

TECHNICAL SALES & CUSTOMER TECHNICAL SERVICE


These two are closely related
Same Engineer may act in both capacities
Customer satisfaction should be demonstrated
Solution of customers problems during the use of product
Some companies may have special groups; others expect their
salespersons to handle the customers technical problems; Some
companies assign this responsibility to their QA Departments
Technical Salesperson may call the Product Development Group to
answer customers questions
Often this service is the key factor for Sales
Contact with customers
personality and interest need to be developed.
Pleasant personality helps to get the customer, and core theoretical and
practical knowledge helps retain the same
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

111

ChEngineers IN THE COMING YEARS

ChE improves lifeline, safety, health, energy, environment


ChE faces serious macroeconomic problems, such as:
Energy and feedstock for fertiliser and heavy chemical industry
Infrastructure for transportation, energy, telecommunication
Environment protection
Development of agriculture and agroindustries
Transformation of rural economy, industrialisation, privatisation
Centre versus State
Command Economy versus Liberalisation & Privatisation (the often
misunderstood market economy)
Internal (budget) and external balances
World Trade Organisation and India
Overriding problem of Indian competitiveness (rather, the lack of it)
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

112

Identification of future scenarios and selection of appropriate ones:


Collaboration of Professional Bodies (I.I.Ch.E, and others) will help
Lack of transport infrastructure and transport fuel: blocks interaction with the
World Trade Community
Lack of electric power: puts the nation in uproar
Role of renewable energy to be determined (hydropower, windpower, solar
cells, biomass, etc.) vis--vis Coal, Natural Gas, Oil, Nuclear Power
Modest quantity of proven Hydrocarbon reserves ( 30 109 ft3) may exhaust
shortly
Enhancement of energy utilisation efficiency ?
Today, the feedstock for fertilisers (Natural Gas) competes with that of Power
Industry. For long term benefits, Power Industry should not use Natural Gas
Transport fuel: efforts are needed to use Hydrogen in fuel cells
Nuclear energy: ecologically attractive, but useless today because of public
opposition and high investments required
Updated ENERGY POLICY is required URGENTLY
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

113

Updated energy policy should be supplemented by all necessary


programmes: possibly only by collaboration of Economists and
Engineers on one hand, and benign and strong political will on the other
hand: here, the ChEngineers are well placed to make a major
contribution:
The role of ChEngineers is evident but the problem of developing
laws, standards, and tradeoffs between the perceived Air Purity and
investments is a problem for Governments and private institutes, etc.,
and health hazards pose a major challenge to the Medical profession
Dealing with tradeoffs between health risks and the cost of air
cleaning is indeed a difficult task for politicians
Serious environmental problems: CO2
warming

greenhouse effect

global

If the oceans are heated up, they will loose part of their absorbed CO2
further global warming (selfaccelerating or autocatalytic effect)
We can not stop the rate of increase in energy usage to reduce CO2 !

ChEngineers can help solve these problems


Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

114

Certainly, the ChEngineers and the other technological professionals


can do a lot to draw attention to the facts discussed here before
An understanding between Economists and Engineers to develop joint
advise to political problems and introduction of innovative technologies
have to be worked out by ChEngineers. For example:
Coproduction of electric power, chemicals, and hydrocarbons
Use of Dimethyl Ether (DME), as a carrier of energy from, say, the
Middle east to India
Use of DME in India for generation of electricity, and as fuel in diesel
engines
Use of DME as chemical feedstock
Development of long range, high capacity, high voltage DC
transmission
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur
115

GENERAL ASPECTS OF ChE


COMMUNICATIONS
Clear expression of technical ideas in oral and written
communication
Often the major contact is with the Administrative Manager
OR Human Resources (HR) Manager (mostly neither an
engineer nor a technologist), who decides on an Engineers
promotion based on written reports
All the reports should be written clearly and concisely with
the reader (audience) in mind
Writing and speaking are important in all fields of ChE from
RESEARCH to SALES
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

116

GENERAL ASPECTS OF ChE


HUMAN RELATIONS
Many failures are NOT due to technical weakness, but can be attributed
to failure of Engineer to work effectively in group/team: Must work
effectively in group/team
Must sell ideas effectively and tactfully
Any effective group/team activity = f (sensitivity to and respect for
rights and needs of others)
Must realise that no matter how lucid her/his idea is to her/him, it may
not be clear to others, and the idea may NOT be right !
Development and Design Engineers must work closely together and with
their respective groups
Production Engineer must work closely with other Engineers and with the
Unionised Labour Force
Technical Services Engineer must work closely with the operators of the
Process, carefully explaining the suggested process changes
Sales Engineer must be particularly sensitive to her/his customers needs
(the customer is not always right, but it will do no good to tell point
blank so !)
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur
117

GENERAL ASPECTS OF ChE


PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES
All Engineers should be active in their respective
Professional Societies. For example, I.I.Ch.E.
TECHNICAL READING
The ChEngineer should keep uptodate in her/his field,
not only by attending professional meetings, but also by
reading technical journals (periodicals).
There are a number of general publications and many
specialised publications in ChE
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

118

If you wish to find out MORE about the Chemical


Process Industry, read on the following lines:
1)

Basic laws and processes of chemical technology

2)

Raw materials, fuel, and power for Chemical Process


Industry

3)

Water conditioning in Chemical Process Industry

4)

Catalysts and catalysis

5)

Explosives and propellants

6)

Industrial gases

7)

Industrial carbon

8)

Sulphur and sulphuric acid

9)

Hydrochloric acid and miscellaneous inorganic chemicals

10)

Nitrogen industries

11)

Phosphorous industries

12)

Salt and miscellaneous sodium compounds


Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

119

13)

Alkali and chlorine products

14)

Potassium industries

15)

Barium and its compounds

16)

Fertiliser industries

17)

Portland cement, calcium, and magnesium compounds

18)

Ceramic and refractories

19)

Glass industries

20)

Nuclear industries

21)

Iron and steel

22)

Energy conservation in Chemical Process Industries


Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

120

23)

Petroleum refinery and petrochemicals

24)

Synthetic fibres and film industries

25)

Rubber industries

26)

Plastic industries

27)

Oils, fats, and waxes

28)

Soaps and detergents

29)

Essential oils

30)

Surface coating industries

31)

Pulp and paper industries


Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

121

32)

Sugar and starch industries

33)

Fermentation and distillery

34)

Food processing industries

35)

Leather and tannery

36)

Dyes and dyes intermediates

37)

Agrochemical industries

38)

Coal and coal chemicals

39)

Pollution control

40) Green technologies through ChE


Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

122

Acknowledgements
1st year B.Tech. (2006 entrants ChE) students: suggested an
INTRODUCTORY lecture on this topic
Professor Dibyendu Mukherjee (Head, Chemical Engineering
Department, IIT Kharagpur): instantly supported the idea
My present and past students: shared their valuable experiences. I learn
from them more than I can teach them
All my teachers from UICT (Mumbai): introduced to me, not only the
wonderful words and world of ChE, but also the tricks of the trade !
Some of my bosses, colleagues, and peers from M/s. Indian Organic
Chemicals Limited (Khopoli, Raigad, Maharashtra) and M/s. Asian
Paints Limited: mentored me in knowledgebased problemsolving
All the Plant Operators in the abovementioned organisations: imparted
those lessons, which are not available in any textbook !
My esteemed colleagues in Chemical Engineering Department, IIT
Kharagpur: for their latent contribution and support
Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

123

Anand V. Patwardhan, IIT Kharagpur

124