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Cuza IAI

Luminia Cocr
Simona Mitocaru

Material de studiu pentru nvmntul la distan/ nvmntul cu frecven redus

IASI, 2013

Introducere ..3
Chapter 1: GLOBALIZATION .......................................................................5
Section A: Introduction
Section B: Language Focus the Tenses of the Indicative Mood
Section C: Exam Focus
Section A: Introduction
Section B: Language Focus the Conditional Mood; the Subjunctive Mood
Section C: Exam Focus
Section A: Introduction
Section B: Language Focus Modal Verbs
Section C: Exam Focus
Appendix ....81

At the end of this unit the student should
- be familiarized with specific vocabulary dealing with international trade and
- recognize and practice the vocabulary from the lesson
- be familiarized and use the tenses of the Indicative Mood correctly
1. How many of the items you have worn, used, eaten and drunk today come
from another country?
2. What do you understand by globalization? Do you think it has had any effect
on you as consumer?
1. The following texts are about globalization and how it affects businesses. Read
them and identify which one is:
a. in favour of globalization
b. neutral
c. against globalization
How noble is global?
Globalization of the economy has brought immense benefits to advanced
countries, such as the UK, and has encouraged growth and development in many
Asian and Latin American countries, though Africa is not yet one of the
beneficiaries. One of the benefits of globalization is the widespread connecting of

people, sharing of information and ideas brought about in part by the Internet. 160
million people are now connected to email. 400 million people now travel each
year to another continent, admittedly at great cost to the environment one
passenger journey produces as much pollution as a family car in one year.

An entire global industry can be dominated by a small number of companies. For
example, 85% of global trade is controlled by just a few companies. An entire
country can depend on a single transnational company. Transnationals provide
only 5% of employment whilst controlling 70% of the world trade. 51% of the top
economic units in the world are now companies not countries. It is argued that
such companies are not intrinsically interested in the countries in which they
operate as employers and they have been accused of abusing their power. Often
they adopt lower health and safety standards and employ workers in countries with
the lowest wages and plough most of the profits and taxes back home.

As an indication of the size and importance, the turnover of four of the biggest
transnationals, General Motors, Ford, Exxon, and Shell exceeds that of the whole
of Africa. Microsoft has optimized its operations to the extent that it is now larger
than many national economies (e.g. Switzerland). Twenty-five years ago there
were 7,000 transnationals; today there are 40,000. 90% are in the industrialised
world. The top 500 companies control 7% of world trade, 80% of foreign
investment and 30% of GNP. The combined turnover of the ten largest
transnationals exceeds the GNP of a large group of Third World countries.

2. Complete the following sentences using appropriate words from the texts in
exercise 1. You will have sometimes to change the from of the word, as in the
The effects of globalization are:
a. People communicate more with each other across the globe.
b. The economy of many Asian and Latin American countries has g________
and d________.
c. The Internet and email mean that people can sh________ ideas and
d. Tr________ between continents is much more widespread.
e. A few small companies can d________ an entire global industry.
f. The environment suffers from the p________ caused by the great increase
in air travel.
g. In some cases, small countries can d________ too heavily on a single
transnational company.
h. Global companies can ab________ their economic power by failing to
pl________ b________ their profits into the economies of the countries in
which they operate.
3. Identify the sentences in the previous exercise that refer to the advantages of
globalization and to its disadvantages and write next to them (A) and (D),
respectively. In groups of 3-4 students, discuss other advantages and
disadvantages of globalisation.
4. a. Before reading the text, answer and discuss the following questions:
What do you know about Boeing?
Where is its head office?
What do you think in-plant and out-plant mean?

b. Now read the article excerpted from the Financial Times and check your
Boeing is the worlds most successful
aircraft maker.



Condit believes, however, that Boeing

cannot stand still. There are too many

Flight plan from Seattle

examples in aviation and other sectors of

In the last thirty years, Philip Condit says,

what has happened to companies that

not much has changed. The problem, he

have tried that.

says is not just that employees at Boeing

think of other countries as being exotic.

Last year, in a speech to managers, he

They take the same attitude to anywhere in

described his vision of what the group

the US outside Seattle, where the

would look like in 2016, its centenary

company has its headquarters and its most

year. He told them that Boeing would be

important factories. Boeing staff talk about

an aerospace company. It would not

something as being in-plant or out-plant.

repeat earlier mistakes such as attempting

In-plant means Seattle. Out-plant means

to enter the train or boat-building business.

one of the groups other locations, such as

Second, he said, Boeing would be a global

Wichita, Kansas.

enterprise. This would mean increasing

Condit, who became Boeings chairman in

the number of countries of operation. He is

February, wants to change all that. Over

impressed, he says, by the way in which oil

the next 20 years, he wants Boeing to

companies have benefited from losing

become a global rather than a US

national images. BP is probably the most

company. Boeing employees could be

global company in the world. It is

forgiven for thinking that being a Seattle

interesting to see that in the US its

company has served them well enough.

nationality has begun to disappear. Almost

everybody in the US says BP and not

British Petroleum. It is a local kind of
company. Royal Dutch/Shell is another
group which manages to present itself as a
local company in the countries in which it
Would he be happy if 20 years from now
people did not think of Boeing as being a
US company? Yes, Condit says, I believe
we are moving towards an era of global
markets and global companies.

5. Which of the statements are true? Correct the false ones.

a. Boeing employees seem to be rather conservative and inward-looking.
b. The chairman of Boeing believes the company must make changes.
c. Boeing used to be in the train business.
d. The chairman thinks that Boeing is the most global company in the world.
e. The chairman wants people to identify Boeing as a US company.
6. When a company globalizes, it tries to choose the best method to enter its
overseas markets. Match the methods below with the definitions.

a. a company partly or wholly owned by a parent


joint venture

b. giving someone the exclusive right to sell products in

a certain area


c. selling the right to a manufacturers trademark,

usually in a foreign market


d. buying or taking over another company


e. a person or company who cooperates with a foreign

company who wishes to enter the market

local partner

f. two or more companies join temporarily to carry out a

large project


g. a group of companies in similar businesses working


7. Complete the following sentences with some of the methods listed in the
previous exercise.
1. Wal-Mart, a US retail chain, entered the Mexican market by setting up a 50-50
________ with a local Mexican retailer.

2. When the Japanese tyre group Bridgestone entered the US market, it made an
________, buying the local production base of Firestone.
3. If a company wishes to enter the Chinese market, it usually looks for a
________ who will cooperate in setting up a joint venture.
4. If a company is short on capital to expand overseas, it may prefer to have
________ or ________ agreements with local businesses.


Present Tense
To form affirmative statements:

Use the base form of the verb with I, you, we, they.
I work in a commercial bank.
You own a business.
We make loans to businesses.
Businesses often need money.

With he, she, it, (3rd person singular), to the base form of the verb -s or -es is
added [-es is added after verbs which end in o, -ss, -x, -sh, (t)ch, consonant+
y: (y turns into i and adds -es)]
Edward designs clothes.
Martha sells clothes.
Her store opens at 10.

To form negative statements, subject + do not/does not (= don't/doesn't) + base form

of the verb is used.

do not (= don't) + base form of the verb with I, you, we, they.
I don't speak French.

does not (= doesn't) + base form of the verb with he, she, it.
He doesn't speak English.

To form Yes/No questions,

do + subject + base form of the verb with I, you, we, they is used:
Do you need a ride home?

does + subject + base form of the verb with he, she, it is used
Does it ever snow in Florida?

A Yes/No question is often answered with a short answer.

Yes + subject pronoun + do/does.

A: Do I need a visa to enter the country?

B: Yes, you do.

A: Does the train stop in Birmingham?
B: Yes, it does.

No + subject pronoun + don't/doesn't

A: Do you have any questions?
B: No, I don't.
A: Does this light work?
B: No, it doesn't.

To form questions (wh-questions), a question-word (what, where, how, etc.) + do/does

+ subject + base form of the verb is used.
How do you spell your last name?
Where does the company market its products?
Uses of the Simple Present
The simple present is used for:

permanent truths
The sun rises in the east.
Gases expand when heated.

conditions and situations that exist at the present time

My mother wears glasses.
I work at Ace Electronics.

habitual actions
John travels to Spain every year.
I usually get up at 6:30.

comments and declarations

I hope everything will be all right.
I hear Sara has been promoted.
I don't agree with you.

future reference in describing scheduled events (assumed to be facts)

The plane leaves at 7:45 and arrives at 10:20.


future reference after some subordinating conjunctions

I'll call you when I get to San Francisco.

