Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4
Village Life in Ptolemaic Egypt Kerkeosiris: An Egyptian Village in the Ptolemaic Period by Dorothy
Village Life in Ptolemaic Egypt Kerkeosiris: An Egyptian Village in the Ptolemaic Period by Dorothy

Village Life in Ptolemaic Egypt Kerkeosiris: An Egyptian Village in the Ptolemaic Period by Dorothy J. Crawford Review by: J. Gwyn Griffiths The Classical Review, New Series, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Nov., 1974), pp. 249-251 Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Classical Association

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/708814 .

Accessed: 30/08/2013 07:28

Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp

.

JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.

.

information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. . Cambridge University Press and The Classical Association

Cambridge University Press and The Classical Association are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Classical Review.

http://www.jstor.org

This content downloaded from 83.212.12.3 on Fri, 30 Aug 2013 07:28:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

THE

CLASSICAL

REVIEW

249

many

relevant

passage

mental article in B.S.A. xlii

tions between militaryhistory and the issueof coinage on pp. 13-I4

of

E. Kunze's articles on booty-dedications in the

information; more glaringly, chapters

p. 31)

i

and

on

on the

phalanx

on

omit

any

(1947), 76-138. The passage

Olympiaberichte hold

another

mention of H. L. Lorimer'sfunda-

connec-

might have

12 (and

possible

mentioned

R. M. Cook's paper in Historia vii (1958),

many examples

acknowledge that in my and

fragmentsaltogether.

are

257-62.

On

p. 147 it is

stated that 'We are not told how

hoplite shield, and by the presentreviewer).True;

there

may have been fairer to seventy examples

to detract from the quality of this book,

exacting attention to detail with a genuine grasp of the whole historical

which to an unusual degree combines

preserved' (sc. of the

is that

but if the

implication

not be enough evidence to generalize about dimensions, it would

text and notes I referredto over

But I would not wish in

any way

perspective.

Universityof Edinburgh

A. M. SNODGRASS

VILLAGE

LIFE

IN

PTOLEMAIC

EGYPT

DOROTHY J. CRAWFORD: Kerkeosiris:An Egyptian Village in the Ptolemaic Period. (Cambridge Classical Studies.) Pp. xv+239; 3 pls., I map.

Cambridge:

University

Press,

I971.

Cloth,

?5'25.

KERKEOSIRIS was

a small

place

in the

southern Fayfim with

century

B.c.

perhaps 1,5oo

inhabitants towards the end of the second

times happens, provide

reversing

to conduct an elaborate

people.

and whereas she is

She

successfully

duly

a

big

coverage

as some-

happily

the trend of many historicalsources.Dr. Crawford, as a result, is able

life of the

Zenon archive,

The papyri,

place,

thus

for this small

survey of the social, economic, and religious

emulates Rostovtzeff's

cautious about

study

of the

such a

Egypt

projecting the system as a possible

respects

thus assumesa wider

norm for the whole of Ptolemaic Egypt, in several

justified. The little world of the Fayfim peasants cance. Parallelsfrom both Ancient and Modern

process

iswell

study

signifi-

of

its administrative ordering. The

a

naturally wise use is

many

and its Ptolemaicsuccessorsand

Egypt

read

in the

scribeswere thereforeinvolved in mensuration

Aristotle

are adduced in the

systems

is

various aspects

extent to which Ptolemaic

question that often recurs, made of the Wilbour

parallels it forms a clear

took over the existing

of life on

the land, especially of

Egypt

was

carrying

on earlier

and in connection with the land

it is

pointed out

(p. 6)

survey that 'there are

conquerors

of

'Greek'

Papyrus; between the two texts of this

Lands

and

of the

way

papyrus in which the Greek

example

to the

Wilbour

and administration, a fact

on the

have been mentioned in the discussionon

C.R. ii (= lxvi) [1952], 10-11. Categories

administration

belonging

temple

which

agrees

of the country.' (For

'Macedonian'.)

temples figure prominently

with the

emphasisplaced by

in

of geometry

p. 7; comparemy

of land are

Papyrus,

priestly

contribution to the rise

This could well

Egypt. own commentsin

carefullyanalysed. The

exact nature of the 'concessional land' termed y- d'v

and it is unknown

suggested that 'the

remains

problematic,

explanation probably

a•'iaEL

lies in the translationof an

Egyptian land category' (p. 94).

In the meantime a fragment of

This content downloaded from 83.212.12.3 on Fri, 30 Aug 2013 07:28:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

250

THE CLASSICAL

REVIEW

papyrus has emerged from Saqqaral which contains a furtherinstance of the

Greek phrase,without, it seems, providing new light. After a searching look at

'Food and Population' it is concluded (p. 130) that the villagers of Kerkeosiris

'take their

the lesserfed of the ancient world'. This conclusion is

based on the figures for wheat and it is wisely qualified afterwards by the

suggestion that wheat was

beans. A parallel

heard it

experienced ance of beans.

a

since have

frommodern Egypt would have been apposite here. One has

lentils and

place among

supplementedby

other

foods, especially

said more than once

in Cairo that Egypt would

long the never-failing abund-

Communist revolution were it not for

Temples' begins rather shakily.

