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# Fundamental Parameters of Antennas

Introduction
Beamwidth
Directivity
Antenna Efficiency
Gain
Beam Efficiency
Bandwidth
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Definition: Representation of the radiation properties of the antenna
as a function of angular position
Radiation pattern is usually determined in the far-field region
The spatial (angular) distribution of the radiated power is
independent of distance
Measurement is done at a constant radius from the source

, and
In general, the pattern is described in terms of the normalized
pattern with respect to the maximum value
Amplitude Field Pattern: the trace of the spatial (angular) variation
of electric (magnetic) field intensity at a constant radius from the
antenna

| E ( , ) |

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Maximum in ,

## Normalized Field Pattern:

| E ( , ) |
~
, Emax = max {| E ( , ) |}
Emax
| E ( , ) |
| E ( , ) |2
~ 20 log10
= 10 log10

2
Emax
Emax

## Power Pattern: The trace of the angular variation of the

| E ( , ) |2

= | H ( , ) |2

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Normalized Power Pattern:

| E ( , ) |2
| H ( , ) |2
=
2
2
Emax
H max

| E ( , ) |2
10 log10

2
Emax
Note that normalized power pattern and normalized field pattern are
identical when computed and plotted in dB

TE4109 Antennas

Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design, 3rd Ed., 2005

Spherical Coordinate
System
A point in space is specified
by 3 components : r, ,
and

0 2

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The pattern can be a 3-D plot or (both and vary), or a 2-D plot

## A 2-D plot is a plane with = constant, or = constant. The plane

must contain the patterns maximum

TE4109 Antennas

12-Element Yagi-Uda Antenna
4nec2 (Software for Antenna Simulation), available at http://home.ict.nl/~arivoors/

TE4109 Antennas

## 4nec2 (Software for Antenna Simulation), available at http://home.ict.nl/~arivoors/

TE4109 Antennas

Antenna Types
Isotropic Radiator : A hypothetical lossless antenna having equal
Directional Antenna : An antenna having the property of radiating or
receiving electromagnetic waves more effectively in some directions
than in others
Omnidirectional Antenna : An antenna having non-directional
pattern in a given plane and a directional pattern in any orthogonal
plane
Omnidirectional Antenna Pattern
- Nondirectional in azimuth
- Directional in elevation

Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design, 3rd Ed., 2005

TE4109 Antennas

Principal Patterns
Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design, 3rd Ed., 2005

## For a linearly polarized

antenna, performance
is described in terms of
its principal E- and Hplane patterns

## H-Plane : The plane containing the magnetic-field vector and the

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bounded by regions of
intensity
lobe containing the direction

are possible

## Minor Lobe is any lobe

except a major lobe
Side Lobe is a radiation lobe
in any direction other than
the intended lobe

## Back Lobe is a radiation

lobe which is approximately
opposite to the main beam
Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design, 3rd Ed., 2005

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Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design, 3rd Ed., 2005

## Level of minor lobes must be minimized

Side Lobe Ratio (often expressed in dB) is a ratio of the power density
in the lobe in question to that of the major lobe

## Half-Power Beamwidth (HPBW) : Angle between the two directions

in which radiation intensity is one-half value of the beam
First-Null Beamwidth (FNBW) : Angle between the two directions in
which radiation intensity is negligible (null occurs)
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The measure of a plane angle is a

Arc Length
r

## One Radian : The plane angle with

its vertex at the center of a circle of
radius r that is subtended by an arc
whose length is r

Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design, 3rd Ed., 2005

## For a full circle, C = 2 r

2 r
= 2
r

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The measure of a solid angle is a

Area at r
, sr
r2

## One Steradian : The solid angle with

its vertex at the center of a sphere
of radius r that is subtended by a
spherical surface area equal to that
of a square with each side of length

## r ( one steradian covers the area

of r2)
Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design, 3rd Ed., 2005

ds
For a sphere of radius r
d =
, sr
r2
2
4 r 2
ds = r d
= 2
[r sin( )d ] [rd ]
r
=
r2
= 4
d = sin( )d d
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Example 2.1
For a sphere of radius r , find the solid angle A (in square radians
or steradians) of a spherical cap on the surface of the sphere over
the north-pole region defined by spherical angles of 0 30 ,
0 360 . Do this
(a) exactly.
(b) using A 1 2 , where 1 and 2 are two
perpendicular angular separations of the spherical cap
passing through the north pole.

