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adverb + adjective

Invading that country was an utterly stupid thing to do.

We entered a richly decorated room.
Are you fully aware of the implications of your action?

2. adjective + noun

The doctor ordered him to take regular exercise.

The Titanic sank on its maiden voyage.
He was writhing on the ground in excruciating pain.

3. noun + noun

Let's give Mr Jones a round of applause.

The ceasefire agreement came into effect at 11am.
I'd like to buy two bars of soap please.

4. noun + verb

The lion started to roar when it heard the dog barking.

Snow was falling as our plane took off.
The bomb went off when he started the car engine.

5. verb + noun

The prisoner was hanged for committing murder.

I always try to do my homework in the morning, after making my bed.
He has been asked to give a presentation about his work.

6. verb + expression with preposition

We had to return home because we had run out of money.

At first her eyes filled with horror, and then she burst into tears.
Their behaviour was enough to drive anybody to crime.

7. verb + adverb

She placed her keys gently on the table and sat down.
Mary whispered softly in John's ear.
I vaguely remember that it was growing dark when we left

Some common verbs

have a bath
have a drink
have a good time
have a haircut
have a holiday
have a problem
have a relationship
have a rest
have lunch
have sympathy

do business
do nothing
do someone a favour
do the cooking
do the housework
do the shopping
do the washing up
do your best
do your hair
do your homework

make a difference
make a mess
make a mistake
make a noise
make an effort
make furniture
make money
make progress
make room
make trouble

take a break
break a habit
catch a ball
take a chance
break a leg
catch a bus
take a look
break a promise
catch a chill
take a rest
break a record
catch a cold
take a seat
break a window
catch a thief
take a taxi
break someone's heart
catch fire
take an exam
break the ice
catch sight of
take notes
break the law
catch someone's attention
take someone's place
break the news to someone catch someone's eye
take someone's temperature break the rules
catch the flu

save electricity
pay a fine
save energy
pay attention
save money
pay by credit card
save one's strength
pay cash
save someone a seat
pay interest
pay someone a compliment save someone's life
save something to a disk
pay someone a visit
save space
pay the bill
save time
pay the price
save yourself the trouble
pay your respects
come close
come complete with
come direct
come early
come first

go abroad
go astray
go bad
go bald
go bankrupt

keep a diary
keep a promise
keep a secret
keep an appointment
keep calm
keep control
keep in touch
keep quiet
keep someone's place
keep the change
get a job
get a shock
get angry
get divorced
get drunk

come into view

come last
come late
come on time
come prepared
come right back
come second
come to a compromise
come to a decision
come to an agreement
come to an end
come to a standstill
come to terms with
come to a total of
come under attack

go blind
go crazy
go dark
go deaf
go fishing
go mad
go missing
go on foot
go online
go out of business
go overseas
go quiet
go sailing
go to war
go yellow

get frightened
get home
get lost
get married
get nowhere
get permission
get pregnant
get ready
get started
get the impression
get the message
get the sack
get upset
get wet
get worried

bang on time
dead on time
early 12th century
free time
from dawn till dusk
great deal of time
late 20th century
make time for
next few days
past few weeks
right on time
run out of time
save time
spare time
spend some time
take your time
tell someone the time
time goes by
time passes
waste time

Business English
annual turnover
bear in mind
break off negotiations
cease trading
chair a meeting
close a deal
close a meeting
come to the point
dismiss an offer
draw a conclusion
draw your attention to
launch a new product
lay off staff
go bankrupt
go into partnership
make a loss
make a profit
market forces
sales figures
take on staff


a ball of string
a bar of chocolate
a bottle of water
a bunch of carrots
a cube of sugar
a pack of cards
a pad of paper