While is used for an event that is interrupted by or occurs at the same time as
another event.
I'll make some phone calls while you finish your report.
Form of the Present Progressive [Continuous]

To form affirmative statements, the following structures are used: subject + present
of be + verb + -ing

am + verb + -ing (1st person singular)

I'm working on a big project right now.

is + verb + -ing with the 3rd person singular

Mark is helping me.

are + verb + -ing with the 1st person plural, 2nd person singular plural, 3rd
person plural
We're trying to finish by Tuesday.

To form negative statements, subject + am/is/are + not + verb + -ing is used. Short
forms are normally used in conversation.
I'm not driving to work today.
The headlights on the car aren't working.
It isn't raining, so maybe I'll walk.
To form Yes/No questions, am/is/are + subject + verb + -ing is used.
Am I waiting in the right place?
Is Mr. Jackson interviewing the candidates?
Are you applying for a position?
Are they making a decision today?
A Yes/No question is often answered with a short answer.

Yes + subject pronoun + am/is/are (no short form)

A: Are you enjoying your visit?
B: Yes, I am.

No + subject pronoun + am/is/are + not (using a short form in the negative):

A: Are you staying long?

B: No, I'm not.

A: Is it still raining?
B: No, it isn't. OR No, it's not.
A: Are they going to the meeting?
B: No, they aren't. OR No, they're not.
To form (wh-questions), a question-word (what, where, how, etc.) + am/is/are +
subject + verb + -ing is used.
What are you doing after work?
How is your mother feeling?
Why are they staring at us?
Uses of the Present Progressive [Continuous]
Use the present progressive for:

actions in progress at the moment of speaking

Shh. The baby is sleeping.

actions in progress around the present

I'm very nervous. I'm taking exams this week.
We're changing our accounting system at work.

temporary situations
He's visiting his aunt in Miami.
She's studying Chinese.
I'm working at a law firm for the summer. (= it's a temporary job)
Compare: She works at a law firm. (= it's her regular job)

planned future actions

We're leaving for Hong Kong tomorrow.
He's coming home next week.

repeated actions (with always, constantly, etc.), it implies annoyance and

irritation on the part of the speaker
You're always complaining. You're never satisfied.


There are some verbs which cannot be normally used with the continuous
(progressive) aspect.

states of being, seeming, having, or owning

The factory is twelve years old, but it still looks (= appears) new.
Does this belong to you?

I like your new car.

mental states, such as thinking or believing

I think I know the answer.

the senses and perception

He heard someone screaming.

wants and preferences

She prefers to work by herself.











































Past Tense

Form of the Simple Past


form affirmative statements, use a simple past tense verb after the subject. The

form is the same for all subjects.

Regular verbs add -ed or -d to form the simple past tense.

I visited Maggie yesterday.
She moved to a new apartment last week.

Some verbs are irregular. Their past forms cannot be predicted. You must
learn them.
We ate dinner out.
Then we went to a movie.

To form negative statements, use subject + did not (= didn't) + base form of the verb.
I looked for her, but I didn't see her in the crowd.
She didn't stay long, because she had a headache.
To form Yes/No questions, use did + subject + base form of the verb.
Did you have any trouble finding us?
Did anyone call while I was out?
A yes/no question is often answered with a short answer.

Yes + subject pronoun + did

A: Did you get my message?
B: Yes, I did.

No + subject pronoun + didn't

A: Did Rosa say where she was going?
B: No, she didn't.

To form a wh-question, use a question-word (what, where, how, etc.) + did + subject +
base form of the verb.
Where did they go?
Why did he leave?
How long did you stay there?
Uses of the Simple Past
Use the simple past for:

actions or events that began and ended in the past. A time reference is
usually given or understood from the context.
I spoke to the contractor this morning.
We introduced two new products in January.
I played a lot of tennis when I was younger.
I never met my grandfather. (he is dead)
Who left the door open? (a moment ago-it is still open)

past habitual actions. A specific time period is usually given or understood.

My family rented a house at the beach every summer when I was a child.
He smoked a pack of cigarettes a day until he quit.

The past tense does not always refer to past time. It can also be used in present unreal
conditionals, expressing wishes, and in making polite requests.
I wondered if you could give me a ride. (more tentative or polite than I wonder if you
could give me a ride.)
In present unreal conditionals in the if clause:

something that is totally impossible in the present

If I knew the answer, I would tell you. (I don't know the answer.)
My mother died in 1994. If she were still alive, she'd be 67.

something that is possible, but perhaps not very likely

A: Could I look over the sales report?
B: It would be better if you waited until tomorrow. We'll have the final figures
If you really wanted to exercise, you would find the time.

Expressing wishes

after the verb to wish the past tense to refer to present time
I wish/If only I had a pen with me (now) so I could write that down.
I wish/If only I didn't have to go to work now.

Wish can be used for something that is impossible.

I wish I were twenty years younger.

Form of the Past Progressive [Continuous]

To form an affirmative statement, use subject + past of be + verb + -ing.

Use was + verb + -ing with I, he, she, it.

A: Can I come in?
B: Of course. I was expecting you.
She was sleeping when I called.

Use were + verb + -ing with you, we, they

They were both working for the same company when they met.

To form negative statements, use subject + was not/were not (=wasn't/weren't) + verb
+ -ing
Could you repeat that, please? I wasn't listening.
We weren't enjoying the play, so we left at the intermission.
To form Yes/No questions, use was/were + subject + verb + -ing.
Was it raining when you were out?
Were you planning to work late today?
A Yes/No question is often used with a short answer.

Yes + subject pronoun + was/were

A: Were all the men at the meeting wearing ties?
B: Yes, they were.

No + subject pronoun + wasn't/weren't

A: Were you expecting this many people?
B: No, I wasn't.

To form a wh-question, use a question-word (what, where, how, etc.) + was/were +

subject + verb + -ing.
What were you doing at nine o'clock last night?
Who was Eva talking to when I came in?
Why were the children crying?


Uses of the Past Progressive [Continuous]

Use the past progressive for:

actions or situations in progress at a point in the past

The picnic was cancelled yesterday because it was raining.
A: What were you doing between 8:00 and 10:00 that night?
B: I was watching television.

two past actions in progress at the same time

While I was looking at the sales figures, my assistant was answering some
At the time I was working in the bank, I was also studying engineering.

repeated actions
When he worked here, Patrick was always making mistakes.

polite requests
I was wondering if you could give me a ride.

events planned in the past to take place at a later time ("future in the past")
We were just going to leave when I fell and twisted my ankle.
(answering the phone) Hi, Annie. I was going to call you today.

Use the past progressive (continuous) together with the simple past for past actions
or situations interrupted by a shorter action or event.

The action in progress is often introduced by when, as, just as, or while.
Just as I was leaving the house, the phone rang.
He learned how to ski when he was living in Switzerland.

When can also introduce the shorter action.

We were having dinner when he walked through the door.
I was waiting for the bus when a blue car pulled up.

Present Perfect
Form of the Simple Present Perfect

To form affirmative statements, use subject + present of have + past participle.

Use have (= 've) + past participle with I, you, we, they

We're old friends. We've known each other since we were children.

Use has (= 's) + past participle with he, she, it

The weather has been great all week.

For regular verbs, the past participle has the same form as the simple past
Andrew has worked for us for two years. Before that, he worked (= simple
past) for an advertising agency.

For irregular verbs, the past participle and simple past are often different
Interest rates rose (= simple past) again today. In the past six months, they
have risen almost 5 percent.

To form negative statements, use subject + have not/has not (= haven't/hasn't) + past
I've tried calling several times, but I haven't been able to reach her.
The company has not made a profit for three years.
To form Yes/No questions, use have/has + subject + past participle.
Have you ever eaten Thai food?
Has Rebecca finished law school yet?
A Yes/No question is often used with a short answer.

Yes + subject pronoun + have/has:

A: Have you ever bought anything online?
B: Yes, I have.
A: Has Brian been to Greece before?
B: Yes, he has.

No + subject pronoun + haven't/hasn't

A: Have you met Linda Chan?
B: No, I haven't.
A: Has the rain stopped?
B: No, it hasn't

To form wh-questions, use a question-word (what, where, how, etc.) + have/has +

subject + past participle.
Where has Victor been all morning?
How long have they known each other?
Uses of the Simple Present Perfect
Use the simple present perfect for actions occurring in a period of time up to the

with already, before (now), ever, never, so far, yet

This is the most interesting book I've ever read.
A: Have you finished the report yet?
B: Yes, I've already sent it out.

with just or recently for recent actions (in American English, the simple past
tense can also be used)
They've just left for the airport.

with often, several times, etc., for repeated or habitual actions

He has been to Japan twice in the past year.
I've often wondered what happened to Tom.

without an adverb of time or duration

We've had a lot of problems with the new software.
I can't find my keys. I've looked everywhere.

