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1. Distinction between training and development.

TRAINING is more a short-term process of utilizing procedure by which nonmanagerial human resources learn technical knowledge and skills for definite purposes.
On the other hand, DEVELOPMENT is a long-term educational process, utilizing a
systematic and organized procedure by which managerial human resources learn
conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general purposes.

2. Primary objectives of training and development.

a. Establish a sound relationship between the workers and his job.

b. Upgrade skills and prevent obsolescence.
c. Develop healthy, constructive attitude.
d. Impart broad-based knowledge relating to the plant, machinery, materials,
product, quality and standards to factory, workplace and work environment.
e. Prepare employees for future assignments.
f. Increase productivity.
g. Minimize operational errors.
h. Enhance employee confidence and morale.

Bring down costs of production.


Bring down labor turnover and absenteeism.

3. Categories of investment in training and development.

a. Person-hours spent
A better preparation and a great time and effort are needed in undertaking
training in order to achieve desired results. The benefits that accrue from the

training and development program must commensurate with the effort put in and
the person-hours spent.

b. Opportunity cost
There is always the opportunity cost of not sending employees for training and
development programs but instead allowing then to continue to perform their
present jobs. When human resources are selected for training and development,
there is always some concern about sparing the services of an employee for a
given length of time. The difficulties and potential risks must be taken into
account because they are investment in training and development effort.

c. Financial Allocations
The proper allocation of funds in creating training and development program is
indispensible. We cannot eliminate the fact that training and development is very
important however, management has other needs aside from training and
development. It is needed, indeed, to have a systematic procedure for the
allotment of capital and effective implementation of the program.

4. What are the training and development policies?

Training and development policies are the rules and procedures which govern or
influence the standard and scope of training and development in the organization. It
should encompass the following:
a. managements own overall responsibility right from the planning stage to
successful implementation;
b. the companys approach to the training function which would include guidance for
design and execution as well as dissemination of relevant information to all;
c. provision for annual or periodic surveys in order to ensure that training and
development is need based and development oriented;
d. identification of priority areas since resources are always scarce and programs
must be prioritized according to felt needs;

e. clear identification of target groups and confirmation that training and

development related to everyone without exception;
f. communication to all employees of the companys intention regarding each
individuals career development and the contribution of training to a persons
future promotional prospects; and
g. expression of companys faith and belief that training and development are as
crucial to the organization as to the individual and that the companys growth is
inextricably linked with the growth of each employee.

5. Principles of training and development

a. Motivation

An individual must be motivated to learn. A person must recognize the need to

learn and derive satisfaction from the learning experience. If the trainee is not
interested or demotivated, then the learning outcome is going to be insignificant and
the organizations expenditure would be ineffective. The most effective way of
raising a trainees motivation is goal setting.

b. Practice

Time must be provided for practice and repetition of subject matter that has been
learned. For anyone learning a new skill or acquiring factual knowledge, there must
be opportunity to practice what is being learned. It increases the length of time that
the training material will be retained, and makes the learning more reflexive. It
facilitates the transfer of training to the job situation which is the vital of all training

c. Reinforcement

Psychologists have confirmed through research that learning is greatly increased

by providing positive and immediate reinforcement of the desired conduct.
Reinforcement may be in the form of praise, money, promotion or other forms of

d. Feedback
Feedback is a form of information about ones attempts to improve in fact is vital
for learning as well as for trainee motivation. The knowledge of results is an effective
motivator. Constant and periodic feedback has positive effects on the trainees
learning process.

e. Transfer of training

Training would only have proved truly useful if the trainees are able to utilize the
skills and knowledge acquired in his actual job situation or in other words, if he is
able to transfer his learning to his actual work role.

6. What are the subjects of training and development?

7. What are the advantages and disadvantages of training and development for:
a. Employee
b. Management

1. Increased job satisfaction and

morale among employees.
2. Increased employee motivation.
3. Increased efficiencies.

1. Bad habits passed on
2. Narrow experience
3. Loss of Productivity (Opportunity

4. Reduced employee turnover.

5. Risk management.


1. Since it increases efficiencies, it will

1. Can be a financial drain on

result to financial gain.

resources; expensice development

2. Increased capacity to adopt new

technologies and methods.
3. Increased innovation in strategies

and testing, expensive to operate

2. Equips staff for a better job
3. Expenses for trainers and trainees

and products.
4. Enhanced company image
5. Improves the job knowledge and
skills at all levels of the organization
6. Aids in organizational development
7. Provides information for future
needs in all areas of the

8. Training and development cycle


Analyze training needs

Identify training objective and

Pretext Trainers
Select Training methods
Plan training content

Schedule training
Conduct training
Monitor training

Measure training outcome
Compare outcome to training
objectives and criteria

Source: Human Resource Management by Robert Mathis and John Jackson (2010) page 260

9. Training and development methods

According to Sison (1991) training and development may be in any of the following
a. Orientation or induction of new employees; refreshers training for the
introduction of new methods and techniques
b. On-the-job training (OJT), learning while actually working on the job makes
the worker acquire skills and techniques or learn new processes and methods

by doing the job himself under the direction and instructions of training
instructor or supervisor.
c. Employee training in technical areas in company seminars and workshops.
d. Job rotation.
e. Apprenticeship training. Articles 57-72 of the Labor Code of the Philippines
provide for apprenticeship training in private industry.
f. Understudy and special projects or assignment.
g. Guidance and counseling.
h. Supervisory training, to equip a supervisor or foreman with the needed skills to
better perform his duties and to help improve the performance of his workers.
i. Travel or observation tours sponsored by the company through the employees
own initiative.
j. Conferences, lectures, special seminars, or workshops in different subject
areas, either in the company.
k. Management or leadership development for potential manager.
l. Study grants sponsored by either the company or some other organizations.
m. Study abroad on employees own initiative. Some firms allow their employees
leaves of absence either with or without pay to enable them to study abroad.
n. Training within the industry.
o. Vestibule training.
p. Learners in industry. These are usually graduating students in college who are
required to gain experience as a requirement for graduation.
q. Training through correspondence.

10. Characteristics of effective trainer.

Ability to speak well

Ability to write effectively

Able to manage the work of others

Able to be innovative

Able to inspire trainees to greater achievements

11. The measurement criteria of the effectiveness of training and development.

Training programs are usually evaluated on the basis of their intended objectives
as already indicated. This is why training objectives should be stated in such manner
that it allows easy assessment. In other words, training objectives should be
measurable. The following are suggested criteria for evaluating training:
a. Reaction level key questions to ask:

How well did the trainees like the programs?

Did they feel that the information given to them is worthwhile?

Did they believe that the program was well prepared and carefully

b. Learning level how well the trainees learned and retained what they learn
should be measured using evaluation methods similar to those used in schools.
c. Behavioral level a guide question is:

To what extent did the behavior of the trainees change as a result of the

Behavior modification can be assessed through: (a) self-reports of trainees

derived through a questionnaire; and (b) observations of others (e.g.,
supervisors, peers, subordinates)
d. Result level this indicates the final results obtained from the training.

Did it results in reduced costs? Improved performance or productivity?

Did it contribute to cohesiveness in the work group?

Did it improve job satisfaction and morale?

Kumar, P. (2011, February 19). Lecture 18 training and development. Retrieved August 2014, from Slide
Share: http://www.slideshare.net/birubiru/lecture-18-training-and-development-6981714
McNamara, C. (n.d.). Employee Training and Development: Reasons and Benefits. Retrieved August
2012, from Management Help: http://managementhelp.org/training/basics/reasons-for-training.htm