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# 11/16/2014

## Types of Electrical Protection Relays or Protective Relays | Electrical4u

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Relays

## Power System Protection

Electrical Protection Relay
Relay Setting Calculation
Code of practice Electrical Protection
Three Phase Vector Diagram
Electrical Fault Calculation
Electromagnetic Relay
Induction Cup Type Relay
Over Current Relay
Distance Relay or Impedance Relay
Thermal Relay
Overvoltage Protection
Busbar Protection
Feeder Protection
Surge Protection and Lightning Arrester
Capacitor Bank Protection
Transformer Protection
Inrush Current in Transformer
Small and Large Motor Protection

## De nition of Protective Relay

Types of Relays
Di erent Protective Relays for Di erent Power System Equipment
Protection
Relays for Transmission & Distribution Lines Protection
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11/16/2014

## De nition of Protective Relay

A relay is automatic device which senses an abnormal condition of electrical circuit and closes its contacts. These contacts in
turns close and complete the circuit breaker trip coil circuit hence make the circuit breaker tripped for disconnecting the
faulty portion of the electrical circuit from rest of the healthy circuit.
Now lets have a discussion on some terms related to protective relay.
Pickup level of actuating signal: The value of actuating quantity (voltage or current) which is on threshold above which
the relay initiates to be operated.
If the value of actuating quantity is increased, the electromagnetic e ect of the relay coil is increased and above a certain
level of actuating quantity the moving mechanism of the relay just starts to move.
Reset level: The value of current or voltage below which a relay opens its contacts and comes in original position.
Operating time of relay -Just after exceeding pickup level of actuating quantity the moving mechanism (for example
rotating disc) of relay starts moving and it ultimately close the relay contacts at the end of its journey. The time which elapses
between the instant when actuating quantity exceeds the pickup value to the instant when the relay contacts close.
Reset time of relay The time which elapses between the instant when the actuating quantity becomes less than the reset
value to the instant when the relay contacts returns to its normal position.
Reach of relay A distance relay operates whenever the distance seen by the relay is less than the pre-speci ed impedance.
The actuating impedance in the relay is the function of distance in a distance protection relay. This impedance or
corresponding distance is called reach of the relay.
Power system protection relays can be categorized into di erent types of relays.

Types of Relays
Types of protection relays are mainly based on their characteristic, logic, on actuating parameter and operation mechanism.
Based on operation mechanism protection relay can be categorized as electromagnetic relay, static relay and mechanical
relay. Actually relay is nothing but a combination of one or more open or closed contacts. These all or some speci c contacts
the relay change their state when actuating parameters are applied to the relay. That means open contacts become closed
and closed contacts become open. In electromagnetic relay these closing and opening of relay contacts are done by
electromagnetic action of a solenoid.

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11/16/2014

## Multifunction Motor & Genset Protection Relays with Wide

Range

In mechanical relay these closing and opening of relay contacts are done by mechanical displacement of di erent gear level
system.
In static relay it is mainly done by semiconductor switches like thyristor. In digital relay on and o state can be referred as 1
and 0 state.
Based on Characteristic the protection relay can be categorized as1. De nite time relays
2. Inverse time relays with de nite minimum time(IDMT)
3. Instantaneous relays.
4. IDMT with inst.
5. Stepped characteristic.
6. Programmed switches.
7. Voltage restraint over current relay.
Based on of logic the protection relay can be categorized as1. Di erential.
2. Unbalance.
3. Neutral displacement.
4. Directional.
5. Restricted earth fault.
6. Over uxing.
7. Distance schemes.
8. Bus bar protection.
9. Reverse power relays.
10. Loss of excitation.
11. Negative phase sequence relays etc.
Based on actuating parameter the protection relay can be categorized as1. Current relays.
2. Voltage relays.
3. Frequency relays.
4. Power relays etc.
Based on application the protection relay can be categorized ashttp://www.electrical4u.com/types-of-electrical-protection-relays-or-protective-relays/

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11/16/2014

## Types of Electrical Protection Relays or Protective Relays | Electrical4u

1. Primary relay.
2. Backup relay.
Primary relay or primary protection relay is the rst line of power system protection whereas backup relay is operated only
when primary relay fails to be operated during fault. Hence backup relay is slower in action than primary relay. Any relay may
fail to be operated due to any of the following reasons,
1. The protective relay itself is defective.
2. DC Trip voltage supply to the relay is unavailable.
3. Trip lead from relay panel to circuit breaker is disconnected.
4. Trip coil in the circuit breaker is disconnected or defective.
5. Current or voltage signals from CT or PT respectively is unavailable.
As because backup relay operates only when primary relay fails, backup protection relay should not have anything common
with primary protection relay.
Some examples of Mechanical Relay are1. Thermal
(a) OT trip (Oil Temperature Trip)
(b) WT trip (Winding Temperature Trip)
(C) Bearing temp trip etc.
2. Float type
(a) Buchholz
(b) OSR
(c) PRV
(d) Water level Controls etc.
3. Pressure switches.
4. Mechanical interlocks.
5. Pole discrepancy relay.

