Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 70

NYAME AKUMA

Newsletter of the Society of Africanist Archaeologists

in America.

Edited by P.L. Shinnie and issued from the Department of Archaeology, The University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4, Canada. Typing and editorial assistance by Ama Owusua Shinnie.

Apologies for the delay in issuing this number but I have been awaiting replies from the two letters sent out asking for confirmation that Nyame Akuma is still wanted. The first circular elicited responses from less than half those on the mailing list, the second more pressing letter brought some more, but of 287 on the list 93 have not responded. I realise that some will be in the field, but not I think all. This issue is being sent to all those (287) on my current mailing list but I regret no future issues will be sent to the 93 non-repliers unless I hear from them before no.11 is published in November of this year. I enclose a list of those from whom I have not heard and would be grateful if readers in touch with any of those on the list would ask them to make their wishes known.

I

hope to be able to produce a list

of

authors and topics to act

as a simple index for both the former West African Archaeological

Newsletter

as soon as ready to all those

list of KUSH Vols.1 through XV is now ready and will be sent to those who request it.

and for Nyame Akuma nos.1

through

10.

This will be sent free A similar contents

on the mailing list.

There still seems some doubt as to what material is appropriate

for inclusion in Nyame Akuma and since there are many new readers since

The intention

this was last stated I

is to publish news items and short articles on any aspect of the arch-

aeology and related disciplines of

Pharaonic and later periods of Egypt and the historic periods of North

Africa since these are already well

apart from the main interest of most

more general

of

interest even though not being strictly within the terms of

give my present policy once more.

all parts of Africa except for the

covered elsewhere and lie somewhat

of

our readers,

though not,

in fact,

the editor.

Exceptions can always be made for items of

reference.

Dr.

Bisson

of McGill University has pointed

out that my comments

on the new M.A.

on a misunderstanding - I print his letter in full by way of

programme in archaeology at that University were based

correction.

P.

L.

Shinnie.

M.S.Bisson Anthropology Dept.

McClLL L!NiVf%i?"r'

Professor P. L. Shinnie, Edi tor, Nyame Akuma, University of Calgary, Calgary, A1 berta

Dear Professor Shinnie,

Nov.

15,

1976

Thank you for publishing our announcement about the new M.A.

program in archaeology at McGill

must, however, protest the editorial comment that followed our

advertisement because I believe that it seriously distorted our

intent seeking new graduate students and presented a misinterpre-

tation of our M.A. program regulations.

( Nyame Akuma.

No. 9,

P.50

).

I

The text of our announcement refers twice to our graduate

"program in archaeology". It does not restrict graduate studies

to prehistoric archaeology. If such a restriction was present

in our program we would have stated so in unequivocal terms. I

am 1i kewise at a loss to

to mean that 'I students will not have the benefit of Professor

see how the announcement can be interpreted

Trigger's expertise in Meroitic studies". Professor Trigger is

mentioned prominently in the text precisely because he intends

to be a very active participant in the program and would we1 come

students interested in a variety of topics including Meroe. We

would be guilty of false advertising if we used his name to recruit

students and then deni,e%hem access to him. The ~nl~?@~@ncoura~ed

students interested in prehistory to apply is that until this year

we have had to systematically discourage such students. There was

no intdnt to discourage applicants interested in other time periods

or topics.

I hope that a short correction can be included in the next

issue of Nyame Akuma to clarify them statements that followed our

announcement.

Minutes,

SA.AAM

26 April 1977

New Orleans

SAAAM met in New Orleans, at the Braniff Place Hotel, April 25-27, 1977. Twenty-two papers were presented, The business meeting discussed the following topics:

Thanks. Thanks were voted unanimously

Erindale College, Toronto, for their contributions to the SAAAM meetings by subsidizing mailings, production of the program and abstracts, and telephone calls.

to Pitzer College,

Claremont , and

Nyame Akuma,

Editor of 5ame Akuma

producing

and mailing

After considerable discussion,

it was voted

to

empower the

to determine and assess a

the publication.

levy to cover-the costs of

This sum should be modifiable at

his

discretion from year

to year,

and

should be independent of

any membership

fee in SAAAM.

 

acclaimed

to Mrs.

Peter

Shinnie,

who

types

the copy

Thanks were unanimously for Nyame Akuma without

charge to SAAAM.

 

Thanks were voted unanimously

to Peter

Shinnie for his genero

sity

in acting

as Editor.

circulating information about those active in the field of African archaeology. Even those who are unable to attendSAAAM1sbiennial meetings are kept up to date through this contact.

Members agreed

that Nyame Akuma serves a valuable function in

The Archaeology Department at

the University of

its

support of

production

costs for Nyame Akuma.

Calgary was voted

Membership.

for Nyame Akuma, was necessary at

It was decided

that no membership fee,

this

time.

independent of

thanks

for

the levy

Venue for 1979 meetings. The benefits of meeting in conjunction with another association were discussed. It was generally agreed that a university setting - was more compatible with the spirit.;£ SAA& than a large hotel, and that the meeting arrangements could be made much more simply by people at the site. Only 5 members present would not have attended if the 1977 SAAAM meeting had been held independent of the SAA meeting.

Therefore, for the 1979 meetings of SAAAM, members voted to meet in Calgary. Should unforseen circumstances arise, the Steering Committee was empowered to decide where the meetings would be held.

Elections.

Maxine Kleindienst,

Nyame Akuma,

By acclamation,

is

the following were elected

Michael Bisson.

Peter

to

the Steering Committee:

as Editor of

John Bower,

Shinnie,

also a member of

the Steering Committee.

The members wished to honor Peter Shinnie by naming him Chairperson. If he declines, the Steering Committee is empowered to select a chairperson from among their members .

PanAfrican

be authorized

Congress

It was decided

that members of

the Steering Committee

in Nairobi,

to represent

SAAAM at the Panafrican Congress

September

1977.

Atlas. Karla Savage announced that her work on the Atlas is progressing. She

requested anyone who might provide site information to complete a

Those wishing to contribute data may request forms from her c/o Anthropology Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720.

short

form.

Archaeology Registry.

about

Society of Professional Archaeologists (SOPA) has been formed,'u'"lag SAA funds. Thus far, no case concerning a member of SAAAM has arisen; very few SAAAM members have had their names included in the registry. It was the general concensus that some regulation of those doing contract archaeology in the U. S. is necessary, but that SAAAM members are opposed to any extension of such regulation outside the country; this objection is particularly directed against a body constituted by SAA presuming to regulate the professional activities of SAAAM members in Africa.

Art Jelinek reported

that he relayed

SAA'in 1975.

SAAAM's Since then the

concern

the list of

accredited archaeologists to

Thanks again. Sheryl Miller and David Lube11 were thanked by the members for their efforts in organizing and chairing the 1977 meetings.

NENS

ITEMS

Dr.J.E.

Yellen of the Smithsonian reports:

Professor Alison S. Brooks and I will spend this summer (financed by NSF) continuing our archaeological and ethnoarchaeological research in Western Ngamiland, Botswana. Alison will push on with excavations at

Zgi,

an open air site with stratified,

and well preserved LSA and MSA

living floors.

I shall continue my San work.

