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Regional High School Model United Nations

San Francisco | December 10-13, 2014

International Model United Nations Association


The 18th Annual Conference December 10 December 13, 2014

December 2014
Hello Delegates!
Monica Vergara
Stanford University

Maggie Lawrence
Trinity College

Nick Zobel
Conference Director
University of Southern

Hannah Sieben
Chief of Staff
University of Texas, Austin

Simone Leonard
Boston College

Christine Ciganovich
University of California,

Claire Rhee
Brown University

David Monroe
Duke University

RHSMUN is a project of the

International Model United Nations
Association, Incorporated (IMUNA).
IMUNA, a not-for-profit, all volunteer
organization, is dedicated to furthering
global issues education at the secondary
school level.

With immense pleasure, I welcome you to the 18th annual session of RHSMUN and more
specifically, to the Security Council. My name is Salaar Bin Shehzad and I will be your
Assistant Director. I have participated in several Model UN Conferences both local and
international, such as Harvard MUN India. With every MUN conference I attended, my
interest and enthusiasm for MUN grew and I hope that this conference will be memorable for
you as well.
I am currently in my final year of Advanced levels studying Law and Economics at Lahore
Grammar School Defence, Pakistan. I hope to graduate with a major in Economics and Law.
Unlike other committees of the United Nations, the Security Council is able to impose
sanctions, authorize armed intervention and pass binding resolutions. The topics you will be
debating are some of the most important current issues globally. This Update Paper consists
of developments and in depth explanations of some of the pertinent issues in regards to the
topics. As delegates, you will be expected to draft comprehensive resolutions and maintain a
good quality of diplomatic debate in committee.
If you have questions, please do not hesitate to approach any of the dais members. Good luck
and Happy Researching!
Salaar Bin Shehzad

Regional High School Model United Nations 2014



Bad governance, poverty, cultural difference, and an inefficient justice system are the ingredients that
have caused terrorism and sectarian violence to rise in Pakistan. This country has been struggling
with terrorist attacks since it partitioned from India in 1947 and terrorism is one of the major causes
for its lack of development. Over 302 terrorist attack cases have been reported to date. On 8 June
2014, as many as 30 Shia Pilgrims were killed and many injured in bomb explosions in Balochistan1
These issues continue to escalate and are now becoming a colossal threat to the peace and security
of Pakistan.
The withdrawal of United States troops from Afghanistan has led to an increase in security threats
across borders. As of October 2014, the largest terrorist organization, the Taliban, and the Islamic
State (IS) terrorist organization have joined forces, which have adversely affected the mindset of the
people. The IS has been distributing pamphlets stating their mandate in several regions of Pakistan,
especially near the borders and in the city of Peshawar. In addition, the organization is currently
operating in Syria and Iraq. Pakistani Army General Asim Saleem expressed his concern with this
matter and affirmed that the Pakistani Army would ensure that no terrorists would carry out terrorist
activities within the country.2 However, in the past two months, no action has been taken by the
These horrendous situations have led to no other option but to ask for support from the United
Nations. Pakistan has recently asked for assistance from the UN Counter Terrorism Strategy to draw
attention to the issue of terrorism in Pakistan.3 The Counter Terrorism Strategy will implement its
four pillars: measures to address the conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism; measures to
prevent and combat terrorism; measures to build states capacity to prevent and combat terrorism
and to strengthen the role of the United Nations system in that regard; and measures to ensure
respect for human rights for all and the rule of law as the fundamental basis for the fight against
terrorism.4 This committee has investigated reports of violations of human rights law, implemented
sanctions and peace-keeping operations.
These security threats have started to hinder the progress of healthcare in the country. Pakistan is
among one of the three countries where polio still exists. Despite the ongoing efforts by the

1"Major Incidents of Terrorism-related Violence in Pakistan 2014," SATP, 19 October 2014,
2 Ayaz Gul, "Pakistan, Afghanistan Confront IS Threat," Voice of America, 7 October 2014,

3"Pakistan Calls for UN Counter-terrorism Strategy to Address Unresolved Disputes, Associated Press of Pakistan, 8
October 2014, http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=305309&Itemid=2.
4 Charter of the United Nations, Counter Terrorism Implementation Task Force, Accessed 26 October 2014.