Use the simple present perfect for situations beginning in the past and continuing
up to now (and possibly into the future).

with since + point in time

Mr. Ito has been with the company since 1998.

with for + period of time

I've lived here for five years. (and I still live here)
Compare: I lived here for five years. (but I don't live here now)

with adverbs of duration

I've always loved to swim.


Notice that the present perfect is not usually used with adverbs referring to a period of
time that has ended. Use the simple past instead.
I haven't seen Ahmed today, but I saw him yesterday.
Form of the Present Perfect Progressive [Continuous]
To form affirmative statements, use subject + present of have + been + verb + -ing.

Use have (= 've) + been + verb + -ing with I, you, we, they.
We've been waiting to see Ruth Goodman for almost an hour.

Use has (= 's) + been + verb + -ing with he, she, it.
She's been talking on the phone to another client.

To form negative statements, use subject + have not/has not (= haven't/hasn't) + been
+ verb + -ing:

Use have not (= haven't) + been + verb + -ing with I, you, we, they.
I haven't been sleeping well lately.

Use has not (= hasn't) + been + verb + -ing with he, she, it.
He hasn't been teaching for very long. He just started teaching in September.

To form Yes/No questions, use have/has + subject + been + verb + -ing.

Have you been waiting long?
Has your department been working on any new projects?
A Yes/No question is often answered with a short answer.

Yes + subject pronoun + have/has

A: Has it been raining all day?
B: Yes, it has.

No + subject pronoun + haven't/hasn't

A: Has Toshio been coming to class?
B: No, he hasn't.

To form wh-questions, use a question-word (what, where, how, etc.) + have/has +

subject + been + verb + -ing.
How long has Lili been studying English?
What have you been doing all morning?
Why hasn't Steve been coming to the weekly meetings?


Use of the Present Perfect Progressive [Continuous]

Use the present perfect progressive for:

actions that began in the past and are still in progress

He has been looking for a job for over two months, but he hasn't found
anything yet.
I've been painting this room for two days and I'm still not done. (= unfinished
Compare: I've painted this room three times and I still don't like it. (=
completed action)

actions that have recently stopped and have effects now

Let's go for a walk. I've been sitting most of the day.

repeated actions
The phone has been ringing all morning.

temporary actions or situations

I've been staying at my cousin's house, but I'm moving to my own house next week.

Past Perfect
Form of the Simple Past Perfect
To form affirmative statements, use subject + had (= 'd) + past participle.
My father had been with the company for ten years before the merger.
We'd just bought a new house when he lost his job.
To form negative statements, use subject + had not (= hadn't) + past participle.
He hadn't looked for a job for a long time.
To form Yes/No questions, use had + subject + past participle.
Had you heard of the company before they offered you the job?
A Yes/No question is often answered with a short answer.

Yes + subject pronoun + had.

A: Had he lived there his whole life up until that time?
B: Yes, he had.

No + subject pronoun + hadn't:

A: Had they met before then?
B: No, they hadn't.
A: When you got to the office, had she already left?
B: No, she hadn't.

To form wh-questions, use a question-word (what, where, how, etc.) + had + subject +
past participle.
Where had you worked before your last job?
Who had they interviewed before Cara?
How long had he worked there before his retirement?

Uses of the Simple Past Perfect

Use the simple past perfect:

to show which of two past events happened first

I had never eaten sushi before I moved to Japan. Now I love it.
When we arrived, Tom had already left.

to show that something happened before a time in the past:

Juliet was excited because she had never sailed a boat before.
I began collecting stamps in February and by November I had collected more
than 500.
He had changed so much that I almost didn't recognize him.

to describe things one hoped or wished to do but didn't (e.g., with expect,
hope, mean, suppose, think, want)
She had hoped to reach him before he left, but she was too late.

When, after, as soon as, or by the time that are often used with the past perfect.
We went to bed as soon as our guests had gone home.


Notice that the past perfect is not always needed to show which event came first.
Sometimes either the past perfect or simple past can be used.
After I (had) checked my schedule for the day, I returned some phone calls.
Form of the Past Perfect Progressive [Continuous]
To form affirmative statements, use subject + had (= 'd) + been + verb + ing
When I first met Joel, he'd been working at Global for five years.
We had been hiking all day and we were very hungry.
To form negative statements, use subject + had not (= hadn't) + been + verb + -ing
I had almost finished the work when I was told that I hadn't been doing it correctly.
To form Yes/No questions, use had + subject + been + verb + -ing.
Had you been getting enough sleep before you got sick?
A Yes/No question is often answered with a short answer.

Yes + subject pronoun + had

A: Had she been working for the company long when she retired?
B: Yes, she had. Fifteen years.

No + subject pronoun + hadn't

A: Had they been living in Paris for long at that time?
B: No, they hadn't.

To form wh-questions, use a question-word (what, where, how, etc.) + had + subject +
been + verb + -ing
Where had you been living before you moved to Chicago?
How long had you been studying English when you got the job?
Use of the Past Perfect Progressive [Continuous]
Use the past perfect progressive for:

actions that began at an earlier time and were still in progress at a time in
the past
We'd been waiting for three hours when we got the phone call. (= we were
still waiting)
Compare: We'd waited for three hours, so we decided to go home.(= we
stopped waiting and went home)


actions that had recently ended and had an effect at a time in the past
He was very tired. He had been walking for hours.

The Future
Form of the Simple Future with will
To form affirmative statements, use subject + will + base form of the verb. The short
form 'll is usually used in conversation, especially after pronouns. I'll, you'll, he'll,
she'll, it'll, we'll, they'll.
I'll see you tomorrow.
The lawyers will review the contract next week.
To form negative statements, use subject + will not (= won't) + base form of the verb.
The short form is usually used in conversation.
Don't worry. I won't tell anyone.
They won't sign the contract until their lawyers see it.
You won't believe it, but I won the lottery!
To form Yes/No questions, use will + subject + base form of the verb.
Will the furniture be ready for delivery by the 15th?
A yes/no question is often answered with a short answer:

Yes + subject pronoun + will

A: Will patients have access to their medical records?
B: Yes, they will.

No + subject pronoun + won't

A: Will I be responsible for phone sales?
B: No, you won't.

To form wh-questions, use a question-word (what, where, how, etc.) + will + subject +
base form of the verb.
When will you find out if you got the job?

What time will the meeting end?

How will we get to our hotel from the airport?
Uses of the Simple Future with will
Use the simple future with will for:

making predictions
There's a lot to discuss. It will be a long meeting.

announcing decisions made at the moment of speaking

A: It's hot in here.
B: I'll open a window.

announcing scheduled events, especially in a formal style

The wedding will take place on June 27th.

making promises
I won't leave without you.

expressing hopes, expectations, and beliefs (e.g., after assume, believe, doubt,
expect, hope, suppose, think)
I hope she'll get the job.
A: Do you think he'll like the present?
B: I'm sure he will.
Form of the Future Progressive [Continuous] with will

To form affirmative statements, use subject + will (= 'll) + be + verb + -ing.

In ten years, robots will be doing many of our household chores.
We'll be waiting for you at home after the game.
To form negative statements, use subject + will not (= won't) + be + verb + -ing. The
short form won't is often used in conversation.
Jorge won't be coming with us. He had to take care of a family emergency.
To form yes/no questions, use will + subject + be + verb + -ing
Will you be stopping in London on this trip?
A Yes/No question is often answered with a short answer.

Yes + subject pronoun + will

A: Will you be staying at the Madison Hotel?
B: Yes, I will.

No + subject pronoun + won't

A: Will Dr. Leon be giving tomorrow's lecture?
B: No, she won't.

To form wh-questions, use a question-word (what, where, how, etc.) + will + subject +
be + verb + -ing.
When will you be taking the test?
Where will you be staying in Boston?
Uses of the Future Progressive [Continuous] with will
Use the future progressive for:

actions that will be in progress at a time in the future

We'd better hurry. The guests will be arriving at any minute.
By this time tomorrow, I'll be lying on the beach.

making a question about plans sound more polite

Will you be working late tonight?
When will you be seeing Dr. Weiss? (e.g., assistant to supervisor)
Compare: When will you finish these letters? (e.g., supervisor to assistant)

talking about planned events

The bus won't be leaving until six.
We'll be spending the summer in California.