EAST AFRICA

British Institute in Eastern Africa

In Somalia,

the Director, Neville Chittick,

together with Somali

colleagues, carried out a month's excavations at two sites on the Hafun

peninsula,

site, near the shore of the lagoon between the peninsula and the mainland,

the lower level yielded fragments of a painted ware apparently of

Hellenistic origin

it has only been possible to submit photographs to the pundits). A stone

a little south of the north-eastern

tip of

Africa.

At one

(a minority view holds that the sherds are Mycenaean;

structure with cut blocks is seemingly of

similar date.

Later occupation

is attributed provisionally to around the third century A.D., and is

and by

many shells of Murex virginius. The other site is close to the modern

harbour, and is thought to be identifiable with the port Opone of the

Periplus of the Erithraean Sea.

and much pottery,

exception of tomb monuments.

characterised by turtle bones

(the shells having been exported?)

Despite plentiful

evidence of

occupation

with the

no traces of permanent structures were found,

Further work was undertaken at another port-site

near Heis on the

northern coast.

types.

present only during the trading season, no doubt occupying shelters

similar to the

cairns excavated yielded fragments of Roman glass of about the fourth century A.D.; other objects found in the past include high-quality millefiori glass, and attest to the wealth accruing from the trade in incense. The span of the dates of the objects (which include fragments of a bowl of Nubian ware) is from about the first to the fifth century A.D. The port is either Mosyllon or Mundus of the Periplus.

Here there is a vast assemblage of

and it

cairns of various

No occupation site was found,

seems that the traders were

nomads.

One of two small

portable aqal of present-day

Mr.David Phillipson conducted a reconnaissance for Early Iron Age

sites in the Tana River and Lamu districts of

eastern Kenya.

Pottery

which appears to belong to a late phase of

located at Wenje,

the Kwale ware tradition was

30 km south of

Hola,

and also in the lower levels of

three coastal sites at Lamu and further north.

interesting possibilities for research into the later Iron Age,

archaeology with the study of Pokomo .

This area offers

combining

oral tradition,

especially those of the

Mr.

Phillipson hopes,

early in 1978, to carry out an archaeologi-

cal reconnaissance of

the Sudan,

parts of

Equatoria and Bahr al-Ghaeal

provinces of

A third and last season of

excavation was carried out at the Late

Stone Age site of

ciate of the Institute.

adjacent region and study of the economy of the Tugen who live in the area.

Ngenyin near Lake Baringo by Francoise Hivernel,

The work was combined with a survey of the

Asso-

Ethiopia

The following is the text of

a lecture given by Dr.R.

Fattovich

to the Frobenius Institute in September 1976. The text as given here

has,

have been omitted.

the editor of Nyame Akuma and copies can be supplied at a cost of $2.00.

for reasons of

space, been edited and shortened and the references A copy of the full text with references is held by

SOME DATA FOR THE STUDY OF CULTURAL HISTORY IN ANCIENT NORTHERN ETHIOPIA.

by

Rodolfo Fattovich

The purpose of this paper is to give a picture of Northern Ethiopia's cultural history in the 1st mill. B.C. and the 1st mill. A.D. based on the archaeological data.

10'

By Northern Ethiopia

I mean the region lying approximately between

and 400 East longitudes,

and

18O North latitudes and between about 33'

from the Sudanese border to the Rift Valley and from the Red Sea to the

Abay,

part of Eritrea, and of Wollo.

North-Central

lowlands,

table prevalence of people speaking Semitic languages (~igre, Tigrinya,

Amharic)

including the modern governatorates of

Tigre, Begemender,

Godjam,

Its physiographic

setting includes the

Massif, the Tigrean Plateau, the Barka lowlands,

the Anghrib

the Coastal Plains; its ethnical composition shows an indispu-

on the highlands,

of Nilotic people in the lowlands along the

Sudanese border and of

Cushitic people in the Coastal Plains of Eritrea.

In spite of the large amount of historical and, more recently,

archaeological research in this region the knowledge we have of

tural history is far from being complete.

its cul-

Whilst we know something about

the Pre-Aksumite and Aksumite cultures, we have almost no idea of the other cultures existingin Northern Ethiopia before them or were contem- porary with them, Therefore in this paper I shall attempt not only to describe the development of the Pre-Aksumite and Aksumite cultures but also to emphasize the other African ones which surrounded them geogra- phically and were closely connected with them.

I. Chronological framework.

Any attempt to draw a chronological sequence of

the industries

and cultures found up to now in Northern Ethiopia must be regarded as

temporary and uncertain as stratigraphic tests and C14 dates are almost completely lacking. A great part of our evidence has been in fact

simply collected on the surface, without any accurate digging,

materials have been very badly described.

Aksumite cultures are sufficiently well dated by archaeological and his-

torical evidence. For this reason I discuss first the chronological sequence of these cultures and afterwards I attempt to date the other assemblages with reference to it.

and many

and

Only the Pre-Aksumite

a) re-Aksumit e/~ksumitesequence.

Anfray has divided the three principal periods:

re-~ksumite/~ksumite sequence into

-

Ethiopian-Sabean Period (500-300 B.C .) ;

-

-

Intermediate Period (300 B.C . - 100 A.D.) ;

Aksumite Period (100-1.000 A.D .) .

I

am of

the opinion that we can partially change this picture,

in

so far that the sequence is more complex expecially regarding the Pre- Aksumite Culture.

If we compare the archaeological evidence recently found at Yeha,

Matara and Haoulti,

three phases in the development

of Pre-Aksumite

culture may be provisionally recognized.

Phase I sed by red orange,

at Yeha and by black topped,

Matara .

documented at Yeha and Matara, seems to be characteri-

red orange outside and black inside and cream pottery

polished black and red brown pottery

at

Phase I1 is documented in almost all the Pre-Aksumite sites. It is characterised by black topped, red slipped, pink, polished black and

painted pottery.

Most of

the architectural remains,

including the temple

at Fikiya,

the temple and

'palace'

at Yeha may also ap~rtainto this

period.

Phase I11

is documented at Yeha and Haoulti.

Red orange and

brick-like

built the small temples at Haoulti and perhaps the temple at Melazo.

red pottery are the main features.

During this phase were

The exact dating of

these phases is still uncertain.

The epigra-

phical

Aksumite Culture,

been found in stratigraphical context.

inscriptions of Ethiopia belong to the South Arabian A-,B-,C-palaeogra-

phicd

Culture flourished between the Vth and the IVth cent.

evidence, usually accepted as the best means to date the Pre-

is not very useful because almost no inscriptions have

In any case,

as the Pre-Aksumite

they indicate that the Pre-Aksumite

B.C.

groups suggested by Pirenne,

The archaeological evidence enabling us to date these phases is very scanty,

Some big jars,

with vertical lugs, which were found at Matara are comparable to some pots found at Es Subr,

to the VIth cent.

B.C.

within the first

near Aden, which have been dated by Albright

level,

Two Meroitic amulets,

found in the

'Southern Deposit'

probably belonging to Phase 11, may go back to the VIth-Vth

at Haoulti,

cent.

B.C.

The pecked stone slabs of

the temple and

'palace'

at Yeha,

similar

to types 3-4 in the classification of Van Beek for this kind of masonry,

may be dated from the end of

Two inscriptions found in the temple at Melazo may go back to the IIIrd

the Vth to the middle of

the IVth cent.

