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LITERATURE, a body of written works related by subject‐matter (e.g. the literature of computing), by language or place of origin (e.g.

Russian
literature), or by prevailing cultural standards of merit. In this last sense, ‘literature’ is taken to include oral, dramatic, and broadcast compositions that may
not have been published in written form but which have been (or deserve to be) preserved. Since the 19th century, the broader sense of literature as a
totality of written or printed works has given way to more exclusive definitions based on criteria of imaginative, creative, or artistic value, usually related to a
work's absence of factual or practical reference (see autotelic). Even more restrictive has been the academic concentration upon poetry, drama, and fiction.
Until the mid‐20th century, many kinds of non‐fictional writing—in philosophy, history, biography, criticism, topography, science, and politics—were counted
as literature; implicit in this broader usage is a definition of literature as that body of works which—for whatever reason—deserves to be preserved as part of
the current reproduction of meanings within a given culture (unlike yesterday's newspaper, which belongs in the disposable category of ephemera). This
sense seems more tenable than the later attempts to divide literature—as creative, imaginative, fictional, or non‐practical—from factual writings or practically
effective works of propaganda, rhetoric, or didactic writing. The Russian Formalists' attempt to define literariness in terms of linguistic deviations is important
in the theory of poetry, but has not addressed the more difficult problem of the non‐fictional prose forms. See also belles‐lettres, canon, paraliterature. For a
fuller account, consult Peter Widdowson, Literature (1998).
Literature is the art of written works. Literally translated, the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter), and therefore the
academic study of literature is known as Letters (as in the phrase "Arts and Letters"). In Western culture the most basic written literary types include fiction
and nonfiction. People may perceive a difference between "literature" and some popular forms of written work. The terms "literary fiction" and "literary
merit" often serve to distinguish between individual works. Critics may exclude works from the classification "literature," for example, on the grounds of a
poor standard of grammar and syntax, of an unbelievable or disjointed story-line, or of inconsistent or unconvincing characters. Genre fiction (for example:
romance, crime, or science fiction) may also become excluded from consideration as "literature."
Importance Of REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
-review what has been done already ; to identify problem and to answer specific question; to provide rationale to proposed study ; to
relate to previous studies ; to detect conflicting points
RELATED LITERATURE
A Definition The related literature section of your proposal, entitled the “Synthesis of Related Literature,” is a synthetic narrative of recent
research which is related to your study.
Synthetic Narrative The related literature section is a synthetic narrative. It is a narrative in the sense that it should flow from the
beginning to the end with a single, coordinated theme. It should not contain a series of disjointed summaries of research articles. Such unrelated
and disconnected summaries generate confusion rather than understanding. It is synthetic in that it has been born out of the synthesis of many
research studies. You will analyze research reports by key words. There may be twenty articles that provide information for a given key word. As
you write your findings for each of your key words, you will draw from all of the articles addressing that key word simultaneously. The final product
will be a synthesis — a smooth blending — of selected articles built around the key words of your study. This is the reason for the name of this
section: “The Synthesis of Related Literature.” Not a summary, but a synthesis.

2. SOURCES: Libraries are one obvious resource for a student performing a literature search,
but there are many others as well, including the internet. Regardless of the sources you use, keep a
bibliographic trail [1]. Track titles, authors, publication information, page numbers, and possibly library call
numbers (LCN), International Standard Book Numbers (ISBN), or International Standard Serial Numbers
(ISSN).
When searching through cyberspace, also note on-line addresses and other pertinent information so that a
search can be duplicated if necessary. Also be aware that some online information changes daily – one day it
is there, the next day it is gone. You should print it out immediately, if possible, and note the source, the
“navigation” route, and the search engine you used to get to that source.
These tracking habits can help you avoid duplication of effort and speed the process of obtaining permission
(to use the work of others) when needed. The time required to relocate and reaquire a source is also reduced.
You will also be constructing your reference chapter as you work. Retracing these efforts by memory is very
risky, so it is better if you take notes at every step.
Kinds of Sources
Sources are generally described as primary, secondary, or tertiary [1]. P rimar y. Primary sources are
“materials that you are directly writing about, the raw materials of your own research [1].” S e condar y .
Secondary sources are “books and articles in which other researchers report the results of their research
based on (their) primary data or sources [1].” T e rtiar y . Tertiary sources are “books and articles based on
secondary sources, on the research of others [1].” Tertiary sources synthesize and explain the work of others
and might be useful early in your research, but they are generally weak support for your own arguments [1].
Primary. Examples of primary sources are data sets, computer runs, computer programs, scale models,
drawings, and engineering notebooks. A well-kept engineering notebook can provide valuable information for
later documentation of test conditions and assumptions, materials used, observations as well as
measurements, and unusual occurrences that prompted further testing.
Secondary. Examples of secondary sources include conferences, proceedings, journals, and books. Journal
articles are often the most current source of information on a topic of study that is new or subject to rapid
change. Lists of references at the end of each journal article can provide leads to further sources. Engineering
journals are typically field-specific. For a selected list of current journals in agricultural, chemical, civil,
computer, electrical, environmental, industrial, and mechanical engineering, ask at your facility or university
library for specific guides.
Tertiary. Examples of tertiary sources include dictionaries, encyclopedias, guides, and handbooks.
“Dictionaries and encyclopedias are excellent starting points for research. They can provide general
background information to help narrow or broaden the focus of a topic, define unfamiliar terms, and offer
bibliographies of other sources. Some works include an index, which will provide excellent access to a subject
[4].” Guides and handbooks cover topics such as tables, formulas, engineering fundamentals, measures and
units of conversion, mathematics, statistics, and numerical calculations; these sources are especially useful
during the writing phase of your research [4].