## Example: see notes

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Radiation Intensity U in a given direction : The power radiated from
an antenna per unit solid angle in that given direction

U=

d

Ud , W
4

## From now on, we will denote the radiated power simply by P

Magnitude of Poynting vector in the far zone and the radiation
intensity

| W |= W =

dP
,W/m 2 Wds = Ud , W
ds
U ( , ) = r 2W (r , , )

Power density depends on the distance from the source as 1/r2 (Far
field magnitude depends on r as 1/r)
Radiation intensity U depends only on the direction (,) but not
on the distance r
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In the far-field zone, the radial field components are negligible, the
remaining components are transverse and in phase

| E |= | H |
Far-field Poynting vector has only a radial component, and it is real

1
1 | E |2
2
W = arW W = | H | =
2
2
2
2
r
r
| E (r , , ) |2 + | E (r , , ) |2
U ( , ) =
| E |2 =
2
2
Power pattern is actually U(,) and the normalized power pattern
is
2

U ( , ) =

U ( , ) | E |
= 2
U max
Emax

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Examples

P
W (r , , ) = ar
= arW , W/m 2
4 r 2
P
U ( , ) = r 2W =
= const.
4
U ( , ) = 1
Radiation intensity and pattern of an infinitesimal dipole
In the far-field region, the electric field is give by

( I l )e j r
sin( ) E ( , ) = sin( )
4 r
r2
2 ( I l ) 2 2
U=
| E |2 =
sin ( )
2
32 2

E = j

U ( , ) = sin 2 ( )
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Example 2.2
is given by
sin( )
(W/m 2 )
2
r
where A0 is the peak value of the power density, is the usual
spherical coordinate, and ar is the radial unit vector. Determine
W = arWr = ar A0

## Example: see notes

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Example 2.3
The radiation intensity of an antenna is given by
U ( , ) = A0 sin( ) (W/sr)
where A0 is the peak value of the radiation intensity, and is the
usual spherical coordinate. Determine the total radiated power.

## Example: see notes

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10

Beamwidth

Linear Scale
Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design, 3rd Ed., 2005

U ( , ) = cos 2 ( ) cos 2 (3 )

## Resolution capability of an antenna to distinguish between two sources is

equal to half of FNBW
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Example 2.4
The normalized radiation intensity of an antenna is represented by
U ( ) = cos 2 ( ) cos 2 (3 ),

(0 90 , 0 360 ).

Find the
(a) half-power beamwidth HPBW (in radians and degrees)
(b) first-null beamwidth FNBW (in radians and degrees)

## Example: see notes

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11

Directivity (1)
Directivity : Ratio of the radiation intensity in a given direction and
the radiation intensity averaged over all directions

Note that the average radiation intensity is equal to the total power
radiated by the antenna divided by 4
If the direction is not specified, the direction of maximum radiation
intensity is implied

D( , ) =

U ( , )
U ( , )
= 4
( P / 4 )
P

Dmax = D0 = 4

U max
P

## D (dB) = 10 log10 [ D (dimensionless) ]

Directivity is dimensionless. The maximum directivity is always 1
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Directivity (2)
For antennas with orthogonal polarization components, the total
directivity is the sum of the partial directivities for any two
orthogonal polarizations

D( , ) = D ( , ) + D ( , )
Where

## D and D are partial directivities, which are given by

D ( , ) =
D ( , ) =

4 U ( , ) 4 U ( , )
=
P + P
P
4 U ( , )
P + P

4 U ( , )
P

## P , = power radiated in all directions

contained in , field components, respectively
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Directivity (3)
Directivity of an isotropic source:

P
= const. = U 0
4
P = 4 U 0

U ( , ) =

U ( , )
=1
P
Dmax = 1

D( , ) = 4

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Directivity (4)
Relationship between directivity D and radiation intensity U

U ( , ) = U maxU ( , )
P=

Ud = U max U ( , ) sin( )d d
0 0

D( , ) = 4
D( , ) = 4

U ( , )
P
U ( , )

U ( , ) sin( )d d
0 0

Dmax = D0 = 4

1
2

U ( , ) sin( )d d

0 0
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13

Example 2.5
As an illustration, find the maximum directivity of the antenna
whose radiated power density is given by
sin( )
(W/m 2 )
2
r
where A0 is the peak value of the power density, is the usual
spherical coordinate, and ar is the radial unit vector. Write an
W = arWr = ar A0

angles and .