B.C.

cent.

B.C.

On this ground we can attempt to date Phase I

at about the VIth

cent. B.C.,

Phase I1 at about the Vth-IVth

cent.

B.C.

and Phase I11 from

the IIIrd

cent.

B.C.

The development of three phases.

the Aksumite Culture may also be divided into

Phase I

(Aksumite 1 or Early ~ksumite)is documented by the

earliest Aksumite levels at Adulis, zed by typical Aksumite buildings,

pottery,

Matara and Aksum.

It is characteri-

steles, black,

red and red orange

Phase I1

(Aksumite 2 or Middle Aksumite)

is documented by the

middle Aksumite levels at Matara and Aksum and by the upper level at

Matara.

To this phase most of

the Aksumite assemblages discovered up

to now in Northern Ethiopia also belong.

Phase I11

(Aksumite 111 or Late Aksumite)

is documented by the

uppermost

well known but

Aksumite levels at Adulis,

Aksum and Yeha.

It is not very

seems to be characterized by rough red pottery.

These phases

can be dated by means of historical evidence

from 100 to 350 A.D.,

precisely.

We can date Phase I

Phase I1 from

350 A.D. to the beginning of the Islamic occupation of the African coast

111 from the VIIIth cent. to the end of the

Kingdom

(c. 1000 A.D.) . These dates are also confirmed by the analysis

(VII-VIII cent. A.R.), Phase

of the obsidian specimens collected in 75 sites between Aksum and Yeha,

Finally the study of the coins has permitted us to reconstruct

the Aksumite kings and has helped us to learn

the approximate list

about the internal chronology of the kingdom.

of

The

re-Aksumite/Aksumite sequence therefore seems to be:

Pre-Aksumite 1, VIth cent. B.C.; Pre-Aksumite 2, Vth-IVth cent. B.C.; Pre-Aksumite 3, IIIrd cent. B.C. - 1st cent, A.D.; Aksumite 1, 1st-IVth cent. A.D.; Aksumite 2, IVth-VIIth cent. A.D.; Aksumite 3, VIIth-Xth cent. A.D.;

b) Upper Palaeolithic assemblages.

Most of the Upper Palaeolithic assemblages are likely to be

older

than any other archaeological remains in Northern Ethiopia,

perhaps to the Middle Stone Age.

rough macrolithic flint blades has been found under a L.S.A.

in turn is covered by a third level with scrapers comparable to the

Aksumite ones. 10.000 B.C.

going back

At Gobedra in particular a level with

level, which

This Upper Palaeolithic level has been dated at about

Nevertheless some Upper Palaeolithic assemblages may have been

re-Aksumite/Aksumite cultures.

contemporary with the

The industry at Mehrad Tiel,

for example,

seems to be

contemporary

with Wiltonian microliths in the same site.

scrapers like the ones in the

collected

Macrolithic tools were also found in Aksumite levels at Addi Kilte

On the other hand,

round

at Sefra- Abun (~igrai7 together with Pre-Aksumite

U per Palaeolithic assemblages

have been

sherds .

(Aksum).

mill.

c) Later Stone Age assemblages.

The Elmenteita-like

industry perhaps goes back to the 1st or IInd

B.C.,

according to the findings of this industry in Kenya.

Most of the assemblages with obsidian tools, usually attributed

to the Milton Complex may be contemporary with the

cultures, Obsidian microliths are in fact frequent on the surface of almost all Pre-Aksumite and Aksumite sites in Eritrea and Tigrai and are often found together with Mediterranean amphorae of later ancient age. On one site at the mouth of Arsile River, they were with pieces of

historic glass.

re-Aksumite/Aksumite

Ths sane kind of tools have also been found in the earliest re-~ksumite I) layers at Matara, and in the Pre-Aksumite levels at Yeha. Obsidian microlithic flakes were collected in the earliest level at Adulis, together with so-called 'primitive pottery'. This level may be dated from Chalcolithic to ?re-Aksumite/~arl~Aksumite Periods, because sherds like this 'primitive pottery' have been discovered in the Aksumite I horizon at Matara,

An interesting group of assemblages is the 'Ona near Asmara, where obsidian microliths were found with Aksumite-like pottery, amphorae and celts, Probably this is a local cultural facies contemporary to the Aksumite culture, but not necessarily included in it.

The other L.S.A. assemblages with flint tools cannot be dated. Only the L.S.A. level at Gobedra may be earlier than the Pre-Aksumite Culture.

d) Neolithic assemblages.

The neolithic sites in Begemender are contemporary with the Pre- Aksumite Culture in Tigrai and Eritrea. The neolithic level at Lalibela Cave has been dated at 2470 + 80 B.P., whereas the one at Natchabiet

Cave has been dated at 2030 7- 80 B. P.

The neolithic objects in Eritrea cannot be dated at all.

e) Chalcolithic assemblages.

The Chalcolithic assemblages near Agordat, as they show some affinities with the Nubian C-Group, may go back to the IInd mill. B.C.

f) Rock Art.

Naturalistic and seminaturalistic rock paintings may be older than the Pre-Aksumite Culture and perhaps partly contemporary to it. They always show cattle of Bos taurus spp., which I believe was employed in Eritrea and Tigrai until the beginn& of Aksumite Culture. Pre- Aksumite representations of cattle in fact show Bos Taurus spp.,whereas the Aksumite ones show humped cattle, its earliest representation being the small statue found at Zeban Kutur, going back to Aksumite 1.

Schematic paintings may date to Aksumite times, because a bull head similar to those depicted at Abba Kreisi appears in relief on an Aksumite shed which was collected at Aratu and now is on display in the Liceo Martini at Asmara.

Rock engravings may go back to Aksumite times or later, because they usually show humped cattle, camels or horses which were common in

Northern Ethiopia

from the 1st mill. A.D

The reliefs at Da'aro Qaulos cannot be dated.

g)

Cemeteries.

Up to

now it

is very difficult to date correctly the cemeteries

discovered in Northern Ethiopia.

by Conti Rossini, Aksumite times.

pared to

But they may also be attributed to the Bedja people,

Bearing in mind the description given

com-

therefore dating to the IInd mil1.B.C

who in the IXth

we may attempt to date the tombs at Elghena to

Moreover the tumuli near Ham and Debra Damo may be

those of Nubian C-Group,

cent.

ted near Debaroa which contained 2 bodies in contract position and two

non-typical pots.

AJ,

were already living in Eritrea.

Only one of

them was excava-

11.

Cultural Areas.

Looking at the distribution of the described assemblages, we can

recognize a geographical and an ecological pattern,

ethnical situation in Northern Ethiopia during the two millennia under

discussion.

which reflect the

i. Geographical pattern.

We can distinguish five principal geographical regions:

- Northern Eritrea;

- the territories of

and Serae;

Cheren and Agordat, Hamasien with Massawa

- Akkele Guzai, Agame and Enderta;

- the territories of Adwa and Aksum,

- Wollo and Begemender.