Form of the going to Future

To form affirmative statements, use subject + am/is/are + going to + base form of the
I'm going to meet with the software developer tomorrow.
He's going to submit a revised proposal by the end of the week.
They're going to install the new system in two weeks.
To form negative statements, use subject + am/is/are + not + going to + base form of
the verb. Short forms are normally used in conversation.
I'm not going to cook tonight. We're eating out.
We aren't going to walk into town. It's too hot.
It isn't going to cool off until the weekend.
To form Yes/No questions, use am/is/are + subject + going to + base form of the

Is she going to accept the job?

Are you going to tell him the truth about what happened?
A Yes/No question is often answered with a short answer.

Yes + subject pronoun + am/is/are

A: Are they going to replace the damaged goods?
B: Yes, they are.

No + subject pronoun + am/is/are + not (using a short form in the negative)

A: Are you going to be around this weekend?
B: No, I'm not.

To form wh-questions, use a question-word (what, where, how, etc.) + am/is/are +

subject + going to + base form of the verb.
Which shoes are you going to wear to the party?
When is Helen going to be back at work?
Uses of the going to Future
Use the going to future for:

making predictions based on present evidence

Look at those black clouds! It's going to rain.
Tom's always late for work. He's going to get fired.
My wife is going to have a baby.

plans and firm intentions

I'm going to be away for a couple of weeks.
I've made my decision. I'm going to take that job.

Form of the Simple Future Perfect

To form affirmative statements, use subject + will (= 'll) + have + past participle.
By next year, we will have saved enough money to buy a house.
To form negative statements, use subject + will not (= won't) + have + past participle.
Payment is due tomorrow, but I'm afraid that they won't have received the money yet.
To form Yes/No questions, use will + subject + have + past participle. To form a short


Use Yes + subject pronoun + will (have)

A: Will the meeting have started by the time we get there?
B: Yes, it will.

No + subject pronoun + won't (have)

A: Will you have finished the report by then?
B: No, I won't have.

To form wh-questions, use a question-word (what, where, how, etc.) + will + subject +
have + past participle.
When will you have finished paying off your loan?
Use of the Simple Future Perfect
Use the simple future perfect for:

actions that will be completed by a time in the future

Fumiko will have retired by the year 2030.

states that continue up to the time mentioned (and may continue into the
We will have been married for a year on June 25th.

Form of the Future Perfect Progressive [Continuous]

To form affirmative statements, use subject + will (= 'll) + have been + verb + -ing.
We'll have been living here for ten years by the end of the year.
To form negative statements, use subject + will not (= won't) + have been + verb +
She won't be ready to take the exam next week. She won't even have been studying
English for six months at that point.
To form Yes/No questions, use will + subject + have been + verb + -ing. To form a
short answer, use Yes + subject pronoun + will (have) or No + subject pronoun + won't
A: Will you have been working there long enough by the end of the year to qualify for
a bonus?


B: Yes, I will (have).

C: No, I won't (have).
To form wh-questions, use a question-word (what, where, how, etc.) + will + subject +
have been + verb + -ing.
How long will you have been working there at the end of next year?
Use of the Future Perfect Progressive [Continuous]
Use the future perfect progressive for actions that will be in progress at a time in the
By this time next week, I will have been working for this company for twelve years.

Other Ways of Expressing the Future

Use the present progressive (continuous) and the simple present for firm future events.

Use be + to + verb in formal English for future plans or instructions.

He is to give us the signed contract on Monday.
All visitors are to leave the building by 8:00 p.m.
The instructions said, "two tablets to be taken three times a day." (passive)
We're meeting him at the airport.
His plane gets in at 9:30.

Use be + due to + verb in connection with schedules.

Flight 1561 is not due to arrive until 10:15.
The work is due to finish by the middle of September.

Use be + about to + verb for something ready to start in the immediate future
Let's find our seats. The play is about to start.

Do not use these forms for predictions (e.g., not It's raining tomorrow.)


1. Put the verbs in italics in the correct tense:
a. Its raining / rains very hard. Can you give me a lift home?
b. I dont have / am not having much spare time at the moment. Im
studying / study to pass an exam.
c. The price of shares varies / is varying according to economic
d. I speak / am speaking French fluently because I grew up in Paris, but
Im forgetting / forget my German because I never use it.
e. Anne normally deals / is dealing with enquiries from overseas, but Im
dealing / deal with this one.
2. Put the verbs in parentheses either in the Present Simple or Continuous:
a. What he (talk) about? I (not understand).
b. Im afraid Mr. Passos is (have) lunch at the moment. (Have) an
c. We (interview) candidates for a new managerial post at the moment,
but we urgently (need) more secretarial staff.
d. The new model (perform) very well in all weather conditions. Its not
surprising that it (become) more and more popular.
e. I (think about) applying for the post in the Accounts Department. It
(depend) what the salary is.
3. Underline the correct from of the verbs typed in italics:
a. I slept / was sleeping when the fire alarm went / was going off.
b. A: Then we went to the pub.
B: What did you do / were you doing after that?
c. We did / were doing business with them on a few occasions.


d. They lived / were living in Paris first, then Bonn and then they moved /
were moving to Prague.
4. Underline the correct form of the verb, using the information in the sentences
a. I didnt know he used / was using Powerpoint. (I didnt know he knew how to
use Powerpoint)
b. I left / was leaving the room when my boss came in. (I probably didnt want to
see my boss)
c. As I told / was telling you yesterday. (I probably have something more to tell
d. They asked me what I did / was doing. (They wanted to know what my job
5. Complete the expressions with for or since, as appropriate and then put them
in sentences of your own.
1. ________ the company was founded
2. ________ more than a year
3. ________ the introduction of the euro
4. ________ the last six weeks
5. ________ she got her degree
6. ________ Ive known you
6. Put the verbs in italics in the news report into right tense.
Devco announced / have announced that they are going to buy their
competitors QXT. QXT is / has been in serious financial problems for
over a year last quarters profits were / have been down again by 60%.
In a statement released earlier today Devcos CEO, Alfonso Fuente, said
/ has said: We had / have had a lot of support from QXT shareholders

and I assured / have assured them at the shareholders meeting last

week that Devco will do everything to turn the situation around within at
most six months. QXT union members are not / have not been so
confident. In a meeting last Friday they revealed / have revealed that
they are / have been worried about their jobs since news of a possible
takeover has been / was leaked to the press earlier this year.

7. Match the beginnings with the correct endings:

1. Shes been in Paris for six weeks
a. shes learning French there.
b. she learnt French there.
2. Theyve gone to NY for a year
a. theyll be back next spring.
b. they came back last spring.
3. She was his project leader for six months and he
a. learnt a lot from her.
b. has learned a lot.
4. I am here for six months
a. it will be a great experience
b. I have really enjoyed it.
5. I have been responsible for the Asian market
a. among other markets.
b. and then after the African market.
8. Choose the correct form of the verb typed in italics:
a. I have written / been writing emails all morning I have written / been
writing 20 so far.
b. We have received / been receiving no reply to our request for information.


c. He has worked / been working for several different companies. He has

worked / been working for his current company for six months.
d. He has worked / been working too hard thats why hes always so tired.
e. They have known / been knowing each other since they were at school
9. Read these extracts from emails and letters. Put the verbs between parentheses
into the correct tense:
I hear you (have) problems with the new system. Sorry about this. I (speak) to the
Systems Manager and she (promise) to get back to you by lunchtime. She also (ask)
me if you could send her the log file.
Thanks for buying me lunch yesterday. Great to see you. It made a nice change as I
(be) so busy lately. By the way, I (forget) to ask you if you could give me your bosss
email address. We (work) on a project recently which I think she would be interested
in. Anyway take care and speak to you soon.
We note from our records that we still not (receive) any payment of our invoice dated
3 March, reference number ZX45791. I would like to point out that this is the third
time we (request) payment. I would be grateful if you contact me about this as a
matter of urgency. I (try) to ring you several times and I (leave) several messages with
your secretary. I enclose a further copy of our invoice.
10. Underline the correct form of the verb in italics:
a. I saw / had seen his presentation before so I didnt want / hadnt wanted to
see it again.
b. I left / had left an MP3 for repair it is ready yet?
c. We explained / had explained that the special offer finished / had finished.


d. I thought / had thought that I told / had told you already.

