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Regularization study with

harmonic polynomial functions

by I. Szucs-Csillik, R. Roman
Romanian Academy Cluj-Napoca


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The regularization of the celestial bodies
motion is significant and well-studied in
space dynamics.
Levi-Civita (1920) used firstly the
harmonic polynomial function (of order 2)
for regularization.
regularization methods of n-th order.
Applying and then comparing these new
regularization methods the study of
collision and escape orbits become more
These numerical methods are fast,
because we have no singularities in the
equations of motion.
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What is the regularization? (singularity,
collision, manifold)
The collision must be slowed down by a time
transformation. So that the approach of the actual
velocity can be handled by infinity, and blow up by the
coordinate transformation.

What is harmonic conjugated polynomial

The harmonic conjugate to a given polynomial function
f(Q1,Q2) is a polynomial function g(Q1,Q2) such that the
holomorphic function u(z)=f(Q1,Q2)+ig(Q1,Q2) is
complex differentiable and satisfies the CauchyRiemann equations

Q1 Q2




where f, g, Q1, Q2 are real, z complex variable, z=Q1+iQ2 .

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Harmonic and conjugate

polynomial functions
We can find harmonic and conjugate functions, by using the theory of
complex functions. We denote z = Q1+iQ2 a single complex variable and
h: C, h(z) = h(Q1+iQ2) = f(Q1,Q2) + ig(Q1,Q2) a complex-valued
function. From the theory of complex numbers we know that: if h(z) is a
complex function, than its real and imaginary parts are harmonic functions.
That means:
f f

0 and
Q12 Q22

g g

Q12 Q22

Table 1. Polynomial functions of nth order

To generalize the harmonic polynomial function consider the

function h(z) = z. The nth order polynomial functions are h(zn) = zn,
n is positive integers, and zn = (Q1 + iQ2)n. The harmonic
polynomials are given in the table above.
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R3BP restricted 3 body problem

For simplicity, we consider in the following that the third body moves
into the orbital plane. Denoting S1 and S2 the components of the binary
system (masses m1 and m2), the equations of motion of the test particle in
the coordinate system xS1y are

These equations have singularities in terms 1/r1 and 1/r2.

This situation corresponds to collision of the test particle
with S1 and S2. If the test particle approaches very closely
to one of the primaries, such an event produces large
gravitational force and sharp bends of orbit. The removing
of these singularities can be done by regularization.
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The first step of regularization represents a
conformal mapping. It contains the geometric
information and it controls the accuracy of the
shape of the orbit.
In our case the nth order transformations are
the harmonic polynomial functions given in the
table 1.

The second step of regularization is the

essential one, since it controls the kinematics'
aspects and it performs the regularization.
The new time, namely, the fictitious time, is
introduced in the following way:

r1n r2n
The third step of regularization is the Jacobi
integral, it controls the energy preservation:
d 2q
d 2q

2 1
2q 1
2 q







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nth order equations of motion

In order to obtain canonical equations, when f and g are
harmonic and conjugate polynomial functions, we have to
write first the corresponding Hamiltonian equation. Let us
consider the complex variable z = Q1+i Q2, which can be
written in the trigonometric form:
The new nth order Hamiltonian

the new nth order

canonical equations
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Application in Earth-Moon system

In order to obtain 'similar' trajectories, the canonical
equations of motion of the test particle must be integrated,
using initial conditions. We denote
the initial conditions for the canonical equations in the
physical plane, and

the initial conditions for the canonical

equations in the regularized plane. The
connection between these initial
conditions is given by the equations:

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The motion in physical plane

Initial conditions:
q=0.0123 (Earth-Moon system)
q10=0.6, q20=0.4, p10=0.1, p20=0.6 (in physical plane)

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S1 and S2 position
S1, S2 positions and the initial conditions for
different methods of regularization (the case n = 1,
polynomial function, corresponds to the physical
plane). Applying the transformation of coordinates
given by f and g, not only the trajectory will be
changed, but the positions of the components of the
binary system S1 and S2 will be changed too. The
bolded coordinates are those used to obtain the
trajectories of the test particle in this article.

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After regularization
Compare the next figures, which presented the nth
order trajectories for each type of functions f and g
presented in the table.

All trajectories are represented for a time interval

equal with an orbital period.

As we can see, changing the functions f and g, not

only the initial position P0 is changed, but the
shape of the trajectory changes too.

If f and g are polynomial functions of n degree,

the greater is n, the greater is the distance of P0 to
the origin of the coordinate system.

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In the polynomial regularization's

methods, if A is an arbitrary point of the
trajectory in the physical plane (n = 1),
and B is its corresponding point in the
regularized plane then we have the
following relations concerning the polar
radii and angles:
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The unique condition imposed to the generating functions
f and g was that those functions are harmonic and
conjugated. Using the theory of complex analysis, we
generated nth order harmonic and conjugated functions.
We obtained in each case the canonical equations of
motion of the test particle.
We integrated these equations, using initial conditions,
obtained from the initial conditions used in the physical
Using the regularization we realize:
that the new canonical equations of motion are
without singularity (regular), so the numerical
integrator is faster,
the trajectories conserve the shapes of the orbit (near
the collision the manifold blow up),
the motion is slowed down.
In many situations, the distance from the trajectory's
points to the more massive star of the binary system (S1)
increases. In the case of the polynomial functions, the
greater is the degree of the polynomials, the greater is the
distance. This remark can be useful in some applications
(for example if some "objects" are located nearPage
S1). 13

Thank you for your attention!

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A Selective Bibliography

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Palermo 39, 1-70 (1915)
Boccaletti, D., Pucacco, G.: Theory of orbits, vol. 1. Springer-Verlag,
Berlin Heidelberg New York (1996)
Burrau, C.: ber einige in Aussicht genommene Berechnung, betreffend
einen Specialfall des Dreikrperproblems, Vierteljahrschrift Astron. Ges.
41, 261-266 (1915)
Carathodory, C.: Theory of functions of a complex variable, vol. 1. AMS
Chelsea Publishing, Providence, Rhode Island (2001)
Csillik, I.: Regularization methods in celestial mechanics. House of the
Book of Science, Cluj (2003)
Lematre, G.: Regularization of the three-body problem, Vistas in
Astronomy 1, 207-213 (1955)
Levi-Civita, T.: Sur la rvolution qualitative du probleme restreint de trois
corps, Acta Mathematica, 30, 305-327 (1906)
Roman, R., Szcs-Csillik, I.: Regularization of the circular restricted
three-body problem using similar coordinate systems. Astrophysics and
Space Science 338(2), 233-243 (2012)
Szcs-Csillik, I., Roman, R.: New regularization of the restricted threebody problem. RoAJ 22(2), 135-145 (2012)
Stiefel, L., Scheifele, G.: Linear and regular celestial mechanics.
Springer, Berlin (1971)
Szebehely, V.: Theory of orbits. Academic Press, New York 1967
Thiele, T.N.: Recherches numriques concernant des solutions
priodiques d'un cas spcial du probleme des trois corps. Astron. Nachr.
138, 1-10 (1896)

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