Scire;

a) In Northern Eritrea

oore plateau),

between the 18'

and the 16O

North latitudes,

Some traces have been found at Enzelal and at Rora Laba, whereas some architectural remains and thrones were discovered at Rora Nacfa, Digdig,

and Rora Bacla which may be dated to Aksumite times or later.

there are very few Pre-Aksumite

and Aksumite sites.

The most common findsin this region are rock engravings with

human,

Barca and Falcat Valleys (~inae,Cu1lite;UolqGan)

Rore highlands. Elghena .

animal and symbolic figures.

They have been discovered in the

and in the Haggher and

In the Falcat Valley is also located the necropolis of

Some rock paintings in Ethiopian-Arabic

covered at Korora,

on the Sudanese border.

style have also been dis-

b) In the region including Cheren, Agordat , Hamasien,

Massawa and

Serae there are Aksumite sites at Aratu,

near Cheren,

and perhaps at

have been discovered at

Massawa.

Mumat

Dembe Wadi Mudui, as well as isolated tombs near Cheren and Asmara;

a cemetery at Addi Ugri,

In the same region rock-engravings

'Ezum near Ad Teclesan, Kortamit, Maji Malehess,

Lamdrara, and

and

The most interesting sites of this region are

and Aksumite

Asmara (~amasien)which

show both L .S .A.

the

features.

'Ona around

c) In the Akkele Guzai,

Agame and Enderta there are Pre-Aksumite

and Aksumite settlements, Upper Palaeolithic and L.S.A. rock paintings and engravings and tumuli.

assemblages,

Pre-Aksumite

and Aksumite sites have been discovered along the

The Upper Palaeolithic and

whole plateau and at Adulis on the coast.

L.S.A.

paintings and engraving are clustered in two areas, between Mai Aini and

Addi Caieh,

be frequent in the Medri Senafe and near Debra Damo.

assemblages are frequent around Mai Aini,

and on the Akkele Guzai-Agame

border.

at Mareb source.

Rock

Tumuli also seem to

Finally,

on the southern side of Enderta,

traces of Elmenteita-like

industry.

at Quiha, were found

d) In the territories of Adua and Aksum and in Scire Pre-Aksumite

and Aksumite sites, Upper Palaeolithic and L.S.A. found .

assemblages have been

Whilst Pre-Aksumite

region,

covered only around Aksum.

and Aksumite sites are frequent in the whole

have been dis-

both Upper Palaleolithic and L.S.A.assemblages

e) In Wollo only three Aksumite-like

monuments have been discove-

red at Tchica Beret,

in Lasta,

near Kombolcha,

Qeneda, near Dessie,

and Bilbola

whereas some L.S.A.

assemblages were discovered around Dessie.

In Begemender only L.S.A. found clustered around Tana Lake.

and Neolithic assemblages have been

2. Ecological pattern.

It is emphasized by the existence of three ecological zones

determined by the altitude : kwolla

(1.800 --

(up to 1 ,800 m. ) with tropical

m) with subtropical climate;

dega

temperate climate.

It

seems that in Eritrea most of the Pre-Aksumite

and Aksumite

settlements are confined in the upper woina dega, between 2,000 and 2.400 m.; Upper Palaeolithic - L.S.A. assemblages and rock art centers are generally located in the lower fringe of woina dega, under 2.000 m., and often are also in kwolla. In Tigre Upper Palaeolithic - L.S.A. assemblages and Pre-Aksumite - Aksumite sites seem to be located in woina dega. In Wollo and Begemender L.S.A. and Neolithic assemblages

are equally located between upper kwolla and lower woina dega.

On this basis we can now attempt to draw the boundaries of

principal

cultural areas in Northern Ethiopia.

the

The most evident is the

re-~ksumite/Aksumite area.

It is

located in Eritrea and Tigrai and includes Akkele Guzai, Agame, Enderta, Adwa, Aksum and Scire, with some outposts in Hamasien, Cheren, Rore Plateau and perhaps in Wollo.

The earliest nucleus of this axea is the Pre-Aksurnite

Cultural

Area. It extended along the caravan track from Adulis to Aksum, with a larger group of sites between Yeha and Aksum. Some Pre-Aksumite traces

have been discovered also new Asmara, at 'Ona Hachel, and near Rora Nacfa, at Enzelal, Finally a Sabean inscription was found near Amba Alagi .

In the Aksumite

cultural area moreover it

is possible to distin-

guish two regional facies, the first one located in Akkele Guzai and

Agame, the second in Western Tigrai.

types of pottery and more frequent

They are characterized by different steles in the Western region.

Another cultural area can be recognized in Akkele Guzai and Agame. It is characterized by rock at and L.S.A. assemblages with Wilton-like tools. A later facies of this area is perhaps represented by the'ona in Hamasien.

We know so little about the archaeological remains in Northern

Eritrea that they cannot be grouped into a cultural area.

seem to be late and may be area in Medieval times.

However these

connected to the Bedja occupation of this

\

In Tigrai, apart from the Pre-~ksumite/Aksumite sites, we can distinguish a Northern area characterized by Upper Palaeolithic and

L.S.A.

Elmenteita-like industry.

assemblages with flint industries and a Southern area with the

The last

area goes as far as Wollo.

Finally in Begemender there is a Neolithic facies, up to now not

documented in any other place of

111. Cultural Historx.

Northern Ethiopia.

In the attempt to reconstruct the cultural history of Northern

Ethiopia from the beginning of into three principal periods:

the 1st mill.

B.C.,

I have divided it

- the period preceding the beginning of

- the Pre-Aksumite

- the Aksumite period;

period;

the Pre-Aksumite

Culture;

1. Northern Ethiopia before Pre-Aksumite Culture (1,000-600 B.C .) .

This period is practically unknown.

The earliest

cultural horizon in Eritrea seems to be represented by

the naturalistic rock paintings and by some L.S.A.

assemblages with Wilton-

like industries. This data suggests the existence of cattle breeders, living on the slopes of the plateau in lower woina dega. There is no definite proof that they were also farmers. At Amba Focada is a paint- ing of a man ploughing with two oxen of Bos primigenius, but it may be dated to a later age, for - as we have seen - this kind of oxen was probably used until Aksumite times.

these people is uncertain.

some generic links with Nubian cultural groups,

Ethic industry is usually connected to the Wilton Industrial Complex,

but it

The origin of

The rock art

suggests

especially C-Group.

The

is quite possible that it derives from the microlithic tradition

of

the Nile Valley.

In this period perhaps the Eritrean people were already capable

of

crossing the Red Sea,

as is suggested by the finding of

a Wiltonian

industry at Dahlak Kebir.

The inland situation is more obscure.

In Northern Tigrai there is just

one L.S.A.

assemblage of uncer-

tain age at Gobedra and Upper Palaeolithic assemblages,

survival of the M.S.A.

The subsistence economy of

which

show

industrial tradition up to proto-historical

these people is unknown,

but

times.

the large amount

of

used.

scrapers in these assemblages may indicate that animals were being

In Southern Tigrai and Wollo were people with an Elmenteita-like

industry.

the Ethiopian Rift Valley.

Begemender the only evidence we have are L.S.A. remains near Lake Tana, and in particular the Wilton industry and pottery collected at Gorgora.

These remains suggest

mixed farmers in this region.

It

is likely that they were linked to the Capsian people of

They were probably mixed farmers.