11. Underline the correct form of the verb, using the information in the sentences
a. I remembered that Jo worked / had worked for IBM. (Jo doesnt work for
IBM now)
b. I realized the boss was / had been in the next room. (I could hear the bosss
c. They asked me if I came / had come from Beijing (They wanted to know
about my journey)
d. When her husband left / had left for work she phoned her mother. (She
often phoned her mother)
12. Underline the most appropriate form of the verb in italics. In some cases
more than one form may be possible.


The year is 2097 and some space scientists from around the world are meeting
to discuss what they have already prepared for future projects.
We are preparing / will prepare to send a rocket to Pluto, announced the
Americans. It is having / will have six men aboard and is staying / will stay
for a whole month before making the long trip back to Earth.
Thats nothing! said the Russians. Next week we are launching / are going
to launch our spaceship containing 200 men and women to Uranus. We will
probably start / are probably going to start a colony there.
Our country is beating / will beat you both, said the British scientist. We
will / are going to send a rocket straight to the Sun.
How are you going to do / are you doing that? said the American and
Russian scientists. The rocket is going to / will melt before it gets there. No,
it isnt / wont, replied the British scientist. We will / are going to send it up
at night.

13. Complete the following sentences using will, going to, or the present
continuous of the verb in brackets:
a. Could I speak to Mr. Yo, please? Yes of course, I (fetch) him.
b. Im afraid I cant come to the office dinner next week because I (go) on
c. Weve finally made a decision about the product launch. We (go ahead) in
d. Were running out of envelopes. I (order) more.
e. The photocopier doesnt work. OK. I (call) the engineer.
f. Hes resigned from the company and he (take) a job in New York.

14. Underline the correct form of the verb, using the information in the sentences
a. We will sell / are selling the company. (Weve found a buyer.)
b. I will meet / am meeting Jo at the airport. (Jo knows about this
c. I will help / am helping her. (Ive just decided)
d. Shares in MBX will / are going to fall. (I have some inside information)
e. Jo is going to teach / is teaching me Chinese. (Our lessons have already


1. Victor said he .......his project two hours before.
a. started doing
b. had started doing
c. will start doing
2. We.......started to negotiate when the door opened.
a. had just
b. have just
c. were just
3. The figures look pretty impressive! How are we........to maintain them?
a. doing
b. going
c. go
4. How many copies......with the order?
a. did we sent
b. have you sended
c. did we send
5. They.......at 8 oclock tomorrow morning.
a. left
b. be going to leave
c. are leaving
6. Unemployment.......so low since 1994.
a. is
b. hasnt been
c. wasnt
7. Paul......about the exam now. He thinks it was long and difficult.
a. is thinking
b. thinks
c. has thought
8. In 1995 Jane Wilson decided to use the money she.....from her father- a rich
farmer- in the commercial rather than agricultural sector.


a. inherited
b. was inheriting
c. had inherited
9. The board......all staff a 10% pay rise because the company had done very well that
a. awarded
b. would award
c. had awarded
10. How long.........when she finally retired?
a. did she work
b. had she been working
c. has she been working
11. of the economy has brought immense benefits to countries
a. Globalization / advanced
b. Glocalization / poor
c. Globalizing / industrialized
12. One of the . of globalization is the .connecting of people.
a. benefices / spreading
b. benefits / widespread
c. beneficiaries / widespreading
13. As an indication of the size and importance, the of four of the biggest
transnationals, General Motors, Ford, Exxon, and Shell exceeds that of the whole of
a. turning over
b. turnout
c. turnover
14. Boeing would be a . enterprise, increasing the number of of operation.
a. global / employers
b. global / countries
c. global / machines
15. An means buying or taking over another company.
a. acquisition


b. acquiescence
c. acquiring

At the end of this unit students should
- be familiarized and able to discuss qualities of a good communicator
- recognize and practice the vocabulary of business communication
- be familiarized with and use the Conditional and Subjunctive Moods in

Starting up
What makes a good communicator? Choose the three most important factors.
fluency in the language

a sense of humour

an extensive vocabulary

grammatical accuracy

being a good listener

not being afraid of making mistakes

physical appearance

an awareness of body language

What other factors are important for communication?



Discuss these questions.

1. Which of the forms of written and spoken communication below do you use
in Romanian?
in English?











phone calls



2. Which do you feel you do best? Which do you like least?

3. Do you use any other forms of communication?
What kinds of problems may occur with some of the forms of communication
above? Think about:



standard ways of doing things


tone of voice

visual gestures


1. Which words below apply to good communicators and which apply to bad
communicators? Add two adjectives of your own to the list.















2. Which of the words above have the following meanings?

unable to speak
talking in a confused way
able to express ideas well
clear and easy to understand
good at influencing people
3. Define the following styles of behaviour into pairs of opposites:
a) being group oriented
b) being cautious and careful
c) being decisive and able to take rapid individual decisions
d) being individualistic
e) being assertive, authoritative, ruthless, and competitive
f) being happy to take risks
g) being good at listening and sensitive to other peoples feelings
h) being intuitive
i) being logical, rational and analytic

j) liking consensus and conciliation

4. Think of a good communicator in your group. Explain why he/she is good at
Read the interview with Penny Logier, Retail Director at the London-based
communications agency MediaComTMB, and answer these questions.
1. What two factors have improved communication between companies and their
2. What does Penny Logier say about e-mail?
3. What is an intranet?
(I = Interviewer, PL = Penny Logier)
I: Is communication between companies and their customers better now than in
the past and are there ways of improving it further?
PL: Tremendous in-roads has been made over the last two to three years, in terms
of communication, and its been principally down to two quite distinct things. The
first is new technology and the second is the grasp that education and training is
very, very important. In terms of new technology, such things as e-mail, that now
the majority of people are on, makes it that we can actually talk to our clients
electronically, very quickly.
I: Can you give us examples of some really good communication between
companies and their customers?
PL: Yes, one of our key customers is the Volkswagen Group. It was very important
when we began a trading relationship with them to get communication lines very
clear. To this end, we set up an Intranet site between two companies. They can
therefore comment very quickly on changes that need to be made and we, in turn,
can respond back with speed.


I: Can you think of any examples of when a breakdown in communication has

seriously affected a business?
PL: Yes, I can think of a number of instances where we, as a company, have
nearly lost a client because there has been a fundamental breakdown in
communication. What I mean by that is that youve got two individuals who are
not really either hearing or listening. In other words, there has been a breakdown
in understanding.
I: And finally, is it possible to be a good manager but a poor communicator?
PL: No. Communication is the key. People have to understand what you are
trying to tell them to do. They have to have a long term strategy in terms of their
career development. People can talk to you on a one-to-one basis. You actually
encourage confidence then and get a rapport and a relationship with the
Here are some useful phrases related to problem-solving skills
Stating the problem
I wonder if you could help me.. Ive got a problem
There seems to be a problem. We havent received
Offering to help
How can I help?
Ill look into it right now and get back to you.
Apologising/showing understanding
Im really sorry about that. I do apologise
I understand how you feel.
Making suggestions
Perhaps we could
Would it be possible to ?
Requesting action

Could you look into the matter?

Please can you check with


Case Study: Communication consultants

Discuss these questions.
1. How much and in what ways is information shared within your company? Think
a. the means of sharing information
e.g. emails, memos, meetings
b. where information goes
e.g. between departments, top-down,
(senior management to
employees) and bottom up (employees to senior management).
c. types of information
procedural/organizational how systems work within the
company, who is responsible for what.
motivational/managerial sales or production targets,
contracts and orders, sales figures
personnel salaries, staff appointment
2. How effective do you think your companys external communications are/ think
about the company image. Read the text about a companys communication problems.
A rapidly expanding European company which sells software programs is
experiencing severe communications problems. The company has just opened
offices in Sydney, Australia. The MD (Managing Director) has to spend a lot
of time out of the office. He has too much work to do but is reluctant to
delegate. He prefers not to waste time holding internal meetings. He has not
had time to meet many of the newest members of staff. There is no formal
management structure within the company.
The company is expanding rapidly and needs to recruit at least 20 new staff.
The MD has previously selected all new personnel but now hasnt time. In
addition the last two new recruits both resigned after two months as they felt
they were not experienced enough for the posts and were not given enough
training. 50% of the 40 employees are non-native speakers who have just
relocated from various parts of Europe and Asia. Internal office relations are
not good and staffs are working under great pressure. Teams work in small
groups but without knowing what other people within the company do.
Some of the non-native speakers have difficulties understanding the English
of the native speakers. Clients are also getting frustrated as they often need to
phone for technical help and either no one understands the problem or no one
is available to help.
The MD is particularly worried about the high turnover in staff and the poor
office relations.