## Example: see notes

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Example 2.6
Find the maximum directivity of an infinitesimal dipole. Write
an expression for the directivity as a function of the directional
angles and .

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14

## Beam Solid Angle (1)

Beam Solid Angle A : Solid angle through which all the power of
the antenna would flow if its radiation intensity U were constant
and equal to the maximum radiation intensity Umax for all angles
within A

U max A = P

A =

U ( , ) sin( )d d
0 0

Proof

P=
A

Ud = U
4

max

d = U max A

Ud =
=
4

U max

Ud = U ( , ) sin( )d d
4

0 0

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## Beam Solid Angle (2)

We know that

Dmax = D0 = 4

1
2

U ( , ) sin( )d d
0 0

Dmax = D0 =

4
A

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## Directional Patterns (1)

For an antenna with one narrow major lobe
and very negligible minor lobes (highly
directive antenna), the beam solid angle can
be approximated from (Kraus)

1r 2 r

## 2 r = half-power beamwidth in a plane

at a right angle ot the other (rad)
4
Dmax = D0 =

1r 2 r

Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design, 3rd Ed., 2005

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## Directional Patterns (2)

If the beamwidths are known in degrees,
then

Dmax = D0

41, 253

180

1d 2 d

1d 2 d

## 1d = half-power beamwidth in one

2d

plane (degrees)
= half-power beamwidth in a plane
at a right angle ot the other (degrees)

## Formula of Tai and Pereira

Dmax = D0

32 ln(2)
12r + 22r
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Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design, 3rd Ed., 2005

32

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Example 2.7
The radiation intensity of the major lobe
of many antennas can be adequately
represented by
U ( , ) = B0 cos( )
where B0 is the maximum radiation
only in the upper hemisphere (0 / 2,
0 2 ), and it is shown in Figure 2.15.
Find the
(a) beam solid angle: exact and
approximate
(b) maximum directivity; exact using

Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design, 3rd Ed., 2005

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## Omnidirectional Patterns (1)

Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design, 3rd Ed., 2005

## Some antennas (such as dipoles, loops) exhibit omnidirectional

patterns
Omnidirectional patterns can be approximated by

U ( , ) = sin n ( )
where

0 , 0 2

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## Omnidirectional Patterns (2)

Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design, 3rd Ed., 2005

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Example 2.8
Design an antenna with omnidirectional amplitude pattern with a
half-power beamwidth of 90 . Express its radiation intensity by
U ( , ) = sin n ( ). Determine the value of n and attempt to identify
elements that exhibit such pattern. Determine the directivity of the
antenna using (2-16a), (2-33a), and (2-33b).

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## Antenna Efficiency (1)

Losses at the input terminals and within the structure of the
antenna

## Reflection at antenna input

terminal

I2R

Pin

losses

Conduction loss
Dielectric loss

Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design, 3rd Ed., 2005

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## Antenna Efficiency (2)

In general, the overall efficiency can be written as

P
e0 = er ec ed
Pin
ecd
2
er = reflection efficiency = (1 )
e0 =

ec = conduction efficiency
ed = dielectric efficiency
=

Vr
= voltage reflection coefficient at antenna
Vi
input terminal

## Usually, ec and ed are very difficult to compute. Even by

measurements they cannot be separated.

e0 = ecd (1 )
2

## ecd = radiation efficiency, which is used to

relate gain and directivity
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## Antenna Efficiency (3)

Z0

Pin
Pr

Pf ZA

Z A = RA + jX A
Z 0 = characteristic impedance of line
Z A = antenna input impedance
Z Z0
0 1
= A
Z A + Z0
VSWR 1
=
VSWR + 1

VSWR =

Pin = Pf + Pr
| |2 =

1+

Pr
Pin

1 | |2 =

Pf
Pin

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## Antenna Efficiency (3)

Z0

Pin
Pr

Pf ZA

Z A = RA + jX A
Z A = 0 Short Circuit

Z A Z0 Z A / Z0 1 0 1
=
=
= 1
Z A + Z0 Z A / Z0 + 1 0 + 1
VSWR =

1+ | | 1 + 1
=
=
1 | | 1 1

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## Antenna Efficiency (3)