In

the presence

of hunter-gatherers

and perhaps

The cultural

situation of Northern Ethiopia at the beginning of

the 1st mill.

suggesting a hunter-gatherers

B.C. was

characterized by

a microlithic

and mixed farmers way of

techno-complex,

life.

2. Pre-Aksumite

Period (c.

600

B .C .

-

100

A .D.) .

The origins of

to South Arabian colonizers,

mixed with the local people introducing their way of

the Pre-Aksumite

Culture have usually been related

and

who settled on the Abyssinian plateau

life.

To-day

both archaeological and epigraphical evidence seems to

suggest that the Pre-Aksumite

to South Arabian influence. The archaeological remains show in fact a

subject only

culture was an African one,

few definite South Arabian features,

artistical elements,

the other hand most of the pottery shows African features.

including some architectural and

seals, small altars and some types of pottery.

On

The epigraphical evidence in turn demonstrates that an indepen- dent kingdom with Tigrean chiefs flourished in this period in Tigrai and Eastern Eritrea.

This evidence therefore offers no support to the hypothesis

of

a direct colonization of Ethiopia by South Arabia.

all the indisputable South Arabian elements may derive from a cultural

influence,

pian cultures involved.

On the contrary,

of

which hardly changed the true African component

the Ethio-

The development of Pre-Aksumite

civilization seems to be charac-

terized by a progressive

of

Sabean elements.

increasing followed by a succesive decreasing

In Phase I we can recognize no definite Sabean element.

In the

lowest layers at Matara were found an obsidian microlithic industry

associated with black topped,

and cream ware.

decorated with engravdgeometrical patterns which are sometimes compar-

able to those of Jebel Moya.

black and cream ware are sometimes filled with a white paste,

Nubian C-Group pottery. The earliest pottery at Yeha also show no typical South Arabian features and is completely different from the pottery at Matara, except for the red slipped ware. The most typical pottery at Yeha are the red orange ware and the red and black one, both of uncertain origin.

black polished,

red brown,

red slipped

The black polished,

red brown and cream ware are also

Moreover the engravings on the polished

like

Towards the end of

this phase some pots appear which are compar-

able to South Arabian types, i.e. the jars with vertical lugs and a rib running parallel to the edge. In Phase I1 Sabean features become more numerous and suggest cultural influence from the kingdom of Saba then at its peak. At this time the kingdom of D'MT flourished and stretched from Tokonda to Southern Enderta, with a nuclear area between Aksum and Yeha. During this phase iron was also introduced in Ethiopia. In Phase 111 the black-topped pottery, typical of the previous two phases, disappears, Sabean elements become less important whereas some Meroitic elements appear. Proof of Meroitic influence might be the small temples

at Haoulti,

the throne and statues found at Haoulti.

the temple with an outside wall at Melazo,

some elements of

in Phase

Contacts with Meroe,

11, are documented by the amulets discovered at Matara and Haoulti.

It is also possible that during Phase 111 contacts with Ptolemaic Egypt started. The stele of Ptolemy I1 copied by Cosmas Indicopleustes

at Adulis indicates a Greek-Egyptian presence on the Eritrean coast in

the IIIrd cent.

a Ptolemaic queen ed~ibitedin the Museo Egieio, Turin (ltaly) and dated to about 250 B.C .

on the statues at Haoulti is similar to the one on the statue of

B.C.,

and it

is interesting to observe that the garment

Unfortunately there is not yet any evidence about the possible

mutual links between the Pre-Aksumite

people and the other Ethiopian

populations,

lithic tradition mixed with Pre-Aksumite

except for the presence of

3. Aksumite Period

(100 - 1.000 A.D.).

many scrapers of Upper Palaeo- pottery at Safra Abun near Yeha.

The exact origins of the Aksumite Culture are still obscure. In studying the Aksumite 1 archaeological evidence, we can distinguish a Pre-Aksumite and an African tradition. The Pre-Aksumite tradition can be recognized in the architecture, pottery and writing.

The podium with

steps has a prototype both in the

'palace'

and

the temple at Yeha, the 'monkey's heads' technique is visible in the

structure of the walls of the 'palace' at Yeha and on a model of a

house found at Haoulti and the rectangular plan of

to Pre-Aksumite huts. The tombs with shaft are exactly like the Pre-

Aksumite ones.

assemblages at Aksum, Haoulti and Bieta Gyorghis is comparable to the

Pre-Aksumite

directly derives from the previous monumental inscriptions.

the farms is

similar

The red orange pottery,

discovered in Pre-Christian

Finally the writing

one typical of

the Tigrean region.

The African tradition is visible in the pottery and the lithic

tools.

punctate

far as Kassala, whereas the lithic tools are of the same type as the Upper Palaeolithic assemblages.

The typical Aksumite globular vessels with

corrugated or

decoration might belong to a wide range of pottery going as

Besides these two traditions,

we can recognize in the same con-

texts some South Arabian,

Influence of South Arabia may be seen in the alternatively projecting and recessed walls and perhaps the steles. On the other hand a Meroitic origin has been suggested by Conti Rossini in connection with the tiara of the Aksumite kings and because of their custom to take a new name when coming to the throne. The Greek-Roman influence is evident in the use of the Greek language in the official inscriptions and for the introduction of coins.

Meroitic and Mediterranean influences.

Therefore it is likely that the Aksumite Culture originated through a cumulative process during which the Pre-Aksumite nucleus absorbed both local and external traditions and changed progressively its cultural pattern. Unfortunately the first steps of this process, going back to Pre-Aksumite 3, are completely unknown. The subsequent development of this culture was strongly conditioned by the position of the kingdom in the Red Sea commercial route.

In Aksumite 1 the kingdom was already linked to the Red Sea route

through Adulis.

carried on with Roman Egypt and some finds at Haoulti and Debra Damo

show the existence of contacts with India.

and vessels were imported.

the Cyeneum, probably the region near Sennar as Kirwan pointed out were

In Periplus Maris Erytrei we learn that trading was

Ivory,

In this period iron, textiles

tortoise shells and skins collected in

exported.

in the Northern lowlands in order to get slaves, because the anthro-

pomorphic pots,

Perhaps raids were also made against the populations living

showing a head-dress

like the ones of Baria,

Cunama and

other Cushitic peoples, might represent Cushitic slaves.

The settlement pattern was also influenced by trade,

as the

principal towns were placed along the caravan track from Adulis to Aksum, Moreover each town was surrounded by smaller settlements of farmers and

probably was used as a market,

Aksumite 2 was characterized by the adoption of the Christian religion. In this phase we can recognize some traces of Syrian influen- ce, due to the missionary activity of Syrian monks, whose memory has survived in the legend of the Nine Saints. The introduction of Christ- ianity probably also modified the settlement pattern, the churches becom- ing centers of attraction for rural people.

In this period the area of trade shifted southwards from Sudan to

Begemender, Wollega and Somaliland,

in demand.

in many Aksumite sites,

Rift Valley east of Senaf6,

The Aksumite are likely to have obtained salt from them in order to

exchange it for gold in Begemender.

as at this time gold and spices were

On the other hand the numerous obsidian microliths collected

the source of which was the magma lying in the

indicate contacts with the Danakil people.