Work in groups. You are a team in a company of consultants who specialize in
improving the way companies communicate both internally with employees
and also externally with clients. Look at the following questions.
1. Which aspects of the companys problems are related to communication? Make a
list of those that are not communication-related.
2. What are the main communication problems?
3. Decide which problems are the most serious and should take priority.
Produce the following, and decide in what form you would present each item to
the company (email, presentation, etc.)

some general initial advice you would offer the MD

a short-term action plan, with suggested actions listed in order of priority

what types of training courses you would recommend

what further information you would need to be able to offer long-term




Conditional situations are where one action / event depends on another action/event
happening or not happening. We often use conditional structures in business
negotiations, where we want to make proposals.
Conditional sentences have two parts or clauses.
Condition clause

Result clause

If you pour oil on water,

It floats
Zero conditional

We use the zero conditional to describe scientific and natural laws and situations
that are always true.
If it doesnt rain for a long time, plants die.
We also use the zero conditional to give instructions or orders:
If the accountant calls, tell her to wait.
We use the present tense in the condition clause and also in the result clause.
If fuel prices rise, people use their cars less.
N.B. If the sentence begins with the condition clause, comma is used between it and
the result clause.
First conditional
We use the first conditional to talk about future situations that are possible, likely or
expected to happen. In business negotiations, we often use the first conditional to
make specific proposals.
If you increase the quantity, well give you a bigger discount.
We use the present tense in the condition clause and will + the infinitive in the result

If you deliver the goods next week, we will pay immediately.

In the result clause, we can use other modal verbs instead of will to show different
degrees of certainty, possibility, etc concerning the result.
If we buy a larger quantity, we may get a bigger discount.
In the first conditional sentences, be careful not to use will in the condition clause.
If we lower the price, (not If we will lower the price )

stating a general rule

If can be used to say what generally happens when something else happens. Both
verbs in this type of sentence are in the present simple tense:
If you order in bulk, you usually get a discount.
If the paperwork is incomplete, the goods are often held up.

Speculating about the future

If can also be used to speculate about the future consequences of a specific event.
If I do an MBA, Ill improve my job prospects.
If we break into the Indian market, our turnover will increase substantially.

If and unless

Unless often replaces if + negative expression:

If you dont wear a suit and tie, you wont be allowed into the club.
You wont be allowed into the club unless you wear a suit and tie.

Promising and threatening

Conditional statements can function as either promises, warnings and threats. (but
notice that unless cannot be used to make a promise)
If you order now, youll get a free gift.
We wont be able to do business with you unless you comply with our ethical
Unless we receive payment by the end of the week, we will be forced to consider
legal action.


Second conditional
We use the second conditional to talk about the future situations that are seen as
impossible, unlikely or hypothetical.
In business negotiations, we often use the second conditional to explore areas of
agreement and disagreement.
Wed be prepared to lower our price if you placed a bigger order.
We use the past tense in the condition clause and would + infinitive in the result
If we reduced the price, we would sell more cars.
In the result clause, we can use other modal verbs instead of would to show different
degrees of certainty, possibility, etc concerning the result.
If we bought a larger quantity, we might/could get a bigger discount.



past simple is used to refer to less probable situations.

Would/should/could/might could precede the verb in the subordinate clause.

If every piece of mail were personalized with your company logo or message, your
customers might be very impressed.
Imagine what would happen if all the worlds stock exchanges crashed.
It is possible to use if I were or if I was in both formal and informal styles:
If I was rich, I would buy a house.


It is common to make hypothetical statements in negotiations. Compare:

a. If you give us 5 % discount, well make a firm order of 5,000 units.

(this is almost a promise)

b. If you gave us a 5% discount, wed make a firm order of 5,000 units.
(this is a more tentative offer)

Provided (that)/so long as/on condition (that)

When starting a condition it is also possible to use provided (that), so long as or

on condition (that)
Provided (that) they dont go back on their offer, well sign the agreement next
Well be happy to work with you so long as you pay half of the advertising costs.
We might be able to reduce the number of hours worked on condition (that) there
is an increase in productivity.

Third conditional
We use third conditional to reflect on the past to say what would have happened if
things had been different.
We use the past perfect tense in the condition clause and would have + the past
participle in the result clause.
If Id known you were coming, Id have arranged a demonstration.


speculating about the past when talking about things which did not happen in
the past.

If the earnings ratio had been higher, I would have bought some shares.
If we had anticipated the crash, we wouldnt have lost so much money.
The merger could have succeeded if the management styles hadnt been so


The presentation might have been better if she had felt more confident.

Alternatives to if
These are mostly used in the first and second conditionals.

When suggests that, in the speakers mind, the condition is certain to happen
but the time of the result is not known.

When the temperature reaches 30 degrees, the air-conditioning turns on.

As soon as is similar to when, except that it implies that the result will happen
immediately the condition is met.

As soon as I hear the news, Ill tell you whether we won the award.

Unless means the same as if not or if I/you, etc do not

Unless I hear from the client today, Ill cancel the order (= if I dont hear from the

In case is often used when we think ahead about possible problems and try to
avoid by doing something in advance

Ill give you my mobile phone number in case you need to contact me.

Provided that and on condition that are used as more formal alternatives to if.
For example, they are often used in contractual or legal documents and in
formal negotiations.

Provided that you complete the installation on time, we will make a bonus


We will give you a full refund on condition that you return the products


1. Write the words in the correct order to make zero conditional sentences:
If provide request it, we people enough a translator
If expands you heat, it metal
If fall usually increases Prices supply
If you window that button, the opens press
You regards him Give to Gerard if my see
2. Use your own ideas to complete the conditional sentences. Decide if they
should be zero or first conditional.
1. I can never sleep at night if
I drink too much coffee during the day.
2. If theres a good film on TV tonight,
3. If I have some free time this weekend, I
4. I wont buy a new computer this year if
5. If I get lost in a foreign city, I
6. Ill take up a new hobby this year if
7. Ill be amazed if



Complete the sentences with the correct forms of the verbs in the box:
fall buy cancel go increase
If I _____ a house, Id save money in the long term.
Youd arrive earlier if you _____ by train.
Wed _____ our order if you reduced the price.
If interest rates _____, wed take out a loan.
I dont know what Id do if they _____ the flight.

4. Match the two halves of the third conditional sentences:

1. If we hadnt borrowed so much money,
2. If Id passed my driving test first time,
3. If youd listened to me,
4. If wed got our product to market before our competitor,
5. If Joan hadnt been wearing her seat belt,
a. you wouldnt have lost all that money on the stock market.
b. I would have saved a lot of time and money.
c. she would have been very seriously injured.
d. We would have been the market leader.
e. We wouldnt have gone bankrupt.
5. Rewrite the sentences, correcting the mistakes.
Ill have a holiday in Bali next year if Ill get a pay rise.

If I would get a pay rise, Id buy a new car.

If youll see John, please ask him where the file is.

Well reduce the price if youd order more.


6. Match the sentence halves:

1. If the government lowers interest rates,
2. If you want to play golf well,
3. If inflation is high,
4. If the national currency is strong,
5. If you have an offshore bank account,
6. If you pay people peanuts,
7. If a firm doesnt advertise,
a. it loses market share
b. people tend not to save
c. it is more difficult to export
d. you get monkeys.
e. you have to practice regularly
f. it makes borrowing easier
g. you dont pay income tax.

We use the subjunctive form in certain fixed expressions and after some verbs which
express the idea of necessity, importance, etc. The subjunctive form can be used to
refer to events and situations in the past, present or future.
One form is the same as the infinitive without to. It does not show any marking for
tense and can be used to refer to events in the past, present or future.
We use it most often in that clauses after certain verbs (e.g. ask, demand, insist,
propose, recommend, request, suggest), and after adjectives (e.g. advisable, desirable,


eager essential, important, necessary, vital), to express the idea that something is
important or necessary:
At yesterdays hearing the judge insisted (that) Mr. Bright give evidence
despite his relationship to the accused.
In future it will be vital that each party give full disclosure prior to trial.
In less formal contexts, the construction SHOULD + short infinitive can be used.
They demanded that the employee should resign.
We can use passive and negative forms of the subjunctive:
Members of the committee suggested England be excluded from future
international competitions.
Regulations require that officers not enter the crime scene without protective
The subjunctive is used in reported speech and very formal language:
She insisted that she pay her own way.
We require that all receipts be submitted to the committee for approval.
It is vital that every applicant complete the form in triplicate.
It is vital that every applicant should complete the form in triplicate.
There are some fixed expressions which use subjunctive forms (the so-called Old
Bless you!
Long live the republic!