Pin

Z0

Pf ZA

Pr

max

max

max

Z A = RA + jX A
Z A / Z 0 = 1/ 4

Z A Z 0 Z A / Z 0 1 1/ 4 1
=
=
= 0.6
Z A + Z 0 Z A / Z 0 + 1 1/ 4 + 1

VSWR =

1+ | | 1 + 0.6 1.6
=
=
=4
1 | | 1 0.6 0.4
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## Antenna Gain (1)

Gain : Ratio of the radiation intensity U in a given direction and the
radiation intensity that would be obtained if the power fed to the

G ( , ) =

U ( , )
U ( , )
= 4
(dimensionless)
Pin /(4 )
Pin
U ( , )
D( , ) =
P /(4 )

## In most cases, we deal with relative gain

Relative Gain : the ratio of the power gain in a given direction to the
power gain of a reference antenna in its reference direction

## Power input for both antennas must be the same

Reference antenna is usually a dipole, horn, or any other antenna
whose gain can be calculated or it is known
In most cases, the reference antenna is a lossless isotropic source
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## Antenna Gain (2)

When the direction is not stated, the power gain is the maximum
gain (in the direction of maximum radiation)
From IEEE Standards, gain does not include losses arising from
impedance mismatches (reflection losses) and polarization
mismatches (losses)

## P = ecd Pin , ecd 1

G ( , ) = ecd D( , )

assuming no

impedance mismatch
(reflection losses = 0)

In a similar manner,

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## Antenna Gain (3)

For antennas with orthogonal polarization components, the total
gain is the sum of the partial gains for any two orthogonal
polarizations

G ( , ) = G ( , ) + G ( , )

Where

G ( , ) =
G ( , ) =

4 U ( , )
Pin
4 U ( , )
Pin

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## Antenna Gain (4)

For many practical antennas, an approximate formula for the gain,
corresponding to (2-27) or (2-27a) for the directivity, is

30, 000

Gmax = G0

1d 2 d

Compared with

Dmax = D0

180

1d 2 d

41, 253
1d 2 d

## In practice, whenever the term gain is used, it usually refers to

the maximum gain.
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Example 2.10
A lossless resonant half-wavelength dipole antenna, with input
impedance of 73 ohms, is connected to a transmission line whose
characteristic impedance is 50 ohms. Assuming that the pattern
of the antenna is given approximately by
U ( , ) = B0 sin 3 ( )
find the maximum absolute gain of this antenna.

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23

1

## For antenna with its major lobe

directed along the z-axis, the
beam efficiency (BE) is defined
by
Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design, 3rd Ed., 2005

BE =

## power transmitted within cone angle 1

power transmitted by the antenna (P )

where 1 is the half-angle of the cone within which the percentage of total
Power is to be found
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## Beam Efficiency (2)

2

0
2

U ( , ) sin( )d d
BE =
U ( , ) sin( )d d
If 1 is chosen as the angle where the first null or minimum occurs,
then

## Beam efficiency indicates the amount of power in the major lobe

compared to the total power

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## Frequency Bandwidth (FBW)

Frequency Bandwidth (FBW) : Range of frequencies, within which
the antenna characteristics (input impedance, pattern) conform to
certain specifications
Antenna characteristics: Input impedance, radiation pattern,
beamwidth, polarization, side-lobe level, gain, beam direction and
Broadband Antenna: FBW is the ratio of the upper to the lower
frequencies, where the antenna performance is acceptable

FBW =

f max
f min

## Narrowband Antenna : FBW is a percentage of the frequency

difference over the center frequency

FBW =

f max f min
100%
f0

f 0 = ( f max f min ) / 2, or
f0 =

f max f min

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## Homework Assignment (1)

Time Allowed: 1 Week
2.3
2.6
2.11

2.12
2.18

(a)

2.19
2.27

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## Homework Assignment (2)

Hints for 2.11 (a)

U = sin( ) sin( )
0 , 0

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## Homework Assignment (3)

Hints for 2.11 (b)

U = sin( ) sin 3 ( )
0 , 0

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## Homework Assignment (4)

Hints for 2.27

U = sin( ) cos 2 ( )
0 , and 0 / 2, 3 / 2 2

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27