The cultural situation of Aksumite 3 is very obscure.

The arch-

aeological evidence is scanty and the few traces we have seem to indicate a progressive shifting of the Aksumite cultural area southwards to Wollo, during the time when some Bedja kingdoms appear in Eritrea. Perhaps the capital itself was no longer at Aksum.

IV . Conclusion.

The cultural history of Northern Ethiopia between the 1st mill.

B.C. and the 1st mill. A.D.

complex society, which arising from an autoc~nousAfrican background evolved under many external stimuli into the Aksumite cultural pattern

which formed the foundation of Abyssinian civilization.

was characterized by the development of a

The most important stimulus undoubtedly was trade.

Already in the

middle of the IInd mill.

were involved in trade with Egypt, expedition to Punt in Hatshepsut's

B.C.

Southern Sudan and perhaps Northern Eritrea

as suggested by the reliefs of the temple at Reir el-Bahalri.

the products of these

regions probably were also requested by the Achemenids.

Darius at Suez mentions that travel to Punt had started again.

inscription at Naqs-i-Rustem

~au(n)tiya,the inhabitants of Punt. Moreover on the reliefs of the

Apadana in Persepolis,

The

In the first half

of the 1st mill.

(486-485)

B.C.

The stela of

says that payment was made by the

three "Ethiopians"

are represented offering one pot,

one ivory tusk and one okapi.

The identity of

the peoples living at this time in Northern

Ethiopia Ls not well known.

linked with the Sudanese people.

farmers related to the people of Eastern Africa.

The inhabitants of Eritrea were likely krders

Those of

inland Ethiopia were mixed

About the VIth cent.

B.C.

contacts with South Arabian traders

started.

They probably wished to control the ivory trade,

because in

the VIth

- Vth cent.

B.C.

ivory was more and more in demand by the

Greek world and Greek traders were surely in direct contact with the

inhabitants of Southern Arabia.

As a result Northern Ethiopia

wanted to control the trading activity. It is possible also that the South Arabian traders themselves, after settling in Ethiopia and inter-

marrying with the natives, gained political power and became the ruling class as the Islamic traders in Wolloga in the XVIIIth - XIXth cent.

of

these commercial exchanges a local kingdom in

chiefs

came t o l i f e in so far that autockthonous

In the IIIrd cent.

B.C.

the links with South Arabia became less

strong,

perhaps due to the pressure of more direct contacts with

Ptolemaic Egypt and of

kingdom in Sudan.

farmers were living in Begemender as it

Lalibela and Natchabiet

the contemporary flourishing of

the Meroitic culture, mixed

Contemporary to the Pre-Aksumite

caves.

is testified by the findings in

In the 1st cent.

A.D.

appeared the kingdom of Aksum,

because of

Mediterranean trade. It arose from the Pre-Aksumite social and cultural

background,

pattern,

however, were not true towns but rather agglomerates of villae where the

ruling class lived and traded.

characterized by the development of urban settlements.

showed a completely different

but from the very beginning it

These,

The decline of Aksum started with the spreading of Islam along

the Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts.

kingdom was progressively isolated from the Red Sea trading route and

extended southwards.

the IXth cent.

Zeila.

from Godjam, in the Xth cent.

economical reasons.

probably after becoming less strong for

After the VIIIth

cent.

A.D.

the

The information

given by the Arab geographers of

seem to indicate that the kingdom was still trading with

an invasion of

Sidama people,

coming

It

was finally destroyed by

'

The following report comes from B.T. Gray and D.C. Johanson of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History:

19

Additional research of

subdisciplines was conducted

interest

to paleoanthropology

and

several related

at Hadar,

central Afar,

from mid-November,

1976

through January,

1977.

This was the fourth intensive campaign of

the Interna-

tional Afar

Research Expedition

(I. A.

R.

E.).

Seventeen scientists and

collaborators were

involved,

together with between

19 and

26 assistants hired

from the local population.

confirm conclusions based

Results were again quite rewarding and

largely

on previous

findings.

Research was concentrated

on three primary foci.

Geological Studies:

A 1:10,000

geological map of

the marker

lithostratigraphic units was completed.

horizons and

several other major

In

the course of

this work the

total

thickness of

Hadar

Formation

sediments was

extended

to ca.

200 m.

by the discovery of

additional deposits at

the top and bottom

of

the

previously

known series.

 

Further

detailed

stratigraphic studies were conducted

to

enhance our

understanding of

in the

formation.

the nature and relationships

of

sedimentary

environments

Sampling of

the several volcanic horizons

in the sequence was carried

out

for continued

geochronological analysis,

including five previously

unknown tuff

units.

Paleomagnetic

studies were continued,

providing

a

second complete

series of

samples that

also covered the newly discover-

ed

sediments at

the

top and

bottom of

the sequence.

Several shorter

sample

series were also collected,

er detail.

covering particular

sections in great-

Geochronological studies were

in an effort

to

locate possible

extended

into neighboring region as well,

source area(s)

for

the volcanic units and

to further

delineate the structural context and

central Afar

sedimentary basin.

Paleontological

Studies

(including hominids):

chronology of

the west

Paleontological collection was relatively restricted

primarily

to

the reduced number

of

workers devoted

to

this

season,

due

such activities.

In general,

the discoveries

tend

to confirm previous observations on

the quantitative distribution of

various taxa

mental

studies.

Biostratigraphic aspects of

significant for paleoenviron-

the bulk of

the Hadar

For-

mation fauna also continue to

support

the geochronological and paleo-

magnetic

evidence concerning the age of

the deposits.

In spite of

the fewer number of

collectors involved,

several very

important

hominid remains were recovered.

An additional

64 specimens

,

were located,

bringiflg

the total number

of

individuals now known from

Hadar

1)

to a minimum of

30.

Some of

the more significant discoveries

include:

several finds made at A.L.

128-129,

the localities where a homined

knee joint

(lacking

the patella)

was recovered

in 1973;

a

fragment

of

an ischium and a

right mandibular

fragment

containing

five teeth were

found

here,

both

showing striking

resemblances

to A.L.

288-1

("Lucy").

Both specimens appear to have derived

from the same geological horizon

as the knee joint,

and their

respective

geographic distributions

suggest

the possibility that

2)

A mandible half

all may have belonged

to one individual.

with several teeth was brought

into

the

camp by

a

young boy from a local village;

the geographic

position of

the locality

was confirmed

by discovery of

the opposite side of

the mandible when

the boy led researchers to the spot.

The complete mandibular

body

preserves all teeth

save the

R

I

1'

and bears

strong resemblances

to

other

specimens from Hadar

to Homo sp.

(e.g.,

A.L.

266-1)

which have been referred

3)

A.L.

five to

333,

the locality which previously yielded remains of

seven individuals,

was again a major

focus of

activity.

at least

Dry

screening of

loose sediment

from the slopes of

the locality was continued,

providing numerous additional specimens,

including many hand

bones and

several teeth and jaws.

A small excavation was also opened,

from which

18 individual

bones,

bone fragments and teeth were derived,

localized

in

a

ca.

50 cm.

thick horizon.

With this new material,

a

total of

some

190 specimens representing at least

10 to 11 individuals have now been

recovered

from A.L.

333.