Regional High School Model United Nations 2014


Pakistani government to eliminate this endemic viral infection, Polio cases in Pakistan have escalated
by 37% in 2011 due to lack of healthcare facilities.5 Furthermore, terrorist attacks have become a
barrier for Polio workers to give drops in sensitive regions because terrorists are killing anti-polio
workers as well. A recent report stated that volunteers providing polio vaccination have been killed
by terrorist groups, because the terrorists claim that these anti-polio workers are spies or that the
vaccination will make the children sterile.6The situation has worsened as 74% of parents have
refused to give Polio drops to their children, the reason for which remains unclear. Keeping in mind
such horrendous situations, it is essential for the international community to collaborate and find
effective solutions in order to curb this issue because terrorists are gaining a strong hold not only in
political aspects but also health issues.
Tens of thousands of lives have been lost in sectarian conflicts in Pakistan. This issue is a major
destabilizing factor and is breaking apart the social, political, and judicial system in the country.
Several sectarian violence attacks have been reported; in July 2014, two unidentified assailants killed
a man and his son in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and a shopkeeper named Asif Ali was shot dead in
Karachi in suspected incidents of sectarian killing.7 These two examples are just a glimpse of the real
scenario, as the situation on ground is happening on a much larger scale.
Despite the fact that the Pakistani government has not allowed drones strikes on their soil, several
drone attacks have been bombarded with a label to promote peace and security within the country.
Nobel Prize Winner, Malala Yousafzai, expressed her concerns with drones catalyzing terrorist
attacks in Pakistan because the terrorists in retaliation have bombed more regions as part of their
revenge, leading to an increase in terrorist attacks due to drone strikes.8 While this statement
highlights the inefficiency of drone strikes, it also raises a question of whether banning drone strikes
would actually help in eliminating terror in Pakistan, a very important point to consider when trying
combating this issue.
In the past few months, several issues ranging from escalated sectarian violence, Pakistan-Afghan
border security, intervention of the IS terrorist organization and the use of drones have become a
grave problem for the country. The United Nations Security Council must continue to promote its
mission to maintain international peace and security, by working with the international community
and finding effective solutions as outlined in Chapter V to VIII of the UN Charter.9

5 Kounteya Sinha, "WHO to Declare Polio Global Health Emergency," The Times of India, 15 March 2012,
6"Corruption, Terrorism Turn Pakistan into Epicenter of Polio," Geo TV, 4 October 2014, http://www.geo.tv/article161626-Corruption-terrorism-turn-Pakistan-into-epicenter-of-polio-.
7"Sectarian Violence in Pakistan 2014.
8 Anita Kumar, "Nobel Prize Winner Malala Told Obama U.S. Drone Attacks Fuel Terrorism," McClatchy DC, 10
October 2014, http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2014/10/10/242968_nobel-prize-winner-malala-told.html?rh=1.
9Charter of the United Nations.


Regional High School Model United Nations 2014



A landlocked country in Central Africa that has removed five presidents since its Independence in
1960 through unauthorized means illustrates the poor governance and justice system in the Central
African Republic (CAR). The terror mainly arose last year in March 2013 when a Muslim rebel
group called Seleka moved against the government, causing its collapse. However, several issues
such as religious tensions between the Muslim minority and Christian majority have occurred. There
have been accounts of human rights violations since the extreme violence began, causing various
issues such as an influx of refugees to surrounding countries and food insecurity.
The crisis in the CAR has been graded to Level 3 by the World Health Organization (WHO) as 2.5
million civilians are in dire need of healthcare; 50,900 have been displaced, and the security situation
remains unpredictable.10 Level 3 includes deploying a senior emergency head commission within 72
hours and initiating empowered leadership; however, this still has not been implemented. The
civilian population is in desperate need of healthcare facilities, infrastructure, and humanitarian aid,
especially because it currently receives only one third of the aid it requires. Furthermore, the biggest
fear for the UN humanitarian agencies and CAR government is the possibility of an outbreak of the
Ebola virus, especially due to its recent spread to Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and several neighboring
countries. WHO is initiating prepared plans to counter Ebola in the CAR by stopping the disease to
spread in new areas, and pre-positioning private defensive equipment and related training.11
The CAR government is deeply concerned with the security situations in the country since they have
repeatedly failed to protect the basic rights of innocent civilians. On 29 September 2014, an angry
mob of a Christian rebel group called anti-balaka killed a Muslim man in Bangui, the capital of
CAR, and as retaliation, the Muslims killed a Christian taxi-driver.12 Seleka gunmen have recently
killed 30 people in an attack on the Central Village of Yamale in CAR.13 This has created more
differences between the rebel groups and worsened the situation as the UN forces failed to control
the violations made by these rebel groups. Civilians, rebel groups, and now UN peacekeeping forces
have been attacked in the CAR where one was severely wounded and seven were injured. The UN
Representative of MINUSCA, Babacar Gayehas called it an "unacceptable crime."14

10"Special Information Brief 9 Months after L3 Declaration," World Health Organization, 15 September 2014,
11"Central African Republic: Ebola Virus Disease Preparedness," Relief Web, 31 August 2014,
12"Two Killed, Corpse Mutilated, in Central African Republic Unrest, Reuters Africa, 8 October 2014,
13"Gunmen Kill at Least 30 in New C. Africa Attacks: UN, Yahoo News, 23 October 2014,
14"Central African Republic: UN Condemns Fatal Attack Against "Blue Helmets,"" All Africa, 9 October 2014,