After a number of expressions, like if only, we use past tenses to describe things in the
present, past or future which are imagined or unreal, also suggesting regret:
If only I were rich.
Other introducing expressions like if only are:
Its time
What if

Would rather, would sooner, as if, as though, wish

Its time they were forced to solve the problem.

I wish I were coming with you tomorrow.

I wish I had never started the course. (But I have started it)

We use wish/if only + past simple to express a desire for something to be different in
the present:
I wish I had more free time.
If only I were young again.
We use wish/if only + past perfect to express regret about the past, a wish that
something different had happened:
I wish that youd told me about this before I bought the tickets.
If only he hadnt been driving so fast!
1. Choose between hope and wish in each sentence:
a. I hope/wish Ill see you again soon.
b. I hope/wish the weather improves soon.
c. I hope/wish you didnt have to go.
d. I hope/wish I knew the answer.
e. I hope/wish we could meet next week.
2. Put each verb in brackets into a suitable tense.
a. I would say it was time you _____ (start) working seriously.
b. Id rather you _____ (not watch) TV while I am reading.
c. I wish I _____ (spend) more time swimming last summer.

d. Helen is so bossy. She acts as if she _____ (own) the place.

e. I wish you _____ (not keep) coming late to class.
f. Suppose a complete stranger _____ (leave) you a lot of money in their will!
g. I wish I _____ (go) to your party after all.
h. The government demanded that the ambassador ____ (be) recalled.
3. Correct the errors in each sentence:
a. Its time I go.
b. I wish I own a house.
c. I wish we are not leaving in the morning.
d. Joan would rather reading than doing anything else.
e. I hope it would stop raining.

4. Rewrite each sentence:

a. It would be nice to be able to fly.
I wish I could fly.
b. I wish I hadnt heard that.
Id rather you .
c. everyone wished they had listened more carefully to the lecture.
Everyone regretted .
d. Unfortunately Ive got to work tonight.
I wish .
e. Is it better for me to leave?
Would you .
f. Its a pity I cant borrow your car.
I wish you would


g. We really must discuss this again.

Its important that .

1. If I late, I get tired.
a. working
b. am working
c. late
2. If I the answer, you.
a. know, I tell
b. knew, Id tell
c. would know, Id tell
3. If I you were coming, I you at the station.
a. knew, would meet
b. knew, would have met
c. would have known, met
4. Its time we .
a. leave


b. would leave
c. left
5. If the museum for entry, a lot of people to visit it.
a. charges, wont be able
b. will charge, will not be able
c. charge, wont
6. If the results of the customer survey are favourable, the supermarket a new range
of products.
a. introduce
b. is going to introduce
c. are introducing

7. The company will impose sanctions

a. if workers dont abandon the strike.
b. if the workers wont abandon the strike.
c. if the workers dont go on strike.
8. If they wanted to make an offer, she
a. would listen and take it over.
b. listened and took it over.
c. be listening.
9. If you with this matter, Id be very grateful.
a. could deal
b. will deal
c. deal
10. It easier to break the news if I her a bit better.
a. may have been, had known


b. might have been, knew

c. might have been, had not known
11. Id rather you .. .
a. you dont smoke in here.
b. you didnt smoke in here.
c. you wont smoke in here.
12. He acts ..
a. as if he were in charge.
b. as he is in charge.
c. as if he being charged
13. I wish I .
a. hadnt worked tonight.
b. work tonight
c. was working tonight
14. I it was time you working seriously.
a. would suggest, start
b. would say, started
c. say, start
15. They . that he leave.
a. suggest, would
b. demanded, should
c. demanded, will leave


After reading this chapter, students should better understand
- the role of culture in multinationals
- how people integrate in different cultures
- the special vocabulary used in multicultural communication
- the use of modal verbs in the same context of interculturality.

1. a. Answer the following questions from your knowledge of the world, then
check your answers by reading the text below.
a. What do you know about multiculturalism?
b. Are companies that contain more than one ethny manageable? Refer to
French and British people, for example.
c. What laws against discrimination do you know?
d. What do you think about the integration of Muslim people in Western
e. How do French and British citizens see ethnic integration?
Many French people feel deeply uncomfortable about defiant, assertive Islam.
France, after all, is home to biggest Muslim population (outside Turkey):
some 5m next to 3m in Germany and 1.5m in Britain. The country has about
1.600 mosques or prayer halls. Many young French Muslims find no difficulty
in balancing private faith with French secularism. But an increasing vocal
minority many of whom speak no Arabic and freely mix Nike trainers with the
hijab, find such compromise unacceptable. France can either attempt a
compromise, and allow Islam and other ethnic groups and religions a public

voice, or it can impose on its ethnically and ideologically diverse citizens.

The fear is that giving in to one demand will lead to many more.
The British model of integration consists, essentially, of not worrying about
it. Where the French have an official High Council of Integration designed to
ensure that the process takes place, The British shy away from the term.
Ethnic minority groups are not only left alone by the state to practice their
faith, language or culture, but are encouraged and subsidised to do so. In one
or two schools the wearing of headscarves has caused trouble; but this is
seen as a problem for schools governors, not for politicians.
Britain does not use quotas or American- style affirmative-action
programmes to enforce multiculturalism. It relies, in part, on the routine
acceptance of it, and also strong laws against discrimination. The task is now
on employers to prove that they have not discriminated, rather than on
employees to show that they have been treated unfairly.
France has none of this. In secularist French theory, the principle of
rigorous, colour-blind equality before the law should remove the need for
France may celebrate its multi-ethnic national football team; Zinedine Zidane
was voted the most admired Frenchman last year. But such exceptions, mostly
in arts or sports, stand out.
In terms of political representation, Britain scores better. At the latest count,
there were 12 ethnic minority members of Parliament and 24 such members
of the House of Lords. The French National assembly contains no Muslims,
and the black faces are those from the French overseas constituencies. Even
the French Socialist party, with its links to anti-racism movements, has no
black deputies.
Excerpted from The Economist, 2004
b. Fill in the following dialogue about different management styles with the
necessary modals:
Speaker 1: Presumably you worked for British companies before and here youre
working for a company which is mainly French run. ..there be many
differences in management style?
Speaker 2: There are some differences in management style, yes, but we
overcome these by achieving a kind of compromise.
Speaker1: Where friction arise, if there is any kind of friction?
Speaker 2: Well, the friction is very superficial usually; there is no fundamental
friction. The real relationships are very good. I think that it be fair to say that it

takes longer in French management to take a decision. If you have a meeting it

.take a long time and from a British point of view it seemed sometimes the same
point is argued over and over again. Then, most British people say well, we
..hope to work five or six years and then we review the position and see if
there is a better career in the same line of business. This is a natural thing in Britain,
but it is not so in France.
Speaker 1: The French company seems to be more hierarchical than British
Speaker 2: Yes, this be another basic difference. There is less delegation in
French companies. You get matters which ..be decided at a relatively low level in
British management, and at a higher level in French management.
c. Now say if the following are true or false:
French and British management styles are exactly the same
Decisions are reached more quickly under British management than
under French management
There are no irritations in such multinationals.
d. Complete the chart below, using as many modals as possible:

British companies

mobility of labour
decision making


French companies

Pick up one of the following subjects to write a report on it; besides the
information you have got so far, you may find the one in the text below quite
What basis is there for the national stereotype, or so-called national
What are the problems involved in running a multinational team or
What sorts of friction can arise in multinational or multicultural groups?