Archaeological

Studies:

Previously

1976-77

field

instituted archaeological survey was continued during the

season.

Some attention was paid

to further

examination

of

known Acheulean localities and

search for additional occurrences.

However,

considerable

effort was also devoted to

intensive

exploration

of

the ~lio/~leistocenesediments.

The initial discovery of

"chopper/

core"

and

flake tools

in

a

conglomeratic

channel fill definitely within

the Hadar Formation was made by Helene Roche.

J.

W.

K.

Harris subsequent-

ly located

surface occurrences of

artifacts in laterally equivalent,

finer-grained

deposits,

tentatively interpreted

as an over-bank

situation.

The provenience was confirmed

by

a

test-trench

which contained

similar

material in situ.

The artifact-bearing

deposits are quite high

in the

sequence,

much higher

than most

of

their

exact

stratigraphic placement

due to the geographic separation of

the fossiliferous localities,

although

in the Hadar Formation

is uncertain

the artifact

site(s)

from the main

Hadar area.

The relevant deposits between the two areas have been removed

by erosion,

precluding

physical correlation.

We therefore prefer

to

reserve judgement

concerning the age of

these artifacts.

We gratefully acknowledge Dr.

Maurice Taieb,

who first recognized

the

potential of

Hadar,

and who,

as co-director

of

the I.

A.

R.

E.,

has played

an important

role in this research.

Thanks are also due to Bill Kimbel for

editorial assistance.

Kenya

Dr.

Rolland of University of Victoria reports:

My plans at the present

are involved in preparing a submission

for field investigation on the Late Stone Age in East Africa,

ticularly in the areas of the Central (~re~ory)Rift Valley in Kenya,

with emphasis on prehistoric land-use

during terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene.

these are strictly in a stage of formulation,

At the present time, modifying what was con-

more par-

and human-animal

relationships

ceived as a pilot-project into a regular self-contained one.

Mr.

H.

Sassoon of Fort Jesus, P.O.

Box 82412, Mombasa, Kenya

Republic has sent copies of the first and second interim reports on the Mombasa Wreck Excavation. Since these are distributed to those interest- ed (write to Mr. Sassoon if you want to be on the mailing list) they

will not be reproduced in Nyame Akuma but a summary is given.

Some years ago scuba divers found objects from the Portuguese frigate, Santo Antonio de Tanna, which was sunk in front of Fort Jesus in 1697. Owing to the sinking of the boat which served as a diving platform in 1971 the work was not continued at that time. Now a new project has been started by the National Museums of Kenya with collabo- ration from many sources including the Kenya Navy, British Services, Portuguese organisations, the American Institute of Nautical Archaeo- logy and others.

Diving and excavation with apparently excellent and interesting results has gone on since January 1977, and much information about the ship and her contents has been obtained.

Tanzania

The following report has been received from Mr. Antiquities:

1. Conferences

Mturi,

the Director of

(i) The research findings on Lake Ndutu and West Kilimanjaro were used for two papers - "Lake Ndutu Stone Age Site

in Tanzania"

from the Terminal Stone Age to the Iron Age in Tanzania"

and "Food production and the Transition

respectively which were presented during the IXth Congress

of

historic Sciences held in Nice,

the International Union of Pre-historic

and Proto-

France from 3rd - 18th

September,

1976.

(ii) Another paper on "Terminal Stone Age

occurrences of West

Kilimanjaro, Tanzania"

coming Pan-African Studies.

is in preparation for the forth-

Congress of Pre-history

and Quarternary

2. Current Research Projects

(i) Nasera

is is) Rock

Mr.

Michael Melham continued with his

research project. He resumed excavations in April and these were concluded in July, 1976. From July, he has been undertaking analysis of the finds. He reports to have

recovered assemblages of LSA with pottery,

LSA of

the

"Wilton"

type and an MSA assemblage.

The "Wilton"

assem-

blage represents an accumulation of 6,000 years or more and the LSA with pottery has three phases the earliest associa- ted with Kantsyore ware, the second with Nurosura ware and

the last phase with Akira (TIP) ware.

(ii) Iron - Age research in West Lake region

Dr.

Peter Schmidt of Brown University,

resumed his research

into the Iron-Age

of

the West Lake region in June,

1976.

During the period June,

1976 - March 1977, he under-

took excavation in Katuruka area where he obtained further data on the spatial distribution of the early Iron Age Industrial complex. He also excavated furnaces and waste pits. He also undertook rescue excavations of Early Iron Age Sites in the area of Kemondo which were revealed during

road construction works. In one of the Kemondo sites, a major Early Iron Age industrial production centre was found which consisted of 13 in situ Early Iron Age furnaces. The technological data recovered indicates that temperatures up to 1,600°C were achieved by inserting tuyeres inside the furnace. The tuyeres recovered are reduced, vitrified or slag covered which indicates that preheating was practised 2,000 yeas ago in Tanzania. The analysis of iron bloom shows that a medium grade caxbon steel can be produced in these furnaces.

In the Kemondo sites burned seeds were also recovered

in sealed refuse

pits and on the floor of an Early Iron Age

house built

of mud and wattle and destroyed by fire.

The

seeds appear to be of Sorghum.

Survey work has also resulted in the location of

several

Early Iron Age villages within which there are several Early

Iron Age occurrences.

3.

Proposed Research Projects:

(i)

'

Lake NCtutu and West Kilimanjaro

The Antiquities ?$vision intends to resume excava- tions at Lake Ndutu and'inWest Kilimanjaro during September, 1977 and February 1978 respectively.

(ii)

Prehistoric Cultures of the Serengeti Plain, Taneania.

Dr. John R.F. Bower of Iowa State University and the Division are preparing a joint research project aimed at an intensive archaeological investigation of the Serengeti National Park. The objective is (1) to determine the range of prehistoric Cultures represented, (2) to map their Spatial distribution vis 2 vis such environmental factors as land surfaces, rainfall and ,Vegetation,and (3) to test excavate a small sample of sites discovered. The project is expected to start in June, 1977.

(iii) Rock Art.

Dr.F.T. Masao, The Curator of the National Museum of Tanzania will continue with his research on the Rock Art of Central Tanzania, beginning June, 1977. He will concentrate on the Kondoa and Isanzu area.

(iv)

Lake Eyasi.

Prof. H. Muller - Beck and R.R.R. Protsch of the University of Tubingen are planning an expedition to re- investigate the Lake Eyasi area previously visited by Kohl- Larsen. The expedition will concentrate on Later Stone Age occurrences,

(v)

Olduvai Materials.

A number of Students and experts have indicated an interest in undertaking specific analysis of the Olduvai materials. Mr. Gunter Schneck a Student of palaeoa- thropology at the University of ~rankfurt/~ainis interest- ed in examining the functional morphology of the premolars of African hominids. Mr. Charles R. Peters of the Univer- sity of Massachussets is interested in the study of the Olduvai Theropithecus fossil remains.

Dr.

R.F.

Bower of Iowa State University reports:

I plan to conduct a prelhinary archaeological survey of the Serengeti National Pazk, Tanzania, during the summer of 1977. The work will be largely concerned with gaining some understanding of the dis- tribution of sites (especially LSA sites) relative to environment -- vegetation zones, topography, large mammal migration routes, etc. Another research target will be to develop a culture-historical frame- work for the Park. If the results show promise, I hope to expand the research next year and, ultimately, to establish it as an ongoing enter- prise of the Serengeti Research Institute.