Regional High School Model United Nations 2014


The international community is deeply concerned with the situation in CAR, so the European Union
(EU) has sent an additional 2,000 Troops to help restore peace and stability in the country, although
this military action has failed before. 15 Furthermore, the February 2015 scheduled elections may
possibly be delayed until September 2015 because the interim government has still not made any
arrangements for the elections as of now. Delaying the elections for another seven months could
further deteriorate the situation; however, taking a few additional weeks in February could allow the
interim government to manage accordingly and prevent violence. 16
Apart from the political, socio-economic, and religious problems that hinder the growth rate of
CAR, the lack of infrastructure also contributes to CARs failure. On 10 October 2014, UNICEF
workers travelled to inaccessible regions to distribute humanitarian aid; however, it took almost two
weeks to cover a distance of 1000 kilometers, normally covered in a few hours, due to the lack of a
proper road network.17
Despite the fact that the interim government and UN Peacekeeping forces are working tirelessly to
improve the conditions in the CAR, problems such as poor infrastructure, security issues, rebel
group conflicts and an outbreak of Ebola hinders the government in succeeding in their plan of
action. Because of such problems, it seems unlikely that elections will be held next year. However,
the Security Council must realize that if the elections fail to take place next year, the situation will
aggravate and could cause a civil war in Central African Republic. It is essential for the Security
Council to find appropriate solutions and implement suitable measures to improve the conditions of
the Central African Republic.

Dominic Evans, "EU Opts to Extend Central African Republic Mission," Reuters UK, 30 September 2014,
16"Lengthy C.African Republic Poll Delay Could Worsen Crisis - U.N, Thomson Reuters Foundation, 5 October 2014,
17 Madeleine Logan, "Going Where Nobody Else Can in Central African Republic," UNICEF Connect, 10 October 2014,


Regional High School Model United Nations 2014


"Corruption, Terrorism Turn Pakistan into Epicenter of Polio." Geo TV. 4 October 2014.
Article analyzing the polio condition in Pakistan
"Major Incidents of Terrorism-related Violence in Pakistan - 2014." SATP. 19 October 2014.
Full report on all Terrorism Related Incidents in Pakistan in 2014
"Pakistan Calls for UN Counter-terrorism Strategy to Address Unresolved Disputes." Associated Press
of Pakistan. 8 October 2014.
Article on Pakistan asking for Assistance from the UN
"Sectarian Violence in Pakistan 2014." SATP. 10 August 2014.
Full Report on the number of Civilian Causalities due to Sectarian Violence
Charter of the United Nations.
Counter Terrorism Implementation Task Force. Accessed 26 October 2014.
CTITFs official site stating their mandate and goals
Gul, Ayaz. "Pakistan, Afghanistan Confront IS Threat." Voice of America. 7 October 2014.
Article on Islamic State Terrorist Organizations propaganda
Kumar, Anita. "Nobel Prize Winner Malala Told Obama U.S. Drone Attacks Fuel Terrorism.
Malalas statement regarding drone to be fueling terrorism
Sinha, Kounteya. "WHO to Declare Polio Global Health Emergency." The Times of India. 15 March
2012. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/WHO-to-declare-polio-global-healthemergency/articleshow/13143211.cms?referral=PM.
Article on WHO to declare health emergency in Pakistan


Regional High School Model United Nations 2014


"Central African Republic: Ebola Virus Disease Preparedness." Relief Web. 31 August 2014.
Full Report on the Plan of Action for CAR
"Central African Republic: UN Condemns Fatal Attack against "Blue Helmets"" All Africa. 9
October 2014. http://allafrica.com/stories/201410101351.html.
Article on UN Condemning attacks on UN Peace keeping forces
"Gunmen Kill at Least 30 in New C. Africa Attacks: UN." Yahoo News. 23 October 2014.
Article on outbreak of violence in Bangui, CAR killing over 30 civilians
"Lengthy C. African Republic Poll Delay Could Worsen Crisis - U.N." Thomson Reuters Foundation. 5
October 2014. http:/www.trust.org/item/20141005175330-fplea/?source=jtOtherNews1.
Article on the possibility of delaying elections
"Special Information Brief 9 Months after L3 Declaration." World Health Organization. 15 September
2014. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/who_car_donorbrief_9months260914.pdf.
Full Report on progress after Level 3 Declaration by WHO
"Two Killed, Corpse Mutilated, in Central African Republic Unrest." Reuters Africa. 8 October 2014.
Article on a recent killing in Bangui due to sectarian violence
Evans, Dominic. "EU Opts to Extend Central African Republic Mission." Reuters UK. 30 September
2014. http://uk.reuters.com/article/2014/09/30/uk-centralafrica-euidUKKCN0HP28G20140930.
Article on EU to give further support to CAR
Logan, Madeleine. "Going Where Nobody Else Can in Central African Republic." UNICEF Connect.
10 October 2014. http://blogs.unicef.org/2014/10/10/going-where-nobody-else-can-incentral-african-republic/.
Article on the poor road network systems and the difficulties being faced to provide facilities
Wazny, Adam. "Ebola Crisis Hits Home for African Community." Winnipeg Free Press. 3 October
2014. http://www.winnipegfreepress.com/local/ebola-crisis-hits-home-for-africancommunity-277986801.html.
Article on the outbreak of Ebola Virus in CAR