Coordinating Minister for Political, Legal, and Security Affairs (Mentri Kordinator
Politik, Hukum dan Keamanan/Menkopolhukam)
2. Coordinating Minister for the Economy (Mentri Kordinator Ekonomi)
3. Coordinating Minister for People Welfare (Mentri Kordinator Kesejahteraan
4. Ministry of the State Secretariat (Kementrian Sekretaris Negara / Kemensesneg)
5. Ministry of Religious Affairs (Kementerian Agama / Kemenag)
6. Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (Kementerian sumber daya mineral dan
energy / kemenesdm)
7. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Kementerian Luar Negeri / Kemenlu)
8. Ministry of Justice and Human Rights (Kementerian Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia
/ Kemenkumham)
9. Ministry of Forestry (Kementerian Kehutanan / Kemenhut)
10. Ministry of Health (Kementerian Kesehatan)
11. Ministry of Finance (Kementrian Keuangan)
12. Ministry of Defense (Kementerian Pertahanan / Kemenhan)
13. Ministry of Industry (Kementerian Industri)
14. Ministry of Social Services (Kementerian Sosial / Kemensos)
15. Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration (Kementerian Tenaga Kerja dan
Transmigrasi / Kemenakertrans)
16. Ministry of Home Affairs (Kementerian dalam Negeri / Kemendagri)
17. Ministry of Maritime and Fisheries Affairs (Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan)
18. Ministry of Culture and Tourism (Kementerian Budaya dan Parawisata /
19. Ministry of Communication and Informatics (Kementerian Komunikasi dan
Informatika / Kemenkominfo)
20. Ministry of Public Work (Kementrian Pekerjaan Umum)
21. Ministry of Transportation (Kementerian Perhubungan / Kemenhub)
22. Ministry of National Education (Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional / Kemendiknas)
23. Ministry of Trade (Kementerian Perdagangan / Kemendag)
24. Ministry of Agriculture (Kementerian Pertanian / Kementan)
25. State Minister for Research and Technology (Mentri Negara Riset dan Teknologi)
26. State Minister for Cooperatives Small and Medium Enterprises (Kementerian
Koperasi dan Usaha Kecil Menengah / Kemenkop UKM)
27. State Minister for The Environment (Kementerian Negara Lingkungan Hidup)
28. State Minister for Woman Empowerment (Kementerian Negara Pemberdayaan
29. State Minister for the Empowerment of State Apparaturs (Kementerian Negara
Pemberdayaan Aparatur Negara)
30. State Minister for Acceleration Development Backward Regions (Kementerian
Negara Pembangunan Daerah Tertinggal / PDT)
31. State Minister for Chairperson of the National Development Planning Agency
(Badan Perencanaan dan Pembangunan Nasional / BAPPENAS)
32. State Minister for State Owned Enterprises (Kementerian Negara BUMN)
33. State Minister for Public Housing (Kementerian Negara Perumahan Rakyat /

34. State Minister for Youth and Sports Affairs (Kementerian Negara Pemuda dan Olah
Raga / Kemenpora)
Ministrial level of Officials / Lembaga Negara Setingkat Menteri
1. Attorney General (Kejaksaan)
2. Indonesian National Army (Tentara Nasional Indonesia / TNI)
3. Indonesian National Police (Polisi Republik Indonesia / Polri)
- See more at: http://www.englishindo.com/2011/11/bahasa-inggris-kementeriankementerian.html#sthash.ZVNqFdVj.dpuf

Anak-anak membuat berantakan dapur.

The children made a mess in the kitchen


Susan hanya membuat satu kesalahan dalam tes bahasa Inggrisnya.

Susan only made one mistake in her English test.


Dia memintamu untuk membantunya.

She would like to ask you to do a favour?


Sudahkah kamu memutuskan?

Have you made a decision yet?


Jokowi melakukan negosiasi dengan Prabowo.

Jokowo conducts a negotiation with Prabowo


President mencari pengganti Menteri Luar Negeri

The president finds a replacement for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.


Maaf telah membuatmu menunggu

Sorry I kept you waiting


Akhirnya, Jatmiko menjadi pengemis karena kehabisan uang.

Finally, Jadmiko became a beggar because he ran out of money.


Dapatkah kamu menyisihkan waktu minggu ini buatku?

Can you make time for me this Sunday?


Tapi hujan lebat memaksa kami harus menginap di hutan yang lebat ini.
But the heavy rain made us stay one more night in this dense forest.

Advanced Collocations
The further information on this page may be of interest to advanced students and teachers.
You shall know a word by the company it keeps
J R Firth (British linguist, 1890-1960)

The "father" of collocation is usually considered to be J.R. Firth, a British linguist who died in
1960. It was he that first used the term "collocation" in its linguistic sense.
Some definitions:

to collocate (verb): to appear with another word more frequently than by chance - The word
"white" collocates with "coffee".
collocation (noun): the combination of two or more words more frequently than by chance Learning about collocation helps us speak more fluent English.
a collocation (noun): an example of collocation - "White coffee" is a collocation.