English - I love you Kiswahili - Nakupenda


Afrikaans - Ek het jou lief Konkani - Tu magel moga cho
Albanian - Te dua Korean - Sarang Heyo
Arabic - Ana behibek (to female) Latin - Te amo
Armenian - Yes kez sirumen Latvian - Es tevi miilu
Bambara - M'bi fe Lebanese - Bahibak
Bangla - Aamee tuma ke bhalo aashi Lithuanian - Tave myliu
Belarusian - Ya tabe kahayu Malay - Saya cintakan mu / Aku cinta padamu
Bisaya - Nahigugma ako kanimo Malayalam - Njan Ninne Premikunnu
Bulgarian - Obicham te Mandarin Chinese - Wo ai ni
Cambodian - Soro lahn nhee ah Marathi - Me tula prem karto
Cantonese Chinese - Ngo oiy ney a Mohawk - Kanbhik
Catalan - T'estimo Moroccan - Ana moajaba bik
Cheyenne - Ne mohotatse Nahuatl - Ni mits neki
Chichewa - Ndimakukonda Navaho - Ayor anosh'ni
Creol - Mi aime jou Norwegian - Jeg Elsker Deg
Croatian - Volim te Pandacan - Syota na kita!!
Czech - Miluji te Pangasinan - Inaru Taka
Danish - Jeg Elsker Dig Papiamento - Mi ta stimabo
Dutch - Ik hou van jou Persian - Doo-set daaram
Esperanto - Mi amas vin Pig Latin - Iay ovlay ouyay
Estonian - Ma armastan sind Polish - Kocham Ciebie
Ethiopian - Afgreki' Portuguese - Eu te amo
Faroese - Eg elski teg Romanian - Te iubesc
Farsi - Doset daram Russian - Ya tebya liubliu
Filipino - Mahal kita Scot Gaelic - Tha gra'dh agam ort
Finnish - Mina rakastan sinua Serbian - Volim te
French - Je t'aime, Je t'adore Setswana - Ke a go rata
Gaelic - Ta gra agam ort Sindhi - Maa tokhe pyar kendo ahyan
Georgian - Mikvarhar Sioux - Techihhila
German - Ich liebe dich Slovak - Lu`bim ta
Greek - S'agapo Slovenian - Ljubim te
Gujarati - Hoo thunay prem karoo choo Spanish - Te quiero / Te amo
Hiligaynon - Palangga ko ikaw Swahili - Ninapenda wewe
Hawaiian - Aloha wau ia oi Swedish - Jag alskar dig
Hebrew - Ani ohev otah (to female) Swiss-German - Ich lieb Di
Hiligaynon - Guina higugma ko ikaw Tagalog - Mahal kita
Hindi - Hum Tumhe Pyar Karte hae Taiwanese - Wa ga ei li
Hmong - Kuv hlub koj Tahitian - Ua Here Vau Ia Oe
Hopi - Nu' umi unangwa'ta Tamil - Nan unnai kathalikaraen
Hungarian - Szeretlek Telugu - Nenu ninnu premistunnanu
Icelandic - Eg elska tig Thai - Phom rak khun (to female)
Ilonggo - Palangga ko ikaw Turkish - Seni Seviyorum
Indonesian - Saya cinta padamu Ukrainian - Ya tebe kahayu
Inuit - Negligevapse Urdu - mai aap say pyaar karta hoo
Irish - Taim i' ngra leat Vietnamese - Anh ye^u em (to female)
Italian - Ti amo Welsh - 'Rwy'n dy garu
Japanese - Aishiteru Yiddish - Ikh hob dikh
Kannada - Naanu ninna preetisuttene Yoruba - Mo ni fe
Kapampangan - Kaluguran daka

• May you have the gladness of Christmas which is hope; The spirit of Christmas which is peace; The heart of Christmas which is
love.
• Just because you can’t see my eyes with tears it doesn’t mean that my heart doesn’t cry, and just because I came out strong
doesn’t mean there’s nothing wrong… Often, I choose to pretend I’m happy so I don’t have to explain myself to people
who’ll never understand. Smiling has always been easier than explaining why I’m sad…
• How do you heal a broken heart? I have no idea where to start. Because everything I do, Just remindds me of you.
Bakit naman ngayon pang magpapasko Kailan kaya muling magkikita
Bigla ka nalang sa akin nagtampo Dalangin ko ay magbalik kana
Sana naman ay mapatawad mo Walang iba ikaw lang talaga
Upang sa pasko ay magkasama tayo Ngayong pasko ang nais kong makasama
Unang pasko na malayo ka
Mababaliw ako hindi ko kaya Unang pasko na malayo ka
Unang pasko na ako’y magiisa Mababaliw ako hindi ko kaya
Sana’y malaman mo kailangan kita Unang pasko na ako’y magiisa
Sana’y malaman mo mahal parin kita

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