The multinational company is the most familiar character in this globalized
world. It is the most admired, most feared, yet most elusive of the actors
shaping the world of the 21st century.
The global corporation is the driving force of this dominant process of our
time, which is globalization. This process is driving the world economy to a
state where hundreds of dominant multinational enterprises interact with
each other and define a new global organizational and managerial model.
Any effort to develop a global business must first recognize the existence of
cultural nuances and how such values and attitudes vary. The main challenge
is to maximize the potential of cultural diversity. The answer lies in
recognizing this as a unique source for innovative ideas that will make a
company more competitive in the future.
Today one cannot afford to ignore such cultural nuances. The impact of
transnational corporations has been significant; in 1997 the United Nations
reported that the number of such multinational companies increased from
7000 to over 60 000 during the past 25 years, controlling at least 500 000
foreign affiliates and accounting in 1998 for over $ 11 trillion in worldwide
sales (compared with the world trade in that years of almost $ 7 trillion
meaning that international production by multinationals has overtaken world
trade as the dominant international dynamic). The trade between these firms
has been increasing faster than the world trade overall, while investments by
these firms (foreign direct investment) are also increasing faster than the
world trade growth.
Among these 60.000 firms there are typical multinational enterprises that
have rich resources, operating in more than 100 countries, multiple site
covering research & development, production, logistic, marketing, and
customer support (General Electric, General Motors, IBM, Motorola, NEC,
Siemens, Unilever). There are also firms which are quite different from these
conventional multinationals. For example, there are much smaller
multinational companies, both in terms of resources, staff and capital
micro-multinationals. There are similar young, technology-based
internalizing firms in Sweden, called infant multinationals. Despite the
image of the multinationals, as being huge conglomerates, the majority of the
worlds firms are quite small, to 250 employees.
A modal - always comes before another verb: You should go.
is not followed by to: NOT : You may to go

its form never changes, there is no s on the third person, no ing form,
no past tense.
Questions are formed by inverting the modal and the subject:
Example: Should I go?
Modals express the speakers judgement about the likelihood or desirability of a
situation. Most of them can be used to talk about probability, possibility. They can
also express obligation or willingness.

We use can to say that someone is able/not able to do something.

Our new divisional manager can speak four languages fluently.

He cant drive, hes never learnt how to.

We use could to speak of a past ability.


He could play the piano when he was five years old.

Could may also indicate disapproval when something is or was not done.

She could make more than an effort

She could have told me beforehand- I needed to know.
Obligation, prohibition

We use must or has/ have to indicate what is compulsory in the present and future.

Any change in taxation must be fair.

All travellers to China have to be in possession of a visa.

Must can also be used in reported speech.


The London Chamber of Commerce said the government must act to tackle the

capitals traffic problems.


If something was necessary or obligatory in the past we use had to and we use will
have to for the future.

When we lived in Sao Paulo, we had to learn some Portuguese.

We will have to evaluate the new procedures regularly.

The absence of future obligation is expressed by will not/ wont have to.

If you open a bank account in the Bahamas, you wont have to pay income tax.

We prefer to use must when we oblige ourselves to do something.

We prefer have to when the obligation is imposed by other people or external

I must remember to get in touch with Mr. Smith.

We have to wear a uniform at work.
I enjoy going to conferences unless I have to make a presentation.

We use do not have to to express freedom of choice.


I can work from home so I dont have to go into the office very often.

We use must not to say that something is forbidden or very unacceptable.


Passengers must not smoke during take-off.

You mustnt enter a joint venture unless both parties benefit from the deal.

We use can to say that something is possible and cannot or could not if something is

Mathematics can be really interesting.

You cant fly to Dover there isnt an airport.
I couldnt tell you exactly what our turnover is.

If a situation is possible but it is not certain that it will happen, we use could.

A lot of accidents at work could be avoided.


We use could not if something was impossible.

E.g. Twenty years ago you couldnt buy a computer as cheaply as you can now.
A past opportunity which was not fulfilled is expressed using could have and a past

She could have gone to Harvard but she went to Yale instead.

A number of modal verbs are used to express degrees of certainty, according to the
speakers perception of the situation.
100% certain

The 21st century will be very different from the preceding ones.
Economics will never be a precise science.

Very certain based on deduction


You must be very tired after such a long flight.

That cant be her car. It is too old.


You may well have a point there.

We should arrive before lunch if there is not too much traffic.

Likely (based on speculation)


The firm may be forced to make a number of employees redundant.

The situation may improve in the long term.
The President might survive the scandal.

Highly unlikely / impossible


You wont know Agnes, she is our new Marketing person

We cant meet such a short deadline.

Permission, suggestion, offers

Can is used to ask for and give permission.

A: Can I use your mobile phone?

B: Sure, you can.

May and could are also used for permission, but not to refuse permission. They are
more formal than can.

A: May I use your password?

B: No, Im afraid you cant.
A: Could I come back later?
B: No, I dont think thatll be possible.

If we want to talk about permission for a future action we use the verb allow or

They wont allow /permit you to travel alone.

We make suggestions by the help of should, might, could or shall.


I think you should upgrade your computer.

You might want to look at the new model.
Or you could add extra memory to your existing machine.
Shall I look at what it would cost?

To express offer we can use can, would and shall.


Can we give you a lift into town?

Would you like me to give you a hand?
Shall I give you a hand?
Willingness, refusal, promises, threats, typical behaviour.

We use will or would to make a polite request or to ask someone if they are willing to


Will you sign here, please?

Would you do me a favour?

If you want to say that you are unwilling to do something, you can use will not or

I will not tolerate her behaviour.

Other people or things can also show unwillingness.


The car wont start.

If you make a firm commitment to do something in the future you use will:

We will do everything in our power to satisfy your needs.

Would is used to talk about actions that happened frequently in the past.

Our previous chairman would begin the meeting with a joke.

1. Complete the sentences using either could or managed to:
a. After a lot of discussion we.. strike a deal.
b. When I was younger I .run several kilometres without feeling tired.
c. She..find a good job despite her lack of formal qualifications.
d. Shehave left me a message how was I supposed to know.
e. Hes so lazy I really feel he.try harder.
2. React to these situations using could have:
1. Why didnt she ring to tell me she would be late?
2. She had the facts and figures but left me in the dark.
3. It wasnt worth us taking a taxi, the station was within walking distance.

4. It took six days for the letter to arrive and we both have e-mail.
3. Complete these sentences so that they are true for your country. Use have to,
dont have to and must not.
1. You.carry a gun.
2. You.pay to use buses and trains
3. You.vote if you are over 18.
4. You drink alcohol at work
5. Youdeclare income earned abroad.
6. Youwear a seat belt when driving a car.
4. Make appropriate sentences (on company situations) from this table, using
-Learning a

hard work


good fun

- Entertaining






a waste of time




- being in



charge of a new
- setting up a
- negotiating a
5. Complete the dialogue with these expressions:
Do you need any help?
Would you like me.

Ill give you.

We must get together


Shall I hold the door open

A. Its been wonderful seeing you.some time.

B. Yes, that d be very nice.
A. .with your baggage?
B. No thanks, I can manage.
A. Are you sure?for you?
B. Yes, please.
A..to call a taxi?
B. No, thanks. Ill walk, its not far.
A: No, you cant possibly. Your cases are heavy.a lift.
B: Well, thank you very much. Its really very kind of you.
6. Which of the following uses of will indicate willingness (w), refusal (r), a
promise (P), a threat (T) or typical behaviour (Tb)? Write the appropriate letter
in the space provided.
Ill make sure John is informed
Oil will float on water.
She wont listen, shes so stubborn.
Patrick will keep on asking stupid questions
Ill take your calls for you while you are out.
Either I get the job or Ill leave the company.
Will you call him back when youve got a moment?
Ive changed the battery, but my mobile phone still wont work.
She will always be the first person to arrive on a Monday morning.
If you dont sign the new contract well have to move you to another
Would you put your name and company in the visitors book, please?
Before the use of computers we would have to record all our data on
card index files.



1. Our new divisional manager.. speak four languages fluently.

a. may
b. should
c. can
2. He..drive, he has never learned how to.
a. Can
b. Cant
c. has to
3. After six hours of negotiations we finally..make some progress
a. had to
b. managed to
c. couldnt
4. Rephrase the following sentence: She had the facts and figures, but left me in the
a. She could have informed me.
b. She must have informed me.
c. She would have informed me.
5. The firm..be forced to make a number of people redundant.
a. should
b. may
c. might
6. You ..know David, he is our new sales person.
a. dont
b. wont


c. dont have to
7. ..I use your pen? No, Im afraid you
a. May, may not
b. Can, cannot
c. May, cant
8. ..you like me to give you a hand?
a. would
b. could
c. should
9. I not tolerate such a behaviour any more.
a. shall
b. will
c. must
10. Our previous chairman always begin a meeting with a joke.
a. will
b. shall
c. would
11. In the sentence: I will make sure my colleagues are informed. will expresses:
a. willingness
b. refusal
c. promise
12. In the sentence: Oil will float on water will expresses:
a. willingness
b. refusal
c. typical behaviour


13. Any effort to develop a global business.. first recognize the existence of cultural
nuances and how such values and attitudes vary.
a. must
b. will
c. has to
14. One ignore these cultural traits, but they not have to become a barrier for
a. can, should
b. cannot, should
c. must, can
15. Today one .afford to ignore such cultural nuances.
a. should
b. must
c. cannot