An easy way to remember the meaning of collocation: think of "col-" or "co-" (together) and
"location" (place) = place together, locate together, go together
Note also (non-linguistic senses):

collocate (verb): place side by side or in relation

collocation (noun): the action of placing things side by side or in position
colocate/co-locate (verb): share a location or facility with someone or something

Strong and weak collocation

If we look deeper into collocations, we find that not only do the words "go together" but there is
a degree of predictability in their association. Generally, in any collocation, one word will "call
up" another word in the mind of a native speaker. In other words, if I give you one word, you can
predict the other word, with varying degrees of success. This predictability is not 100%, but it is
always much higher than with non-collocates.
The predictability may be strong: for example "auspicious" collocates with very few words, as

auspicious occasion
auspicious moment
auspicious event

Or the predictability may be weak: for example, "circuit" collocates with more than 20 words, as

circuit collocates left with... CIRCUIT circuit collocates right with...

racing circuit
lecture circuit
talk-show circuit
short circuit
closed circuit
integrated circuit
printed circuit
printed circuit board
circuit board
circuit breaker
circuit training
circuit judge

Lexical and Grammatical Collocations

A distinction may, if wished, be made between lexical collocations and grammatical
A lexical collocation is a type of construction where a verb, noun, adjective or adverb forms a
predictable connection with another word, as in:

Adverb + Adjective: completely satisfied (NOT downright satisfied)

Adjective + Noun: excruciating pain (NOT excruciating joy)
Noun + Verb: lions roar (NOT lions shout)
Verb + Noun: commit suicide (NOT undertake suicide)

A grammatical collocation is a type of construction where for example a verb or adjective must
be followed by a particular preposition, or a noun must be followed by a particular form of the
verb, as in:

Verb + Preposition: depend on (NOT depend of)

Adjective + Preposition: afraid of (NOT afraid at)
Noun + Particular form of verb: strength to lift it (not strength lifting it)

When is a collocation NOT a collocation?

The term "collocation" in its linguistic sense is relatively new (dating from the 1950s) and not all
linguists agree on its definition. In fact there is considerable disagreement and even some
confusion. Some linguists treat fixed phrases as extended collocations (as far as I'm concerned,
not on your life, rather you than me, under the weather, if you've got the time). Others suggest
that when a sequence of words is 100% predictable, and allows absolutely no change except
possibly in tense, it is not helpful to treat it as a collocation. Such sequences they generally treat
as fixed expressions ("prim and proper") or idioms ("kick the bucket").
A good dictionary of collocations is the Oxford Collocations Dictionary for Students of English.

There is a big difference between a collocation and an idiom.

A collocation is the way words combine in a language to produce natural speech and writing. For
example when you say "pay attention", it could be "give attention, or put attention" but it is not, it is
pay attention because it is the natural way in which native speakers express that.

An idiom is a sequence of words which has different meaning as a group from the meaning they would
have if you understood them separately. For example, when you say "it's raining cats and dogs" you do
not really mean that cats and dogs are falling down from the sky but that there is a heavy rain.



Generally English learners have difficulty in collocations during translation. The
problems may occur due to the fact that learners do not have knowledge about the
possible verbs in collocations; so, they match words incorrectly, for instance, in *stop
the fire (put out the fire). The second problem of learners is blending. In translation
process most of the learners use similar words instead of the correct ones in order to
combine collocation. For example, they blend pay attention and take care and say
pay care. Not each of errors is because of blending and mismatching between the
verb and the noun. There are different kinds of errors like prepositional errors and
determiner errors which are very common. Many English learners make mistakes in
restricted collocations due to their variability. In order not to make translation errors,
learners not only have to know which words collocate with each other but also they
must know the whole combinations such as have responsibility for doing something.

Lets look at the examples of the some errors occur in the verb+noun collocation.
1.Lexical errors: verb choice *take the problem instead of solve the problem
*do a great effort instead of make a great effort
2.Lexical error: noun choice *have their lines instead of have their strategies
*make benefit instead of make a profit
3.Lexical error: adjective *do some protecting work
4.Grammatical error: noun plurality * have more equipments instead of have more
5.Grammatical error: *have troubles with instead of have trouble with
* have limited supply of instead of have a limited supply of
*have its responsibility instead of have the responsibility
6.Grammatical error: preposition * take heed to instead of take heed of * have difficulties
to do instead of have difficulties in doing
7.Grammatical error: syntactic structure * do favor to instead of do somebody a favor
8.Grammatical error: adverb form * have a full functional sanitation instead of have a
fully functional sanitation
9.Semantic error: correct collocation doesnt make sense *have the ability to
worry about it *take care of the problems