List Di erent Protective Relays are used for Di erent Power System Equipment Protection
Now lets have a look on which di erent protective relays are used in di erent power system equipment protection
schemes.

## Relays for Transmission & Distribution Lines Protection

SL LINES TO BE PROTECTED

RELAYS TO BE USED

## Main-I: Non switched or Numerical Distance Scheme

400 KV

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## Types of Electrical Protection Relays or Protective Relays | Electrical4u

Transmission Line
Main-II: Non switched or Numerical Distance Scheme
2

220 KV

## Main-I : Non switched distance scheme (Fed from Bus PTs)

Transmission Line
Main-II: Switched distance scheme (Fed from line CVTs)

3

132 KV

## Main Protection : Switched distance scheme (fed from bus PT).

Transmission Line
Backup Protection: 3 Nos. directional IDMT O/L Relays and
1 No. Directional IDMT E/L relay.
4

33 KV lines

11 KV lines

## Relays for Transformer Protection

SLVOLTAGE RATIO AND
CAPACITY OF
TRANSFORMER

RELAYS

11/132 KV

## 3 nos Non-Directional O/L

Generator Transformer

Relay

Overall di erential

1 no Non-Directional E/L

Relay

Relay

Over ux Relay

Buchholz Relay

Relay

## OLTC Buchholz Relay

--

Di erential Relay or

PRV Relay
OT
Trip Relay
WT Trip Relay
2

13.8/220 KV

15.75/220 KV

18/400 KV

## 3 nos Non-Directional O/L

--

Di erential Relay or

Relay

Overall di erential

1 no Non-Directional E/L

Relay

Relay

Over ux Relay

Buchholz Relay

Relay

## OLTC Buchholz Relay

21/400 KV

PRV Relay
OT

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## Types of Electrical Protection Relays or Protective Relays | Electrical4u

Generator Transformer

Trip Relay
WT Trip Relay

220 /6.6KV

## 3 nos Non-Directional O/L

Di erential Relay

Station Transformer

Relay

Relay

Over ux Relay

1 no Non-Directional E/L

Buchholz Relay

Relay

## and/or standby E/F + REF

PRV Relay

Relay

OT Trip Relay
WT Trip Relay

Gen-volt/6.6KV UAT

## 3 nos Non-Directional O/L

Di erential Relay

Relay

Relay

Over ux Relay
Buchholz Relay
OLTC Buchholz Relay
PRV Relay
OT Trip Relay
WT Trip Relay

Buchholz Relay

1 no E/L Relay

1 no E/L Relay

PRV Relay
OT Trip Relay
WT Trip Relay

## 3 nos O/L Relay

Di erential Relay

## 1 no Directional E/L Relay

1 no E/L Relay

Buchholz Relay
OLTC Buchholz Relay
PRV Relay
OT Trip Relay
WT Trip Relay

## 3 nos O/L Relay

Di erential Relay

## 1 no Directional E/L Relay

1 no E/L Relay

Over ux Relay
Buchholz Relay
OLTC Buchholz Relay
PRV Relay
OT Trip Relay
WT Trip Relay

## 3 nos O/L Relay

Di erential Relay

## 1 no Directional E/L Relay

Over ux Relay
Buchholz Relay

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PRV Relay
OT Trip Relay
WT Trip Relay
9

400/220KV 315MVA

## 3 nos Directional O/L Relay

Di erential Relay

(with dir.highset)

(with dir.highset)

Over ux Relay

Buchholz Relay

PRV Relay

for

OT Trip Relay

action

WT Trip Relay

Relay

## Points to be remembered in respect of protection of transformers

1. No Buchholz relay for transformers below 500 KVA capacity.
2. Transformers up to 1500 KVA shall have only Horn gap protection.
3. Transformers above 1500 KVA and upto 8000 KVA of 33/11KV ratio shall have one group control breaker on HV side
and individual LV breakers if there is more than one transformer.
4. Transformers above 8000 KVA shall have individual HV and LV circuit breakers.
5. The relays indicate above shall be provided on HV and LV.
6. LAs to be provided on HV & LV for transformers of all capacities and voltage class.
7. OLTC out of step protection is to be provided where master follower scheme is in operation.
8. Fans failure and pumps failure alarms to be connected.
9. Alarms for O.T., W.T., Buchholz (Main tank & OLTC) should be connected.

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