Dr.

Masao, Director of the National Museum reports:

This summer I am going back to Central Tanzania to continue with the studies of the Later Stone Age and the Rock Painting tradition. Copies of my Ph.D thesis "The Later Stone Age and the Rock Paintings of Central Tanzania" may be obtained from the Library, Simon Fraser Univer- sity.

Dr.

R.M.

Gramly of S.U.N.Y.

at Stony Brook sends this report:

I would like to report that in the months of August and September I will be conducting an archaeological reconnaissance on the coast of

Tanzania,

down to the Ocean opposite from Pemba-Zanzibar.

specifically at the mouth of the Pangani River,

which flows

The reconnaissance is being performed with the cooperation of

the Department

is to seek remains of 9th century or earlier date, hopefully remains

of Rhapta,

century A.D.

matter of

to find it and the Pangani area is a likely place to start.

then,

of History, University of Dares Salaam.

The objective

which is reputed to have existed in these parts in the 1st

The exact location of

Rhapta

(if it

existed at all) is a

conjecture,

but,

no concerted effort has ever been made

Uganda

Mr, Paul Tdamala, ~onservator/~uratorof

the Department

of

Antiquities and Museums has sent a letter of which the following is the main part:

The Department has suffered a lot as a result of lack of quali- fied personnel and this forced us into being a maintenance Department

instead of embarking on archaeological surveys.

team has ever considered to visit Uganda though as you very well know

Uganda is potentially a promising archaeological zone.

the Earth-works

late Stone Age, the Islands of Lake Victoria etc.are all potential arch-

aeological areas.

No

archaeological

You can consider

of Western Uganda,

(~tusi,and ~igo)Karamoja and its

However, new developments are taking place that the Department of Antiquities is being amalgamated into the Uganda Museum and I am charged

with the responsibility

would remove the present duplication of

of

seeing the two fully integrated. services and manpower.

I hope this I have

just signed a contract with the Ministry of Education, Science and Cul-

ture of Japan as a co-researcher in the "Study for the Establishment and

Development of Palaeolithic culture in East Africa".

team of archaeologists from Japan to mive in Uganda in the second half

of 1977. And also in July 1977, Dr. Krommenhoek, of Holland will be conducting Palaeontological field work in the Kazinga area.

We should expect a

My problems at the moment are the agricultural encroachments and

modern developments in the country;

it is clear that archaeological

sites are very much threatened and unless those of you who are concerned

with African Archaeology take up helping us immediately, to lose this valuable information.

we are likely

EGYPT

Dr.

Haynes, University of Arizona reports:

Last February and March I

continued to work with Fred Wendorf

on Nabta Playa and associated Neolithic sites in the Nubian Desert and

continued with Dr.

This work

Orleans meeting of

will be

find and map Holocene Playa deposits in the western Desert.

Rushdi Seid and the Egyptian Geological Survey to

Some results were reported at the New

continued next year.

SAAAM.

It

is not the normal policy to publish material dealing with

Pharaonic Egypt in Nyame Akuma

review in Orientalia provides very good information,but this report from Dr. Strouhal of the Ngprstek Museum in Prague is published here

since details on physical anthropological work in Egypt are rare and may be of interest to our readership with their predominantly pre- historic interests. - Dr. Strouhal reports as follows:

since Professor Leclant's

annual

In October and November 1976 I was working in Egypt on the excavation of a recently discovered Mastaba of Princess Khekeretnebti in Abusir. The research is conducted by the Czechoslovak Institute of Egyptology, Charles University, in cooperation with ~gprstekMuseum,

section of the National Museum in Prague.

In the main burial chamber

of the tomb, remains of the mummy of Princess Khekeretnebti were found,

In an additionally built second another woman called Tisethor,

whose age was determined as 17-18 years only. Except for teeth pathology

burial

belonging to a 25-35 years old woman.

chanber were scattered remains of

no other pathological changes were observed. Further secondary burials were found in superposition in different areas of the Mastaba.

Following the invitation of

the Egypt Exploration Society and the

Egyptian Antiquity Organisation, I examined on the same occasion the Late period anthropological material found during the winter season 1976 in the tomb of the King Horemhab by G. Martin from the University College in London. These were mass burials mixed up to the extent that no individual skeletons could be reconstructed and the material had to be studied by means of the anatomical method, viz. skulls and individual postcranial bones separately. I tried only to match left and right bones together. About 200 individuals were found to be represented in the

material. The paleopathology consists of usual findings of traumative, degenerative and inflammatory origin, which will be elaborated statisti- cally. Furthermore, two interesting cases of osteolytic tumorous metastases were detected by combining the descriptive study and the X-ray examination.

r The following is a report Museums and Monuments Bod:

on recent activities by the Ghana

New Appointments:

The curatorial staff

of the Museum has been strengthened with the

appointment this year of the following as Assistant Keepers:

Mr.

Gilbert Arnegatcher - (Art)

Nii hate Dagadu

-

(~iolo~~)

Mr.

James Buachie Ansah -

(~rchaeolog~)and

Mr.

Y.X,

Effah -

i is tor^).

Other senior appointments made were:

Mr.

D. J.

Vondey -

(schools Service officer)

Mr.

Mr.

K.

Kwakye-Adams

-

(~orticulturist)and (~ublicationsand Public Relations officer) .

-

J .E . Allotey-Pappoe

Transfers:

Mr.

E.K.

Agorsah,

formerly Assistant Keeper (Archaeology) at the

Volta Regional Museum at Ho is on transfer to the Central Museum in Accra. Dr. I .N. Debrah, Assistant Keeper (Archaeology) at the Central Museum in Accra succeeds Mr.Agorsah at Ho. The transfers were made in June, this year.

Mr.

Y.K. Effah,

i is tor^)

the curatorial staff

is on posting to the West African Historical

who joined

in July as Assis-

tant Keeper

Museum at Cape Coast in the Central Region.

Send-off

for Professor Posnansky:

Professor Posnansky, Head of the Department of Archaeology at the

University of Ghana and a member of

Museums and Monuments Board left Ghana last July for good.

the Board of Trustees of

the Ghana

Before his departure,

the Museum held a send-off

party for him in

appreciation of his contribution to archaeological and museum work.

Professor Posnansky has taken up a new appointment with the

Department of History of

Fieldwork:

the University of

California,

Los Angeles.

(a) Agogo Rockshelter:

On 2nd March 1976, the Acting Director, Mr.K .A. Myles,

and Dr.1 .N. Debrah

the Ashanti Region for a preliminary study of the Agogo Rock-

shelter.

(~ssistant~ee~er)took a trip to Agogo in

Nork done included the study of

the geological history

of the site and of the oral traditions of the area.

logical work revealed a stratigraphy of three 1ayers:Sandstone-

shale - sandstone,

interpretation of the features of

information on the relationship between the people

and their neighbours.

The geo-

Oral tradition collected gave a reasonable

the Rockshelter as well as

of Agogo

It is intended that when all information has been

collected,

arrangements for its