Animal worship, it is said (p. 86), was 'in its origins a form of fetish worship',

but this involves some violence to normal

inanimate objects. If an image

explain the Egyptian cults, for the living

primarily, worshipped. human formwith animal heads' is

has a purely animal form, and the crocodile-god Sebek

much venerated in the

ment. Again,

not alwaysvalid; the Apis bull, for instance,

The section on 'Sacred Land, Cults and

usage of an animal can

since fetishismis

become a fetish, that

applied to

does not

animals were also, and doubtless

would be represented in

or Souchos, who was

The statement that 'deities

Fayim, it is said of the goddess Bubastis

sometimes appears without any human ele-

(pp. 88 f.) that 'as the chief deity

probably the cat-headed goddess Bastet

under anothername.' Referenceis here made

makesit clear that it is not anothername at all: Bubastisderivesfromthe name

of the town, Per-Bastet, 'the shrineof Bastet', and the only change

goddess. the identification. I hasten to add that the substantive

themesin this chapter is scarcely

were

worship'. More difficultis the definition of

behind

this category, and the convincing suggestion

have hoped

exposition of religious

affected by such criticisms.Sacred crocodiles

cation of the town's name to the

of Boubastisin the Delta she is most

to Bonnet's Reallexikon,I26, who

is the

appli-

Nor is there the slightest doubt as to

abounded in the cemeteriesof the

'dedicationsrather

'dedicatedland'. It is

than objects of

to

win further

A host of

proper

Fayim

and these, it is justly suggested,

traditionally

shown that a specialroyal grant is made that

was

support

in this area of the

'Euergetes II may

Fayfim both by settling

Egyptian soldiersand by encouraging the local gods.'

these documents, and when critically

examined they can reveal a good deal about the ethnic origins of the

people

concerned; those which are theophoric also give

popularity of the gods. Dr. Crawfordmust be commended for her courage in

tackling

evidence, she effectively deploys

Table xxi ('Inhabitants

well-organized 'Nomenclature' is a

unswerving adherence

Cheurisas 'may Horus live'; Ranke's 'Horuslives' is

Onnophris

For the name

Vergote's views. The latter, for instance, explains

names occur in

an indication of the relative

this task.Without claiming

linguistic

the researchesof Vergote, Ranke and others.

personal

control of all the varied

with Egyptian Names') is a useful compilation with

discussions; and the related chapter on

referencesto the detailed

judicious conspectus.

to

If there is a weakness, it

is a

too

preferable. ofwell-being' is accepted,

Gardiner's'he who is in a permanent state

but with a reminder that Euergetes is used as an equivalent.

I have argued that

both the Egyptian and the Greek evidence points to the meaning 'he who is

consistently beneficent':

see my Plutarch'sDe Iside et Osiride, 460 f.

There are a few minor irritationssuch as the scrappy mode of referenceto

x Cf. J.E.A.

lix

(I973),

153, no.

59-

This content downloaded from 83.212.12.3 on Fri, 30 Aug 2013 07:28:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

THE

CLASSICAL

REVIEW

251

articles in journals and the odd forms

V' and 'Anoubis'). On

given to Egyptian names (e.g. 'Ramses

'Fischer' and on p. 42

Ki/iat

(p. 39),3

rapx•etv

Greek

p.

7 n. I 'Fisher' should be

'Boubastos'should end in '-is'. Wrong accents occur in

(P. 57),

laaocova (p. 87),

oavp'4-rat (p. 95). The

relative importance of the

and Egyptian cultures is well presented, and it is recognized that in matters

relating

Egyptian tradition that prevailed. (It would be instructive, at the

to know how 'the two cultures' are

figured in the frontispiece.)

a keen awareness, in studying one restricted place and period, of the historical

background and sequel.

UniversityCollege, Swansea

to the land and its administration as well as to

religion it was the

same time,

represented in the stone from Tebtunis

The book shows impressivepowers of analysis and

J. GWYN GRIFFITHS

THE

PUNIC

WARS

T. A. DOREYand

i3 plates,

i i maps.

D. R. DUDLEY:Rome Against Carthage.Pp. xviii+

London:

Secker

& Warburg,

I971.

Cloth

?2-75-

light of modern scholarship, as

along, and the readeris carried by a lucid and vivid

205;

THIS book is the best

and aid the understanding of Livy's Third Decade. It gives

of the Punic Wars in the

thing in a long time to encourage the reading of Polybius

a dramaticaccount

if the ancient writers

runs continuously,including

style their subject-matter and It

provides

had reappeared to revisetheir narrative.The text

comment as it moves

through

the historical criticism of it, and

the whole courseof events.The authorsknow

they control their presentation.

points,

there

Carthage,

perspective and heightens the effect of the important events. Where one

require information on controversial

sources, the rival policies of Rome and

Alps, and the

Sicily and Greece, and Africa. Take these notes with the referencesin the

and the reader is

duction. The illustrationsand the clever

In particular, the description of the Third brilliantly written.

may

are brief notes: on the

Hannibal's march over the

military operations of the

sufficiently

Second Punic War in

Italy, Spain,

text,

problems as an intro-

in touch with the critical

maps

add to the

general impression.

for,

is

Punic War, as was called

Recommending this work highly forits purpose

the reviewer may test firstits

upon the

Poly-

history

information available in the mid

bius even for the earlierevents but

of the causes of the Second Punic

Roman view of

as fair a balanced statement as the evidence allows. As

we have to allow for

Antipater,

own treatment.Here in authors have used their

goodjudgement, in historical reconstruction.

and then its literary character. The historical account rests

second century B.c., soundly

based in

susceptible to his comments; any

War, as Gelzer showed,

discussion

is affected by the

give

Carthagejust before the Third Punic War. The authors

regardsLivy's

account

literary elaboration (e.g. under the hand of Coelius

Annalists), along with Livy's

of Livy with Polybius the

place

Livy's Third Decade. Hellenistic historio-

which the Romans learned: first,

the plain narrative in detail; then rhetorical elaboration, both for circum-

stantial

graphy had defined three styles of writing,

with additions from the later Roman

workingthroughcomparison

and their account will hold its

On the literary side we turn to

description and for the characterizing of problems and persons in

This content downloaded from 83.212.12.3 on Fri, 30 Aug 2013 07:28:57 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions